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1.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 47: 1-9, sept. 2020. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1224606

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) bypasses the TCA cycle via GABA shunt, suggesting a relationship with respiration. However, little is known about its role in seed germination under salt conditions. RESULTS: In this study, exogenous GABA was shown to have almost no influence on mungbean seed germination, except 0.1 mM at 10 h, while it completely alleviated the inhibition of germination by salt treatment. Seed respiration was significantly inhibited by 0.1 and 0.5 mM GABA, but was evidently enhanced under salt treatment, whereas both were promoted by 1 mM GABA alone or with salt treatment. Mitochondrial respiration also showed a similar trend at 0.1 mM GABA. Moreover, proteomic analysis further showed that 43 annotated proteins were affected by exogenous GABA, even 0.1 mM under salt treatment, including complexes of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides new evidence that GABA may act as a signal molecule in regulating respiration of mungbean seed germination in response to salt stress.


Subject(s)
Seeds/growth & development , Vigna , gamma-Aminobutyric Acid , Respiration , Stress, Physiological , Proteins , Germination , Proteomics , Salt Tolerance , Salt Stress
2.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20190768, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132275

ABSTRACT

Abstract The orchids that produced tuber are known as salep orchids and have been collected from nature for centuries as a medicinal and aromatic plant. These orchids are endangered species because of their limited vegetative and generative production possibilities. Salep orchids, seed germination has been achieved with in-vitro studies, but no source has been found regarding the development of germinated seeds over the years. In this study, Dactylorhiza euxina (Nevski) Czerep. was used as research material. Seeds that were determined to germinate in nature were observed to develop in their own environment for five years and some morphological characteristics (plant height, number of leaves, leaf length, leaf width, total weight, tuber width, and tuber weight) were determined at the end of each vegetation year. Plants that start to develop with seed germination produce one leaf and a tuber of 0.115 g in the first year. When the tubers obtained from the first year were planted again, the plants was obtained 2-3 leaves and they were formed 0.465 grams of tubers. In the third year plants bloom for the first time. The period until flowering in the plant was called maturity period and Dactylorhiza euxina (Nevski) Czerep. was found to have a 3-year maturity period. Plants produced tuber 0.850 g in the third year, 1.585 g in the fourth year and 2.522 g in the fifth year. According to the mathematical modeling, the relationship between year (Y) and fresh tuber weight (FTW) was found Y = 1.22 + (1.61 × FTW) and there was a significant relationship among year, fresh tuber weight, and total biomass (TBM). This equation Y = 1.05 + (0.76 × FTW) + (0.14 × TBM) shows us the mathematical relations of year, fresh tuber weight, and total biomass. The mathematical relations among to fresh tuber weight, total biomass, and plant height (PH) was produced Y = 1.74 - (0.11 × FTW) + (0.57 × TBM) - (0.09 × PH). R2 values were found 0.95-0.99. All R2 values and standard errors were found to be significant at the p < 0.01 level.


Subject(s)
Seeds/growth & development , Germination/physiology , Orchidaceae/growth & development , Seeds/physiology , Time Factors , Models, Biological
3.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20190463, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132210

ABSTRACT

Abstract The objective of this research was to identify the best microorganisms, alone or in mixture for total biomass gain (root + shoot), positive change in gas exchange, nutrient uptake (root, shoot and grain) and yield and yield components in the soybean crop. Trial under greenhouse conditions had the experimental design in a completely randomized scheme with 26 treatments and four replicates. The treatments consisted of the rhizobacteria BRM 32109, BRM 32110 and 1301 (Bacillus sp.), BRM 32111 and BRM 32112 (Pseudomonas sp.), BRM 32113 (Burkholderia sp.), BRM 32114 (Serratia sp.), Ab-V5 (Azospirillum brasilense) and 1381 (Azospirillum sp.), and the fungus Trichoderma asperellum (a mix of the isolates UFRA.T06, UFRA.T09, UFRA.T12 and UFRA.T52). Besides, the same isolates were combined in pairs, completing 16 combinations. Control treatments received no microorganism. Microorganisms applied isolated or in combination, provided biomass gain, positive gas exchange, increases in nutrients uptake at the shoot and grain, and improved grain yield and its components than control plants. Stood out the combination Ab-V5 + T. asperellum pool, which provided a 25% improvement in grain yield.


Subject(s)
Seeds/growth & development , Soybeans/growth & development , Soybeans/microbiology , Biomass
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(3): 404-409, July-Sept. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001466

ABSTRACT

Abstract Passion fruits species presents a larger economic importance for in natura consumption and industry. The main way to propagate these species is by seeds; however, the aril presence and environmental conditions may inhibit the seeds germination. In this sense, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of aril removal methods and light conditions on P. edulis var. flavicarpa seeds quality and germination. There were used five methods to remove the seeds aril: (1) friction on steel mesh sieve for 5 minutes; (2) friction with coarse sand on steel mesh sieve for 5 minutes; (3) immersion in lime solution at 10% (w/v), for 30 minutes; (4) fermentation in sugar solution at 10% (w/v), during 48 hours; and (5) natural pulp fermentation, during five days. The seeds were submitted to germination test at darkness and lightness, as well as, to length seedlings and emergence test. Regardless the aril removal method, the germination percentage was lower at lightness than darkness highlighting the natural pulp fermentation treatment, which presented 86% of seeds germinated. On the other hand, the aril removal methods did not affect the seedlings emergence, with emergence percentages ranged from 88 to 94%.


