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1.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 87: e0122019, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1117631

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of timbó seed coat on the physiological and sanitary quality of soybean seeds. Timbó seeds were collected from mature fruits in the Cerrado. The external layer of the seed coat was removed and crushed in a mill and used in the treatment of soybean seeds. Three lots of soybean seeds were used, from high, medium and low vigor seeds. The treatments were: powder; gel; hydroalcoholic extract; synthetic fungicide (Vitavax® - Thiram 200 sc), and untreated seeds. The physiological quality of the soybean seeds was determined by standard germination, accelerated aging, length, fresh and dry mass of seedlings. Blotter test was used to determine the sanitary quality. The statistical analyze used was a completely randomized 3 × 5 factorial design, considering three seed lots and five treatments. Treatment with the coat seed extract and gel improves the physiological quality of soybean seeds from low vigor lots. The treatment of seeds with gel decreases the incidence of Fusarium and Penicillium genus; and treatment with the powder reduced the incidence of the Cercospora genus.(AU)


O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito do tegumento das sementes de timbó sobre a qualidade fisiológica e sanitária de sementes de soja. As sementes de timbó foram coletadas de frutos maduros, no Cerrado. A camada mais externa do tegumento das sementes foi retirada e triturada em moinho e utilizada no tratamento de sementes de soja. Foram utilizados três lotes de sementes de soja, provenientes de sementes de alto, médio e baixo vigor. Os tratamentos foram: pó, gel, extrato hidroalcoólico; fungicida sintético (Vitavax® - Thiram 200 sc) e sementes não tratadas. A qualidade fisiológica das sementes de soja foi determinada pelo teste padrão de germinação, envelhecimento acelerado, comprimento, massa fresca e seca de plântulas. Para a determinação da qualidade sanitária utilizou-se o teste de borrão (blotter test). O delineamento estatístico foi em esquema fatorial 3 × 5, inteiramente casualizado, considerando-se três lotes de sementes e cinco tratamentos. Os tratamentos com o extrato e o gel do tegumento das sementes de timbó melhoraram a qualidade fisiológica das sementes de soja provenientes de lotes de baixo vigor. O tratamento com gel do tegumento das sementes de timbó diminuiu a incidência de fungos dos gêneros Fusarium e Penicillium; e o tratamento com o pó reduziu a incidência do gênero Cercospora.(AU)


Subject(s)
Seeds/drug effects , Soybeans , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Sapindaceae , Powders , Brazil , Food Quality , Germination/drug effects , Fungi/drug effects , Gels
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(3): 383-394, July-Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001447

ABSTRACT

Abstract Bidens pilosa L. is a heterocarpic weed species with two cypselae types that present morpho-physiological differences, being the peripheral type smaller and slower to germinate than the central one. We aimed to verify how the germination mechanism varied between types. We focused on two mechanisms: (1) pericarp constraints (physical and chemical) and (2) hormonal stimulation (Abcisic acid [ABA] and Gibberellin [GA]). Both cypselae types are physically constrained by the pericarp, for when it is excised both seed types increase their germination, but behavioral differences still remain. The pericarp of the peripheral type also has chemical inhibitors that effectively inhibited germination of the intact central cypsela. To test the hormonal effects, we focused on the ABA:GA control. Both cypselae responded to an exogenous ABA concentration gradient, however there is no variation between types on the sensitivity to it. Also, both cypselae types were indifferent to Fluridone (ABA inhibitor), which indicates that the dormancy is not maintained by de novo ABA synthesis. Cypselae types had different sensitivity to an exogenous GA3 gradient, the central type being more sensitive to the treatment than the peripheral one. But when the endogenous GA synthesis was blocked by Paclobutrazol, both types responded equally to same GA3 concentrations. This indicates that endogenous GA synthesis may be related to differences observed on germination of cypselae types. To conclude, seed types differ on their growth potential to overcome the pericarp resistance: while the inhibitor in the peripheral pericarp reduces growth potential, GA increases it.


Resumo Bidens pilosa L. é uma espécie de planta daninha heterocarpica com dois tipos de cipselas que possuem diferenças morfofisiológicas, sendo o tipo periférico de menor tamanho e com germinação lenta se comparado com o central. Nosso objetivo foi verificar como o mecanismo de germinação varia entre os tipos. Focamos em dois mecanismos: (1) restrição causada pelo pericarpo (física e química) e (2) estímulo hormonal (Ácido abscísico [ABA] e Giberelina [GA]). Os tipos de cipselas são fisicamente limitados pelo pericarpo, pois quando ambos os tipos de sementes são excisados há um aumento na germinação, contudo as diferenças no processo se mantém. O pericarpo do tipo periférico ainda possui inibidores que efetivamente retardam a germinação das cipselas centrais intactas. Para testar os efeitos hormonais, nós focamos no controle pelo ABA:GA. Ambas cipselas responderam ao gradiente de concentração de ABA exógeno, contudo não houve variação na sensibilidade entre os tipos. Ainda, ambos tipos de cipselas foram indiferentes à Fluoridona (inibidor de ABA), que indica que a dormência não é mantida pela nova síntese de ABA. Tipos de cipselas apresentam diferentes sensibilidades ao gradiente exógeno de GA3, com o tipo central sendo mais sensível ao tratamento que o periférico. Mas quando a síntese endógena de GA foi bloqueada pelo Paclobutrazol, ambos os tipos responderam de forma similar às concentrações de GA 3. Isso indica que a síntese de GA endógena pode estar relacionada com a diferença observada na germinação dos dois tipos de cipselas. Para concluir, os tipos de sementes diferem no potencial para superar a resistência do pericarpo, sendo o inibidor no pericarpo da cipsela periférica o redutor do potencial de crescimento, enquanto a GA aumenta esse potencial.


