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1.
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 52(2): e20200894, 2022. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339655

ABSTRACT

Seed germination is a complex process controlled by many factors, in which physical and biochemical mechanisms are involved and the mobilization of reserves is crucial for this process to occur. Although, seed reserve mobilization is usually thought to be a post-germination process, seed reserve proteins mobilization occurs during germination. This study quantified seed proteins of bean genotypes during different hydration times, in order to understand the process of protein mobilization and whether there is relationship of this biochemical component with seed vigor. This study was conducted using seeds with different levels of vigor, genotypes with highest (13, 42, 55 and 81) and lowest (07, 23, 44, 50, IPR-88-Uirapurú and Iapar 81) physiological quality. High vigor genotypes showed greater efficiency in hydrolysis and mobilization of protein component, because they presented low globulins content in cotyledons at radicle protrusion in relation to low vigor genotypes (07, 23 and 50). The protein alpha-amylase inhibitor, observed in all genotypes, is involved with the longer time needed for radicle protrusion, according to the band intensity difference in genotypes 07, 44 and Iapar 81.


A germinação de sementes é um processo complexo controlado por muitos fatores, nos quais mecanismos físicos e bioquímicos estão envolvidos e a mobilização de reservas é decisiva para que esse processo ocorra. Embora a mobilização de reservas de sementes seja considerada um processo pós-germinativo, a mobilização das proteínas de reserva de sementes ocorre durante a germinação. Este estudo teve como objetivo quantificar as proteínas de sementes de genótipos de feijão durante os diferentes tempos de hidratação, a fim de compreender o processo de mobilização proteica e se há relação desse componente bioquímico com o vigor das sementes. Este estudo foi realizado utilizando sementes com diferentes níveis de vigor, genótipos com maior (13, 42, 55 e 81) e menor (07, 23, 44, 50, IPR-88-Uirapurú e Iapar 81) qualidade fisiológica. Os genótipos de alto vigor apresentaram maior eficiência na hidrólise e mobilização do componente proteico, pois apresentaram baixo teor de globulinas nos cotilédones na protrusão radicular em relação aos genótipos de baixo vigor (07, 23 e 50). A proteína inibidora da alfa-amilase, observada em todos os genótipos, está envolvida com o maior tempo necessário para a protrusão da radícula, de acordo com a diferença de intensidade da banda nos genótipos 07, 44 e Iapar 81.


Subject(s)
Seeds/chemistry , Genetic Variation/genetics , Proteins/analysis , Phaseolus/embryology , Mass Spectrometry , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888789

ABSTRACT

Brucea javanica oil emulsion (BJOE) has been used to treat tumor in China for more than 40 years. However, its components and effectiveness in the treatment of acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) and its mechanism of anti-cancer activity remain unknown. In the current study, high-performance liquid chromatography-evaporative light scattering detector (HPLC-ELSD) was used to analyze the components of BJOE. Then, the anti-leukemia effects of BJOE were examined both in vitro and in vivo using ALL Jurkat cells and the p388 mouse leukemia transplant model, respectively. The primary ALL leukemia cells were also used to confirm the anti-leukemia effects of BJOE. The apoptotic-related results indicated that BJOE induced apoptosis in Jurkat cells and were suggestive of intrinsic apoptotic induction. Moreover, BJOE inhibited Akt (protein kinase B) activation and upregulated its downstream targets p53 and FoxO1 (forkhead box gene, group O-1) to initiate apoptosis. The activation of GSK3β was also involved. Our findings demonstrate that BJOE has anti-leukemia effects on ALL cells and can induce apoptosis in Jurkat cells through the phosphoinositide3-kinase (PI3K) /Akt signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Brucea/chemistry , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 , Humans , Jurkat Cells , Mice , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/genetics , Plant Oils/pharmacology , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/drug therapy , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/genetics , Seeds/chemistry , Signal Transduction
3.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 114(6): 1029-1037, Jun., 2020. graf
Article in Portuguese | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1131245

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundsamento As sementes de Moringa oleifera , que são utilizadas para clarificação de água, contêm uma lectina chamada WSMoL que tem mostrado atividade antibacteriana e imunomoduladora in vitro . Devido ao seu valor nutritivo e potencial terapêutico, as folhas e as sementes dessa árvore são consumidas em algumas comunidades. Algumas lectinas de plantas não são tóxicas para mamíferos, mas tem sido relatado que outras são prejudiciais quando ingeridas ou administradas por outros meios. Objetivo Como um dos passos necessários para determinar a segurança de WSMoL, nós avaliamos os possíveis efeitos cardiotóxicos desta proteína purificada. Métodos Durante 21 dias consecutivos, a WSMoL foi administrada a camundongos por gavagem. Foram investigadas as funções eletrofisiológicas, mecânicas e metabólicas in vivo e ex vivo por meio de registros eletrocardiográficos, ressonância magnética nuclear e respirometria de alta resolução. Resultados O tratamento com WSMoL não induziu alterações nos níveis de glicose no sangue ou peso corporal em comparação com o grupo controle. Adicionalmente, as relações peso cardíaco/peso corporal e peso cardíaco/comprimento tibial estavam semelhantes em ambos os grupos. A ingestão de lectina também não modificou a tolerância à glicose ou resistência à insulina. Não foram observadas alterações nos parâmetros eletrocardiográficos ou na duração do potencial de ação cardíaco. Os corações dos camundongos dos grupos controle e WSMoL mostraram função ventricular esquerda preservada. Além disso, a WSMoL não induziu alterações na função mitocondrial (em todos os casos, p > 0,05). Conclusões A administração de WSMoL demonstrou ter um perfil de segurança cardíaca. Estes resultados contribuem à avaliação de segurança do uso de sementes de M. oleifera para tratar água, visto que essa lectina está presente na preparação empregada por algumas populações com esse fim. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0)