Resumo As espécies de maracujá apresentam grande importância econômica, tanto para o consumo in natura, quanto para a indústria. A principal maneira de propagar essas espécies é por sementes; contudo, a presença de arilo e condições ambientais pode inibir a germinação. Nesse sentido, objetivou-se estudar o efeito de métodos de remoção do arilo e luminosidade na qualidade e germinação das sementes de Passiflora edulis var. flavicarpa. Cinco métodos foram empregados para a remoção do arilo: (1) fricção em peneira de malha de aço por cinco minutos; (2) fricção com areia grossa em peneira de malha de aço por cinco minutos; (3) imersão em solução de cal a 10% (m/v), por 30 minutos; (4) fermentação da polpa em solução de açúcar a 10% (m/v), por 48 horas; e (5) fermentação natural da polpa, por cinco dias. As sementes foram submetidas ao teste de germinação no escuro e no claro, teste de comprimento de plântulas e teste de emergência. Independente do método de remoção do arilo, a porcentagem de germinação no claro apresentou-se menor em comparação ao escuro, com destaque para o tratamento de fermentação natural da polpa, o qual apresentou 86% de sementes germinadas. Por outro lado, os métodos de remoção do arilo não afetaram a emergência das plântulas, com porcentagem de emergência variando entre 88 a 94%.


Subject(s)
Seeds/physiology , Germination/physiology , Passiflora/physiology , Flowers/physiology , Seeds/growth & development , Seeds/radiation effects , Passiflora/growth & development , Passiflora/radiation effects , Seedlings/physiology , Light
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(3): 383-394, July-Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001447

ABSTRACT

Abstract Bidens pilosa L. is a heterocarpic weed species with two cypselae types that present morpho-physiological differences, being the peripheral type smaller and slower to germinate than the central one. We aimed to verify how the germination mechanism varied between types. We focused on two mechanisms: (1) pericarp constraints (physical and chemical) and (2) hormonal stimulation (Abcisic acid [ABA] and Gibberellin [GA]). Both cypselae types are physically constrained by the pericarp, for when it is excised both seed types increase their germination, but behavioral differences still remain. The pericarp of the peripheral type also has chemical inhibitors that effectively inhibited germination of the intact central cypsela. To test the hormonal effects, we focused on the ABA:GA control. Both cypselae responded to an exogenous ABA concentration gradient, however there is no variation between types on the sensitivity to it. Also, both cypselae types were indifferent to Fluridone (ABA inhibitor), which indicates that the dormancy is not maintained by de novo ABA synthesis. Cypselae types had different sensitivity to an exogenous GA3 gradient, the central type being more sensitive to the treatment than the peripheral one. But when the endogenous GA synthesis was blocked by Paclobutrazol, both types responded equally to same GA3 concentrations. This indicates that endogenous GA synthesis may be related to differences observed on germination of cypselae types. To conclude, seed types differ on their growth potential to overcome the pericarp resistance: while the inhibitor in the peripheral pericarp reduces growth potential, GA increases it.


Resumo Bidens pilosa L. é uma espécie de planta daninha heterocarpica com dois tipos de cipselas que possuem diferenças morfofisiológicas, sendo o tipo periférico de menor tamanho e com germinação lenta se comparado com o central. Nosso objetivo foi verificar como o mecanismo de germinação varia entre os tipos. Focamos em dois mecanismos: (1) restrição causada pelo pericarpo (física e química) e (2) estímulo hormonal (Ácido abscísico [ABA] e Giberelina [GA]). Os tipos de cipselas são fisicamente limitados pelo pericarpo, pois quando ambos os tipos de sementes são excisados há um aumento na germinação, contudo as diferenças no processo se mantém. O pericarpo do tipo periférico ainda possui inibidores que efetivamente retardam a germinação das cipselas centrais intactas. Para testar os efeitos hormonais, nós focamos no controle pelo ABA:GA. Ambas cipselas responderam ao gradiente de concentração de ABA exógeno, contudo não houve variação na sensibilidade entre os tipos. Ainda, ambos tipos de cipselas foram indiferentes à Fluoridona (inibidor de ABA), que indica que a dormência não é mantida pela nova síntese de ABA. Tipos de cipselas apresentam diferentes sensibilidades ao gradiente exógeno de GA3, com o tipo central sendo mais sensível ao tratamento que o periférico. Mas quando a síntese endógena de GA foi bloqueada pelo Paclobutrazol, ambos os tipos responderam de forma similar às concentrações de GA 3. Isso indica que a síntese de GA endógena pode estar relacionada com a diferença observada na germinação dos dois tipos de cipselas. Para concluir, os tipos de sementes diferem no potencial para superar a resistência do pericarpo, sendo o inibidor no pericarpo da cipsela periférica o redutor do potencial de crescimento, enquanto a GA aumenta esse potencial.


Subject(s)
Plant Growth Regulators/pharmacology , Pyridones/pharmacology , Abscisic Acid/pharmacology , Germination/physiology , Bidens/physiology , Herbicides/pharmacology , Seeds/growth & development , Seeds/drug effects , Germination/drug effects , Bidens/drug effects
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(1): 63-69, Jan.-Mar 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-984002

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study aimed to analyze the physical properties of the seeds of Moquiniastrum polymorphum when processed by mini-SAS, X-ray and seed blower systems. The seeds were purchased from Seeds Caiçara, located in Penápolis-SP. After purchase, the seed lot was characterized by standard tests. In the X-ray test the seeds were classified according to their internal morphology as filled, unfilled or malformed. The seed blower was set at six opening settings, resulting in light and heavy fractions. The evaluations were performed by weighing the seeds that remained in the blower (heavy fraction) and by the amount of filled seeds indicated by the X-ray test. The germination tests were composed of four replicates of 50 seeds. The mini-SAS was used for external evaluation. It was concluded that the combined use of the seed blower and the X-ray test was efficient for the evaluation and determination of the physical quality of the seeds of M. polymorphum. The seed blower at opening settings 5 resulted in the best lot quality. The external parameters were not able to qualitatively evaluate the seeds of M. polymorphum.