Subject(s)
Plant Growth Regulators/pharmacology , Pyridones/pharmacology , Abscisic Acid/pharmacology , Germination/physiology , Bidens/physiology , Herbicides/pharmacology , Seeds/growth & development , Seeds/drug effects , Germination/drug effects , Bidens/drug effects
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 78(4): 667-672, Nov. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951598

ABSTRACT

Abstract Various bird pests caused severe economic losses to valuable crops and fruit orchards all over the world. Among the birds, house sparrow is also considered to cause heavy plunder, not only to seeds of crops but also seedlings especially in organic farming. In present study two bird repellents, methylanthranilate and anthraquinone tested against house sparrows on maize seeds and seedlings in aviary conditions. Trial group in aviary-I, the treated maize seeds and seedlings with different doses of both bird repellents, control group in aviary-II, untreated seeds and seedlings were provided for three hours in the early morning. In each aviary, two closed circuit cameras were also installed to monitor the behavioral responses against different concentrations of both chemical repellents. Statistical analysis showed that there existed highly significant (P<0.01) variations among the trial and control groups for seeds and seedlings. By comparing both repellents, significant (P<0.05) differences were detected and anthraquinone showed better efficacy when compared to methylanthranilate, but in maize seedlings both repellents equal repellent properties. Non-significant (P>0.05) differences were observed in different grading of both natural chemical repellents for maize seeds while significant (P<0.05) variations were noticed for maize seedlings when provided to sparrows. By videotaped behavior sparrows presented manifest head juddering and feather upsetting activities by consumption of treated seeds and seedlings with higher concentrations of both natural bird repellents.


Resumo Várias pragas de aves causaram graves perdas econômicas para cultivos valiosos e pomares de frutas em todo o mundo. Entre os pássaros, o pardal da casa também é considerado um grande saqueo, não só para as sementes das culturas, mas também para as mudas, especialmente na agricultura orgânica. No presente estudo, dois repelentes de aves, metilantranilato e antraquinona testados contra pardais de casa em sementes de milho e mudas em condições de aviário. O grupo de ensaio em aviary-I, as sementes de milho tratadas e as mudas com diferentes doses de repelentes de aves, grupo de controle em aviary-II, sementes não tratadas e mudas foram fornecidas por três horas no início da manhã. Em cada aviário, duas câmeras de circuito fechado também foram instaladas para monitorar as respostas comportamentais contra diferentes concentrações de ambos os repelentes químicos. A análise estatística mostrou que existiam variações altamente significativas (P<0,01) entre os grupos de teste e controle para sementes e mudas. Ao comparar os dois repelentes, detectaram-se diferenças significativas (P<0,05) e a antraquinona apresentou maior eficácia quando comparada ao metilantranilato, mas em mudas de milho, ambos os repelentes são iguais às propriedades repelentes. As diferenças não significantes (P>0,05) foram observadas em diferentes classificações de repelentes químicos naturais para sementes de milho, enquanto as variações significativas (P<0,05) foram observadas para as mudas de milho quando fornecidas aos pardais. Por um comportamento gravado em video, os pardais apresentaram manifestações de cabeça e vibrações de penas por consumo de sementes tratadas e mudas com maiores concentrações de repelentes de aves naturais.


Subject(s)
Animals , Seeds/drug effects , Anthraquinones/pharmacology , Zea mays/drug effects , Seedlings/drug effects , Feeding Behavior/drug effects , ortho-Aminobenzoates/pharmacology , Seeds/growth & development , Pest Control/methods , Agrochemicals/pharmacology , Crops, Agricultural , Zea mays/growth & development , Seedlings/growth & development , Sparrows , Animals, Wild
4.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 90(1): 485-494, Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886916