Abstract Background Moringa oleifera seeds, which are used for water clarification, contain a lectin named WSMoL which has shown in vitro antibacterial and immunomodulatory activity. Due to their nutritional value and therapeutic potential, the leaves and seeds of this tree are eaten in some communities. Some plant lectins are non-toxic to mammals, but others have been reported to be harmful when ingested or administered by other means. Objective As one of the steps needed to define the safety of WSMoL, we evaluated possible cardiotoxic effects of this purified protein. Methods: WSMoL was administered for 21 consecutive days to mice by gavage. Electrophysiological, mechanical, and metabolic cardiac functions were investigated by in vivo and ex vivo electrocardiographic recordings, nuclear magnetic resonance, and high-resolution respirometry. Results The treatment with WSMoL did not induce changes in blood glucose levels or body weight in comparison with control group. Moreover, the heart weight/body weight and heart weight/tibia length ratios were similar in both groups. Lectin ingestion also did not modify glucose tolerance or insulin resistance. No alterations were observed in electrocardiographic parameters or cardiac action potential duration. The heart of mice from the control and WSMoL groups showed preserved left ventricular function. Furthermore, WSMoL did not induce changes in mitochondrial function (in all cases, p > 0.05). Conclusions The administration of WSMoL demonstrated a cardiac safety profile. These results contribute to the safety evaluation of using M. oleifera seeds to treat water, since this lectin is present in the preparation employed by some populations to this end. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0)


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Seeds/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Moringa oleifera/chemistry , Plant Lectins/pharmacology , Water , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Lectins/isolation & purification
4.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 37: 1-10, Jan. 2019. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048922

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chia seeds are gaining increasing interest among food producers and consumers because of their prohealth properties. RESULTS: The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential of chia seeds to act as acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitors. The highest inhibitory activity against AChE and BChE was observed for colored seed ethanol extracts. A positive correlation was found between the presence of quercetin and isoquercetin as well as protocatechuic, hydroxybenzoic, and coumaric acids and the activity of extracts as AChE and BChE inhibitors. It has also been shown that grain fragmentation affects the increase in the activity of seeds against cholinesterases (ChE). Furthermore, seeds have been shown to be a source of substances that inhibit microbial growth. CONCLUSIONS: It was found that the chia seed extracts are rich in polyphenols and inhibit the activity of ChEs; therefore, their use can be considered in further research in the field of treatment and prevention of neurodegenerative diseases.


Subject(s)
Seeds/chemistry , Butyrylcholinesterase , Cholinesterase Inhibitors , Salvia/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/metabolism , In Vitro Techniques , Flavonols/analysis , Phenolic Compounds/analysis , Polyphenols/analysis , Food Additives
5.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 46(6): 783-791, dic. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058142

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The need to obtain nutritious foods from new sources and lower waste in industry has created a high interest in studying different parts of plants or foods that today are considered waste, but could be considered by-products with high nutritional value with potential use in human diets. Pumpkin seeds are commonly considered as waste but they have a high content of fatty and amino acids, which when used as a by-product or ingredient can add value to food products. The aim of this work was to perform a wide review of the nutritional and functional properties of Cucurbita maxima seeds and their potential medicinal influence.


RESUMEN La necesidad de obtener alimentos nutritivos de nuevas fuentes y menores desperdicios en la industria ha generado un gran interés en el estudio de diferentes partes de plantas o alimentos que hoy en día se consideran desechos, pero que podrían considerarse subproductos con alto valor nutricional y uso potencial en alimentación humana. Las semillas de calabaza se consideran comúnmente como desechos, pero tienen un alto e importante contenido de ácidos grasos y aminoácidos, que cuando se utilizan como subproducto o ingrediente pueden aportar un alto valor agregado a los productos alimenticios. El objetivo de este trabajo es realizar una amplia revisión de las propiedades nutricionales y funcionales de las semillas de Cucurbita maxima y su potencial influencia medicinal asociada a ellas.


