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Acta sci., Biol. sci ; 44: e58431, mar. 2022. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1391277


Hesperozygis ringens (Lamiaceae), popularly known as espanta-pulga, is a threatened species endemic to rocky and sandy regions of the Pampa biome. One factor that can influence the low number of individuals of a species is a low seed germination rate influenced by temperature and/or light. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of light and temperature on the seed germination of H. ringens. The seeds of two lots were sown on a paper substrate and maintained in BOD chambers at temperatures of 15, 20, 25 and 30ºC in the presence and absence of light. The germination speed rate was evaluated every 3 days for 21 days. The experiment was completely randomized with treatments that had a 4 x 2 factorial design. The first visible sign (protrusion of the primary root) of germination was observed seven days after sowing. Germination occurred both in the presence and absence of light and the lowest temperatures significantly influenced the germination process and germination speed. For germinating the species, 15°C was the most favorable temperature compared to 20, 25 and 30°C. It can be concluded that a temperature of 15ºC favors the germination process of H. ringens seeds, which are insensitive to light.(AU)

Seeds/physiology , Temperature , Germination/physiology , Lamiaceae/physiology , Light Signal Transduction
Semina ciênc. agrar ; 43(2): 509-522, mar.-abr. 2022. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1368814


Seed quality is routinely assessed by direct tests, e.g, the germination test, or indirect tests like the tetrazolium test, which has shoown to be promising in the determine viability and vigor, allowing the diagnosis of the main problems that may affect seed quality, such as mechanic damages, field deterioration and storage. In this respect, this study was conducted to develop a tetrazolium test protocol to evaluate the viability and vigor of Tamarindus indica L. seeds. Before exposing the seeds to the tetrazolium solution, seed preconditioning studies were carried out in which seven soaking times were tested. The soaking time that did not cause damage to the seed embryo and allowed the removal of the seed coat to expose the seed structures to the tetrazolium salt was selected. Then, an experiment was set up in a completely randomized design with a 2x3x3 factorial arrangement involving two seed lots, three soaking times in tetrazolium salt (6, 12 and 16 h) and three salt concentrations (0.075, 0.1 and 0.5%), totaling 18 treatments with four replicates of 25 seeds, evaluated at 40 ºC. For each treatment, the seeds were divided into three classes, namely, viable and vigorous embryos (class 1); viable embryos (class 2) and non-viable or dead embryos (class 3). For a comparison with the tetrazolium test results, the two seed lots were analyzed for water content, germination, emergence, first count, germination speed index, emergence speed index, growth and seedling dry weight. The viability and vigor of T. indica seeds can be evaluated after a soaking period of 48 h and immersion for 6h in tetrazolium salt at the concentration of 0.1%, at 40°C, with provides results similar to conventional seed viability tests. The tetrazolium test proved to be adequate to differentiate T. indica seed lots in terms of viability.(AU)

A qualidade das sementes é avaliada rotineiramente por testes diretos como o de germinação e indiretos como o teste de tetrazólio que tem se mostrado promissor na determinação da viabilidade e vigor possibilitando o diagnóstico dos principais problemas que podem afetar a qualidade das sementes, como danos mecânicos, deterioração de campo e armazenamento. Neste sentido, objetivou-se com este trabalho desenvolver um protocolo do teste de tetrazólio para avaliar a viabilidade e o vigor das sementes de Tamarindus indica L. Antes da exposição das sementes a solução de tetrazólio, foram realizados estudos pre-condicionamento das sementes utilizando sete períodos de embebição sendo selecionado o tempo que não causou danos ao embrião da semente e permitiu a remoção do tegumento para exposição das estruturas da semente ao sal de tetrazólio. Em seguida, o experimento foi instalado em delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 2x3x3, sendo dois lotes de sementes, três tempos de embebição em sal (6; 12 e 16 horas) e três concentrações de sal de tetrazólio (0,075; 0,1 e 0,5%), totalizando dezoito tratamentos com quatro repetições de 25 sementes, avaliados a 40 ºC. Para cada tratamento as sementes foram divididas em três classes: embriões viáveis e vigorosos (classe 1); embriões viáveis (classe 2) e embriões inviáveis ou mortos (classe 3). Para comparar com o resultado do teste de tetrazólio os dois lotes de sementes foram submetidos a análise de teor de água, germinação, emergência, primeira contagem e índice de velocidade de germinação e emergência, crescimento e massa seca de plântulas. A viabilidade e o vigor das sementes de T. indica podem ser avaliados após um período de 48h de embebição e 6h de imersão na concentração de 0,1% de sal de tetrazólio a 40 ºC, com resultados semelhantes aos testes convencionais de determinação da viabilidade das sementes. O teste de tetrazólio mostrou-se adequado para diferenciar a viabilidade em relação aos lotes de sementes de T. indica.(AU)

Seeds/physiology , Germination , Tamarindus/physiology
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 37: e37087, Jan.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1359331


Gherkin seeds usually show irregular physiological quality. Seed production requires fast and reliable tests to evaluate seed quality. Germination test is considered a recognized analysis method; however, seed technology has pursuit the improvement of vigor tests aiming the evaluation of seed's physiological potential. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate procedures to perform the test of accelerated aging and determine the physiological and sanitary potential of gherkin seeds. Four seed lots of cultivar Liso Calcuta were used in the study. To evaluate the initial physiological quality the water content was determined and germination and emergence tests, as well as indices of germination speed and emergence speed were used. The accelerated aging test was performed as traditionally and with saturated saline solution, with 48, 72 and 96 hours, at temperatures of 41oC and 45oC. After aging, the water content was determined, and seeds' germination and sanity tests were performed. The experiment was set under a completely random design in factorial 4x3x2 (lots x aging periods x temperatures). The standard accelerated aging test and the test with saturated saline solution at 41oC for 96 hours were efficient to evaluate the vigor of gherkin seeds. Saturated saline solution provides uniform water absorption and deterioration in gherkin seeds, allowing to discriminate seed lots in different vigor levels. The salinity test after accelerated aging with saline solution reduces the incidence of some fungi.

