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1.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353095

ABSTRACT

A Hemiplegia Alternante da Infância é um distúrbio neurológico grave e uma doença rara (1 em cada 100.000 recém-nascidos), caracterizado por ataques repetidos transitórios de hemiplegia episódica ou tetraplegia que podem durar minutos a horas, acompanhados por outros sintomas paroxísticos como anormalidades oculomotoras e autonômicas, distúrbios do movimento como ataxia, comprometimento cognitivo progressivo, convulsões, distonia e coreia. Os tratamentos atuais são amplamente sintomáticos. Neste relato de caso, apresentamos paciente do sexo feminino, 18 anos, na qual aos 10 meses apresentou o primeiro episódio aparente de crise convulsiva com versão ocular. O eletroencefalograma e tomografia computadorizada não revelaram anormalidades e foram administradas diversas medicações como fenobarbital, carbamazepina, valproato de sódio, topiramato, dicloridrato de flunarizina, clonazepam, cipro-heptadina e pizotifeno, todos sem resultado. Devidos aos sintomas extrapiramidais, paciente passou a utilizar biperideno, apresentando não só melhora da distonia, mas também no número de crises hemiplégicas. Aos 13 anos, ela foi diagnosticada com Hemiplegia Alternante da Infância na mutação patogênica missense de novo c.2415C G (p.Asp805Glu) no gene ATP1A3 apresentando boa resposta ao tratamento com cloridrato de biperideno. (AU)


Alternating hemiplegia of childhood is a severe neurological disorder and a rare disease (1 in 100,000 newborns), characterized by repeated transient attacks of episodic hemiplegia or tetraplegia that can last minutes to hours, accompanied by other paroxysmal symptoms such as oculomotor and autonomic abnormalities, movement disorders such as ataxia, progressive cognitive impairment, seizures, dystonia, and chorea. Current treatments are largely symptomatic. In this case report, we present a female patient, 18 years old, who presented the first apparent episode of seizure with ocular version at ten months of age. The electroencephalogram and CT scan revealed no abnormalities, and several medications such as phenobarbital, carbamazepine, sodium valproate, topiramate, flunarizine dihydrochloride, clonazepam, cyproheptadine and pizotifen were administered, all without result. Due to the extrapyramidal symptoms, the patient started using biperidene, showing improvement in dystonia and the number of hemiplegic seizures. At age 13, she was diagnosed with Alternating hemiplegia of Childhood in the pathogenic missense de novo mutation c.2415C>G (p.Asp805Glu) in the ATP1A3 gene showing a good response to treatment with biperidene hydrochloride. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Ataxia , Seizures , Biperiden , Rare Diseases , Cognitive Dysfunction , Hemiplegia
2.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(3): 359-366, jun. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346470

ABSTRACT

Resumen El síndrome de leucoencefalopatía posterior reversible (PRES) es un desorden neurológico agudo caracterizado por cefalea, alteración de la conciencia, convulsiones y alteraciones visuales, con imágenes de edema vasogénico reversible en regiones cerebrales posteriores. Nos propusimos describir una serie de casos de pacientes trasplantados que desarrollaron PRES, caracterizando su presentación, evolución clínica, imágenes y terapéutica. Se analizaron historias clínicas informatizadas desde enero 2009 hasta enero 2019. Se recabaron datos demográficos, antecedentes clínicos, motivos y días de internación, tiempos desde el trasplante a la presentación clínica y diagnóstico. Se evaluó la mejoría/resolución en estudios por imágenes y la supervivencia anual. Se identificaron 27 pacientes con PRES; 22 trasplantados de órgano sólido de 1647 totales (1.3%) y 5 de médula ósea de 617 totales (0.8%). La media de edad fue de 38.2 años (DS 19.5), 62.9% de sexo femenino, 59.2% (16) antes del año del trasplante. Las comorbilidades más frecuentes enfermedad renal (14; 51%) e hipertensión arterial (11; 40%). Se realizó tomografía axial computarizada (TAC) a 23 pacientes (85.1%), siendo patológica en 11 (47.8%), y resonancia magnética nuclear (RMN) a 25 (92.6%), mostrando patrón característico en 17 (62.9%), con mejoría/resolución antes del año en 20 (74%). El tratamiento fue sintomático, modificando la inmunosupresión. Se registraron 5 óbitos durante la internación y otros 3 antes del año, con una supervivencia anual del 70.3% (19). La población de trasplantados, en crecimiento en nuestro medio, es particularmente susceptible al PRES. Tanto su presentación en estudios por imágenes, como su comorbilidad, difieren de otras poblaciones.