Subject(s)
Seeds/chemistry , Cucurbita/chemistry , Functional Food , Plant Oils/chemistry , Fatty Acids, Unsaturated/analysis , Flour , Amino Acids/analysis , Minerals/analysis , Nutritive Value
6.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(3): 1164-1171, Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012412

ABSTRACT

Resveratrol is a stilbenoid, a type of natural phenol, and a phytoalexin produced by several plants in response to injury or attack by fungi. The underutilization of soybean seed coat (Glycine max (L.) Merrill.) and tempeh, cheap Indonesia fermented food thus opens up a new opportunity for developing a Resveratrol-based medicine for Plants-Derived Neuroprotective Agents purposes. In this study, it was isolated from tempeh, ordinarily well-known as Indonesian soybean fermented food, and soybean seed coat. The finding of this compound was confirmed by TLC and HPLC analysis applying fluorescence detection. From this, the Rf-value for transresveratrol is 0.64. As eluent, a mixture of chloroform, ethyl acetate, and formic acid (2.5+1+0.1, v/v) was selected. In addition, retention time for tempeh was 14.467 and for soybean seed coat was 11.977. The extraction yield of resveratrol was 65.15 % in tempeh and 55.35 % in soybean seed coat. Resveratrol isolated from Tempeh and Soybean seed coat gave prevents some reaction by modulating intracellular signaling pathways: protein kinase C (PKC), a family of 12 serine/ threonine kinases and providing a new lead molecule for neuroprotective affects in addition to has prevented cell death by apoptosis.


El resveratrol es un estilbenoide, un tipo de fenol natural, y fitoalexina producida por varias plantas en respuesta a una lesión o ataque de hongos. La subutilización de la cubierta de la semilla de soja (Glycine max (L.) Merrill.) y el tempeh, alimento fermentado barato de Indonesia, abren una nueva oportunidad para obtener un medicamento a base de resveratrol para propósitos de desarrollo de agentes neuroprotectores derivados de plantas. En este estudio, se aisló el resveratrol del tempeh, generalmente conocido como alimento fermentado de soja de Indonesia y de la cubierta de la semilla de soja. El hallazgo de este compuesto se confirmó mediante análisis de TLC y HPLC aplicando detección de fluorescencia. A partir de esto, el valor de Rf para trans-resveratrol es 0,64. Como eluyente, se seleccionó una mezcla de cloroformo, acetato de etilo y ácido fórmico (2,5 + 1 + 0,1, v / v). Además, el tiempo de retención para el tempeh fue de 14,467 y para el revestimiento de semilla de soja fue de 11,977. El rendimiento de extracción del resveratrol fue del 65,15 % en tempeh y del 55,35 % en la cubierta de la semilla de soja. El resveratrol aislado de tempeh y de la cubierta de la semilla de soja previno reacciones mediante la modulación de ciertas vías de señalización intracelular: proteína quinasa C (PKC), una familia de 12 serina/treonin quinasas, proporcionando una nueva molécula de plomo con efectos neuroprotectores, además de prevenir la muerte celular por apoptosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Soybeans/chemistry , Neuroprotective Agents/isolation & purification , Soy Foods/analysis , Resveratrol/isolation & purification , Seeds/chemistry , Cells, Cultured , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Chromatography, Thin Layer
7.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 62: e19180228, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019546

ABSTRACT

Abstract The influence of silver nitrate (AgNO3), benzyladenine (BAP), and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) on low frequency somatic embryogenesis (LFSE) induction in Caturra and Catuaí arabica coffee was evaluated. For the Caturra cultivar, the production of somatic embryos was significantly increased by adding AgNO3 to the semisolid culture medium. The highest average number of somatic embryos for this cultivar was obtained using 6.6 μM BAP, 2.85 μM IAA, and 40 μM AgNO3. In contrast, for the Catuaí cultivar, the highest average number of somatic embryos was obtained using semisolid medium supplemented with 8.8 μM BAP, and 2.85 μM IAA. Using these protocols, somatic embryos were directly induced using leaf sections of in vitro plants of both coffee cultivars within 8 weeks. The somatic embryos developed into rooted plants with a 100% survival rate upon transfer to the greenhouse.


Subject(s)
Plant Growth Regulators , Seeds/chemistry , Silver Nitrate/administration & dosage , Coffea , Tissue Culture Techniques
8.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 55(2): 138-141, Apr.-June 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950505