Resumo O presente estudo objetivou analisar as propriedades físicas das sementes de Moquiniastrum polymorphum por meio dos equipamentos raios-X, mini-SAS e soprador de sementes. As sementes foram adquiridas da empresa Sementes Caiçara em matrizes localizadas no município de Penápolis-SP. Após adquirido e beneficiado, o lote de sementes foi caracterizado por meio de testes padrões. No teste de raios-X as sementes foram classificadas de acordo com sua morfologia interna como cheias, vazias ou mal formadas. O soprador de sementes foi ajustado em seis aberturas, resultando em frações leves e pesadas. As avaliações foram realizadas pesando-se as sementes que permaneceram no soprador (fração pesada) e pela quantidade de sementes cheias pela análise de raios-X. Posteriormente foram realizados testes de germinação compostos por quatro repetições de 50 sementes. Na avaliação externa das sementes utilizou-se o equipamento mini-SAS. Após análise dos dados, concluiu-se que a utilização em conjunto dos equipamentos soprador de sementes e raios-X foi eficiente para avaliação e determinação da qualidade física das sementes de M. polymorphum. O soprador de sementes na regulagem da abertura 5 resultou na melhor qualidade do lote. Os parâmetros externos não foram capazes de avaliar qualitativamente as sementes de M. polymorphum.


Subject(s)
Seeds/physiology , Asteraceae/physiology , Seeds/growth & development , Germination , Asteraceae/growth & development
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 78(4): 667-672, Nov. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951598

ABSTRACT

Abstract Various bird pests caused severe economic losses to valuable crops and fruit orchards all over the world. Among the birds, house sparrow is also considered to cause heavy plunder, not only to seeds of crops but also seedlings especially in organic farming. In present study two bird repellents, methylanthranilate and anthraquinone tested against house sparrows on maize seeds and seedlings in aviary conditions. Trial group in aviary-I, the treated maize seeds and seedlings with different doses of both bird repellents, control group in aviary-II, untreated seeds and seedlings were provided for three hours in the early morning. In each aviary, two closed circuit cameras were also installed to monitor the behavioral responses against different concentrations of both chemical repellents. Statistical analysis showed that there existed highly significant (P<0.01) variations among the trial and control groups for seeds and seedlings. By comparing both repellents, significant (P<0.05) differences were detected and anthraquinone showed better efficacy when compared to methylanthranilate, but in maize seedlings both repellents equal repellent properties. Non-significant (P>0.05) differences were observed in different grading of both natural chemical repellents for maize seeds while significant (P<0.05) variations were noticed for maize seedlings when provided to sparrows. By videotaped behavior sparrows presented manifest head juddering and feather upsetting activities by consumption of treated seeds and seedlings with higher concentrations of both natural bird repellents.


Resumo Várias pragas de aves causaram graves perdas econômicas para cultivos valiosos e pomares de frutas em todo o mundo. Entre os pássaros, o pardal da casa também é considerado um grande saqueo, não só para as sementes das culturas, mas também para as mudas, especialmente na agricultura orgânica. No presente estudo, dois repelentes de aves, metilantranilato e antraquinona testados contra pardais de casa em sementes de milho e mudas em condições de aviário. O grupo de ensaio em aviary-I, as sementes de milho tratadas e as mudas com diferentes doses de repelentes de aves, grupo de controle em aviary-II, sementes não tratadas e mudas foram fornecidas por três horas no início da manhã. Em cada aviário, duas câmeras de circuito fechado também foram instaladas para monitorar as respostas comportamentais contra diferentes concentrações de ambos os repelentes químicos. A análise estatística mostrou que existiam variações altamente significativas (P<0,01) entre os grupos de teste e controle para sementes e mudas. Ao comparar os dois repelentes, detectaram-se diferenças significativas (P<0,05) e a antraquinona apresentou maior eficácia quando comparada ao metilantranilato, mas em mudas de milho, ambos os repelentes são iguais às propriedades repelentes. As diferenças não significantes (P>0,05) foram observadas em diferentes classificações de repelentes químicos naturais para sementes de milho, enquanto as variações significativas (P<0,05) foram observadas para as mudas de milho quando fornecidas aos pardais. Por um comportamento gravado em video, os pardais apresentaram manifestações de cabeça e vibrações de penas por consumo de sementes tratadas e mudas com maiores concentrações de repelentes de aves naturais.


Subject(s)
Animals , Seeds/drug effects , Anthraquinones/pharmacology , Zea mays/drug effects , Seedlings/drug effects , Feeding Behavior/drug effects , ortho-Aminobenzoates/pharmacology , Seeds/growth & development , Pest Control/methods , Agrochemicals/pharmacology , Crops, Agricultural , Zea mays/growth & development , Seedlings/growth & development , Sparrows , Animals, Wild
8.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 90(1): 557-571, Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886913

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Native to subtropical region of South America, yerba mate is responsive to P under some conditions, but the degree of influence of genetic and soil on the growth and composition of the leaf is unknown. The aim of study was to evaluate plant growth, nutrients and potentially toxic elements in leaves of yerba mate clones in response to P application in acid soils. In greenhouse condition, two yerba mate clone seedlings were grown (210 days) in pots, each clone in a completely randomized design in factorial scheme (with and without P; four acid soils). The elemental composition of leaves and the growth of plants were determined. Phosphorus promoted plant growth, but this was not accompanied by increased P in leaf tissue in all conditions tested. The P effect on the elemental composition varied: decrease/null (N, K, Mg, Mn, Cu, Ni, B, Mo, Al, Cd); increase/null (C/N, C, Ca, Fe, V); increase/decrease/null (Zn, Ba, Pb) and; null (Cr). The soils affect the elemental composition of the leaves, especially Mn, with accumulation greater than 1000 mg kg-1. The Ba, Pb, Al and Zn in the leaves varied among clones. Yerba mate response to P was affected by edaphic and plant factors.