Abstract Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is an acute neurological disorder characterized by headache, encephalopathy, seizures and visual disturbances, with reversible vasogenic edema in posterior brain areas. The aim of this research was to describe a case series of transplanted patients who developed PRES, characterize their presentation, treatment, clinical and imaging evolution. Electronic medi cal records were analyzed from January 2009 to January 2019. Demographic data, clinical backgrounds, causes of admission, hospital length of stay and time from transplantation to PRES were collected. Image improvement/ resolution and annual survival were assessed. We identified 27 patients with PRES; 22 of 1647 total solid-organ transplant (1.3%) and 5 of 617 total bone marrow transplant (0.8%). The mean age at presentation was 38.2 years (SD 19.5), 62.9% female, 59.2% (16) before the year of transplantation. The most common comorbidities were kidney disease (14; 51%) and high blood pressure (11; 40%). Computed axial tomography (CT) was per formed in 23 patients (85.1%), with pathological findings in 11 (47.8%). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of 25 (92.6%), showed a characteristic pattern in 17 (62.9%) with improvement/resolution before the year in 20 (74%). Treatment was symptomatic, modifying immunosuppression. Five deaths were recorded during hospital stay and another 3 before the year of admission, with an annual survival of 70.3% (19 patients). Organ transplant trend is growing in our region. These patients are particularly susceptible to PRES, with a different imaging presentation and comorbidities from other populations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome/etiology , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome/epidemiology , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Hypertension , Seizures , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Follow-Up Studies
3.
Femina ; 49(3): 173-176, 20210331. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1224083

ABSTRACT

A epilepsia, doença cerebral caracterizada pela predisposição à geração de crises epilépticas, representa a patologia neurológica grave mais frequente na gravidez. Quando não acompanhada corretamente, possui um acentuado nível de morbimortalidade materno-fetal, sendo especialmente relacionada a riscos de convulsão materna na gestação e malformações fetais. Este artigo discute o acompanhamento da gestante epiléptica, trazendo recomendações de cuidados no período pré-concepcional, manejo durante o pré-natal, condução do trabalho de parto, peculiaridades no puerpério e tratamento de crises convulsivas, quando necessário. Serão abordados tanto aspectos de tratamento farmacológico quanto de monitoramento e orientações gerais, com o objetivo de contribuir para um suporte mais abrangente e adequado a esse grupo mais vulnerável de pacientes sob o cuidado do médico ginecologista-obstetra e neurologista.(AU)


Epilepsy, which is a brain disease defined for a greater predisposition for epileptic crisis, represents the most frequent neurological pathology during pregnancy. Without proper monitoring it is related to high morbidity and mortality to both mother and baby, especially due to the risks of mother seizure during pregnancy and fetus malformation. This article discusses about health care giving and follow-up for the epileptic pregnant women, pointing recommendations for preconception care, prenatal management, labor conduct, peculiarities in puerperium and treatment of convulsive crisis when needed. There will be approached pharmacological and non-pharmacological aspects, such as follow up exams and general orientations, having as a goal to contribute to an more abrangent and proper support of this more vulnerable group of patients under the care responsibility of obstetrician-gynecologist ad neurologist doctors.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications/drug therapy , Epilepsy/complications , Epilepsy/prevention & control , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Prenatal Care/methods , Seizures/drug therapy , Carbamazepine/administration & dosage , Pregnancy, High-Risk , Postpartum Period/drug effects , Time-to-Pregnancy/drug effects , Lamotrigine/administration & dosage , Levetiracetam/administration & dosage , Obstetric Labor Complications/prevention & control , Anticonvulsants/administration & dosage
4.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(1): 62-68, mar. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287242