Seeds/physiology , Cucumis
Acta sci., Biol. sci ; 43: e55992, 2021. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1460996


The discontinuous seed hydration enables the acquisition of tolerance to environmental stresses, causing a stress imprint. It may modify metabolic patterns and lead to improved stress responses. This study aims to evaluate the effects of discontinuous hydration on germination and on seedling growth of Triplaris gardneriana Wedd. under intermittent drought. The seeds have gone through cycles (0, 1, 2 and 3) of hydration and dehydration (HD). The seedlings produced were subjected to water deficit (daily watering and intervals of seven and fourteen days between watering). Seed germinability parameters and, relative growth rate (RGR) of seedling, leaf area, dry matter yield and leaf relative water content (RWC) were evaluated. The HD cycles did not benefit germination, but two HD cycles induced a better biomass accumulation and increased leaf area in seedlings under moderate water deficit, while three HD cycles promoted an increase in RGR and influenced the RWC values. Severe stress affects seedling growth, but subjection to HD cycles minimizes the deleterious effects of drought, suggesting discontinuous hydration acts leading stress imprint in plants.

Dehydration , Fluid Therapy , Polygonaceae/growth & development , Seeds/physiology
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(Supplement1): 290-300, Dec. 2020. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1357530


Seed vigor is the totality of all properties that determine a rapid and uniform emergence and development of normal seedling under a wide range of conditions. However, the physiological quality within a seed lot is not homogeneous, generating a quality gradient between seeds. Thus, the vigor expressed by the final percentage of normal seedlings tends to underestimate the quality of the batch, considering the total number of seeds. One possible method for correcting such an effect would be to weight vigor by germination, generating an index called relative vigor. The index reflects the "success" of viable seeds in maintaining their potential under stress. In this context, this review article proposes the possibility of using a new measure for vigor and new interpretation of relative vigor, as well as providing the mathematical basis for its use.

O vigor de sementes é a totalidade de todas as propriedades que determinam uma rápida e uniforme emergência e desenvolvimento de plântulas normais sob umavasta gama de condições. Todavia, a qualidade fisiológica dentro de um lote de sementes não é homogênea, gerando um gradiente de qualidade entre as sementes. Assim, o vigor expresso pela porcentagem final de plântulas normais tende a subestimar a qualidade do lote, por levar em consideração o número total de sementes. Um método possível para corrigir tal efeito seria ponderar o vigor pela germinação, gerando um índice denominado vigor relativo. O índice reflete o "sucesso" das sementes viáveis em manter seu potencial sob uma situação de estresse. Neste contexto, o artigo de propõe a possibilidade de uso uma nova medida, para o vigor, e uma nova interpretação, o vigor relativo, além de dar as bases matemáticas para seu uso.

Seeds/growth & development , Seeds/physiology , Stress, Physiological , Germination/physiology
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 87: e0862018, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1118055


Production and storage environments influence the physiological and sanitary quality of seeds. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the herbicide flumioxazin applied as a preharvest desiccant and storage on the physiological and sanitary quality of adzuki bean seeds. A randomized block design was used in a split-plot scheme, with four replications. Plots consisted of five doses of the herbicide flumioxazin (20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 g ai·ha-1) and subplots consisted of two evaluation times (harvest and six months after harvest). Two controls, with no herbicide application, were tested for each evaluation time. The physiological seed quality was maintained with doses from 25 to 35 g·ha-1 of flumioxazin. Increasing herbicide doses reduced the electrical conductivity of seeds. The increased doses also reduced the percentage of normal seedlings in the first germination count after six months of storage and caused seedling vigor loss. The storage of adzuki bean for six months reduced its physiological quality, leading to losses in germination and seed vigor. Storage and increasing doses of the desiccant flumioxazin reduced the incidence of the pathogens Rhizopus, Cladosporium, and Fusarium in the seeds. The increased doses of this herbicide reduced Aspergillus incidence. Penicillium incidence was not affected by treatments.(AU)

A qualidade fisiológica e sanitária de sementes é influenciada pelo ambiente de produção e de armazenamento. Neste trabalho objetivou-se avaliar os efeitos do herbicida flumioxazin aplicado como dessecante em pré-colheita e do armazenamento sobre a qualidade fisiológica e sanitária de sementes de feijão azuki. Foi adotado o delineamento experimental em blocos ao acaso, em esquema de parcelas subdivididas. Nas parcelas foram alocadas as cinco doses do herbicida flumioxazin (20, 25, 30, 35 e 40 g i.a·ha-1) e nas subparcelas as duas épocas de avaliação (colheita e 6 meses após a colheita), com quatro repetições. Foram testados dois tratamentos sem aplicação do herbicida para cada época de avaliação. Nas doses entre 25 a 35 g·ha-1 de flumioxazin observou-se a manutenção da qualidade fisiológica das sementes. Em doses crescentes reduziu-se a condutividade elétrica das sementes. O aumento das doses reduziu a porcentagem de plântulas normais na primeira contagem da germinação, após seis meses de armazenamento, e causou perda no vigor das plântulas. O armazenamento de feijão azuki durante seis meses reduziu a qualidade fisiológica, causando perdas na germinação e vigor das sementes. O armazenamento e o aumento das doses do dessecante flumioxazin reduziram a incidência dos patógenos Rhizopus, Cladosporium e Fusarium nas sementes. O aumento das doses reduziu a incidência de Aspergillus. A incidência de Penicillium não foi afetada pelos tratamentos.(AU)