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Soybean (Glycine max L.) seed contains amounts of protein, lipid, carbohydrate and mineral elements, which protein and lipid have been known as a main part for soybean's trade value. In this study, in order to investigate the effect of ferrous nano-oxide particles on nutritional compounds of soybean seed, an experiment with 5 treatments and 3 replications was conducted as a randomized complete block design. Treatments were 5 concentrations of ferrous nano-oxide particles including 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1 g L-1 which were sprayed 3 times at 4 and 8 leaves stage and pod initiation. Lipid and protein contents, fatty acids profile, some of mineral elements such as Fe, Mg, Ca and P, chlorophyll a, b and total chlorophyll content were determined. Results showed that solution containing ferrous nano-oxide particles had significant effect on nutritional compounds of soybean seed (P<0.01) compared to control. The highest content of lipid and protein (25.4 and %33.8, respectively) observed by applying 0.75 g L-1 of ferrous nano-oxide and the lowest content was also in control. Changes in the trends of fatty acids profile (palmitic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids), some of mineral elements (Fe, Mg, Ca and P) and chlorophyll contents were similar to lipid and protein levels which by increasing in concentration of ferrous nano-oxide from 0 to 0.75 g L-1 all measured parameters also increased, but reduction in all parameters was observed in concentration from 0.75 to 1 g L-1. In conclusion, application of 0.75 to 1 g L-1 ferrous nano-oxide had the best effect on the nutrient composition of soybean seed.


Subject(s)
Seeds/drug effects , Seeds/chemistry , Soybeans/drug effects , Soybeans/chemistry , Ferrous Compounds/pharmacology , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Reference Values , Seeds/physiology , Soybeans/physiology , Trace Elements/analysis , Proteins/analysis , Random Allocation , Chlorophyll/analysis , Regression Analysis , Reproducibility of Results , Fatty Acids/analysis , Fertilizers , Lipids/analysis
5.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 90(1): 557-571, Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886913

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Native to subtropical region of South America, yerba mate is responsive to P under some conditions, but the degree of influence of genetic and soil on the growth and composition of the leaf is unknown. The aim of study was to evaluate plant growth, nutrients and potentially toxic elements in leaves of yerba mate clones in response to P application in acid soils. In greenhouse condition, two yerba mate clone seedlings were grown (210 days) in pots, each clone in a completely randomized design in factorial scheme (with and without P; four acid soils). The elemental composition of leaves and the growth of plants were determined. Phosphorus promoted plant growth, but this was not accompanied by increased P in leaf tissue in all conditions tested. The P effect on the elemental composition varied: decrease/null (N, K, Mg, Mn, Cu, Ni, B, Mo, Al, Cd); increase/null (C/N, C, Ca, Fe, V); increase/decrease/null (Zn, Ba, Pb) and; null (Cr). The soils affect the elemental composition of the leaves, especially Mn, with accumulation greater than 1000 mg kg-1. The Ba, Pb, Al and Zn in the leaves varied among clones. Yerba mate response to P was affected by edaphic and plant factors.


Subject(s)
Phosphorus/chemistry , Soil/chemistry , Clone Cells/chemistry , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Ilex paraguariensis/growth & development , Ilex paraguariensis/chemistry , Reference Values , Seeds/growth & development , Seeds/drug effects , Time Factors , Trace Elements/analysis , Random Allocation , Plant Leaves/drug effects , Ilex paraguariensis/drug effects , Fertilizers , Plant Development/drug effects
6.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(2): e6657, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889026

ABSTRACT

Surfactants are amphipathic compounds containing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups, capable to lower the surface or interfacial tension. Considering the advantages of the use of biosurfactants produced by microorganisms, the aim of this paper was to develop and characterize a biosurfactant produced by Streptomyces sp. DPUA1559 isolated from lichens of the Amazon region. The microorganism was cultured in a mineral medium containing 1% residual frying soybean oil as the carbon source. The kinetics of biosurfactant production was accompanied by reducing the surface tension of the culture medium from 60 to values around 27.14 mN/m, and by the emulsification index, which showed the efficiency of the biosurfactant as an emulsifier of hydrophobic compounds. The yield of the isolated biosurfactant was 1.74 g/L, in addition to the excellent capability of reducing the surface tension (25.34 mN/m), as observed from the central composite rotational design when the biosurfactant was produced at pH 8.5 at 28°C. The critical micelle concentration of the biosurfactant was determined as 0.01 g/mL. The biosurfactant showed thermal and pH stability regarding the surface tension reduction, and tolerance under high salt concentrations. The isolated biosurfactant showed no toxicity to the micro-crustacean Artemia salina, and to the seeds of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.). The biochemistry characterization of the biosurfactant showed a single protein band, an acid character and a molecular weight around 14.3 kDa, suggesting its glycoproteic nature. The results are promising for the industrial application of this new biosurfactant.