ABSTRACT

Resumen La elección de un método anticonceptivo considerado como altamente efectivo en mujeres epilépticas en edad fértil es importante, ya que requiere al momento de indicarlos tener en cuenta los criterios de elegibilidad y las posibles interacciones farmacológicas entre determinados tipos de fármacos anticonvulsivantes (principalmente las inductoras enzimáticas del sistema hepático P450 como: carbamacepina, fenitoína, fenobarbital, oxacarbamacepina, eslicarbazepina, rufinamida, lacosamida y topiramato en dosis altas) y ciertos métodos anticonceptivos (anticonceptivos orales combinados o solo con progesterona e implantes de progesterona subdérmicos) pudiendo acelerar el metabolismo de estas últimas con el consiguiente riesgo de fracaso o viceversa, reduciendo la concentración plasmática (como por ejemplo; lamotrigina) predisponiendo a crisis epilépticas, riesgo de embarazos no deseados, abortos, teratogenicidad por valproato, complicaciones materno fetal y dificultad en el manejo de la actividad epiléptica durante la gestación. En caso de asociarse ambas medicaciones, se debe considerar el uso combinado con un método de barrera u optar por la utilización de inyección de depósito de acetato de medroxiprogesterona o dispositivo intrauterino como anticoncepción. Está demostrado que el asesoramiento sobre planificación familiar en la primera consulta puede influenciar en la elección del método anticonceptivo y el inicio temprano de ácido fólico en caso de búsqueda de fertilidad. En conclusión, se debe analizar junto con las pacientes epilépticas las diferentes opciones terapéuticas con el fin de lograr y optimizar la mejor meta de cada uno.


Abstract The choice of a contraceptive method considered highly effective in epileptic women of childbearing age is important, since it requires taking into account the eligibility criteria and the possible pharmacological interactions between certain types of anti-seizure drugs (mainly enzyme inducers drugs of the hepatic system P450 such as: carbamazepine, phenytoin, phenobarbital, oxacarbamazepine, eslicarbazepine, rufinamide, lacosamide and topiramate in high doses) and certain contraceptive methods (oral contraceptives combined or only with progesterone and subdermal progesterone implants), which may accelerate the metabolism of the latter with the consequent risk of failure or vice versa, reduction of plasma concentration (such as lamotrigine) predisposing to seizures, risk of unwanted pregnancies, abortions, teratogenicity due to valproato, maternalfetal complications and difficulty in the management of epileptic activity during pregnancy. In case of prescribing both medications, the combined use with a barrier method should be considered or the use of a depot injection of medroxyprogesterone acetate or intrauterine device as contraception should be considered. Family planning counseling at the first visit has been shown to influence the choice of the contraceptive method and the early initiation of folic acid in the search for fertility. In conclusion, the different therapeutic options should be analyzed together with the epileptic patients in order to achieve and optimize the best goal for each one.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Contraception , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Seizures/drug therapy , Anticonvulsants/adverse effects
5.
Iatreia ; 34(1): 78-83, ene.-mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154361

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN El coma mixedematoso es la complicación más grave de un hipotiroidismo. Ocurre, por lo general, en mujeres ancianas con hipotiroidismo conocido sin un adecuado manejo y en presencia de un evento desencadenante. El diagnóstico es difícil y debe realizarse en forma oportuna para disminuir el riesgo de muerte. El coma es una de las presentaciones neurológicas de esta urgencia endocrinológica y no es necesario su presencia para el diagnóstico. En este reporte de caso se presentan varías manifestaciones inusuales en un paciente masculino con hipotiroidismo profundo que, al diagnóstico, debutó con coma mixedematoso con predictores de mal pronóstico durante la hospitalización, pero debido al abordaje temprano y el manejo integral, se dio una resolución satisfactoria a esta urgencia endocrinológica infrecuente.