Subject(s)
Phosphorus/chemistry , Soil/chemistry , Clone Cells/chemistry , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Ilex paraguariensis/growth & development , Ilex paraguariensis/chemistry , Reference Values , Seeds/growth & development , Seeds/drug effects , Time Factors , Trace Elements/analysis , Random Allocation , Plant Leaves/drug effects , Ilex paraguariensis/drug effects , Fertilizers , Plant Development/drug effects
9.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 85: e0352017, 2018. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-908646

ABSTRACT

The objectives of the present project were to evaluate the sanity and germination of tobacco seed samples cultivated in Brazil and to identify potential pathogenic fungi to the culture. Thirty-four representatives samples of tobacco seeds were evaluated through germination and sanity test by the blotter-test. On the germination test, results were expressed in percentage of seedlings considered normal, abnormal and non-germinated seeds. The percentage of seeds germination varied between 54.5 and 90%. According to sanity test, it was verified the incidence of Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium spp., Fusarium spp., and Phoma spp. The incidence of A. alternata varied from 3 to 67%, and Fusarium spp. varied from 0 to 19%. There was significative positive correlation between the incidence of A. alternata and the percentage of seed germination. Species of Alternaria and Fusarium can be potential pathogens to tobacco culture and an alarm for the necessity of seed treatment of the seeds that are transporting these fungi.(AU)


Os objetivos do presente trabalho foram avaliar a sanidade e a germinação de amostras de sementes de tabaco utilizadas no Brasil e identificar fungos potencialmente fitopatogênicos à cultura. Foram avaliadas 34 amostras representativas de lotes de sementes de tabaco, por meio dos testes de germinação, do método do rolo de germinação, e sua sanidade pelo método do papel de filtro. Os resultados do teste de germinação foram expressos em porcentual de plântulas consideradas normais, anormais e sementes não germinadas. A porcentagem de germinação das sementes variou entre 54,5 e 90%. Mediante o teste de sanidade, foi verificada a incidência dos fungos Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium spp., Fusarium spp. e Phoma spp. A incidência de A. alternata variou de 3 a 67%, e Fusarium spp., de 0 a 19%. Houve correlação significativa positiva entre a incidência de A. alternata e a porcentagem de germinação das sementes. Espécies dos gêneros Alternaria e Fusarium podem ser potenciais patógenos para a cultura do tabaco, alertando para a necessidade do tratamento das sementes portadoras desses fungos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Tobacco , Alternaria , Fusarium , Seeds/growth & development , Germination
10.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 54(3): e17135, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974406

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the ethanolic crude extracts and fractions of the species Senecio westermanii Dusén on Lactuca sativa L. (lettuce) and Allium cepa L. (onion) seeds. We assessed the germination, growth, root respiration and photosynthesis of the target species in Petri dishes (9.0 cm diameter) containing filter paper n°6. The study was conducted using 50 seeds per plate and held in 4 replicates per concentration of each sample. In the germination there was an inhibitory effect of fractions hexane (FH) and chloroform (FCl) at concentrations of 500 and 1000 µg/mL. There was a reduction in the radicle growth of lettuce by 14 to 24% and a reduction of hypocotilum by 14 to 28%. As for the radicle of the onion was up 74% reduction to the FCl and the coleoptile was 24 and 45% reduction for FH and FCl, respectively. Inhibitory effects in the root respiration of lettuce were detected in all the samples analyzed, with results ranging from 16 to 83%. For the seeds of A. cepa, there was an encouragement for the FCl and ethyl acetate fractions (FAE), with results ranging from 94 to 142% and 76 to 150%, respectively. With regard to the photosynthesis of L. sativa, there was no significant difference between the control, and as for the A. cepa, there was a strain in inhibition concentrations of 250 and 500 µg/mL, which ranged from 27 to 68%. The samples of S. westermanii caused changes in the target species and thus can be used as a natural herbicide.


Subject(s)
Seeds/growth & development , Plant Extracts/adverse effects , Lettuce/growth & development , Asteraceae/adverse effects , Onions/growth & development , Plant Components, Aerial , Senecio/classification , Allelopathy/physiology
11.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(4): 656-670, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889178

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This study aimed to explore the effects of two siderophore-producing bacterial strains on iron absorption and plant growth of peanut in calcareous soil. Two siderophore-producing bacterial strains, namely, YZ29 and DZ13, isolated from the rhizosphere soil of peanut, were identified as Paenibacillus illinoisensis and Bacillus sp., respectively. In potted experiments, YZ29 and DZ13 enhanced root activity, chlorophyll and active iron content in leaves, total nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium accumulation of plants and increased the quality of peanut kernels and plant biomass over control. In the field trial, the inoculated treatments performed better than the controls, and the pod yields of the three treatments inoculated with YZ29, DZ13, and YZ29 + DZ13 (1:1) increased by 37.05%, 13.80% and 13.57%, respectively, compared with the control. Based on terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, YZ29 and DZ13 improved the bacterial community richness and species diversity of soil surrounding the peanut roots. Therefore, YZ29 and DZ13 can be used as candidate bacterial strains to relieve chlorosis of peanut and promote peanut growth. The present study is the first to explore the effect of siderophores produced by P. illinoisensis on iron absorption.