Seeds/physiology , Vigna , Herbicides/adverse effects , Hygroscopic Agents , Noxae
Acta sci., Biol. sci ; 42: e49895, fev. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1460957


Determination of seed-maturation indicators enables the identification of the idealmoment for harvest to achieve the best production and conservation potential. Our objective here was to evaluate some physical and physiological changes of crambe (Crambe abyssinica Hochst) seeds as possible indicators of seed maturation. Crambe floweringwas monitored in Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Plants were tagged, and 13, 22, 26, and 28 days after the initiation of flowering, the seeds were collected and following physical attributes evaluated: length, diameter, total mass, dry matter and water content. Physiological quality of the seeds was assessed using the germination test, by registering the percentage of normal seedlings and dormant seeds, immediately after each harvest, and again after six months of storage. The water-absorption curveswere characterized as a function the seed-development stages. All physical attributes were observed to increase because of the accumulation of reserve substances during seed development, except for water content, which gradually decreased from 72.2% at the start of development to 29.5% at maturity. At 28 days after anthesis the germination percentage of crambe seeds at physiological maturity was only 17%, indicating that they became dormant while maturing. However, seed germination rate was 89% after six months of storage, indicating that dormancy was almost fully overcome after this period.

Brassicaceae/physiology , Crambe Plant/anatomy & histology , Crambe Plant/physiology , Seeds/anatomy & histology , Seeds/physiology
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20190768, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132275


Abstract The orchids that produced tuber are known as salep orchids and have been collected from nature for centuries as a medicinal and aromatic plant. These orchids are endangered species because of their limited vegetative and generative production possibilities. Salep orchids, seed germination has been achieved with in-vitro studies, but no source has been found regarding the development of germinated seeds over the years. In this study, Dactylorhiza euxina (Nevski) Czerep. was used as research material. Seeds that were determined to germinate in nature were observed to develop in their own environment for five years and some morphological characteristics (plant height, number of leaves, leaf length, leaf width, total weight, tuber width, and tuber weight) were determined at the end of each vegetation year. Plants that start to develop with seed germination produce one leaf and a tuber of 0.115 g in the first year. When the tubers obtained from the first year were planted again, the plants was obtained 2-3 leaves and they were formed 0.465 grams of tubers. In the third year plants bloom for the first time. The period until flowering in the plant was called maturity period and Dactylorhiza euxina (Nevski) Czerep. was found to have a 3-year maturity period. Plants produced tuber 0.850 g in the third year, 1.585 g in the fourth year and 2.522 g in the fifth year. According to the mathematical modeling, the relationship between year (Y) and fresh tuber weight (FTW) was found Y = 1.22 + (1.61 × FTW) and there was a significant relationship among year, fresh tuber weight, and total biomass (TBM). This equation Y = 1.05 + (0.76 × FTW) + (0.14 × TBM) shows us the mathematical relations of year, fresh tuber weight, and total biomass. The mathematical relations among to fresh tuber weight, total biomass, and plant height (PH) was produced Y = 1.74 - (0.11 × FTW) + (0.57 × TBM) - (0.09 × PH). R2 values were found 0.95-0.99. All R2 values and standard errors were found to be significant at the p < 0.01 level.

Seeds/growth & development , Germination/physiology , Orchidaceae/growth & development , Seeds/physiology , Time Factors , Models, Biological
Braz. j. biol ; 79(4): 577-583, Nov. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001476


Abstract Palms are an important component of Neotropical communities as they are often diverse and abundant. In some areas, palms occur in high density and act as limiting factor in tree recruitment by limiting tree seedling and sapling abundance. In this study, I evaluated the intensity of seed mortality caused by insects in Attalea geraensis, in a large area of preserved Cerrado (Serra do Cabral, MG, Brazil) during wet season when both A. geraensis fruits and bruchid beetles were abundant. I collected a total of 63 infructescences which had from 3 fruits and 7 seeds to 82 fruits and 251 seeds. Endocarps had from 1 to 6 seeds. Seed mortality per infructescence due to beetles (Pachymerus cardo) was intense, and increases positively and disproportionally according to seed number per infructescence. Besides that, average proportions of seeds preyed upon by insects were consistently high (> 0.83), irrespective of seed number per endocarp. Positive density-dependent seed mortality caused by specialized natural enemies has been assumed to promote species rarity, an important feature of species coexistence in Neotropical forests. Then, the intense seed mortality documented in this study suggests that seed predators may contribute to the richness and diversity of plant species in the Cerrado, the richest and most endangered savanna in the world.

Resumo Devido à abundância e diversidade, as palmeiras são um componente importante das comunidades neotropicais. Em algumas áreas as palmeiras ocorrem em elevada densidade, tornando-se um fator limitante ao recrutamento de árvores, por restringir a abundância de plântulas e árvores jovens. Neste estudo, avaliei a intensidade de mortalidade das sementes de Attalea geraensis , causada por insetos, em uma grande área preservada de Cerrado (Serra do Cabral, MG, Brasil), durante a estação chuvosa, quando frutos de A. geraensis e besouros predadores de sementes eram abundantes. Coletei um total de 63 infrutescências que tinham de 3 frutos e 7 sementes a 82 frutos e 251 sementes. Os endocarpos tinham de 1 a 6 sementes. Nas infrutescências a mortalidade das sementes causada por besouros (Pachymerus cardo) foi intensa e aumentou positiva e desproporcionalmente conforme o número de sementes por infrutescência. Além disso, independentemente do número de sementes por endocarpo, as proporções médias de sementes predadas por endocarpo foram consistentemente altas (> 0,83). A mortalidade densidade dependente positiva de sementes causada por inimigos naturais especializados é assumida como uma das principais causas da raridade das espécies vegetais, um fator importante para coexistência de espécies nas florestas neotropicais. Portanto, a intensa mortalidade de sementes documentada neste estudo sugere que predadores de sementes podem contribuir para a riqueza e diversidade de espécies de plantas no Cerrado, a savana mais rica e ameaçada do mundo.