SUMMARY Myxedema coma is the most serious complication of hypothyroidism. It usually occurs in the context of elderly women, with known hypothyroidism without proper management and in the presence of a triggering event. The diagnosis is challenging and must be made in a timely manner to prevent the development of adverse outcomes. Coma is one of the neurological manifestations of the entity, not being necessary for its diagnosis. This case report presents a constellation of unusual manifestations of a male patient with myxedema coma at the debut of severe hypothyroidism with predictors of poor prognosis during hospitalization, but due to the early approach and comprehensive management, this uncommon endocrinological emergency was satisfactorily resolved.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Pericardial Effusion , Myxedema , Seizures , Coma
6.
San Salvador; MINSAL; ene. 22, 2021. 79 p. ilus, graf.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1253419

ABSTRACT

Los presentes lineamientos, pretenden establecer las disposiciones para la atención integral de la persona con epilepsia y crisis epilépticas, de acuerdo a la complejidad de la presentación clínica en el nivel de atención correspondiente de las instituciones del Sistema Nacional Integrado de Salud (SNIS), a fin de estandarizar el manejo clínico


These Guidelines intend to establish the provisions for the comprehensive care of the person with epilepsy and epileptic seizures, according to the complexity of the clinical presentation at the corresponding level of care of the institutions of the National Integrated Health System (SNIS), to in order to standardize clinical management


Subject(s)
Seizures , Comprehensive Health Care , Epilepsy
7.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(9): e11097, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278588

ABSTRACT

Pediatric epilepsy comprises chronic neurological disorders characterized by recurrent seizures. Sodium valproate is one of the common antiseizure medications used for treatment. Glucuronide conjugation is the major metabolic pathway of sodium valproate, carried out by the enzyme uridine 5′-diphosphate (UDP) glucuronosyl transferase (UGT) whose gene polymorphisms may alter the clinical outcome. The objective of this study was to assess the association between UGT1A6 genetic polymorphism and clinical outcome in terms of efficacy and tolerability in pediatric epileptic patients on sodium valproate monotherapy. Pediatric epileptic patients (n=65) aged 2-18 years receiving sodium valproate monotherapy for the past one month were included. Genetic polymorphism patterns of UGT1A6 (T19G, A541G, A552C) were evaluated by PCR-RFLP. Clinical outcome was seizure control during the 6 months observation period. Tolerability was measured by estimating the hepatic, renal, and other lab parameters. Out of 65 patients, TT (40%), TG (57%), and GG (3%) patterns were observed in UGT1A6 (T19G) gene, AA (51%), AG (40%), and GG (9%) in (A541G) gene, and AA (43%), AC (43%), and CC (14%) in (A552C) gene. No statistical difference in clinical outcome was found for different UGT1A6 genetic polymorphism patterns. We concluded that different patterns of UGT1A6 genetic polymorphism were not associated with the clinical outcome of sodium valproate in terms of efficacy and tolerability. Sodium valproate was well-tolerated among pediatric patients with epilepsy and can be used as an effective antiseizure medication.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Valproic Acid/therapeutic use , Epilepsy/genetics , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Seizures/genetics , Seizures/drug therapy , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Anticonvulsants/therapeutic use
8.
Autops. Case Rep ; 11: e2021254, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153183

