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1.
Alerta (San Salvador) ; 6(1): 78-85, ene. 30, 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1413719

ABSTRACT

Como parte de las terapias alternativas para el control de síntomas refractarios en enfermedades avanzadas destaca el uso de cannabidiol. Este se ha estudiado en patologías como enfermedad de Alzheimer, Parkinson y trastornos convulsivos. Los síndromes convulsivos están presentes en todos los grupos etarios. Dentro de este, la epilepsia es refractaria hasta en un 40 % de los pacientes, quienes han demostrado disminución en la frecuencia de convulsiones con el uso concomitante de cannabidiol y antiepilépticos convencionales, con efectos secundarios leves, como diarrea y somnolencia. Con el objetivo de determinar el uso del cannabidiol para el control de síntomas neurológicos refractarios en pacientes con síndromes convulsivos y enfermedades neurodegenerativas, se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica en Pubmed, Scopus y Embase. Se incluyeron metaanálisis, artículos originales, revisiones sistemáticas y bibliográficas, y documentos de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud, publicados entre 2017 y 2022. Los efectos del cannabidiol lo convierten en una alternativa, adicional a la terapéutica convencional, para el control de síntomas en trastornos neurológicos, disminuyendo de forma sostenida el número total de episodios con un perfil de seguridad aceptable. Existe limitada información respecto al uso de cannabidiol en enfermedades neurodegenerativas, por lo que no se ha evidenciado su efectividad


As part of the alternative therapies for the control of refractory symptoms in advanced diseases, the use of cannabidiol stands out. It has been studied in pathologies such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and convulsive disorders. Convulsive syndromes are present in all age groups. Within this group, epilepsy is refractory in up to 40 % of patients, who have shown a decrease in the frequency of seizures with the concomitant use of cannabidiol and conventional antiepileptics, with mild side effects such as diarrhea and drowsiness. To determine the use of cannabidiol for the control of refractory neurological symptoms in patients with seizure syndromes and neurodegenerative diseases, a literature search was performed in PubMed, Scopus, and Embase. Meta-analyses, original articles, systematic and literature reviews, and documents from the Pan American Health Organization, published between 2017 and 2022, were included. The effects of cannabidiol make it an alternative, in addition to conventional therapeutics, for symptom control in neurological disorders, sustainably decreasing the total number of episodes with an acceptable safety profile. There is limited information regarding the use of cannabidiol in neurodegenerative diseases, the reason its effectiveness has not been demonstrated.


Subject(s)
Seizures , Syndrome , Cannabidiol , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Anticonvulsants , Nervous System Diseases
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e237412, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355854

ABSTRACT

Abstract Only few studies have focus on animals that received Pilocarpine (Pilo) and did not develop behavioral status epilepticus (SE) and, whether they may become epileptic in the model's chronic phase. Previews works observed mossy fiber sprouting in the hippocampus of Non-SE (NSE) rats, while others observed spontaneous and recurrent seizures (SRS) 6 - 8 months after animals received Pilo. It is known that neuronal excitability is influenced by female hormones, as well as, the occurrence of SE in castrated and non-castrated female rats. However, it is not known whether females that received Pilo and did not show SE, may have SRS. The aim of this work was to investigate whether castrated and non-castrated female rats that did not show behavioral SE after Pilo, will develop SRS in the following one-year. For that, animals received 360 mg/kg of Pilo and were video monitored for 12 months. SE females from castrated and non-castrated groups became epileptic since the first month after drug injection. Epileptic behaviors were identified watching video monitoring recordings in the fast speed. Castrated and Non-castrated NSE animals showed behaviors resembling seizures described by Racine Scale stages 1 - 3. Motor alterations showed by NSE groups could be observed only when recordings were analyzed in slow speed. In addition, behavioral manifestations as, rhythmic head movements, sudden head movements, whole body movements and immobility were also observed in both, SE and NSE groups. We concluded that NSE female rats may have become epileptic. Adding to it, slow speed analysis of motor alterations was essential for the observation of NSE findings, which suggests that possibly many motor alterations have been underestimated in epilepsy experimental research.