Animals , Coleoptera/physiology , Food Chain , Arecaceae/physiology , Herbivory , Seeds/physiology , Brazil , Grassland
Braz. j. biol ; 79(3): 404-409, July-Sept. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001466


Abstract Passion fruits species presents a larger economic importance for in natura consumption and industry. The main way to propagate these species is by seeds; however, the aril presence and environmental conditions may inhibit the seeds germination. In this sense, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of aril removal methods and light conditions on P. edulis var. flavicarpa seeds quality and germination. There were used five methods to remove the seeds aril: (1) friction on steel mesh sieve for 5 minutes; (2) friction with coarse sand on steel mesh sieve for 5 minutes; (3) immersion in lime solution at 10% (w/v), for 30 minutes; (4) fermentation in sugar solution at 10% (w/v), during 48 hours; and (5) natural pulp fermentation, during five days. The seeds were submitted to germination test at darkness and lightness, as well as, to length seedlings and emergence test. Regardless the aril removal method, the germination percentage was lower at lightness than darkness highlighting the natural pulp fermentation treatment, which presented 86% of seeds germinated. On the other hand, the aril removal methods did not affect the seedlings emergence, with emergence percentages ranged from 88 to 94%.

Resumo As espécies de maracujá apresentam grande importância econômica, tanto para o consumo in natura, quanto para a indústria. A principal maneira de propagar essas espécies é por sementes; contudo, a presença de arilo e condições ambientais pode inibir a germinação. Nesse sentido, objetivou-se estudar o efeito de métodos de remoção do arilo e luminosidade na qualidade e germinação das sementes de Passiflora edulis var. flavicarpa. Cinco métodos foram empregados para a remoção do arilo: (1) fricção em peneira de malha de aço por cinco minutos; (2) fricção com areia grossa em peneira de malha de aço por cinco minutos; (3) imersão em solução de cal a 10% (m/v), por 30 minutos; (4) fermentação da polpa em solução de açúcar a 10% (m/v), por 48 horas; e (5) fermentação natural da polpa, por cinco dias. As sementes foram submetidas ao teste de germinação no escuro e no claro, teste de comprimento de plântulas e teste de emergência. Independente do método de remoção do arilo, a porcentagem de germinação no claro apresentou-se menor em comparação ao escuro, com destaque para o tratamento de fermentação natural da polpa, o qual apresentou 86% de sementes germinadas. Por outro lado, os métodos de remoção do arilo não afetaram a emergência das plântulas, com porcentagem de emergência variando entre 88 a 94%.

Seeds/physiology , Germination/physiology , Passiflora/physiology , Flowers/physiology , Seeds/growth & development , Seeds/radiation effects , Passiflora/growth & development , Passiflora/radiation effects , Seedlings/physiology , Light
Hig. aliment ; 33(288/289): 1467-1471, abr.-maio 2019. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1482184


As sementes de Araucaria angustifolia, conhecidas como pinhão, tem sua conservação pós-colheita dificultada. A germinação do pinhão representa uma desvantagem, já que sementes brotadas não tem valor comercial. A inibição da germinação pela luz induz a semente ao seu estado de dormência, com redução da atividade metabólica, sendo uma alternativa para a conservação da semente. Com isso, objetivou-se neste estudo avaliar a perda de massa e firmeza de pinhões armazenados sob diferentes condições de luminosidade a temperatura ambiente por 90 dias. O armazenamento de pinhões em diferentes condições de luminosidade a temperatura ambiente ocasionou perda de massa e firmeza, sendo que a luminosidade não proporcionou aumento da conservação de pinhões.

Food Storage , Germination/radiation effects , Light/adverse effects , Seeds/radiation effects , Seeds/physiology , Food Preservation , Temperature
Braz. j. biol ; 79(2): 213-219, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989457


Abstract Species of the Carapa spp. complex, occurring in the Neotropics, Africa and India, have multiple uses, including timber, with the seed oil being used in phyto-pharmaceutical products and cosmetics. This study aimed to determine the thermal ranges of the germination process, comparing germination criteria used by seed physiologists and seed technologists, and to suggest recommendations for seed quality assessment. Germination was assessed at constant temperatures between 10 ─ 40 °C using three germination criteria: (1) radicle length ≥ 0.5 cm (physiological criterion); (2) epicotyl length ≥ 1 cm; and (3) epicotyl length ≥ 5 cm (criterion for seed quality tests). The base temperature was similar for the three criteria and ranged between 10 ─ 2 °C. The Maguire's Speed Index indicated 30 °C as most adequate. However, the upper temperature limit differed: for radicle protrusion it was above 40 ºC; and for both epicotyl lengths, it was between 35 ─ 40 °C. Seed coat removal accelerated the germination process of these recalcitrant seeds, and is recommended for seed quality assessment, which allows completion of the germination trial in approximately one month.