ABSTRACT

Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor (IMT) is a rare pathologic entity that was first described in 1973. This lesion is most commonly found in the lungs, but other organs' involvement has also been reported. Intracranial location of Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor is rare, and the first case was reported in 1980. An intriguing fact about the intracranial IMT is its resemblance with meningioma on clinical presentation and neuroimaging. We came across a case of intracranial Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor (IIMT) in a 27-year-old male who presented with recurrent episodes of seizures and was diagnosed as meningioma on neuroimaging. The lesion did not subside with medical management and kept on progressing in size. The patient had to undergo surgery, and diagnosis of Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor was ascertained on histopathology. This 'surprise' diagnosis prompted us to review the literature on all cases of IIMTs reported to date to better understand the entity and its implications. In this review article, we present our observations regarding various studied parameters, including patient profile, clinical presentation, site of involvement, focality of the lesion, special associations, and lines of management of the 49 published cases of IIMTs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Brain Neoplasms , Myofibroblasts , Granuloma, Plasma Cell/pathology , Seizures , Rare Diseases , Meningeal Neoplasms , Meningioma/diagnosis
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879875

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the clinical features of children with influenza A virus infection and neurological symptoms.@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of children with laboratory-confirmed influenza A and neurological symptoms who were treated in Xi'an Children's Hospital Affiliated to Xi'an Jiaotong University from January to December, 2019.@*RESULTS@#A total of 895 children were diagnosed with influenza A, among whom 291 had neurological symptoms. Boys had a significantly higher incidence rate of influenza A than girls (@*CONCLUSIONS@#There is a high incidence rate of neurological symptoms in children with influenza A, and seizures are the most common symptom. Most of the patients with neurological symptoms tend to have a good prognosis, but those with ANE may have a poor prognosis.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Influenza A virus , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Male , Retrospective Studies , Seizures
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879859

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the change and significance of hippocampal volume (HCV) in children with recurrent febrile seizures.@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was performed on the medical data and examination results of 34 children with recurrent febrile seizures who underwent two magnetic resonance plain scans of the head and the hippocampus from January 1, 2013 to September 30, 2019. According to the follow-up time, they were divided into the first follow-up group and the second follow-up group. According to prognosis, they were divided into a febrile seizure group, a non-febrile group and an epilepsy group. The change in HCV was analyzed and compared.@*RESULTS@#Total HCV was positively correlated with age (@*CONCLUSIONS@#HCV gradually increases with age in children with recurrent febrile seizures. Persistent seizures may damage the development of the hippocampus.


Subject(s)
Child, Preschool , Hippocampus/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Infant , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Retrospective Studies , Seizures , Seizures, Febrile
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879848

ABSTRACT

A girl, aged 15 years, was admitted due to sudden convulsion once and multiple pulmonary nodules on lung CT. Acrocyanosis or acropachy/toe deformity was not observed. Laboratory examinations showed an increase in hemoglobin (162 g/L) and a reduction in arterial partial pressure of oxygen (61.5 mm Hg). Lung CT showed irregular slightly high-density nodules in the middle lobe of the right lung, and contrast-enhanced CT scan showed obvious enhancement with thick vascular shadow locally. An investigation of medical history revealed that the girl's mother had a history of epistaxis and resection of pulmonary mass and the girl presented with tongue telangiectasia. The girl was diagnosed with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia and pulmonary arteriovenous malformation. she was given interventional embolization therapy. Transcutaneous oxygen saturation reached 98% without oxygen inhalation on the day after surgery. Pulmonary angiography at 3 months after surgery showed the recurrence of pulmonary vascular malformation, and embolization of pulmonary arterial fistula was not performed since the guide wire could not enter the branch artery. There was still a need for long-term follow-up.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Arteriovenous Fistula , Arteriovenous Malformations , Female , Humans , Multiple Pulmonary Nodules , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Pulmonary Artery/diagnostic imaging , Seizures
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879548