Subject(s)
Arachis/growth & development , Arachis/microbiology , Bacillus/metabolism , Paenibacillus/metabolism , Iron/metabolism , Arachis/metabolism , Arachis/chemistry , Seeds/growth & development , Seeds/metabolism , Seeds/microbiology , Seeds/chemistry , Soil/chemistry , Soil Microbiology , Bacillus/isolation & purification , Bacillus/classification , Bacillus/genetics , Biological Transport , Siderophores/metabolism , Plant Roots/microbiology , Paenibacillus/isolation & purification , Paenibacillus/classification , Paenibacillus/genetics , Rhizosphere , Agricultural Inoculants/metabolism
12.
Braz. j. biol ; 77(4): 774-780, Nov. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888804

ABSTRACT

Abstract During germination, orthodox seeds become gradually intolerant to desiccation, and for this reason, they are a good model for recalcitrance studies. In the present work, physiological, biochemical, and ultrastructural aspects of the desiccation tolerance were characterized during the germination process of Anadenanthera colubrina seeds. The seeds were imbibed during zero (control), 2, 8, 12 (no germinated seeds), and 18 hours (germinated seeds with 1 mm protruded radicle); then they were dried for 72 hours, rehydrated and evaluated for survivorship. Along the imbibition, cytometric and ultrastructural analysis were performed, besides the extraction of the heat-stable proteins. Posteriorly to imbibition and drying, the evaluation of ultrastructural damages was performed. Desiccation tolerance was fully lost after root protrusion. There was no increase in 4C DNA content after the loss of desiccation tolerance. Ultrastructural characteristics of cells from 1mm roots resembled those found in the recalcitrant seeds, in both hydrated and dehydrated states. The loss of desiccation tolerance coincided with the reduction of heat-stable proteins.


Resumo Durante a germinação, sementes ortodoxas tornam-se gradualmente intolerantes à dessecação, e por isso podem ser utilizadas como modelo para o estudo da recalcitrância. No presente trabalho realizou-se uma caracterização dos aspectos fisiológicos, bioquímicos e ultraestruturais da perda da tolerância à dessecação de sementes de Anadenanthera colubrina em processo germinativo. Para isso as sementes foram embebidas durante 0 (controle), 2,8,12 e aproximadamente 18 horas (sementes germinadas com 1 mm de radícula), secas por 72 horas, reidratadas e a sobrevivência avaliada. Ao longo da embebição foram realizadas análises citométricas, ultraestruturais e extração de proteínas resistentes ao calor e após embebição e secagem foram avaliados danos ultraestruturais. A tolerância à dessecação foi totalmente perdida após a protrusão radicular. Não houve aumento do conteúdo de DNA 4C quando a tolerância à dessecação foi perdida. Características ultraestruturais de células de radículas de 1 mm assemelharam-se às encontradas em sementes recalcitrantes tanto no estado hidratado quanto desidratado. A perda da tolerância à dessecação coincidiu com a redução do conteúdo de proteínas resistentes ao calor.


Subject(s)
Germination , Desiccation , Fabaceae/physiology , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Seeds/growth & development , Seeds/physiology , Seeds/genetics , Seeds/ultrastructure , Trees/growth & development , Trees/physiology , Trees/genetics , Trees/ultrastructure , Fabaceae/growth & development , Fabaceae/genetics , Fabaceae/ultrastructure
13.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(3): 1925-1933, July-Sept. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886733

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the radiosensitivity of castor bean seeds after applications of different doses of Cobalt60 gamma radiation. Seeds were pre-soaked for 24 hours in distilled water and then irradiated with 50, 100, 150, and 200 Gy, except the control. Sowing was performed in trays, which contained soil as substrate and were maintained in a greenhouse. The electrical conductivity, emergence, emergence speed index, growth parameters and activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, and catalase) were evaluated in the leaves and roots of castor bean seedlings. Gamma radiation did not affect the electrical conductivity of the seeds; however, at a dose of 200 Gy, the emergence and emergence speed index of the seedlings was negatively affected. An analysis of the morphophysiological parameters revealed a reduction in seedling size as the radiation dose increased. There was a significant increase in superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase activities at higher radiation doses in the leaves, but not in roots. Thus, the analysis of all the variables suggests a response pattern as to the morphophysiological and biochemical changes of castor bean seedlings due to the increase of gamma radiation, which may serve as a tool for generating greater genetic variability.


Subject(s)
Ricinus/radiation effects , Seeds/radiation effects , Cobalt Radioisotopes , Germination/radiation effects , Gamma Rays , Ricinus/growth & development , Seeds/growth & development , Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation
14.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(2): 1027-1040, Apr.-June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886675

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT We attempted to study the compatibility among plant beneficial bacteria in the culture level by growing them near in the nutrient agar plates. Among all the bacteria tested, Rhizobium was found to inhibit the growth of other bacteria. From the compatible group of PGPR, we have selected one biofertilizer (Azospirillum brasilense strain TNAU) and one biocontrol agent (Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PF1) for further studies in the pot culture. We have also developed a bioformulation which is talc powder based, for individual bacteria and mixed culture. This formulation was used as seed treatment, soil application, seedling root dip and foliar spray in groundnut crop in vitro germination conditions. A. brasilense was found to enhance the tap root growth and P. fluorescens, the lateral root growth. The other growth parameters like shoot growth, number of leaves were enhanced by the combination of both of the bacteria than their individual formulations. Among the method of application tested in our study, soil application was found to be the best in yielding better results of plant growth promotion.