Resumo As espécies do complexo Carapa spp. ocorrem na região Neotropical, na África e na Índia, têm usos múltiplos, fornece madeira de valor comercial e o óleo extraído das sementes tem uso fitoterápico e cosmético. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a faixa térmica tolerável do processo germinativo, comparando os critérios de germinação utilizados pelos fisiologistas e os tecnólogos de sementes, e sugerir recomendações para a avaliação da qualidade das sementes. A germinação foi avaliada em temperaturas constantes entre 10 e 40 °C utilizando três critérios de germinação: (1) formação da radícula ≥ 0,5 cm (critério fisiológico); (2) alongamento de epicótilo ≥ 1 cm; e (3) alongamento de epicótilo ≥ 5 cm (critério para testes de qualidade de sementes). A temperatura de base foi semelhante para os três critérios entre 10 e 12 °C. O índice de velocidade de Maguire indicou 30 °C como a temperatura mais adequada. O limite superior de temperatura diferiu entre os critérios, sendo acima de 40 ºC para protrusão da radícula e para ambos os alongamentos de epicótilo entre 35 e 40 °C. A remoção do tegumento de semente acelerou o processo de germinação dessas sementes recalcitrantes sendo recomendada para a avaliação da qualidade da semente, o que permite concluir o teste de germinação em aproximadamente um mês.

Germination/radiation effects , Germination/physiology , Meliaceae/growth & development , Meliaceae/radiation effects , Meliaceae/physiology , Agriculture , Seeds/physiology , Hot Temperature
Acta sci., Biol. sci ; 41: e46093, 20190000. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1460882


The application of plant growth regulators can manipulate the development of cultivated plants, and their physiological effects may be reflected in the physiological quality of the seeds. This study evaluated the effects of plant growth regulators (PGR) on the physiological quality of crambe seeds produced in the 2014 and 2015 harvests. During crop development, we applied two foliar sprayings of the following treatments: 1) control treatment with distilled water; 2) indole-3-acetic acid 100 mg L-1 (IAA); 3) 3-gibberellic acid P.A. 100 mg L-1 (GA3); 4) commercial PGR Stimulate® 6 mL L-1. The seeds were harvested and evaluated for water content, germination percentage and germination speed index (GSI), electrical conductivity and concentrations of leached Ca, Mg and K ions. Means were compared by Tukey ́s and Dunnett tests (p<0.05). Applying Stimulate® increased the germination percentage and the germination speed index, while IAA application showed an opposite effect, increasing the electrical conductivity of crambe seeds. Calcium leaching decreased with IAA application, and all regulators reduced K leaching. We therefore infer that the application of plant growth regulators influences the physiological quality of crambe seeds.

Crambe Plant/growth & development , Crambe Plant/physiology , Seeds/growth & development , Seeds/physiology , Percolation
Braz. j. biol ; 79(1): 63-69, Jan.-Mar 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-984002


Abstract This study aimed to analyze the physical properties of the seeds of Moquiniastrum polymorphum when processed by mini-SAS, X-ray and seed blower systems. The seeds were purchased from Seeds Caiçara, located in Penápolis-SP. After purchase, the seed lot was characterized by standard tests. In the X-ray test the seeds were classified according to their internal morphology as filled, unfilled or malformed. The seed blower was set at six opening settings, resulting in light and heavy fractions. The evaluations were performed by weighing the seeds that remained in the blower (heavy fraction) and by the amount of filled seeds indicated by the X-ray test. The germination tests were composed of four replicates of 50 seeds. The mini-SAS was used for external evaluation. It was concluded that the combined use of the seed blower and the X-ray test was efficient for the evaluation and determination of the physical quality of the seeds of M. polymorphum. The seed blower at opening settings 5 resulted in the best lot quality. The external parameters were not able to qualitatively evaluate the seeds of M. polymorphum.

Resumo O presente estudo objetivou analisar as propriedades físicas das sementes de Moquiniastrum polymorphum por meio dos equipamentos raios-X, mini-SAS e soprador de sementes. As sementes foram adquiridas da empresa Sementes Caiçara em matrizes localizadas no município de Penápolis-SP. Após adquirido e beneficiado, o lote de sementes foi caracterizado por meio de testes padrões. No teste de raios-X as sementes foram classificadas de acordo com sua morfologia interna como cheias, vazias ou mal formadas. O soprador de sementes foi ajustado em seis aberturas, resultando em frações leves e pesadas. As avaliações foram realizadas pesando-se as sementes que permaneceram no soprador (fração pesada) e pela quantidade de sementes cheias pela análise de raios-X. Posteriormente foram realizados testes de germinação compostos por quatro repetições de 50 sementes. Na avaliação externa das sementes utilizou-se o equipamento mini-SAS. Após análise dos dados, concluiu-se que a utilização em conjunto dos equipamentos soprador de sementes e raios-X foi eficiente para avaliação e determinação da qualidade física das sementes de M. polymorphum. O soprador de sementes na regulagem da abertura 5 resultou na melhor qualidade do lote. Os parâmetros externos não foram capazes de avaliar qualitativamente as sementes de M. polymorphum.