Subject(s)
Streptomyces/metabolism , Surface-Active Agents/metabolism , Lichens/microbiology , Reference Values , Seeds/drug effects , Temperature , Time Factors , Soybean Oil/chemistry , Colony Count, Microbial , Analysis of Variance , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Culture Media , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Fermentation , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
7.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(1,supl): 695-704, May. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886666

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Both the scientific community and society have shown interest in improving the content of amino acids, carbohydrates and mineral nutrients in maize because it represents an important staple food in many developing countries. Earlier studies demonstrated that the treatment of seeds using ascorbic acid (AsA-seed priming) enhanced soluble carbohydrates, proteins and soluble amino acids for other species. AsA seed priming in maize showed the potential for reducing abiotic stresses. The effects on grain quality have not been previously demonstrated. This study investigated the impacts of AsA seed priming on maize kernel quality of seeds produced by the plants generated from the primed seeds, based on the amino acid profile and carbohydrate and mineral nutrient contents. AsA seed priming improved the maize kernel quality with respect to the ascorbate content, boron allocation, total carbohydrate content and increased soluble amino acid levels, including serine, tyrosine, alanine, valine, glutamate, arginine, proline, aspartate, lysine and isoleucine, whereas soluble methionine was decreased. Therefore, AsA seed priming can represent a potential technique for improving maize grain quality.


Subject(s)
Ascorbic Acid/pharmacology , Seeds/drug effects , Carbohydrates/analysis , Zea mays/chemistry , Amino Acids/analysis , Minerals/analysis , Zea mays/drug effects
8.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(1): 163-174, Jan,-Mar. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886642

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT A hydroponic experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of phosphorus (P) nutrition on arsenic (As) uptake and translocation within the seedlings of rice cultivars. The experiment occurred in three stages: I 5 days of acclimatization (nutritive solution); II 10 days under P (0.0 and 0.09 mM) and As (0.0 and 100 mM) treatments; III 5 days under recovery. The As exposure had significant effect reducing dry weights of shoots or roots, resulted in elevated concentrations of As in shoot tissues. BR-IRGA 409 showed the highest susceptibility to As in biomass production and root system parameters regardless the P level. This cultivar showed contrasting responses of As translocation to shoot tissue dependent on P levels, with the highest As concentration under low P and lowest under normal P levels. P nutrition was most striking on plants recovery for all cultivars under As exposure. Clearer separation of cultivars for phosphorus use efficiency (PUE) occurred at lower shoot P contents, that was, at higher levels of P deficiency stress. IRGA 424 showed higher PUE as compared to the others cultivars. Our results go some way to understanding the role of P nutrition in controlling the effects of As in rice shoots.


Subject(s)
Phosphorus/pharmacology , Arsenic/pharmacokinetics , Oryza/drug effects , Oryza/metabolism , Phosphorus/analysis , Arsenic/analysis , Reference Values , Seeds/drug effects , Seeds/metabolism , Time Factors , Biological Transport , Reproducibility of Results , Plant Roots/drug effects , Plant Roots/metabolism , Hydroponics/methods , Biomass , Fertilizers
9.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(1): 25-31, Jan.-Mar. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839353

ABSTRACT

Abstract Dyes are recalcitrant compounds that resist conventional biological treatments. The degradation of three textile dyes (Indigo, RBBR and Sulphur Black), and the dye-containing liquid effluent and solid waste from the Municipal Treatment Station, Americana, São Paulo, Brazil, by the cyanobacteria Anabaena flos-aquae UTCC64, Phormidium autumnale UTEX1580 and Synechococcus sp. PCC7942 was evaluated. The dye degradation efficiency of the cyanobacteria was compared with anaerobic and anaerobic-aerobic systems in terms of discolouration and toxicity evaluations. The discoloration was evaluated by absorption spectroscopy. Toxicity was measured using the organisms Hydra attenuata, the alga Selenastrum capricornutum and lettuce seeds. The three cyanobacteria showed the potential to remediate textile effluent by removing the colour and reducing the toxicity. However, the growth of cyanobacteria on sludge was slow and discoloration was not efficient. The cyanobacteria P. autumnale UTEX1580 was the only strain that completely degraded the indigo dye. An evaluation of the mutagenicity potential was performed by use of the micronucleus assay using Allium sp. No mutagenicity was observed after the treatment. Two metabolites were produced during the degradation, anthranilic acid and isatin, but toxicity did not increase after the treatment. The cyanobacteria showed the ability to degrade the dyes present in a textile effluent; therefore, they can be used in a tertiary treatment of effluents with recalcitrant compounds.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cyanobacteria/metabolism , Coloring Agents/metabolism , Seeds/drug effects , Textiles , Allium/drug effects , Brazil , Biotransformation , Lettuce/drug effects , Aerobiosis , Coloring Agents/toxicity , Chlorophyta/drug effects , X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy , Hydra/drug effects , Anaerobiosis , Industrial Waste , Mutagens/metabolism
10.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2015 Mar; 53(3): 184-188
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-158413