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Extracts obtained from plants and fruits provide a relatively safe and practical alternative for the conventional medicine of gastrointestinal diseases. The specie Eugenia mattosii, popularly known in Brazil as "cerejinha", belongs to Myrtaceae family. Species of this family present pharmacological properties, and can be used in the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the phytochemical profile and evaluate the gastroprotective activity of Eugenia mattosii fruits. METHODS: Phytochemical analysis was carried out by thin layer chromatography and gastroprotective assays were performed using two experimental models: acute ulcer model induced by ethanol/HCl and acute ulcer model induced by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (indomethacin). Total lesion area (mm2) and relative lesion area (%) were determined. RESULTS: The results of the phytochemical analysis indicated that the bark and pulp and seeds of E. mattosii present phenolic compounds, terpenes and/or steroids. In gastric ulcer model induced by ethanol was evidenced significant reduction of damaged areas for doses of 50 and 250 mg/ kg of seeds methanol extract, while in the indomethacin-induced ulcer model, all parts of the fruit presented defense capability of the gastric mucosa by reducing lesions at doses of 50, 125 and 250 mg/kg. CONCLUSION: The results demonstrate that the specie E. mattosii has bioactive compounds that provide gastroprotective activity, presenting possible therapeutic potential.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: Extratos obtidos de plantas e frutos fornecem uma alternativa relativamente segura e prática para os remédios convencionais de doenças gastrointestinais. A espécie Eugenia mattosii, popularmente conhecida no Brasil como "cerejinha", pertence à família Myrtaceae. Espécies desta família apresentam propriedades farmacológicas e podem ser utilizadas no tratamento de distúrbios gastrointestinais. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar o perfil fitoquímico e avaliar a atividade gastroprotetora dos frutos de Eugenia mattosii. MÉTODOS: A análise fitoquímica foi realizada por cromatografia em camada delgada e dois modelos experimentais foram utilizados para avaliação da atividade gastroprotetora em camundongos: modelo de úlcera gástrica induzida por anti-inflamatório não-esteroidal (indometacina) e modelo de úlcera gástrica induzida por etanol/HCl. RESULTADOS: Os resultados da análise fitoquímica indicaram que a casca e polpa e as sementes de E. mattosii apresentam compostos fenólicos, terpenos e/ou esteroides. No modelo de úlcera gástrica induzido pelo etanol, foi evidenciada redução significativa de áreas danificadas para doses de 50 e 250 mg/kg do extrato das sementes, enquanto no modelo de úlcera induzida por indometacina, todas as partes do fruto apresentaram capacidade de defesa da mucosa gástrica ao reduzir as lesões nas doses de 50, 125 e 250 mg/kg. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados demonstram que a espécie E. mattosii possui compostos bioativos com atividade gastroprotetora, apresentando possível potencial terapêutico.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Mice , Stomach Ulcer/prevention & control , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Protective Agents/pharmacology , Eugenia/chemistry , Fruit/chemistry , Gastric Mucosa/drug effects , Anti-Ulcer Agents/pharmacology , Seeds/chemistry , Stomach Ulcer/chemically induced , Brazil , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Indomethacin , Disease Models, Animal , Ethanol , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Phytotherapy , Anti-Ulcer Agents/administration & dosage , Antioxidants/analysis , Antioxidants/pharmacology
9.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 90(1): 485-494, Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886916

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Soybean (Glycine max L.) seed contains amounts of protein, lipid, carbohydrate and mineral elements, which protein and lipid have been known as a main part for soybean's trade value. In this study, in order to investigate the effect of ferrous nano-oxide particles on nutritional compounds of soybean seed, an experiment with 5 treatments and 3 replications was conducted as a randomized complete block design. Treatments were 5 concentrations of ferrous nano-oxide particles including 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1 g L-1 which were sprayed 3 times at 4 and 8 leaves stage and pod initiation. Lipid and protein contents, fatty acids profile, some of mineral elements such as Fe, Mg, Ca and P, chlorophyll a, b and total chlorophyll content were determined. Results showed that solution containing ferrous nano-oxide particles had significant effect on nutritional compounds of soybean seed (P<0.01) compared to control. The highest content of lipid and protein (25.4 and %33.8, respectively) observed by applying 0.75 g L-1 of ferrous nano-oxide and the lowest content was also in control. Changes in the trends of fatty acids profile (palmitic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids), some of mineral elements (Fe, Mg, Ca and P) and chlorophyll contents were similar to lipid and protein levels which by increasing in concentration of ferrous nano-oxide from 0 to 0.75 g L-1 all measured parameters also increased, but reduction in all parameters was observed in concentration from 0.75 to 1 g L-1. In conclusion, application of 0.75 to 1 g L-1 ferrous nano-oxide had the best effect on the nutrient composition of soybean seed.


Subject(s)
Seeds/drug effects , Seeds/chemistry , Soybeans/drug effects , Soybeans/chemistry , Ferrous Compounds/pharmacology , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Reference Values , Seeds/physiology , Soybeans/physiology , Trace Elements/analysis , Proteins/analysis , Random Allocation , Chlorophyll/analysis , Regression Analysis , Reproducibility of Results , Fatty Acids/analysis , Fertilizers , Lipids/analysis
10.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(4): e6069, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889062

ABSTRACT

Melon (Cucumis melo L.) has high economic value and in recent years, its production has increased; however, part of the fruit is wasted. Usually, inedible parts such as peel and seeds are discarded during processing and consumption. Extracts of melon residues were prepared and their phenolic compounds, antioxidants and antiproliferative activities were evaluated. Total phenolic compounds were found in hydroethanolic, hydromethanolic, and aqueous extracts, especially for melon peel (1.016 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g). Flavonoids total content found for melon peel aqueous extract was 262 µg of catechin equivalent (CA)/100 g. In all extracts of melon peel significant amounts of gallic acid, catechin, and eugenol were found. For total antioxidant capacity, reported as ascorbic acid equivalent, the hydroethanolic and hydromethanolic extracts in peels and hydromethanolic in seeds were 89, 74, and 83 mg/g, respectively. Different extracts of melon showed iron and copper ions chelating activity at different concentrations, especially melon peel aqueous extract, reaching values of 61% for iron and 84% for copper. The hydroethanolic extract of melon peel presented a significant ability for hydroxyl radicals scavenging (68%). To assess the antiproliferative potential in human cancer cell lines, such as kidney carcinoma, colorectal carcinoma, cervical adenocarcinoma and cervical carcinoma, MTT assay was performed. The proliferation was inhibited by 20-85% at extracts concentrations of 0.1-1.0 mg/mL in all cancer cell lines. The results suggest that melon residues extracts display a high antioxidant activity in in vitro assays and have effective biological activity against the growth of human tumor cells.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Cucurbitaceae/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/isolation & purification , Antioxidants/isolation & purification , Cell Line, Tumor , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Chromatography, Thin Layer , Flavonoids/isolation & purification , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Phenols/isolation & purification , Phenols/pharmacology , Seeds/chemistry , Tannins/isolation & purification , Tannins/pharmacology
11.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(7): e7256, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951731