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the genetic basis for a child with ocular anomaly, microcephaly, growth retardation and intrauterine growth restriction.@*METHODS@#The patient underwent ophthalmologic examinations including anterior segment photography, fundus color photography, and fundus fluorescein angiography. The patient and her parents were subjected to whole exome sequencing. Candidate variants were verified by Sanger sequencing and bioinformatic analysis.@*RESULTS@#The patient was found to have bilateral persistent pupillary membrane and coloboma of inferior iris, in addition with macular dysplasia and radial pigmentation near the hemal arch of the temporal retina. She was found to have carried compound heterozygous missense variants of the PHGDH gene, namely c.196G>A and c.1177G>A, which were respectively inherited from her father and mother. Bioinformatic analysis suggested both variants to be pathogenic.@*CONCLUSION@#The patient was diagnosed with phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase deficiency. Above finding has enriched the phenotypic spectrum of the disease with ocular manifestations.


Subject(s)
Carbohydrate Metabolism, Inborn Errors/genetics , Child , Coloboma , Female , Humans , Microcephaly/genetics , Mutation , Phenotype , Phosphoglycerate Dehydrogenase/genetics , Psychomotor Disorders/genetics , Seizures/genetics , Whole Exome Sequencing
13.
Gac. méd. boliv ; 43(2): 200-206, dic. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249984

ABSTRACT

El síndrome de Sturge-Weber es un trastorno neurocutáneo, congénito, esporádico e infrecuente que afecta aproximadamente a 1 de cada 20 000 a 50 0000 nacidos vivos y que se relaciona con una mutación genética activadora somática en GNAQ. Clínicamente se caracteriza por la presencia de una mácula en vino de Oporto en la piel de territorio trigeminal, angiomatosis leptomeníngea y glaucoma. Puede asociarse a diferentes manifestaciones clínicas, de las cuales las crisis epilépticas representan la manifestación neurológica más frecuente que se asocia a un deterioro cognitivo importante en estos pacientes. En el presente artículo se realiza una revisión descriptiva de la literatura sobre los aspectos etiológicos, fisiopatológicos, de clasificación, clínicos, diagnósticos y del tratamiento del síndrome de Sturge-Weber.


Sturge-Weber syndrome is a rare, sporadic, congenital neurocutaneous disorder affecting approximately 1 in 20,000 to 50,000 live births that is associated with a somatic activating gene mutation in GNAQ. Clinically it is characterized by the presence of a port wine stain on the skin of trigeminal territory, leptomeningeal angiomatosis and glaucoma. It can be associated with different clinical manifestations, of which the epileptic seizures represents the most frequent neurological manifestation associated with significant cognitive impairment in these patients. This article makes a descriptive review of the literature on the etiological, pathophysiological, classification, clinical, diagnostic and treatment aspects of Sturge-Weber syndrome.


Subject(s)
Seizures , Sturge-Weber Syndrome , Port-Wine Stain , Classification , Live Birth
14.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 78(11): 687-694, Nov. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142364

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Population ageing is a global phenomenon, and life expectancy in Brazil is growing fast. Epilepsy is the third most important chronic neurological disorder, and its incidence is higher among elderly patients than in any other segment of the population. The prevalence of epilepsy is greater among inpatients than in the general population and it is related to long length of hospital stay (LOS), which is associated with hospital mortality and higher healthcare costs. Despite these facts, reports of elderly inpatients admitted with seizures and associated outcomes are scarce. Objective: To identify predictors of long LOS among elderly inpatients admitted with seizures. Methods: We prospectively enrolled elders admitted with epileptic seizures or who experienced seizures throughout hospitalization between November 2015 and August 2019. We analysed demographic data, neurological disorders, clinical comorbidities, and seizure features to identify risk factors. Results: The median LOS was 11 days, with an interquartile range (IQR) of 5-21 days. The frequency of long LOS (defined as a period of hospitalization ≥12 days) was 47%. Multivariate analysis showed there was an exponential increase in long LOS if a patient showed any of the following conditions: intensive care unit (ICU) admission (OR=4.562), urinary tract infection (OR=3.402), movement disorder (OR=5.656), early seizure recurrence (OR=2.090), and sepsis (OR=4.014). Conclusion: Long LOS was common among elderly patients admitted with seizures, and most predictors of long LOS found in this cohort might be avoidable; these findings should be confirmed with further research.