ABSTRACT

Valeriana officinalis is an important medicinal herb commonly found in Kashmir valley. This study forms an important preliminary step for in-vitro micro propagation of V. officinalis from breaking the seed dormancy, inducing rapid seed germination and its subsequent micro propagation. We investigated the influence of pretreatment of V. officinalis seeds with reduced temperature and light on seed germination and in-vitro propagation. Culture of explants from cultivated seeds have demonstrated its potential for in vitro propagation and plantlet regeneration. Individual as well as combinations of treatments such as temperature and light availability influenced the germination of seeds variedly. Unchilled seeds of V. officinalis were given dip in GA3 (200 ppm) for 24, 48 and 120 h. Seeds treated with GA3 for 24 h and kept in darkness showed the best results, i.e. 48%. Seeds pretreated with GA3 for 120 h and incubated in dark showed 40% germination. Pre-chilling up to 72 h and kept in light showed maximum germination of 60% followed by 40% kept in darkness. Pre-chilling for 48 h resulted in 40 and 25% seed germination in light and darkness, respectively. GA3 pre-treatment for 72 h and 24 h pre chilling were most effective in inducing seed germination. Maximum shoot response was obtained on MS enriched with BAP (1mg/L) + IAA (0.1mg/L) combinations using shoot tips as explants. Multiple shoot regeneration from shoot apices was recorded on BAP (1mg/L) and BAP (1mg/L) + IAA (0.1mg/L).


Subject(s)
Cold Temperature , Culture Media/pharmacology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Gibberellins/radiation effects , Hydroponics/methods , Photoperiod , Plant Growth Regulators/pharmacology , Seeds/drug effects , Seeds/radiation effects , Valerian/drug effects , Valerian/growth & development , Valerian/radiation effects
11.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2015 Feb; 53(2): 116-123
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-158392

ABSTRACT

The heavy metal resistant bacterium isolated from field soil and identified as Enterobacter sp. RZS5 tolerates a high concentration (100-2000 mM) of various heavy metal ions such as Mn2+, Ni2+, Zn2+, Cu2+, CO2+ and Fe2+ when grown in such environment and produces exopolysaccharides (EPS). Here, we have demonstrated EPS production by Enterobacter sp. RZS5 during 60 h of growth in yeast extract mannitol broth (YEMB). The yield increased by two fold after the addition of 60 M of Ca2+; 50 M of Fe2+ and 60 M of Mg2+ ions in YEMB, and the optimization of physico-chemical parameters. EPS was extracted with 30% (v/v) of isopropanol as against the commonly used 50% (v/v) isopropanol method. EPS-rich broth promoted seed germination, shoot height, root length, number of leaves and chlorophyll content of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and peanut (Arachis hypogaea) seeds. The higher colony-forming unit of Enterobacter sp. in soil inoculated with EPS rich broth of Enterobacter sp. indicated the root colonizing potential and rhizosphere competence of the isolate. The FTIR spectra of the EPS extract confirmed the presence of the functional group characteristics of EPS known to exhibit a high binding affinity towards certain metal ions. This overall growth and vigour in plants along with the effective root colonization, reflected the potential of the isolate as an efficient bio-inoculant in bioremediation.


Subject(s)
Arachis/drug effects , Arachis/growth & development , Arachis/metabolism , Biodegradation, Environmental/drug effects , Chlorophyll/metabolism , Enterobacter/drug effects , Enterobacter/metabolism , Enterobacter/physiology , Germination/drug effects , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Metals, Heavy/metabolism , Metals, Heavy/pharmacology , Plant Leaves/drug effects , Plant Leaves/growth & development , Plant Leaves/metabolism , Plant Roots/growth & development , Plant Roots/microbiology , Plant Shoots/drug effects , Plant Shoots/growth & development , Plant Shoots/metabolism , Polysaccharides, Bacterial/biosynthesis , Polysaccharides, Bacterial/pharmacology , Seeds/drug effects , Seeds/growth & development , Seeds/metabolism , Soil/chemistry , Soil Microbiology , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Triticum/drug effects , Triticum/growth & development
12.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2014 Oct; 52(10): 1003-1010
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-153799

ABSTRACT

Seed characteristics and in vitro culture of C. tamala embryos were studied. Embryos desiccated below 50% (fresh weight) exhibited poor morphogenetic response in vitro and confirmed the recalcitrant nature of seeds. The immature embryos of various developmental ages (4-16 week after flowering, WAF) were cultured on different strengths of MS medium. Morphogenesis responses were recorded after 10 days of culture. The best culture responses were achieved from the immature embryos of 12 WAF on MS medium with sucrose (3%, w/v), polyvinyl pyrollidone (100 mg L-1) and benzyl adenine (12 µM). Under optimum condition ~60% explants responded; and ~7.3 shoots buds developed per explants after 35 days of culture initiation. The shoot buds could be converted into micro-shoots on MS medium with sucrose (3%) and kinetin (3 µM). About 5.3 micro-shoots/shoot buds sprouted per sub-culture. The micro-shoots were rooted by maintaining them on MS medium with α-naphthalene acetic acid (3 µM) where within 6-8 wk of culture ~8-10 roots developed. The rooted plantlets were acclimatized in vitro before they were transferred to community potting mix and maintained in the poly-shade ca 75% shading. The transplants registered ~70% survival after two months of transfer.