ABSTRACT

Cuscuta chinensis polysaccharide (CPS) was extracted using hot water and enzymatically hydrolyzed C. chinensis polysaccharide (ECPS) was produced by the mannase enzymatic hydrolysis process. The purpose of this research was to investigate the antimelanogenic activity of ECPS and CPS in B16F10 melanoma cells. The in vitro antioxidant activity was assessed by their ferric iron reducing power and DPPH free radical scavenging activities. The molecular mass distribution of polysaccharides was determined using SEC-MALLS-RI. CPS was successfully enzymatically degraded using mannase and the weighted average molecular weights of CPS and ECPS were 434.6 kDa and 211.7 kDa. The results of biological activity assays suggested that the enzymatically hydrolyzed polysaccharide had superior antimelanogenic activity and antioxidant effect than the original polysaccharide. ECPS exhibited antimelanogenic activity by down-regulating the expression of tyrosinase, MITF, and TRP-1 without cytotoxic effects in B16F10 melanoma cells. In conclusion, ECPS have the potential to become a skin whitening product.


Subject(s)
Animals , Polysaccharides/pharmacology , Melanoma, Experimental/pathology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Cuscuta/chemistry , Melanocytes/drug effects , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Polysaccharides/isolation & purification , Polysaccharides/chemistry , Seeds/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Cell Line, Tumor , Hydrolysis , Antioxidants/isolation & purification , Antioxidants/chemistry
12.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(11): e7356, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951728

ABSTRACT

Essential oils (EO) are volatile liquids responsible for the aroma of plants. Pterodon polygalaeflorus seeds have received widespread use in folk medicine for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. For this reason and because Pterodon polygalaeflorus seeds have great EO content, which is frequently pharmacologically active, the present study aimed to evaluate the antinociceptive effect of EO from Pterodon polygalaeflorus (EOPPgfl) and its acute toxic effects. The EEOPPgfl sample, which was extracted by steam distillation of the seeds, had a yield of 2.4% of the seeds weight and had, as major constituents, beta-elemene (48.19%), trans-caryophyllene (19.51%), and epi-bicyclosesquiphellandrene (12.24%). The EOPPgfl sample showed mild acute toxicity and its calculated median lethal dose (LD50) was 3.38 g/kg. EOPPgfl (20-60 mg/kg) showed antinociceptive activity as evidenced by several tests and inhibited writhing induced by acetic acid. The maximum effect was obtained with the 30 mg/kg dose and at 60 min after its administration. EOPPgfl also decreased formalin-induced nociception, as verified by the inhibition of the first and second phase of the formalin test. At 30 mg/kg, EOPPgfl also decreased thermally stimulated nociception. Nociception may be related to inflammatory and antiedematogenic activity and at doses ranging 10-100 mg/kg, EOPPgfl blocked dextran- and carrageenan-induced edema. The results demonstrated that EOPPgfl presented, at doses approximately 100 times smaller than LD50, an antinociceptive effect that probably was due to anti-inflammatory activities.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Plant Oils/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Nociception/drug effects , Analgesics/pharmacology , Fabaceae/chemistry , Seeds/chemistry , Time Factors , Pain Measurement , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology
13.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(4): 656-670, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889178

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This study aimed to explore the effects of two siderophore-producing bacterial strains on iron absorption and plant growth of peanut in calcareous soil. Two siderophore-producing bacterial strains, namely, YZ29 and DZ13, isolated from the rhizosphere soil of peanut, were identified as Paenibacillus illinoisensis and Bacillus sp., respectively. In potted experiments, YZ29 and DZ13 enhanced root activity, chlorophyll and active iron content in leaves, total nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium accumulation of plants and increased the quality of peanut kernels and plant biomass over control. In the field trial, the inoculated treatments performed better than the controls, and the pod yields of the three treatments inoculated with YZ29, DZ13, and YZ29 + DZ13 (1:1) increased by 37.05%, 13.80% and 13.57%, respectively, compared with the control. Based on terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, YZ29 and DZ13 improved the bacterial community richness and species diversity of soil surrounding the peanut roots. Therefore, YZ29 and DZ13 can be used as candidate bacterial strains to relieve chlorosis of peanut and promote peanut growth. The present study is the first to explore the effect of siderophores produced by P. illinoisensis on iron absorption.