RESUMO O envelhecimento populacional é um fenômeno global e o crescimento da expectativa de vida no Brasil tem sido rápido. A epilepsia é a terceira doença neurológica crônica mais importante e sua incidência em idosos é maior do que em qualquer outro segmento populacional. A prevalência de epilepsia é maior entre pacientes internados e está relacionada a longo tempo de internação (TDI), o qual está associado a custos elevados e mortalidade hospitalar. Apesar disso, são escassos os relatos de desfechos de pacientes idosos internados com crises epilépticas e resultados associados. Objetivo: Identificar fatores de risco de longo TDI em idosos admitidos com crises epilépticas. Métodos: Recrutamos prospectivamente pacientes idosos admitidos com crises epilépticas ou que tiveram crises durante a internação hospitalar entre novembro de 2015 e agosto de 2019. Analisamos dados demográficos, distúrbios neurológicos, comorbidades clínicas e tipos de crise epiléptica para identificar fatores de risco. Resultados: A mediana do TDI foi 11 dias, com intervalo interquartil (IIQ) de 5-21 dias. A frequência de longo TDI (definido como TDI≥12 dias) foi 47%. A análise multivariada mostrou que houve um aumento exponencial de TDI quando o paciente apresentou algumas dessas condições: admissão em unidade de terapia intensiva (UTI) (OR=4,562), infecção urinária (OR=3,402), transtorno do movimento (OR=4,562), recorrência precoce de crise epiléptica (OR=2,090) e sepse (OR=4,014). Conclusão: Longo TDI é um desfecho desfavorável importante e foi comum entre idosos admitidos com crises epilépticas. Muitos dos preditores de longo TDI encontrados nessa coorte podem ser evitados, o que deve ser confirmado com pesquisas futuras.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Seizures/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Brazil/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay
15.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 78(10): 660-662, Oct. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131682

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Epilepsy is one of the most dreaded and terrifying human afflictions. One of the many names it has received was Sacred Disease, during Greek times. Heracles served as a source of the divine connotation that epilepsy received in ancient times, as he was one of the most important demigods in Greek mythology. However, several authors have attributed Heracles' actions to a seizure, including Hippocrates, who described the sacred disease on his "Corpus Hippocraticum." This paper reviewed some of the publications on the myth and content of the text of Hippocrates, in relation to the current knowledge of the disease.


RESUMEN La epilepsia es una de las enfermedades más temidas y terroríficas de la humanidad. Durante el periodo griego, recibió uno de sus muchos nombres, el de enfermedad sagrada. Hércules sirvió como una de las fuentes para la connotación divina que la epilepsia recibió en tiempos antiguos, debido a que fue uno de los semidioses más importantes de la mitología griega. Sin embargo, muchos autores atribuyeron las acciones de Hércules a convulsiones, incluyendo Hipócrates, quien describió la enfermedad sagrada en su "Corpus Hippocraticum". Este artículo revisa algunas de las publicaciones sobre el mito y el contenido del texto de Hipócrates, en relación al conocimiento actual de la enfermedad.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Disease , Epilepsy , Seizures , History, Ancient , Mythology
16.
Rev. argent. neurocir ; 34(3): 226-234, sept. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1120960

ABSTRACT

El origen subcortical de la epilepsia ha sido tema de profundo debate durante muchísimo tiempo y solo se le otorgaba a las estructural subcorticales un rol en la distribución, modulación y alteración de la actividad cortical. Sin embargo, los estudios neurofisiológicos y de neuroimágenes de las últimas décadas han provisto de la información suficiente como para confirmar que algunas crisis epilépticas pueden iniciarse en estructuras subcorticales. Presentamos 4 pacientes pediátricos con lesiones cerebelosas y epilepsia refractaria, revisamos la bibliografía, analizamos las formas de presentación, los hallazgos neurofisiológicos y resultados a largo plazo con cirugía