Resumo Poucos são os estudos com foco em animais que receberam Pilocarpina (Pilo) e não desenvolveram status epilepticus (SE) comportamental e, se os mesmos se tornarão epilépticos na fase crônica do modelo. Autores observaram o brotamento das fibras musgosas no hipocampo de ratos Não-SE (NSE), enquanto outros observaram crises espontâneas e recorrentes (CER) 6 - 8 meses após receberam a droga. A excitabilidade neuronal é influenciada pelos hormônios femininos e, da mesma forma, a ocorrência de SE em ratas castradas e não-castradas. Entretanto, não é sabido se as fêmeas que não apresentam SE terão CER. O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar se fêmeas castradas e não castradas que não tiveram SE comportamental após a injeção de Pilo desenvolverão CER dentro de um ano. Para isto, os animais receberam 360 mg/kg de Pilo e foram videomonitorados por 12 meses. As fêmeas SE castradas e não-castradas se tornaram epilépticas desde o primeiro mês pós Pilo. O comportamento epiléptico foi identificado assistindo as gravações na velocidade rápida. As fêmeas NSE castradas e não-castradas apresentaram comportamentos similares aos estágios 1 - 3 da Escala de Racine. As alterações motoras nestes grupos (NSE) foram observadas apenas quando as videomonitoração foi analisada na velocidade lenta. Além destas, manifestações comportamentais como movimentos rítmicos da cabeça, movimentos súbitos da cabeça, movimentos de todo o corpo e imobilidade também foram observadas em ambos grupos, SE e NSE. Concluímos que as fêmeas NE podem ter se tornado epilépticas. Adicionado a isto, a análise das alterações motoras na velocidade lenta foi essencial para a observação dos achados das fêmeas NSE, o que sugere que possivelmente muitas alterações motoras têm sido subestimados na pesquisa em epilepsia experimental.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Pilocarpine/toxicity , Seizures/chemically induced , Status Epilepticus/chemically induced , Rats, Wistar , Muscarinic Agonists/toxicity , Models, Theoretical
3.
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 39(2): 241-244, abr.-jun. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1395061

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Plasmodium vivax es la especie más común en la Amazonía peruana y ocasiona el 81% del total de casos de malaria. Presentamos el caso de un paciente adulto varón con malaria cerebral por Plasmodium vivax, que inicia con malestar general y fiebre, luego presenta convulsiones más de dos veces al día con pérdida de consciencia y limitación funcional motora. Se le realiza gota gruesa donde se observa trofozoítos de Plasmodium vivax y depresión de las tres series sanguíneas. Se inicia tratamiento con artesunato y clindamicina por cinco días, se le transfunde un paquete globular, y continua con primaquina por siete días. El paciente muestra mejoría clínica con secuela neurológica en extremidad inferior izquierda.


ABSTRACT Plasmodium vivax causes 81% of all malaria cases and is the most common species in the Peruvian Amazon. We present the case of a male patient with cerebral malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax, who had general malaise and fever, and then presented seizures more than twice a day with loss of consciousness and motor functional limitation. Plasmodium vivax trophozoites were detected by thick blood smear, besides, we also observed low counts of all three blood cell types. Treatment began with artesunate and clindamycin for five days, then one unit of packed red blood cells was transfused; treatment continued with primaquine for seven days. The patient showed clinical improvement with neurological sequelae in one lower limb.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Pancytopenia , Plasmodium vivax , Malaria, Cerebral , Patients , Seizures
4.
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 39(2): 208-213, abr.-jun. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1395057

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN El propósito del presente estudio fue describir las características epidemiológicas, clínicas, y terapéuticas de pacientes con diagnóstico de toxoplasmosis congénita (TC) con enfermedad neurológica severa. Se revisaron las historias clínicas de los pacientes menores de 1 año con serología IgM positiva para Toxoplasma gondii y compromiso encefálico, ocular y/o auditivo. El estudio se realizó en el Instituto Nacional de Salud del Niño San Borja (INSN-SB) en Lima, Perú. Se evaluaron a 21 pacientes con diagnóstico de TC, el 57,1% fueron del sexo femenino y la mediana de edad al momento del diagnóstico fue 3,1 meses (RIC: 1,7-7,3). Las principales manifestaciones del sistema nervioso central fueron hidrocefalia (76,2%), calcificaciones intracraneales (52,4%), microcefalia (42,9%), y convulsiones (25,6%); la manifestación ocular más frecuente fue la coriorretinitis (38,1%). En conclusión, 64% de los casos de TC tuvieron una o más manifestaciones de enfermedad neurológica severa.


ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiological, clinical, and therapeutic characteristics of patients diagnosed with congenital toxoplasmosis (CT) with severe neurological disease. We reviewed the medical records of patients under 1 year of age with positive IgM test for Toxoplasma gondii and brain, eye, and/or hearing involvement. This study was carried out at the Instituto Nacional de Salud del Niño San Borja (INSNSB), Lima, Peru. Twenty-one patients diagnosed with CT were evaluated; 57.1% were female, and the median age at diagnosis was 3.1 months (IQR: 1.7-7.3). The main central nervous system manifestations were hydrocephalus (76.2%), intracranial calcifications (52.4%), microcephaly (42.9%), and convulsions (25.6%); the most frequent ocular manifestation was chorioretinitis (38.1%). In conclusion, 64% of CT cases had one or more manifestations of severe neurological disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Brain , Toxoplasmosis, Congenital , Child Health , Nervous System Diseases , Seizures , Chorioretinitis , Diabetes Insipidus , Hydrocephalus , Microcephaly
5.
Arq. bras. neurocir ; 41(1): 19-25, 07/03/2022.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362069

ABSTRACT

Introduction Vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) is an adjuvant therapy used in the treatment of patients with refractory epilepsy who are not candidates for resective surgery or who have limited results after surgical procedures. Currently, there is enough evidence to support its use in patients with various types of epilepsy. Therefore, the present study was conducted to explore the possibility of optimizing therapy by reducing the consumption of the system's battery. Methods The prospective and double-blind analysis consisted in the evaluation of 6 patients submitted to VNS implantation for 3 months, followed by adjustment of the stimulation settings and continuity of follow-up for another month. The standard protocol was replaced by another with a frequency value of 20 Hz instead of 30 Hz to increase battery life. The safety of this procedure was evaluated through the assessment of two main variables: seizures and side effects. Results The stimulation at 20 Hz showed 68% reduction in the incidence of seizures (p»0.054) as well as low incidence of side effects. Conclusion The present study suggests that the reduction of the stimulation frequency from 30 to 20 Hz is a safe procedure, and it does not compromise the effectiveness of therapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Seizures/therapy , Vagus Nerve/anatomy & histology , Vagus Nerve Stimulation/adverse effects , Drug Resistant Epilepsy/therapy , Quality of Life , Seizures/prevention & control , Locus Coeruleus , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Treatment Outcome , Vagus Nerve Stimulation/methods , Implantable Neurostimulators
6.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 120(1): e21-e24, feb 2022. tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1353741

ABSTRACT

La hipofosfatasia es un trastorno hereditario raro causado por mutaciones en el gen ALPL. Causa defectos en la mineralización ósea y dental, función respiratoria anormal, convulsiones, hipotonía, dolor óseo y nefrocalcinosis. Las formas clínicas se reconocen según la edad al diagnóstico y la gravedad. Presentamos el caso de una lactante con fontanela anterior agrandada, bóveda craneal blanda, fracturas, dificultad respiratoria y convulsiones. El análisis bioquímico mostró hipercalcemia, fosfato sérico normal y fosfatasa alcalina sérica baja. La radiografía mostró hipomineralización, fracturas y callos. La concentración plasmática de piridoxal-5'-fosfato era de 762 mg/l (intervalo normal: 5-50) y la concentración de fosfoetanolamina en orina era de 1015 mmol/l (intervalo normal: 15-341). El análisis del gen ALPL mostró dos mutaciones heterocigotas compuestas, una de las cuales es novedosa. El diagnóstico y tratamiento tempranos de la hipofosfatasia perinatal podría mejorar los resultados y tener un impacto positivo en la sobrevida.


Hypophosphatasia (HPP) is a rare inherited disorder caused by mutations in the ALPL gene. Mineralization defect in bones and teeth, abnormal respiratory function, seizures, hypotonia, bone pain, and nephrocalcinosis can be observed. Clinical forms are usually recognized based on age at diagnosis and severity of features. We present an infant with an enlarged anterior fontanelle, soft calvarium, fractures, respiratory distress, and seizures. Biochemical analysis showed hypercalcemia, normal serum phosphate, and low serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels. X-ray showed hypomineralization, fractures, and callus formations. Plasma pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) was 762 mg/L (NV : 5-50) and urine phosphoethanolamine (PEA) was 1015 mmol/L (NV : 15-341) and ALPL gene analysis showed two compound heterozygous mutations, one of which is a novel one. Early diagnosis and treatment of perinatal HPP may improve outcomes and might have a positive impact on survival.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant , Hypophosphatasia/diagnosis , Hypophosphatasia/genetics , Hypophosphatasia/drug therapy , Nephrocalcinosis , Seizures , Alkaline Phosphatase/genetics , Alkaline Phosphatase/therapeutic use , Mutation
7.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 80(1): 48-55, Jan. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360131