Subject(s)
Cinnamomum/drug effects , Cinnamomum/metabolism , Culture Media , Plant Shoots/drug effects , Plant Shoots/metabolism , Seeds/drug effects , Seeds/metabolism , Tissue Culture Techniques/methods
13.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2014 Jul; 52(7): 755-758
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-153756

ABSTRACT

For ex vitro propagation, seeds of P.pubescens were treated with different concentrations of gibberellic acid (GA3) and germination of seeds was tested both in plastic pots as well as by direct sowing in the nursery beds. Maximum seed germination was achieved when treated with 200 mgL–1 (w/v) GA3. For in vitro propagation, an exposure of nodal explants from in vitro raised seedlings to 0.2 mgL–1 1–phenyl–3–(1,2,3–thiadiazol–5–yl) urea and 1 mgL–1 kinetin supplemented medium for 30 days and thereafter to hormone free Murashige and Skoog basal medium resulted in axillary shoot proliferation. For rooting, in vitro raised shoots were exposed to MS medium containing 2 mgL–1 indole-3-butyric acid for 15 days and then shifted to hormone free medium. On an average, 2.8 shoots were obtained in 75% of the cultures within 4 weeks. Such in vitro raised plants were successfully hardened and shifted to field conditions.


Subject(s)
Bambusa/drug effects , Bambusa/growth & development , Culture Techniques/methods , Germination/drug effects , Germination/physiology , Gibberellins/pharmacology , Plant Growth Regulators/pharmacology , Plant Shoots/drug effects , Plant Shoots/growth & development , Seeds/drug effects , Seeds/growth & development
14.
Biol. Res ; 47: 1-7, 2014. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950715

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Effect of chlorocholine chloride (CCC) on phenolic acids composition and polyphenols accumulation in various anatomical parts (stems, leaves and inflorescences) of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) in the early stages of vegetation period were surveyed. RESULTS: Treatment of buckwheat seeds with 2% of CCC has been increased content of total phenolics in the stems, leaves and inflorescences. On analyzing the different parts of buckwheat plants, 9 different phenolic acids - vanilic acid, ferulic acid, trans-ferulic acid, chlorogenic acid, salycilic acid, cinamic acid, p-coumaric acid, p-anisic acid, methoxycinamic acid and catechins were identified. The levels of identified phenolic acids varied not only significantly among the plant organs but also between early stages of vegetation period. Same changes as in contents of chlorogenic acid, ferulic acid, trans-ferulic acid were found for content of salycilic acid. The content of these phenolic acids has been significant increased under effect of 2% CCC treatment at the phase I (formation of buds) in the stems and at the phase II (beginning of flowering) in the leaves and then inflorescences respectively. The content of catechins as potential buckwheat antioxidants has been increased at the early stages of vegetation period after treatment with 2% CCC. CONCLUSIONS: The obtained results suggest that influence of CCC on the phenolics composition can be a result of various mechanisms of CCC uptake, transforming and/or its translocation in the buckwheat seedlings.


Subject(s)
Chlormequat/pharmacology , Fagopyrum/drug effects , Polyphenols/biosynthesis , Hydroxybenzoates/metabolism , Propionates , Seeds/drug effects , Seeds/metabolism , Catechin/analysis , Chlorogenic Acid/analysis , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Tungsten Compounds , Plant Stems/drug effects , Plant Stems/metabolism , Plant Leaves/drug effects , Plant Leaves/metabolism , Fagopyrum/growth & development , Fagopyrum/metabolism , Coumaric Acids/analysis , Inflorescence/drug effects , Inflorescence/metabolism , Hydroxybenzoate Ethers/analysis , Hydroxybenzoates/chemistry , Molybdenum , Antioxidants/analysis , Antioxidants/metabolism
15.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2013 Sept; 51(9): 739-745
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-149378

ABSTRACT

Somatic embryo-like structures (SELS) were produced in vitro from leaf disk and petiole explants of two cultivars of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch) on Murashige and Skoog medium with different concentrations and combinations of 2,4‑dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and sucrose to check the embryonic nature of these structures histologically. A large number of SELS could be regenerated in both cultivars on media with 2 - 4 mg L-1 2,4-D in combination with 0.5 - 1 mg L-1 BAP and 50 g L-1 sucrose. Histological examination of SELS revealed the absence of a root pole. Therefore these structures cannot be strictly classified as somatic embryos. The SELS formed under the tested culture conditions represent malformed shoot-like and leaf-like structures. The importance of these results for the propagation of strawberries via somatic embryogenesis is discussed.