Subject(s)
Arachis/growth & development , Arachis/microbiology , Pseudomonas fluorescens/physiology , Azospirillum brasilense/physiology , Fertilizers , Rhizobium/physiology , Seeds/growth & development , Seeds/microbiology , Soil Microbiology , Azotobacter/physiology , Bacillus megaterium/physiology , Bacillus subtilis/physiology , Plant Roots/growth & development , Plant Roots/microbiology , Plant Leaves , Seedlings/growth & development , Seedlings/microbiology
15.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 84: e0362015, 2017. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-887835

ABSTRACT

Objetivando-se avaliar o efeito da aplicação de piraclostrobina em diferentes épocas e combinações de aplicação em dois híbridos simples de milho cultivados na safra de verão, realizou-se um experimento no município de Jataí, Goiás. Adotou-se o delineamento de blocos ao acaso no esquema fatorial 2 x 9 (híbridos x aplicações de piraclostrobina), com 4 repetições. As aplicações foram realizadas em diferentes combinações de fungicidas: presença ou ausência de piraclostrobina + tiofanato metílico + fipronil (100 g i.a.100 kg semente-1) no tratamento de sementes (V0) combinado com a aplicação de piraclostrobina (150 g i.a.ha-1) antes ou após a adubação de cobertura (V4 ou V6) combinado ou não com a aplicação de piraclostrobina + ciproconazole (137,25 g i.a.ha-1) em pré-pendoamento (VT) e uma testemunha (sem uso de piraclostrobina). Foram avaliados: atividade da enzima redutase do nitrato, índice de clorofila, altura de plantas, altura de inserção de espiga, diâmetro de colmo, porcentagem de folhas senescentes, severidade de Puccinia polysora Underw, massa de mil grãos, densidade e produtividade de grãos. Submeteram-se os dados ao teste F para verificação de significância; e para comparação de médias utilizou-se o teste de Tukey, ambos a 5% de probabilidade. Para a maioria dos caracteres avaliados observou-se diferença entre híbridos. Não foi observado efeito das aplicações de piraclostrobina e interação entre os fatores em questão. Conclui-se que não há efeito benéfico ou deletério da aplicação de piraclostrobina em diferentes épocas e combinações de aplicação sobre os dois híbridos simples de milho cultivados na safra de verão.(AU)


An experiment was conducted in Jataí, Goiás, Brazil, aiming to evaluate the effects of the application of pyraclostrobin at different times and with different application combinations in two simple hybrids of corn grown in the summer season. A randomized block design was adopted in a factorial 2 x 9 (hybrid x pyraclostrobinapplications) design, with 4 replications. The applications were performed in different combinations: presence or absence of pyraclostrobin + thiophanate methyl + fipronil (100 g a.i.100 kg seed-1) in seed treatment (V0) combined with pyraclostrobin (150 g a.i.ha-1) application before or after topdressing (V4 or V6) combined or not with pyraclostrobin + cyproconazole (137.25 g a.i.ha-1) application in pre-bolting (VT) and a control (without use of pyraclostrobin). The following evaluations were performed: activity of the nitrate reductase enzyme, chlorophyll index, plant height, corn cob insertion height, stem diameter, percentage of senescent leaves, severity of Puccinia polysora Underw, thousand grain weight, grains density, and grains yield. An F test was performed to analyze the significance, and for a means comparison, a Tukey test was used, both at 5% probability. Differences among hybrids were observed for most of the evaluated traits. There were no effects of the applications of pyraclostrobin and no interaction between the factors in question. It can, therefore, be concluded that there are not beneficial or deleterious effects of the application of pyraclostrobin at different times and with different application combinations in two simple hybrids of corn grown in the summer season.(AU)


Subject(s)
Seeds/growth & development , Zea mays/physiology , Nitrate Reductase , Fungicides, Industrial/analysis , Seasons , Crops, Agricultural
16.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 15(2): e160061, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-955185

ABSTRACT

Ichthyochory is an important process responsible for the high diversity of plant species in tropical flooded forests. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the role of a catfish species, Lithodoras dorsalis, as seed disperser in the flooded forests at the Amazon River mouth, Brazil. Analyzing the stomach contents of 371 individuals of Lithodoras dorsalis, the Germination Potential (GP%) and Germination Speed Index (GSI) of seeds that were removed intact were investigated. This allowed us to evaluate the germination performance of two important species of plants in Amazonia, Euterpe oleracea (Açaí) and Montrichardia linifera (Aninga), after passage through the digestive tract of this catfish species. Given that digestion by L. dorsalis reduced the germination viability of M. linifera and that seeds were often destroyed during consumption, we suggest that L. dorsalis may have a limited role as seed disperser of M. linifera and instead mostly act as seed predator. However, for the species E. oleracea, L. dorsalis was a potential disperser, since the performance of germination of these seeds was improved after digestion. In addition, the number of seeds consumed was directly proportional to the catfish's body size, reinforcing the role of doradids as potential seed dispersers in tropical forests.(AU)


A ictiocoria é um importante processo responsável pela alta diversidade de espécies vegetais nas florestas tropicais alagadas. Dessa forma, este trabalho teve como objetivo investigar o papel de Lithodoras dorsalis como dispersor de sementes na Foz Amazônica, Brasil. Analisando o conteúdo estomacal de 371 espécimes de Lithodoras dorsalis, o Potencial de Germinação (PG%) e o Índice de Velocidade de Germinação (IGS) de sementes removidas intactas foram investigados. Isto permitiu-nos avaliar o desempenho germinativo de duas importantes espécies de plantas na Amazônia, Euterpe oleracea (Açaí) e Montrichardia linifera (Aninga), após passagem pelo trato digestivo desta espécie de bagre. Dado que a digestão por L. dorsalis reduziu a viabilidade de germinação de M. linifera e que as sementes foram frequentemente destruídas durante o consumo, sugerimos que L. dorsalis tem um papel limitado como dispersor de sementes de M. linifera e, em vez disso, age como predador de sementes. No entanto, para a espécie E. oleracea, L. dorsalis foi um potencial dispersor, uma vez que o desempenho germinativo das sementes foi melhorado após a digestão. Além disso, o número de sementes consumidas foi diretamente proporcional ao tamanho corporal do bagre, reforçando o papel de doradídeos como potenciais dispersores de sementes em florestas tropicais.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Seeds/growth & development , Catfishes/classification , Germination/physiology
17.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(3,supl): 2293-2304, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886821