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Epilepsy has neuropsychiatric comorbidities such as depression, bipolar disorder, and anxiety. Drugs that target epilepsy may also be useful for its neuropsychiatric comorbidities. Objective: To investigate the effects of serotonergic modulation on pro-inflammatory cytokines and the seizures in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizure model in rats. Methods: Male Wistar rats were injected intraperitoneally with serotonin, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine, 5-HT1B/D receptor agonist sumatriptan, or saline 30 min prior to PTZ treatment. Behavioral seizures were assessed by the Racine's scale. Concentrations of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α in serum and brain tissue were determined by ELISA. Results: Serotonin and fluoxetine, but not sumatriptan, alleviated PTZ-induced seizures by prolonging onset times of myoclonic-jerk and generalized tonic-clonic seizures. The anti-seizure effect of fluoxetine was greater than that of serotonin. Likewise, serotonin and fluoxetine, but not sumatriptan, reduced PTZ-induced increases in the levels of IL-1β and IL-6 in both serum and brain tissue. None of the administered drugs including PTZ affected TNF-α concentrations. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that endogenous and exogenous serotonin exhibits anticonvulsant effects by suppressing the neuroinflammation. It seems that 5-HT1B/D receptors do not mediate anticonvulsant and anti-neuroinflammatory effects of serotonin.


RESUMO Antecedentes: A epilepsia apresenta comorbidades neuropsiquiátricas como depressão, transtorno bipolar e ansiedade. Os medicamentos que visam o tratamento da epilepsia podem ser úteis para a epilepsia e suas comorbidades neuropsiquiátricas. Objetivo: Investigar os efeitos da modulação serotonérgica em citocinas pró-inflamatórias e as convulsões no modelo de convulsão induzida por pentilenotetrazol (PTZ) em ratos. Métodos: Ratos Wistar machos foram injetados intraperitonealmente com serotonina, inibidor seletivo da recaptação da serotonina fluoxetina, sumatriptano agonista do receptor 5-HT1B / D ou solução salina 30 min antes do tratamento com PTZ. As crises comportamentais foram avaliadas pela escala de Racine. As concentrações de IL-1β, IL-6 e TNF-α no soro e tecido cerebral foram determinadas por ELISA. Resultados: A serotonina e a fluoxetina, mas não o sumatriptano, aliviaram as convulsões induzidas por PTZ ao prolongar os tempos de início das convulsões mioclônicas e tônico-clônicas generalizadas. O efeito anticonvulsivo da fluoxetina foi maior do que o da serotonina. Da mesma forma, a serotonina e a fluoxetina, mas não o sumatriptano, reduziram os aumentos induzidos por PTZ nos níveis de IL-1β e IL-6 no soro e no tecido cerebral. Nenhum dos medicamentos administrados, incluindo PTZ, alterou as concentrações de TNF-α. Conclusões: Nossos achados sugerem que a serotonina endógena e exógena exibe efeitos anticonvulsivantes por suprimir a neuroinflamação. Aparentemente, os receptores 5-HT1B / D não medeiam os efeitos anticonvulsivantes e anti-neuroinflamatórios da serotonina.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Rats , Pentylenetetrazole/adverse effects , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Seizures/chemically induced , Seizures/drug therapy , Serotonin/adverse effects , Fluoxetine/adverse effects , Interleukin-6 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Rats, Wistar , Sumatriptan/adverse effects , Anticonvulsants/adverse effects
8.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 841-856, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939846

ABSTRACT

Epilepsy is a common and severe brain disease affecting >65 million people worldwide. Recent studies have shown that kinesin superfamily motor protein 17 (KIF17) is expressed in neurons and is involved in regulating the dendrite-targeted transport of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subtype 2B (NR2B). However, the effect of KIF17 on epileptic seizures remains to be explored. We found that KIF17 was mainly expressed in neurons and that its expression was increased in epileptic brain tissue. In the kainic acid (KA)-induced epilepsy mouse model, KIF17 overexpression increased the severity of epileptic activity, whereas KIF17 knockdown had the opposite effect. In electrophysiological tests, KIF17 regulated excitatory synaptic transmission, potentially due to KIF17-mediated NR2B membrane expression. In addition, this report provides the first demonstration that KIF17 is modified by SUMOylation (SUMO, small ubiquitin-like modifier), which plays a vital role in the stabilization and maintenance of KIF17 in epilepsy.


Subject(s)
Animals , Epilepsy/metabolism , Kinesins/metabolism , Mice , Neurons/metabolism , Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate/metabolism , Seizures/metabolism
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935749

ABSTRACT

A retrospective analysis of a case of death from sudden convulsions caused by oral high-dose diquat was conducted, and the mechanism and treatment of central damage caused by diquat were investigated to lay the foundation for increasing the success rate of treatment of high-dose diquat poisoning. At the same time, at the same time, our clinical treatment experience has also been accumulated.