Seeds/physiology , Asteraceae/physiology , Seeds/growth & development , Germination , Asteraceae/growth & development
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 90(1): 485-494, Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886916


ABSTRACT Soybean (Glycine max L.) seed contains amounts of protein, lipid, carbohydrate and mineral elements, which protein and lipid have been known as a main part for soybean's trade value. In this study, in order to investigate the effect of ferrous nano-oxide particles on nutritional compounds of soybean seed, an experiment with 5 treatments and 3 replications was conducted as a randomized complete block design. Treatments were 5 concentrations of ferrous nano-oxide particles including 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1 g L-1 which were sprayed 3 times at 4 and 8 leaves stage and pod initiation. Lipid and protein contents, fatty acids profile, some of mineral elements such as Fe, Mg, Ca and P, chlorophyll a, b and total chlorophyll content were determined. Results showed that solution containing ferrous nano-oxide particles had significant effect on nutritional compounds of soybean seed (P<0.01) compared to control. The highest content of lipid and protein (25.4 and %33.8, respectively) observed by applying 0.75 g L-1 of ferrous nano-oxide and the lowest content was also in control. Changes in the trends of fatty acids profile (palmitic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids), some of mineral elements (Fe, Mg, Ca and P) and chlorophyll contents were similar to lipid and protein levels which by increasing in concentration of ferrous nano-oxide from 0 to 0.75 g L-1 all measured parameters also increased, but reduction in all parameters was observed in concentration from 0.75 to 1 g L-1. In conclusion, application of 0.75 to 1 g L-1 ferrous nano-oxide had the best effect on the nutrient composition of soybean seed.

Seeds/drug effects , Seeds/chemistry , Glycine max/drug effects , Glycine max/chemistry , Ferrous Compounds/pharmacology , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Reference Values , Seeds/physiology , Glycine max/physiology , Trace Elements/analysis , Proteins/analysis , Random Allocation , Chlorophyll/analysis , Regression Analysis , Reproducibility of Results , Fatty Acids/analysis , Fertilizers , Lipids/analysis
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 34(2): 287-295, mar./apr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-966638


Seed storage through the reduction of its water content is an important strategy for the conservation of many plant species, but some, such as the jenipapo, are susceptible to desiccation, which may lead to loss of viability and even death, in case its water content is reduced to a critical level. The aim of this work was to evaluate the interference of different packaging conditions in the conservation of the physiological potential of jenipapo seeds stored for 105 days. Specifically, this research sought to analyze the feasibility of the use of vacuum conditions and the coating of the seed with biofilm. The evaluated treatments were: storage in paper bag, plastic bag, plastic with vacuum, plastic with seeds coated with biofilm and plastic with seeds with biofilm and vacuum condition for 15, 45, 75 and 105 days, besides the control. Seeds with biofilm were treated with cassava starch at 3% of the mass to volume ratio. The following tests were performed: water content, germination, germination speed, aerial part and root lengths, wet and dry mass of the aerial part and root. It was concluded that plastic packaging, vacuum condition and biofilm coating are not recommended for storage of jenipapo seeds. Storage in paper bags, when at 24 ºC and with 65% relative humidity for 46 days, is capable of conserving the seeds of jenipapo with germination of 60%.

O armazenamento de sementes por meio da redução do seu teor de água é uma importante estratégia para a conservação de muitas espécies vegetais, porém, algumas, como o jenipapeiro, são sensíveis à dessecação, podendo haver a perda da sua viabilidade, e até a morte, caso o seu teor de água seja reduzido a um nível considerado crítico. Neste trabalho, o objetivo foi avaliar a interferência de diferentes condições de embalagens na conservação do potencial fisiológico de sementes de jenipapo armazenadas por 105 dias. De forma específica, buscou-se analisar a viabilidade do uso de condições de vácuo e do revestimento da semente com biofilme. Os tratamentos avaliados foram: armazenamento em saco de papel, saco plástico, plástico com vácuo, plástico com sementes revestidas com biofilme e plástico com sementes com biofilme e condição de vácuo por 15, 45, 75 e 105 dias, além da testemunha. As sementes com biofilme receberam tratamento com fécula de mandioca a 3% da relação massa por volume. Os seguintes testes foram realizados: teor de água, germinação, velocidade de germinação, comprimento da parte aérea e radicular, massa úmida e seca da parte aérea e da raiz. Concluiu-se que a embalagem plástica, a condição de vácuo e o revestimento com biofilme não são recomendados para o armazenamento de sementes de jenipapo. O armazenamento em saco de papel quando realizado em ambiente com 24 ºC e 65% de umidade relativa do ar durante 46 dias é capaz de conservar as sementes de jenipapo com germinação de 60%.

Seeds/physiology , Germination , Rubiaceae
Braz. j. biol ; 77(4): 774-780, Nov. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888804


Abstract During germination, orthodox seeds become gradually intolerant to desiccation, and for this reason, they are a good model for recalcitrance studies. In the present work, physiological, biochemical, and ultrastructural aspects of the desiccation tolerance were characterized during the germination process of Anadenanthera colubrina seeds. The seeds were imbibed during zero (control), 2, 8, 12 (no germinated seeds), and 18 hours (germinated seeds with 1 mm protruded radicle); then they were dried for 72 hours, rehydrated and evaluated for survivorship. Along the imbibition, cytometric and ultrastructural analysis were performed, besides the extraction of the heat-stable proteins. Posteriorly to imbibition and drying, the evaluation of ultrastructural damages was performed. Desiccation tolerance was fully lost after root protrusion. There was no increase in 4C DNA content after the loss of desiccation tolerance. Ultrastructural characteristics of cells from 1mm roots resembled those found in the recalcitrant seeds, in both hydrated and dehydrated states. The loss of desiccation tolerance coincided with the reduction of heat-stable proteins.

Resumo Durante a germinação, sementes ortodoxas tornam-se gradualmente intolerantes à dessecação, e por isso podem ser utilizadas como modelo para o estudo da recalcitrância. No presente trabalho realizou-se uma caracterização dos aspectos fisiológicos, bioquímicos e ultraestruturais da perda da tolerância à dessecação de sementes de Anadenanthera colubrina em processo germinativo. Para isso as sementes foram embebidas durante 0 (controle), 2,8,12 e aproximadamente 18 horas (sementes germinadas com 1 mm de radícula), secas por 72 horas, reidratadas e a sobrevivência avaliada. Ao longo da embebição foram realizadas análises citométricas, ultraestruturais e extração de proteínas resistentes ao calor e após embebição e secagem foram avaliados danos ultraestruturais. A tolerância à dessecação foi totalmente perdida após a protrusão radicular. Não houve aumento do conteúdo de DNA 4C quando a tolerância à dessecação foi perdida. Características ultraestruturais de células de radículas de 1 mm assemelharam-se às encontradas em sementes recalcitrantes tanto no estado hidratado quanto desidratado. A perda da tolerância à dessecação coincidiu com a redução do conteúdo de proteínas resistentes ao calor.