Subject(s)
2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid/pharmacology , Culture Media , In Vitro Techniques , Kinetin/pharmacology , Seeds/drug effects
16.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2013 Jul; 51(7): 548-555
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-147626

ABSTRACT

Black gram plants subjected to varying levels of Zn supply (0.01 to 10 µM Zn) showed optimum growth and dry matter yield in plants receiving 1 µM Zn. The dry matter yield of plants decreased in plants receiving 0.01 and 0.1 µM Zn (deficient) and excess levels of Zn (2 and 10 µM Zn). The plants grown with Zn deficient supply showed delayed flowering, premature bud abscission, reduced size of anthers, pollen producing capacity, pollen viability and stigma receptivity resulting in poor pod formation and seed yield. Providing Zn as a foliar spray at pre-flowering stage minimized the severity of Zn deficiency on reproductive structure development and enhanced the seed nutritional status by enhancing seed Zn density, seed carbohydrate (sugar and starch content) and storage proteins (albumins, globulins, glutenins, and prolamines).


Subject(s)
Fabaceae/drug effects , Fabaceae/growth & development , Flowers/drug effects , Flowers/growth & development , Flowers/metabolism , Germination/drug effects , Plant Leaves/drug effects , Plant Leaves/growth & development , Pollen/drug effects , Pollen/metabolism , Seeds/drug effects , Seeds/growth & development , Zinc/administration & dosage , Zinc/pharmacology
17.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 44(2): 113-121, jun. 2012. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-657621

ABSTRACT

A phenol-degrading fungus was isolated from crop soils. Molecular characterization (using internal transcribed spacer, translation elongation factor and beta-tubulin gene sequences) and biochemical characterization allowed to identify the fungal strain as Penicillium chrysogenum Thorn ERK1. Phenol degradation was tested at 25 °C under resting mycelium conditions at 6, 30, 60, 200, 350 and 400 mg/l of phenol as the only source of carbon and energy. The time required for complete phenol degradation increased at different initial phenol concentrations. Maximum specific degradation rate (0.89978 mg of phenol/day/mg of dry weight) was obtained at 200 mg/l. Biomass yield decreased at initial phenol concentrations above 60 mg/l. Catechol was identified as an intermediate metabolite by HPLC analysis and catechol dioxygenase activity was detected in plate assays, suggesting that phenol metabolism could occur via ortho fission of catechol. Wheat seeds were used as phototoxicity indicators of phenol degradation products. It was found that these products were not phytotoxic for wheat but highly phytotoxic for phenol. The high specific degradation rates obtained under resting mycelium conditions are considered relevant for practical applications of this fungus in soil decontamination processes.


Un aislamiento fúngico capaz de degradar fenol como única fuente de carbono y energía fue aislado de suelos agrícolas. La caracterización molecular (basada en el empleo de secuencias de espaciadores de transcriptos internos, de factores de la elongación de la traducción y del gen de la beta-tubulina) y la caracterización bioquímica permitieron identificar a esta cepa como Penicillium chrysogenum Thom ERK1. Se estudió la degradación de fenol a 25 °C en cultivos estáticos con 6, 30, 60, 200, 350 y 400 mg/l de fenol inicial. El tiempo requerido para completar la degradación de fenol aumentó al elevarse las concentraciones iniciales de dicho compuesto. La máxima tasa de degradación específica (0,89978 mg de fenol/día/mg de peso seco) se obtuvo con 200 mg/l. El rendimiento en biomasa disminuyó con concentraciones Iniciales de fenol mayores de 60 mg/l. Se identificó al catecol como intermediarlo metabolico por HPLC y se observó actividad de catecol dioxigenasa en placa, lo que sugiere que el metabolismo de degradación del fenol ocurre vía orto fisión del catecol. Se utilizaron semillas de trigo como indicadores de fitotoxicidad de los productos de degradación. Estos productos no fueron fitotóxicos para trigo, mientras que el fenol mostró una alta fitotoxicidad. La alta tasa de degradación específica obtenida en condiciones estáticas resulta de gran interés para la aplicación de este hongo en procesos de descontaminación de suelos.


Subject(s)
Biodegradation, Environmental , Mycelium/metabolism , Penicillium chrysogenum/metabolism , Phenol/metabolism , Biomass , Catalysis , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Carbon/metabolism , Catechols/metabolism , DNA, Fungal/genetics , Fungal Proteins/genetics , Osmolar Concentration , Phylogeny , Penicillium chrysogenum/classification , Penicillium chrysogenum/genetics , Penicillium chrysogenum/isolation & purification , Phenol/toxicity , Sequence Alignment , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Soil Microbiology , Seeds/drug effects , Time Factors , Triticum/drug effects , Tubulin/genetics
18.
Biocell ; 36(1): 31-36, Apr. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-657491