Subject(s)
Diquat , Humans , Poisoning , Retrospective Studies , Seizures
10.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 345-349, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935699

ABSTRACT

Objective: To summarize the phenotypes of epilepsy in patients with MBD5 gene variants. Methods: A total of 9 epileptic patients, who were treated in the Department of Pediatrics, Peking University First Hospital from July 2016 to September 2021 and detected with MBD5 gene pathogenic variants, were enrolled. The features of clinical manifestations, electroencephalogram (EEG), and neuroimaging were analyzed retrospectively. Results: Among 9 patients, 6 were male and 3 were female. Age at seizure onset ranged from 5 to 89 months. Multiple seizure types were observed, including generalized tonic clonic seizures (GTCS) in 7 patients, myoclonic seizures in 5 patients, focal seizures in 5 patients, atypical absence seizures in 3 patients, atonic seizures in 2 patients, myoclonus absence seizures in 1 patient, epileptic spasms in 1 patient, and tonic seizures in 1 patient. There were 8 patients with multiple seizure types, 2 patients with sensitivity to fever and 5 patients with clustering of seizures. Two patients had a history of status epilepticus. All patients had developmental delay before seizure onset. Nine patients had obvious language delay, and 6 patients had autism-like manifestations. Five patients had slow background activity in EEG. Interictal EEG showed abnormal discharges in 9 patients. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was normal in all patients. A total of 9 epileptic patients carried MBD5 gene variants, all of them were de novo variants. There were MBD5 gene overall heterozygous deletion in 1 patient, large fragment deletions including MBD5 gene in 3 patients and single nucleotide variations (c.300C>A/p.C100X, c.1775delA/p.N592Tfs*29, c.1759C>T/p.Q587X, c.150_151del/p.Lys51Asnfs*6, c.113+1G>C) in 5 patients. The age at last follow-up ranged from 2 years and 9 months to 11 years and 11 months. At the last follow-up, 2 patients were seizure-free for more than 11 months to 4 years 6 months, 7 patients still had seizures. Conclusions: The initial seizure onset in patients with MBD5 gene variants usually occurs in infancy. Most patients have multiple seizure types. The seizures may be fever sensitive and clustered. Developmental delays, language impairments, and autistic behaviors are common. MBD5 gene variants include single nucleotide variations and fragment deletions. Epilepsy associated with MBD5 gene variants is usually refractory.


Subject(s)
Child , Child, Preschool , DNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , Electroencephalography , Epilepsies, Myoclonic/genetics , Epilepsy/genetics , Female , Fever , Humans , Infant , Male , Nucleotides , Phenotype , Retrospective Studies , Seizures/genetics
11.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 339-344, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935698

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the clinical and genetic characteristics of epilepsy associated with chromosome 16p11.2 microdeletion. Methods: The patients (n=10) with 16p11.2 microdeletion found in children with epilepsy treated in Beijing Children's Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University from January 2018 to January 2021 were collected. The clinical manifestations, gene variations and prognosis were analyzed retrospectively. Results: A total of 10 children's data were collected, including 5 male and 5 female. The onset age of epilepsy was 4.5 (4.1,5.0) months. Regarding the seizure types, 7 cases had focal seizures with secondary generalization, 2 cases had generalized seizures, and 1 case had tonic seizures and spasms. Nine cases had cluster seizure attacks and 3 cases had status epilepticus. Seven cases had focal or multifocal epileptiform discharges in interictal electroencephalogram (EEG), 3 cases had borderline or normal EEG. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed polymicrogyria in 1 case, paraventricular leukomalacia in 1 case, delayed myelination of white matter in 3 cases, and no obvious abnormalities in the other 5 cases. The patients were followed up for 0.5-3.5 years, with 1-3 kinds of antiepileptic drugs taken orally. The case with polymicrogyria still had seizures, however the other 9 cases had seizures controlled. The age of the last seizure attack was 8 (6, 12) months. There were 6 cases with mental and motor developmental delay before epilepsy onset. During the follow-up, 7 cases were retarded to varying degrees, while 3 cases had normal development. Regarding the genetic detection methods, 7 cases underwent whole exome sequencing, 2 cases underwent whole genome copy number variation detection, and 1 case underwent whole genome sequencing. The length of the 16p11.2 deletion in 10 cases ranged from 525 to 951 kb, and all contained the PRRT2 gene intact. Six cases were de novo variants, 1 case was inherited from the mother who had a history of convulsions in early childhood, and the source of variant was not verified in 3 cases, none of whose parents had relevant phenotype. Conclusions: The epilepsy associated with 16p11.2 microdeletion is mainly induced by the heterozygous deletion of PRRT2 gene in this region, however the phenotype is usually severe, and often combined with developmental and epileptic encephalopathy. Detection of copy number variation should be emphasized in children whose etiology is considered genetic but second-generation sequencing result is negative.