Subject(s)
Arachis/growth & development , Arachis/microbiology , Bacillus/metabolism , Paenibacillus/metabolism , Iron/metabolism , Arachis/metabolism , Arachis/chemistry , Seeds/growth & development , Seeds/metabolism , Seeds/microbiology , Seeds/chemistry , Soil/chemistry , Soil Microbiology , Bacillus/isolation & purification , Bacillus/classification , Bacillus/genetics , Biological Transport , Siderophores/metabolism , Plant Roots/microbiology , Paenibacillus/isolation & purification , Paenibacillus/classification , Paenibacillus/genetics , Rhizosphere , Agricultural Inoculants/metabolism
14.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(2): 919-926, Apr.-June 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886707

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This study aims to determine the allelopathic potential of Amaranthus retroflexus (Ar) with different climatic zones on seed germination and growth of A. tricolor (At) treated with a gradient N addition. Ar leaf extracts only displayed significantly allelopathic potential on the underground growth of Ar but not the aboveground growth of At. The allelopathic potential of Ar leaf extracts on root length of At were enhanced under N addition and there may be a N-concentration-dependent relationship. The effects of the extracts of Ar leaves that collected from Zhenjiang on seed germination and growth of At may be higher than that collected from Jinan especially on root length of At under medium N addition. This reason may be the contained higher concentration of secondary metabolites for the leaves of plants that growths in high latitudes compare with that growth in low latitudes. This phenomenon may also partly be attributed to the fact that Ar originated in America and/or south-eastern Asia which have higher similarity climate conditions as Zhenjiang rather than Jinan. The allelopathic potential of Ar on seed germination and growth of acceptor species may play an important role in its successful invasion especially in the distribution region with low latitudes.


Subject(s)
Amaranthus/physiology , Amaranthus/chemistry , Allelopathy/physiology , Nitrogen/chemistry , Seeds/physiology , Seeds/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , China , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric , Plant Leaves/chemistry
15.
Braz. j. biol ; 77(2): 299-303, Apr.-June 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888738

ABSTRACT

Abstract The establishment and maintenance of plant species in the Chaco, one of the widest continuous areas of forests in the South American with sharp climatic variations, are possibly related to biological features favoring plants with particular defenses. This study assesses the physical and chemical defenses mechanisms against herbivores of vegetative and reproductive organs. Its analyses of 12 species of Fabaceae (Leguminosae) collected in remnants of Brazilian Chaco shows that 75% present structural defense characters and 50% have chemical defense - defense proteins in their seeds, like protease inhibitors and lectins. Physical defenses occur mainly on branches (78% of the species), leaves (67%), and reproductive organs (56%). The most common physical characters are trichomes and thorns, whose color represents a cryptic character since it does not contrast with the other plant structures. Defense proteins occur in different concentrations and molecular weight classes in the seeds of most species. Protease inhibitors are reported for the first time in seeds of: Albizia niopoides, Anadenanthera colubrina, Mimosa glutinosa, Prosopis rubriflora, and Poincianella pluviosa. The occurrence of physical and chemical defenses in members of Fabaceae indicate no associations between defense characters in these plant species of the Chaco.


Resumo O estabelecimento e a manutenção de espécies no Chaco, uma planície semi-árida da América do Sul com variações climáticas importantes, possivelmente estão relacionados a características biológicas que favorecem as plantas detentoras de defesas particulares. Este estudo teve como objetivos avaliar os mecanismos de defesa física e química anti-herbivoria em órgãos vegetativos e reprodutivos. Analisamos 12 espécies da família Fabaceae (Leguminosae) obtidas em remanescentes de Chaco brasileiro. Observamos que 75% das espécies estudadas apresentam atributo de defesa física e 50% possuem defesa química - proteínas de defesa nas sementes, como inibidores de protease e lectinas. As defesas físicas ocorrem principalmente nos ramos (78% das espécies), nos órgãos reprodutivos (56% das espécies) e nas folhas (67%). Os atributos físicos mais frequentes são tricomas e espinhos, cuja coloração não contrastante com as demais estruturas das plantas representa um caráter críptico. Proteínas de defesa ocorrem nas sementes da maioria das espécies, com diferentes concentrações e classes de pesos moleculares. Inibidores de protease nas sementes estão sendo relatados pela primeira vez em: Albizia niopoides, Anadenanthera colubrina, Mimosa glutinosa, Prosopis rubriflora e Poincianella pluviosa. A ocorrência de defesas física e química entre os membros de Fabaceae indica que não há associações entre as características de defesa das espécies de plantas avaliadas no Chaco.


Subject(s)
Food Chain , Fabaceae/anatomy & histology , Fabaceae/physiology , Plant Proteins/analysis , Seeds/chemistry , Brazil , Herbivory , Fabaceae/chemistry
16.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 15(6): 364-372, nov. 2016. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-907553

ABSTRACT

The chemical composition of the oil extracted from the seeds of Sapindus saponaria L., (Sapindaceae), was investigated. Cyanolipids constituted 5 percent hexane extract of the seeds, whereas triacylglycerols (TAG) accounted for 90 percent. The oil contains type III cyanolipids (CL) 1-cyano-2-hydroxymethylprop-1-en-3-ol-diesters. Structural investigation of the oil components was accomplished by chemical, chromatographic (TLC, CC, GC-MS), and spectroscopic (IR, NMR) means. GC-MS analysis showed that fatty acids were dominant in the CL components of the oil from S. saponaria L., with cis-11-eicosenoic acid, cis-11-octadecenoic acid and eicosanoic acid as the only esterified fatty acyl chains respectively. This being the first report of this kind of natural products (CL), located in the seeds of this plant.