Germination , Desiccation , Fabaceae/physiology , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Seeds/growth & development , Seeds/physiology , Seeds/genetics , Seeds/ultrastructure , Trees/growth & development , Trees/physiology , Trees/genetics , Trees/ultrastructure , Fabaceae/growth & development , Fabaceae/genetics , Fabaceae/ultrastructure
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(2): 919-926, Apr.-June 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886707


ABSTRACT This study aims to determine the allelopathic potential of Amaranthus retroflexus (Ar) with different climatic zones on seed germination and growth of A. tricolor (At) treated with a gradient N addition. Ar leaf extracts only displayed significantly allelopathic potential on the underground growth of Ar but not the aboveground growth of At. The allelopathic potential of Ar leaf extracts on root length of At were enhanced under N addition and there may be a N-concentration-dependent relationship. The effects of the extracts of Ar leaves that collected from Zhenjiang on seed germination and growth of At may be higher than that collected from Jinan especially on root length of At under medium N addition. This reason may be the contained higher concentration of secondary metabolites for the leaves of plants that growths in high latitudes compare with that growth in low latitudes. This phenomenon may also partly be attributed to the fact that Ar originated in America and/or south-eastern Asia which have higher similarity climate conditions as Zhenjiang rather than Jinan. The allelopathic potential of Ar on seed germination and growth of acceptor species may play an important role in its successful invasion especially in the distribution region with low latitudes.

Amaranthus/physiology , Amaranthus/chemistry , Allelopathy/physiology , Nitrogen/chemistry , Seeds/physiology , Seeds/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , China , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric , Plant Leaves/chemistry
Rev. biol. trop ; 65(1): 9-19, Jan.-Mar. 2017. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-897521


Abstract:Phyllonoma laticuspis leaves are used in Carrizal de Bravo, Guerrero, Mexico, to heal skin lesions such as injuries and smallpox sequelae and to treat diabetes mellitus type 2, and organic extracts of these leaves have been reported to exert antibacterial effects. High demand of P. laticuspis as a medicinal plant has decreased its natural populations, and propagation of the species has not yet been reported. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the vegetative propagation of the species through cutting and air layering, as well as its sexual propagation in a preserved population. For this, concentrations of 1 000, 4 000 and 6 000 ppm of a commercial root enhancer, with indole butyric acid (IBA), and a control treatment without IBA, were applied to the cuttings and air layers. Germination was evaluated under light and dark conditions using lots of freshly collected seeds and lots of seeds that had been stored for three months at 4 °C or 24 ± 2 °C. All experiments were performed in a completely randomized design. The cuttings did not develop roots in any concentration, whereas 100 % of the air layers rooted, displaying vigorous roots in the presence of 4 000 ppm IBA, after four month of treatment application. Regarding germination, more than 60 % of the freshly collected seeds germinated, whereas less than 20 % of the seeds stored at 4 °C, and close to 50 % of the seeds stored at 24 ± 2 °C germinated under light and dark conditions. No significant differences were observed between light and dark conditions, so they were categorized as indifferent photoblastic seeds. The observed moisture content of 13.5 % and germination behaviour as the response to cold storage, suggest that the resultant seed quality was intermediate. P. laticuspis propagation for short-term foliage production can be carried out in air layers, in populations with a high density of adult plants as a source of plant material and for the restoration of disturbed areas, in the same locality. On the other hand, large-scale seedling production, medium-term foliage production and preservation of species variability can be achieved using seeds. Rev. Biol. Trop. 65 (1): 9-19. Epub 2017 March 01.

ResumenLas hojas de Phyllonoma laticuspis se utilizan en Carrizal de Bravo, Gro. México, para curar lesiones de la piel como heridas, secuelas de viruela y afecciones de la diabetes mellitus tipo 2. Los extractos orgánicos de hojas, mostraron efectos antibacterianos. La gran demanda de P. laticuspis como planta medicinal, ha disminuido sus poblaciones naturales, y no existen reportes de la propagación de la especie. Por lo tanto, el propósito del presente trabajo fue evaluar la propagación vegetativa de la especie a través de estacas y acodos, y su propagación sexual en una población conservada. En la propagación por estacas y acodos se aplicaron concentraciones de 1 000, 4 000 y 6 000 ppm de un enraizador comercial con ácido indolbutírico (AIB), y un tratamiento control sin AIB. La germinación se evaluó en luz y oscuridad mediante el uso de lotes de semillas recién recolectadas y lotes de semillas almacenadas por tres meses a 4 °C y a 24 ± 2 ºC. Todos los experimentos se realizaron en un diseño completamente al azar. Las estacas no desarrollaron raíces en ninguna de las concentraciones, mientras que el 100 % de los acodos enraizaron, produciendo raíces vigorosas con la concentración de 4 000 ppm de AIB, a los cuatro meses de la aplicación. Con respecto a la germinación bajo condiciones de luz y oscuridad, las semillas recién recolectadas germinaron más del 60 %, mientras que las semillas almacenadas a 4 ºC menos del 20 % y las almacenadas a 24 ± 2 ºC cerca del 50 %. No hubieron diferencias significativas entre la germinación en luz y oscuridad, por lo que se consideraron como semillas fotoblásticas indiferentes. El contenido de humedad de 13.5 % y el comportamiento de la germinación en respuesta al almacenamiento en frío, sugieren la cualidad de semillas de tipo intermedias. La propagación de P. laticuspis para la producción de follaje a corto tiempo, puede hacerse por acodos en poblaciones con alta densidad de plantas adultas como fuente de material vegetal y para la restauración de áreas alteradas en la misma localidad. Mientras que la producción de follaje a mediano plazo y la conservación de la variabilidad de la especie, se puede lograr con la obtención masiva de plántulas a través de semillas.