Subject(s)
Child, Preschool , Chromosomes , DNA Copy Number Variations , Electroencephalography , Epilepsy/genetics , Female , Humans , Male , Polymicrogyria/genetics , Retrospective Studies , Seizures/genetics
12.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 232-236, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935676

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyse the clinical and gene characteristics of GRIN2B gene related neurological developmental disorders in children. Methods: The data of 11 children with GRIN2B gene related neurological developmental disorders from November 2016 to February 2021 were collected from Department of Neurology, Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University, National Center for Children's Health and analyzed retrospectively. The clinical features, electroencephalogram (EEG), brain imaging and gene testing results were summarized. Results: Among 11 children 6 were boys and 5 were girls. Two of them were diagnosed with developmental and epileptic encephalopathy. The ages of seizures onset were 3 months and 9 months, respectively. Seizure types included epileptic spasm, tonic seizures, tonic spasm and focal seizures, and 1 patient also had startle attacks. EEG showed interictal multifocal epileptiform discharges. Both of them were added with more than 2 anti-seizure drugs, which were partially effective but could not control. They had moderate to severe mental and motor retardation. The phenotype of 9 cases was developmental delay or intellectual disability without epilepsy, age of visit 1 year to 6 year and 4 months of whom 5 cases had severe developmental delay, 2 cases had moderate and 2 cases had mild delay. Multi-focal epileptiform discharges were observed in 3 cases, no abnormality was found in 3 cases, and the remaining 3 cases did not undergo EEG examination. Ten cases underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 6 cases had nonspecific abnormalities and 4 cases were normal. Nine GRIN2B gene heterozygous variants were detected by next-generation sequencing in these 11 patients, 8 cases had missense variants and 1 case had nonsense variant, all of which were de novo and 3 of which were novel. Missense variants were found in 10 patients, among them 6 cases had severe developmental delay, 3 cases had moderate and 1 case had mild developmental delay, but the patient with nonsense variant showed mild developmental delay without epilepsy. Conclusions: The phenotypes of GRIN2B gene related neurological developmental disorders in children are diverse, ranging from mild intellectual impairment without epilepsy to severe epileptic encephalopathy. Patients with epileptic phenotype usually have an onset age of infancy, and spasm and focal seizures are the most common seizure types. And the epiletice episodes are refractory. Most of the patients with missense variants had severe developmental delay.


Subject(s)
Child , Developmental Disabilities/genetics , Electroencephalography , Epilepsy/genetics , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Retrospective Studies , Seizures/genetics , Spasms, Infantile/genetics
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928647

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To study the clinical phenotype and genetic features of 16p11.2 microdeletion-related epilepsy in children.@*METHODS@#The medical data of 200 children with epilepsy who underwent a genetic analysis of epilepsy by the whole exon sequencing technology were collected retrospectively, of whom 9 children with epilepsy had 16p11.2 microdeletion. The clinical phenotype and genetic features of the 9 children with 16p11.2 microdeletion were analyzed.@*RESULTS@#The detection rate of 16p11.2 microdeletion was 4.5% (9/200). The 9 children with 16p11.2 microdeletion were 3-10 months old. They experienced focal motor seizures with consciousness disturbance, and some of the seizures developed into generalized tonic-clonic seizures. The interictal electroencephalogram showed focal or multifocal epileptiform discharge, and all 9 children responded well to antiepileptic drugs. The 9 children had a 16p11.2 deletion fragment size of 398-906 kb, and the number of deleted genes was 23-33 which were all pathogenic mutations. The mutation was of maternal origin in 2 children, of paternal origin in 1 child, and de novo in the other children.@*CONCLUSIONS@#16p11.2 microdeletion can be detected in some children with epilepsy. Most of the 16p11.2 microdeletion is de novo mutation and large gene fragment deletion. The onset of 16p11.2 microdeletion-related epilepsy in children is mostly within 1 year of life, and the epilepsy is drug-responsive.