La composición química del aceite de las semillas de Sapindus saponaria L., (Sapindaceae), fue investigada. Cianolípidos (CL) constituyen el 5 por ciento del extracto hexanico de las semillas, mientras que los triacilgliceroles (TAG) representaron el 90 por ciento. La fracción cianolipídica estaba compuesta por el CL tipo III, el diester de 1-ciano-2-hidroximetilprop-3-en-1-ol. La investigación estructural de los componentes del aceite se logró mediante técnicas cromatografícas, (CCF, CC, GC-MS), y espectroscópicas (IR, RMN). El análisis por GC-MS mostró que los ácidos grasos tales como: ácidos cis-11-eicosenoico, cis-11-octadecanoico y eicosanoico fueron los únicos ácidos grasos esterificados ubicados en el extracto rico en CL tipo III. Siendo este el primer reporte de esta clase de productos naturales (CL) ubicados en las semilla de esta planta.


Subject(s)
Fatty Acids/analysis , Oils , Sapindus/chemistry , Seeds/chemistry , Chromatography, Gas , Lipids/analysis , Seeds , Spectrum Analysis , Sapindaceae/chemistry
17.
Acta cir. bras ; 31(9): 597-601, Sept. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-795995

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To assess antioxidant effects of açaí seed extract on anorexia-cachexia induced by Walker-256 tumor. METHODS: A population of 20 lab rats were distributed into four groups (n=5): Control Group (CG), which only received tumor inoculation. Experimental Group-100 (EG-100), with animals submitted to tumor inoculation and treated with seed extract in a 100 mg / ml concentration through gavage. Experimental Group-200 (EG-200), with animals submitted to tumor inoculation and treated with seed extract in a 200 mg / ml concentration. Placebo Group (GP), which received tumor inoculation and ethanol-water solution. We analyzed proteolysis, lipid peroxidation, tumor diameter and weight. RESULTS: Lipid peroxidation was representative only in the cerebral cortex, where there was more oxidative stress in rats treated with the extract (p = 0.0276). For proteolysis, there was less muscle damage in untreated rats (p = 0.0312). Only tumor diameter in treated rats was significantly lower (p = 0.0200) compared to untreated ones. CONCLUSIONS: The açaí seed extract showed no beneficial effect on the general framework of the cachectic syndrome in lab rats. However, some anticarcinogenic effects were observed in the tumor diameter and weight.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Seeds/chemistry , Cachexia/drug therapy , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Anorexia/drug therapy , Euterpe/chemistry , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Syndrome , Cachexia/etiology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Carcinoma 256, Walker/complications , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Anorexia/etiology , Cerebral Cortex/enzymology , Analysis of Variance , Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances/metabolism , Rats, Wistar , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Neoplasms, Experimental/complications , Antioxidants/analysis
18.
Braz. j. biol ; 75(3): 685-691, Aug. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-761574

ABSTRACT

AbstractThe antioxidant potential of fruit pulp and seeds of extracts of the Annona coriacea, and A. sylvatica(Annonaceae) were investigated, as well contents total phenolics, flavonoids, condensed tannins and ascorbic acid. Was used to determine the antioxidant activity the 1,1-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH), β-carotene bleaching and ABTS radical cation method. The total phenol, total flavonoid, condensed tannin, and ascorbic acid contents were measured spectrophotometrically. In this study, the pulp and seeds of the fruits were extracted using methanol/water (8:2) for maceration. The seed extracts of A. coriacea demonstrated a moderate antioxidant effect with free radical scavenging activity of 31.53%, by the DPPH test, 51.59% by the β-carotene bleaching test and 159.50 µM trolx/g of extract in the ABTS assay. We found that the hydromethanolic seed extract of A. coriacea had high total phenol (147.08 ± 4.20 mg of GAE/g of extract) and flavonoid (131.18 ± 2.31 mg of QE/g of extract) content. This indicated that the antioxidant activity of the extracts was related to the contents of these constituents.


ResumoO potencial antioxidante de extratos da polpa e sementes de frutos da Annona coriacea e A. sylvatica(Annonaceae) foram investigados, bem como os teores de fenóis totais, flavonóides totais, ácido ascórbico total e taninos condensados. Os métodos utilizados para avaliação da atividade antioxidante foram o 1,1-difenil-2-picrilhidrazil (DPPH) branqueamento do β-caroteno e ensaio do radical ABTS. O teor de fenóis totais, flavonoides totais, taninos condensados e ácidos ascórbico foram determinados utilizando espectrofotômetro. A polpa e as sementes dos frutos foram extraídas por maceração com metanol/água (8:2). O extrato da semente de A. coriacea demonstrou moderado efeito antioxidante, com 31,53% no sequestro de radicais livres pelo ensaio do DPPH, 51,59% pelo teste do branqueamento do β-caroteno e pelo ensaio do ABTS com 159,50 µM trolox/g de extrato. Foi observado que o extrato hidrometanólico das sementes de A. coriacea obteve alto teor de fenóis totais (147,08 ± 4,20 mg of GAE/ g de extrato) e flavonóides totais (131,18 ± 2,31 mg of QE/ g de extrato). Isto indica que atividade antioxidante dos extratos pode estar relacionada com o teor destes constituintes.