Plants, Medicinal/physiology , Seeds/physiology , Germination/physiology , Aquifoliaceae/physiology , Temperature , Time Factors , Plant Roots/physiology , Fruit/physiology , Light
Rev. biol. trop ; 65(1): 153-165, Jan.-Mar. 2017. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-897532


ResumenPoblaciones endémicas de Hechtiaperotensis se han descrito en Puebla y Veracruz, México. La recolección de semillas de buena calidad permite su uso en conservación, investigación y restauración ecológica. Algunos compuestos para evaluar la calidad de las semillas silvestres y endémicas, como nitrato de potasio (KNO3) y ácido giberílico (AG3), se utilizan para incrementar la germinación de las semillas y disminuir la latencia. La prueba de cloruro de trifeniltetrazolio (tetrazolio) se correlaciona con la viabilidad de las semillas porque se basa en la actividad de las deshidrogenasas de tejidos vivos que catalizan la respiración mitocondrial. El objetivo de este estudio fue conocer el tamaño y el peso de las cápsulas y las semillas y la germinación y viabilidad de las semillas de H. perotensis recolectadas en Veracruz en 2012 y 2015. Las hipótesis fueron (1) que la germinación y la viabilidad de las semillas son independientes del año de recolecta, (2) que hay una concentración adecuada de tetrazolio para identificar la viabilidad de las semillas y (3) que el pretratamiento con KNO3 o AG3 incrementa la germinación de las semillas. La germinación se evaluó con un diseño completamente al azar con tres tratamientos (testigo y promotores de la germinación KNO3 0.2 % y AG3 500 mg/L), cuatro tratamientos para la prueba de viabilidad (testigo, 0.2, 0.5 y 1.0 % de tetrazolio) y seis repeticiones de cada tratamiento. La germinación se evaluó en 100 semillas y la viabilidad en 25. Los resultados entre y dentro de años se analizaron con ANDEVA y prueba de comparación múltiple de medias de Tukey. La proporción de semillas no germinadas se cuantificó junto con el número de plántulas normales y anormales, semillas con embrión viable o sin él, y con viabilidad baja o sin viabilidad. En promedio la muestra recolectada en 2012 tuvo 36 % de semillas con embrión viable, 7 con viabilidad baja, 24 % no viables y 33 % sin embrión. Este resultado fue significativamente diferente al de 2015, que presentó 87 % de embriones viables, 10 % con viabilidad baja, 0 % no viables y 3 % sin embrión. La germinación también fue significativamente diferente entre los años (22 y 92 %). Los tratamientos pregerminativos no modificaron la germinación. La germinación y la viabilidad de las semillas de H. perotensis varían significativamente entre los años de recolecta.

Abstract:Endemic populations of Hechtiaperotensis have been described in Puebla and Veracruz, Mexico. Good quality seed collections can be used in conservation, research and ecological restoration. To evaluate seed quality of wild and endemic species, some compounds are used as effective promoters of germination, such as potassium nitrate (KNO3) and gibberellic acid (AG3), because they increase seed germination capacity and reduce latency. The triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (tetrazolium) test correlates seed viability because it is based on the activity of dehydrogenases in live tissues that catalyze mitochondrial respiration. The objective of this study was to obtain information on size and weight of capsules and seeds and seed germination and viability of H.perotensis, collected in Veracruz in the year 2012 and 2015. The hypotheses were 1) that seed germination and viability are independent of the year of collection, 2) that there is a tetrazolium concentration that can identify seed viability better than others, and 3) that pretreatment with KNO3 or AG3 improves seed germination. Seed germination was assessed using a completely randomized design with three treatments (control and the germination promoters 0.2 % KNO3 and 500 mg/L AG3), four treatments for the viability test (control, 0.2, 0.5 and 1.0 % of tetrazolium) and six replicates for each treatment. A total of one hundred seeds for germination experiments, and 25 seeds for the viability test were used. The results between and within years were analyzed with ANOVA and multiple comparison with the Tukey test. The proportion of non-germinated seeds was quantified along with the number of normal and abnormal seedlings, seeds with viable embryo, seeds without embryo, and seeds with low or no viability. On average, for the 2012 collected sample, 36 % had viable embryos, 7 % had low viability, 24 % were not viable and 33 % had no embryo. This result was significantly different from the 2015 sample, for which 87 % of seed showed viable embryos, 10 % had low viability, 0 % was not viable and 3 % had no embryo. Seed germination was also significantly different between years (22 and 92 %) Pregerminative treatments did not improve germination. Seed germination and viability of H. perotensis significantly varied between years of seed collection. Rev. Biol. Trop. 65 (1): 153-165. Epub 2017 March 01.

Seeds/physiology , Germination/physiology , Bromeliaceae/physiology , Reference Values , Temperature , Time Factors , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Potassium Compounds/pharmacology , Statistics, Nonparametric , Biomass , Bromeliaceae/drug effects , Mexico , Nitrates/pharmacology