Subject(s)
Anticonvulsants , Epilepsy/genetics , Humans , Phenotype , Retrospective Studies , Seizures/genetics
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928601

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To study the efficacy and safety of domestic generic levetiracetam in replacement of brand-name levetiracetam in the treatment of children with epilepsy.@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was performed on the medical data of 154 children with epilepsy who received domestic generic levetiracetam in the inpatient or outpatient service of Guangdong Provincial People's Hospital from May 2019 to December 2020. Domestic generic levetiracetam and brand-name levetiracetam were compared in terms of efficacy and safety.@*RESULTS@#For these 154 children, the epilepsy control rate was 77.3% (119/154) at baseline. At 6 months after switching to domestic generic levetiracetam, the epilepsy control rate reached 83.8% (129/154), which showed a significant increase (P<0.05). There was no significant change in the frequency of seizures from baseline to 6 months after switching (P>0.05). The incidence of refractory epilepsy in children with no response after switching treatment was significantly higher than that in children with response (P<0.05). Before switching, only 1 child (0.6%) experienced somnolence, while after switching, 3 children (1.9%) experienced mild adverse drug reactions, including dizziness, somnolence, irritability, and bad temper.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Switching from brand-name to generic levetiracetam is safe and effective and holds promise for clinical application, but more prospective randomized controlled trials are required in future.


Subject(s)
Child , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Humans , Levetiracetam , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Seizures
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928587

ABSTRACT

Neonatal seizures are the most common clinical manifestations of critically ill neonates and often suggest serious diseases and complicated etiologies. The precise diagnosis of this disease can optimize the use of anti-seizure medication, reduce hospital costs, and improve the long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes. Currently, a few artificial intelligence-assisted diagnosis and treatment systems have been developed for neonatal seizures, but there is still a lack of high-level evidence for the diagnosis and treatment value in the real world. Based on an artificial intelligence-assisted diagnosis and treatment systems that has been developed for neonatal seizures, this study plans to recruit 370 neonates at a high risk of seizures from 6 neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in China, in order to evaluate the effect of the system on the diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of neonatal seizures in neonates with different gestational ages in the NICU. In this study, a diagnostic study protocol is used to evaluate the diagnostic value of the system, and a randomized parallel-controlled trial is designed to evaluate the effect of the system on the treatment and prognosis of neonates at a high risk of seizures. This multicenter prospective study will provide high-level evidence for the clinical application of artificial intelligence-assisted diagnosis and treatment systems for neonatal seizures in the real world.


Subject(s)
Artificial Intelligence , Electroencephalography/methods , Epilepsy/diagnosis , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/diagnosis , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Prospective Studies , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Seizures/drug therapy
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928577

ABSTRACT

Electroencephalography (EEG) monitoring is an important examination method in the management of critically ill neonates, which can be used to evaluate brain function and developmental status, severity of encephalopathy, and seizures and predict the long-term neurodevelopmental outcome of high-risk neonates with brain injury. EEG monitoring for neonates is different from that for adults and children, and its operation and interpretation are easily affected by the number of recording electrodes, electrode montage, and monitoring quality. Therefore, standard operation must be followed to ensure the quality of signal acquisition and correct interpretation, thereby ensuring proper management of critically ill neonates. The Subspecialty Group of Neonatology, Society of Pediatrics, Chinese Medical Association established an expert group composed of professionals in neonatology and brain electrophysiology to perform a literature review, summarize the minimum technical standards for neonatal EEG monitoring, and develop the expert consensus on minimum technical standards for neonatal EEG operation and report writing. This consensus will provide guidance for neonatal EEG operation, including technical parameters of EEG monitoring device, operation procedures of EEG monitoring, and specifications for report writing.


Subject(s)
Adult , Brain Injuries , Child , Consensus , Electroencephalography/methods , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Seizures , Writing
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928576

ABSTRACT

Neonatal electroencephalogram (EEG) monitoring guidelines have been published by American Clinical Neurophysiology Society, and the expert consensus on neonatal amplitude-integrated EEG (aEEG) has also been published in China. It is difficult to strictly follow the guidelines or consensus for EEG monitoring in different levels of neonatal units due to a lack of EEG monitoring equipment and professional interpreters. The Subspecialty Group of Neonatology, Society of Pediatrics, Chinese Medical Association, established an expert group composed of professionals in neonatology, pediatric neurology, and brain electrophysiology to review published guidelines and consensuses and the articles in related fields and propose grading management recommendations for EEG monitoring in different levels of neonatal units. Based on the characteristics of video EEG and aEEG, local medical resources, and disease features, the expert group recommends that video EEG and aEEG can complement each other and can be used in different levels of neonatal units. The consensus also gives recommendations for promoting collaboration between professionals in neonatology, pediatric neurology, and brain electrophysiology and implementing remote EEG monitoring.