ABSTRACT

The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficiency of the encapsulation-dehydration technique for cryopreservation of Cyrtopodium hastchbachii Pabst seeds. Immature seeds of this species were cryopreserved by an encapsulation-dehydration technique. Seeds of five immature pods, 120 days after pollination, were encapsulated in 3% calcium alginate matrix and pretreated in liquid medium supplemented with 0.08 M sucrose (24 h), 0.15 M sucrose (24 h), 0.25 M sucrose (48 h), 0.5 M sucrose (24 h) and 0.75 M sucrose (24 h) in shaker at 60 rpm. Alginate beads were dehydrated 5 h in silicagel and immersed in liquid nitrogen for 12 h. Cryopreserved beads were thawed at 30°C for 1 min, rehydrated using the same liquid mediums (0.75 M sucrose (24 h), 0.5 M sucrose (24 h), 0.25 M sucrose (48 h) and 0.15 M sucrose (24 h)) and cultivated in half strength Murashige & Skoog medium (1962) with the addition of 2 g/L activated charcoal. Sixty four percent of seeds survived and developed into acclimatized plants after being cryopreserved. In this work, the encapsulation-dehydration technique was employed for first time in Cyrtopodium hatschbachii.


Subject(s)
Cryopreservation/methods , Dehydration , Orchidaceae/growth & development , Seeds/growth & development , Cryoprotective Agents/pharmacology , Orchidaceae/drug effects , Regeneration , Seeds/drug effects
19.
Biol. Res ; 45(4): 363-368, 2012. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-668687

ABSTRACT

Turnip (Brassica rapa var. rapa L.), beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) and carrot (Daucus carota L.) are common vegetables in South Africa. The allelopathic potential of aqueous leaf and root extracts of Aloe ferox Mill.- a highly valued medicinal plant- was evaluated against seed germination and seedling growth of the three vegetables in Petri dish experiments. The extracts were tested at concentrations of 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 mg/mL. Leaf extract concentrations above 4 mg/mL inhibited the germination of all the crops, while the root extract had no significant effect on germination irrespective of concentration. Interestingly, the lowest concentration of leaf extract stimulated root length elongation of beetroot by 31.71%. Other concentrations significantly inhibited both root and shoot growth of the vegetable crops except the turnip shoot. The most sensitive crop was carrot, with percentage inhibition ranging from 29.15 to 100% for root and shoot lengths. Lower percentage inhibition was observed for the root extract than the leaf extract against shoot growth of beetroot and carrot. The results from this study suggested the presence of allelochemicals mostly in the leaves of A. ferox that could inhibit the growth of the turnip, beetroot and carrot.


Subject(s)
Aloe/chemistry , Beta vulgaris/drug effects , Brassica napus/drug effects , Daucus carota/drug effects , Germination/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Beta vulgaris/growth & development , Brassica napus/growth & development , Daucus carota/growth & development , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Plant Roots/chemistry , Seeds/drug effects
20.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 83(3): 1091-1096, Sept. 2011. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-595528

ABSTRACT

In order to select phytotoxin producing rhizobacteria to control weed plants, twenty five bacterial strains previously isolated from the rhizospheres of various plants were grown in a liquid medium and, after cell removal by centrifugation, the liquid phases were freeze-dried and the products were extracted with ethyl acetate/methanol. The extracts were concentrated to dryness under vacuum and dissolved in water and sucrose solution to be submitted to in vitro assays of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) seed germination and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) coleoptile growth. Although most samples affected coleoptile growth, only those from four strains reduced lettuce seed germination. Two strains of Bacillus cereus, one strain of B. pumilus and one of Stenotrophoonas altophilia were the most promising microorganisms for producing phytotoxin and, consequently, for the development of new weed control products.


Com o objetivo de selecionar rizobactérias produtoras de fitotoxinas para uso no controle de plantas daninhas, vinte e cinco isolados bacterianos previamente obtidos das rizosferas de diferentes plantas foram cultivados em meio líquido e, após remoção das células por centrifugação, as fases líquidas foram liofilizadas e os resíduos obtidos foram submetidos à extração com acetato de etila/metanol. Os extratos foram concentrados sob vácuo até secura e dissolvidos em água e solução de sacarose para serem submetidos a testes in vitro de germinação de sementes de alface (Lactuca sativa L.) e de crescimento de coleóptilos de trigo (Triticum aestivum L.). Embora a maior parte das amostras tenha desfavorecido o crescimento dos coleóptilos de trigo, somente as provenientes de quatro isolados reduziram a germinação das sementes de alface. Dois isolados de Bacillus cereus, um isolado de B. pumilus e um de Stenotrophomonas maltophilia foram os microrganismos mais promissores para a produção de fitotoxinas, com possibilidade de uso no desenvolvimento de novos produtos para o controle de plantas daninhas.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Toxins/pharmacology , Cytotoxins/pharmacology , Gram-Negative Aerobic Rods and Cocci/isolation & purification , Lettuce/drug effects , Rhizosphere , Triticum/drug effects , Bacterial Toxins/biosynthesis , Cytotoxins/biosynthesis , Gram-Negative Aerobic Rods and Cocci/chemistry , Gram-Negative Aerobic Rods and Cocci/metabolism , Lettuce/growth & development , Plant Weeds/drug effects , Plant Weeds/growth & development , Seeds/drug effects , Seeds/growth & development , Triticum/growth & development
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