Subject(s)
Annona/chemistry , Antioxidants/metabolism , Fruit/chemistry , Species Specificity , Seeds/chemistry
19.
Acta cir. bras ; 30(8): 542-550, Aug. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-757986

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of Black cumin (Nigella sativa Linn.) pre-treatment on renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) induced injury in the rats.METHODS: A total of 40 male Wistar rats were randomly allocated into five equal groups including Sham, I/R model and three I/R+ Black cumin (0.5, 1 and 2%)-treated groups. I/R groups' kidneys were subjected to 60 min of global ischemia at 37°C followed by 24 h of reperfusion. At the end of reperfusion period, the rats were euthanized. Superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities as well as reduced glutathione and renal malondialdehyde contents were determined in renal tissues. Kidney function tests and histopathological examination were also performed.RESULTS: High serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and uric acid as well as malondialhehyde (MDA) levels, and low antioxidant enzyme activities were observed in I/R rats compared to the sham rats. Pre-treatment with Black cumin for three weeks prior to IR operation improved renal function and reduced I/R induced renal inflammation and oxidative injury. These biochemical observations were supported by histopathological test of kidney sections.CONCLUSION:Black cumin significantly prevented renal ischemia/reperfusion induced functional and histological injuries.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Kidney/blood supply , Nigella sativa/chemistry , Plant Preparations/therapeutic use , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Blood Urea Nitrogen , Creatinine/blood , Kidney Function Tests , Kidney/drug effects , Malondialdehyde/analysis , Oxidative Stress , Peroxidases/blood , Plant Preparations/pharmacology , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Reproducibility of Results , Reperfusion Injury/blood , Seeds/chemistry , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Uric Acid/blood
20.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 14(4): 280-286, jul. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-907491

ABSTRACT

Nephrotoxicity is one of the most important side effects and therapeutic limitations of aminoglycoside antibiotics, especially gentamicin. Gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity involves free radical generation, reduction in antioxidant defense mechanism and renal dysfunction. A number of crude herbal extracts have potential to ameliorate gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity due to presence of various antioxidant compounds. Therefore the goal of current study was to evaluate the protective activity of T. ammi seeds aqueous extract against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in albino rabbits. The results showed that gentamicin caused severe alterations in serum biochemical parameters and kidney markers along with severe alterations in kidney tissues. However, T. ammi extract, when given along with gentamicin, reversed the severity of gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity by normalizing the indicators of kidney function e.g. serum urea, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, albumin and serum electrolyte parameters indicating the nephroprotective potential of T. ammi. Similarly the extract has ability to augment the endogenous antioxidant enzymatic machinery by increasing the activity of antioxidant enzyme catalase and by reducing the total oxidant status. Nephroprotective potential was further confirmed by the histopathological examination. Nephroprotective potential might be due to the presence of antioxidative polyphenolic compounds in aqueous extract of T. ammi seeds.


La nefrotoxicidad es uno de los efectos secundarios más importantes limitaciones terapéuticas de los antibióticos aminoglucósidos, especialmente gentamicina. La nefrotoxicidad inducida por gentamicina implica generación de radicales libres, la reducción en el mecanismo de defensa antioxidante y la disfunción renal. Una serie de extractos de hierbas crudas tienen potencial para mejorar la nefrotoxicidad inducida por gentamicina debido a la presencia de varios compuestos antioxidantes. Por lo tanto, el objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar la actividad protectora del extracto acuoso semillas de T. ammi contra la nefrotoxicidad inducida por gentamicina en conejos albinos. Los resultados mostraron que la gentamicina causó graves alteraciones en los parámetros bioquímicos séricos y los marcadores de riñón, junto con alteraciones severas en los tejidos renales. Sin embargo, el extracto de T. ammi, cuando se administra junto con la gentamicina, invierte la gravedad de la nefrotoxicidad inducida por gentamicina por la normalización de los indicadores de la función renal, por ejemplo, urea sérica, creatinina, nitrógeno ureico en sangre, albúmina y los parámetros de electrolitos séricos que indican el potencial nefroprotector de T. ammi. Del mismo modo, el extracto tiene la capacidad para aumentar la maquinaria enzimática antioxidante endógena mediante un aumento de la actividad de la enzima antioxidante catalasa y reduciendo el estado total de oxidante. El potencial nefroprotector fue confirmado por el examen histopatológico. El potencial nefroprotector podría ser debido a la presencia de compuestos polifenólicos antioxidantes en el extracto acuoso de semillas de T. Ammi.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Acute Kidney Injury/chemically induced , Acute Kidney Injury/prevention & control , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Apiaceae/chemistry , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Disease Models, Animal , Seeds/chemistry
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