Subject(s)
Child , Consensus , Electroencephalography , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Neonatology , Seizures
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928442

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the clinical characteristics and CSNK2B gene variant of 2 children with Poirier-Bienvenu neurodevelopmental syndrome, and to identify the possible pathogenic causes and provide evidence for clinical diagnosis.@*METHODS@#Two children with Poirier-Bienvenu neurodevelopmental syndrome were selected from West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University. The clinical manifestations, laboratory examination and CSNK2B gene variant were analyzed.@*RESULTS@#The main manifestations of 2 children were epilepsy, motor or intellectual retardation. Whole exon sequencing showed that CSNK2B gene c. 291+4A>T heterozygous splicing variant was found in case one, and CSNK2B copy number variation(CNV) was lost in case two. Case one received no special treatment, followed up for 8+ months, seizures and motor development were improved; case two had recurrent seizures for 9+ years, and received levetiracetam and clonazepam antiepileptic treatment. No seizures have occurred for 2 years now, and a large number of epileptic discharges can still be seen in video electroencephalogram (VEEG) with slightly backward intelligence and language development.@*CONCLUSION@#Our study further proves that the pathogenic variant of CSNK2B is related to epilepsy with developmental disorder, and enrich is the CSNK2B gene variant spectrum. The pathogenesis of CSNK2B has great clinical heterogeneity, with great difference in severity of nervous system injury and different prognosis, and agenesis of corpus callosum may be one of its clinical phenotypes.


Subject(s)
Child , DNA Copy Number Variations , Developmental Disabilities/genetics , Epilepsy/genetics , Humans , Intellectual Disability/genetics , Seizures/genetics
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928441

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To summarize the clinical phenotype and genotypic characteristics of 3 patients with KBG syndrome and epileptic seizure.@*METHODS@#Clinical data of the patients were collected. Family-trio whole exon sequencing (WES) was carried out. Candidate variants were verified by Sanger sequencing.@*RESULTS@#Patients 1 and 2 were boys, and patient 3 was an adult woman. All patients had epileptic seizures and mental deficiency. Their facial features included triangular face, low hair line, hypertelorism, large forward leaning auricles, broad nasal bridge, upturned nostrils, long philtrum, arched upper lip, and macrodontia. The two boys also had bilateral Simian creases. WES revealed that the three patients all harbored heterozygous de novo frameshift variants in exon 9 of the ANKRD11 gene including c.2948delG (p.Ser983Metfs*335), c.5397_c.5398insC (p.Glu1800Argfs*150) and c.1180_c.1184delAATAA (p.Asn394Hisfs*42). So far 291 patients with ANKRD11 gene variants or 16q24.3 microdeletions were reported, with over 75% being de novo mutations.@*CONCLUSION@#Above findings have enriched the spectrum of ANKRD11 gene mutations underlying KBG syndrome. WES is helpful for the early diagnosis of KBG, and provided reference for genetic counseling of this disease.


Subject(s)
Abnormalities, Multiple/genetics , Bone Diseases, Developmental/genetics , Epilepsy/genetics , Facies , Humans , Intellectual Disability/genetics , Phenotype , Repressor Proteins/genetics , Seizures/genetics , Tooth Abnormalities/genetics
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928225

ABSTRACT

In recent years, epileptic seizure detection based on electroencephalogram (EEG) has attracted the widespread attention of the academic. However, it is difficult to collect data from epileptic seizure, and it is easy to cause over fitting phenomenon under the condition of few training data. In order to solve this problem, this paper took the CHB-MIT epilepsy EEG dataset from Boston Children's Hospital as the research object, and applied wavelet transform for data augmentation by setting different wavelet transform scale factors. In addition, by combining deep learning, ensemble learning, transfer learning and other methods, an epilepsy detection method with high accuracy for specific epilepsy patients was proposed under the condition of insufficient learning samples. In test, the wavelet transform scale factors 2, 4 and 8 were set for experimental comparison and verification. When the wavelet scale factor was 8, the average accuracy, average sensitivity and average specificity was 95.47%, 93.89% and 96.48%, respectively. Through comparative experiments with recent relevant literatures, the advantages of the proposed method were verified. Our results might provide reference for the clinical application of epilepsy detection.


Subject(s)
Algorithms , Child , Deep Learning , Electroencephalography , Epilepsy/diagnosis , Humans , Seizures/diagnosis , Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted , Wavelet Analysis
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