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The phenological growth stages of various species of monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants can be uniformly coded using the Biologische Bundesanstalt, Bundessortenamt, und Chemische Industrie (BBCH) scale. The aim of the present study was to determine the duration of different phenological stages and the temperature requirements of the sugar-apple, Annona squamosa, during two crop cycles in the semiarid region of Brazil. Phenological stages were divided into eight of ten possible principal stages: (0) bud development, (1) leaf development, (3) shoot/branch development, (5) inflorescence emergence, (6) flowering, (7) fruit development, (8) fruit maturity and (9) senescence and the beginning of dormancy. The phenological cycle of the sugar-apple from having closed leaf buds to the fruit ripening stage lasted 149 and 164 days with temperature requirements of 1684.5 and 1786.7 degree days (DD) for the first and second crop cycles, respectively. The results provided important information that will inform the correct timing for crop management practices.


Subject(s)
Annona/growth & development , Fruit/growth & development , Seasons , Seeds/growth & development , Temperature , Brazil , Plant Leaves/growth & development , Annona/anatomy & histology , Fruit/anatomy & histology
18.
Braz. j. biol ; 76(4): 975-982, Oct.-Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828090

ABSTRACT

Abstract Phenology and reproductive biology of cultivated species are important for the comprehension of the requirements for fruit and seed production and the management of pollinators. This study aimed to characterise the phenology, reproductive biology and growing degree days of the grapevine ‘Isabel’ (Vitis labrusca) in northeastern Brazil during January 2011 (P1), Augst 2011 (P2), April 2012 (P3) and August 2012 (P4). We recorded the duration (days) of the phenological stages, pruning (P), woolly bud (W), budburst (B), inflorescence development (ID), flowering (F), ripening (R) and harvest (H). We analysed the floral biology, the sexual system and the breeding system. We measured the growing degree days (GDD) required to reach the subperiods P-B, B-F and F-H. The periods P1, P2, P3 and P4 lasted for 116, 125, 117 and 130 days, respectively. The number of days of harvest were similar in the same dry (P1 and P3) and rainy (P2 and P4) periods. All the periods that we recorded were shorter than those observed in other regions of Brazil, which may be attributable to the mean temperature and carbohydrate metabolism. The flowers are green, hermaphroditic, with an odour of mignonette, low pollen viability and autogamous. The base temperature of 10°C was considered the most adequate for the subperiods as has been documented for other grape varieties in Brazil. Thus, temperature was also the most adequate for the cycles, presenting a smaller standard deviation (0.119, 0.147, 0.156 and 0.153 to P1, P2, P3 and P4, respectively) when compared to a base temperature of 12°C (0.122, 0.158, 0.165 and 0.160 to P1, P2, P3 and P4, respectively). The higher and the lower observed GDD were 1972.17 and 1870.05, respectively, both above the values recorded in other parts of Brazil for same variety. The phonological results, including knowledge of growing degree days, are important to the planning of cultures at the study site and in other regions that have similar climatic conditions and make it possible to pre-determine the harvest.


Resumo Fenologia e biologia reprodutiva de espécies cultivadas são importantes para a compreensão dos requerimentos para a produção de frutos e sementes, bem como para o manejo de polinizadores. O presente estudo objetivou caracterizar a fenologia, a biologia reprodutiva e a exigência térmica (graus-dias) da videira “Isabel” (Vitis labrusca) no nordeste do Brasil, durante janeiro/2011 (P1), Agosto/2011 (P2), Abril/2012 (P3) e Agosto/2012 (P4). Analisamos a duração (dias) dos estádios fenológicos poda (PO), gema-algodão (GA), brotamento (BR), aparecimento da inflorescência (AI), florescimento (FL), início da maturação (IM) e colheita (CO). Analisamos a biologia floral, o sistema sexual e o sistema reprodutivo. As exigências térmicas foram obtidas em termos de graus-dia (GD) necessários para atingir os subperíodos PO-BR, BR-FL e FL-CO. A duração do ciclo foi de 116, 125, 117 e 130 dias para as épocas P1, P2, P3 e P4 respectivamente, sendo o número de dias de colheita semelhantes no período seco (P1 e P3) e chuvoso (P2 e P4). Todos os períodos analisados foram mais curtos do que aqueles observados em outras regiões do Brasil, o que pode ser atribuído à temperatura média e ao metabolismo de carboidratos. As flores são verdes, hermafroditas, com odor almiscarado, baixa viabilidade polínica e autógama. A temperatura base de 10ºC foi considerada a mais adequada para os subperíodos e tem sido documentada para outras variedades de uva no Brasil; portanto, a temperatura foi também a mais adequada para os ciclos, apresentando um desvio padrão menor (0,119; 0,147; 0,156 e 0,153 para P1, P2, P3 e P4, respectivamente), comparado com uma temperatura base de 12ºC (0,122; 0,158; 0,165 e 0,160 para P1, P2, P3 e P4, respectivamente). O maior é o menor GDD observado foram 1972,17 e 1870,05, respectivamente. Os resultados fenológicos, incluindo o conhecimento dos graus dias, são importantes para o planejamento de culturas no local e em outras regiões com condições climáticas semelhantes, tornando possível pré-determinar a colheita.


Subject(s)
Vitis/growth & development , Reproduction , Seeds/growth & development , Temperature , Brazil , Flowers/growth & development , Fruit/growth & development
19.
Braz. j. biol ; 76(3): 726-734, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-785045

ABSTRACT

Abstract In this study, I tested the effect of Syagrus loefgrenii nut number on the removal intensity by rodents across seasons. Also, I assessed both S. loefgrenii fruit production, and dispersion pattern to analyze the relationship between these parameters and nut removal. Trials were performed (autumn, winter, spring, and summer), in which endocarps were placed inside trays (5, 15, and 40 endocarps) in the Cerrado (Brazilian savanna). Syagrus loefgrenii exhibited clumped distribution, although its local density had no correlation with endocarp removal rate. Despite of variations, S. loefgrenii fruit production had no seasonal difference, although, high proportions of endocarps were year round removed. This mostly results from nearly complete endocarp loss in depots of 5 and 15, while the opposite occurred in those of 40. Hence, the intensity of removal consistently decreases with endocarp number, so that endocarp removal conformed to negative distance-dependence. As this palm exhibit clumped distribution and, in principle, fruit asynchronously, if, at least, a group of neighboring stems bore fruits simultaneously, an enhanced number of nuts might be available at a given site. Therefore, seeds within a dense S. loefgrenii fruit patch might experience high survival rates due to satiation of post dispersal seed predators.


Resumo Neste estudo, testei o efeito da densidade de endocarpos de Syagrus loefgrenii sobre a intensidade de remoção por roedores conforme a estação do ano. Também, avaliei tanto a produção de frutos, quanto o padrão de dispersão dessa palmeira em relação à intensidade de remoção de endocarpos. Executei experimentos no Cerrado (outono, inverno, primavera e verão), nos quais acondicionei 5, 15 e 40 endocarpos em pratos plásticos perfurados (pilhas experimentais). Syagrus loefgrenii exibiu distribuição agrupada. Apesar disso, a densidade local dessa palmeira em nenhuma estação esteve correlacionada com a taxa de remoção de endocarpos. Não ocorreram diferenças temporais significativas quanto aos níveis de frutificação, e, simultaneamente, documentei intensa remoção de endocarpos. Isso ocorreu, sobretudo, nas pilhas com 5 e 15 endocarpos, as quais, na maioria dos casos, perderam quase todos endocarpos. No entanto, as pilhas com 40 perderam poucos diásporos. Nesse sentido a intensidade de remoção decresceu consistentemente conforme o número de endocarpos, tal que esse processo mostrou ser negativamente dependente da distância. Syagrus loefgrenii exibiu padrão agrupado de distribuição, além de produzir frutos assincronicamente. Nesse sentido, caso um grupo de palmeiras vizinhas frutifique simultaneamente, uma grande quantidade de diásporos estará disponível em um dado local. Portanto, sementes em meio a uma densa carga de frutos podem ser favorecidas, uma vez que predadores pós-dispersão seriam saciados.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rodentia , Seeds/growth & development , Arecaceae/growth & development , Nuts/growth & development , Seasons , Brazil , Seed Dispersal
20.
Braz. j. biol ; 76(3): 656-663, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-785035

ABSTRACT

Abstract Micropropagation of Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess. (Clusiaceae) is a way to overcome difficulties in achieving large-scale plant production, given the recalcitrant nature of the seeds, irregular fructification and absence of natural vegetative propagation of the species. Cultures were established using nodal segments 2 cm in length, obtained from 1-2 year old seedlings, maintained in a greenhouse. Mercury chloride and Plant Preservative Mixture™ were used in the surface sterilizing stage, better results being achieved with Plant Preservative Mixture™ incorporation in culture medium, at any concentration. Polyvinylpyrrolidone, activated charcoal, cysteine, ascorbic acid or citric acid were added to the culture medium to avoid oxidation. After 30 days of culture, polyvinylpirrolidone and ascorbic acid gave better results, eliminating oxidation in most explants. For shoot multiplication, benzylaminopurine was used in concentrations of 4.4 and 8.8 µM in Woody Plant Medium, resulting in an average of 4.43 and 4.68 shoots per explant, respectively, after 90 days. Indole-3-butyric acid and α-naphthalene acetic acid were used to induce root formation, reaching a maximum rooting rate of 24% with 20µM α-naphthalene acetic acid. For acclimatization. the rooted plants were transferred to Plantmax® substrate and cultured in a greenhouse, reaching 79% of survival after 30 days and 60% after one year.


Resumo A micropropagação de Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess. (Clusiaceae) é uma maneira de superar dificuldades para sua produção em larga escala, devido à natureza recalcitrante das sementes, frutificação irregular e ausência de propagação vegetativa natural da espécie. Culturas foram estabelecidas utilizando segmentos nodais com 2 cm de comprimento, obtidos de plantas com 1 a 2 anos de idade, mantidas em casa de vegetação. Cloreto de mercúrio e Plant Preservative Mixture™ foram utilizados durante a etapa de desinfestação, com melhores resultados alcançados com a incorporação de Plant Preservative Mixture™ ao meio de cultura. Polivinilpirrolidona, carvão ativado, cisteína, ácido ascórbico ou ácido cítrico foram adicionados ao meio de cultura para evitar a oxidação dos explantes. Após 30 dias de cultivo, o uso de polivinilpirrolidona ou ácido ascórbico proporcionou melhores resultados, eliminando a oxidação na maioria dos explantes. Para multiplicação das brotações, benzilaminopurina foi usada em concentrações de 4.4 e 8.8 µM em meio WPM, resultando em uma média de 4.43 e 4.68 brotações por explante, respectivamente, após 90 dias. Ácido indol-3-butírico e ácido α-naftaleno acético foram usados para a indução de raízes, alcançando um enraizamento máximo de 24% com o uso de 20µM de ácido α-naftaleno acético. As plantas enraizadas foram transferidas para substrato Plantmax® e cultivadas em casa de vegetação, alcançando 79% de sobrevivência após 30 dias e 60% após um ano.


Subject(s)
Seeds/growth & development , Plant Shoots/growth & development , Plant Roots/growth & development , Calophyllum/growth & development , Culture Media
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