The subcortical origin of epilepsy has been a subject of debate and only the subcortical structures were given a role in the distribution, modulation and alteration of cortical activity. However, neurophysiological and neuroimaging studies of recent decades have provided enough information to confirm the onset of some epileptic seizures in subcortical structures. We present 4 pediatric patients with cerebellar lesions and refractory epilepsy, we reviewed the literature, analyzed the forms of presentation, the neurophysiological findings and long-term results with surgery


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Epilepsy , Seizures , General Surgery , Drug Resistant Epilepsy
17.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 80(4): 324-328, ago. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154825

ABSTRACT

Resumen Las complicaciones neurológicas posteriores al trasplante cardíaco representan una causa importante de morbimortalidad. La meta del presente estudio fue evaluar las complicaciones neurológicas (CN) en la evolución clínica de pacientes sometidos a trasplante cardíaco. Se evaluaron retrospectivamente todos los trasplantados cardíacos en el Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires de noviembre del 2014 hasta agosto del 2018. Se evaluaron variables demográficas y clínicas, y se compararon entre los pacientes con y sin CN. Se incluyeron 193 adultos (edad ≥ 18 años). La edad media fue de 51±12 años, y 74% (n = 143) fueron varones. Las dos causas más frecuentes que llevaron a la indicación de trasplante fueron la miocardiopatía idiopática en 34% (n = 65) y la isquémica en 29% (n = 56). El 92% (n = 176) presentó inestabilidad hemodinámica al momento del trasplante. El 12% (n = 23) presentó CN centrales en la primer semana post-trasplante. Las más frecuentes fueron encefalopatía (5%), hematoma subdural (2%), hemorragia subaracnoidea (2%), convulsiones (2%), y accidente cerebrovascular isquémico (1%). En 4% se observó neuropatía periférica. La mortalidad hospitalaria fue del 11%, y 88% de los pacientes fueron dados de alta a domicilio. Los que presentaron CN centrales tuvieron mayor mortalidad intrahospitalaria en comparación a quienes no las presentaron (32% vs. 9%, p = 0.002).


Abstract Neurological complications in orthotopic heart transplantation represent amajor cause of morbidity and mortality despite successful transplantation. The aim of our study was to evaluate neurological complications on the outcome of patients with heart transplantation. We retrospectively studied 193 adult patients (aged ≥ 18 years) who underwent heart transplant at Hospital Italiano in Buenos Aires from November 2014 to August 2018. We evaluated demographic and clinical variables and outcome of patients with and without neurological complications. We included 193 patients with a mean age of 51 ± 12 years of which 74% (n = 143) were men. The two most frequent causes that led to heart transplantation were idiopathic cardiomyopathy in 34% (n = 65) and ischemic cardiomyopathy in 29% (n = 56). Hemodynamic instability was present at the moment of transplant in 92% (n = 176) of the cases. Central neurological complications in the first week post-transplant occurred in 12% (n = 23). The most frequent were: encephalopathy (5%), subdural hematoma (2%), subarachnoid hemorrhage (2%), seizures (2%) and ischemic stroke (1%). Peripheral neuropathy was observed in 4% of cases. Hospital mortality was 11% (n = 22) and 88% (n = 170) was discharged at home. Those who presented central neurological complications had higher in-hospital mortality compared to those who did not (32% vs. 9%, p = 0.002).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Heart Transplantation , Stroke , Postoperative Complications , Seizures , Retrospective Studies , Hospital Mortality
18.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 78(7): 424-429, July 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131727

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: Ubiquitin C-terminal Hydrolase-L1 (UCH-L1) enzyme levels were investigated in patients with epilepsy, epileptic seizure, remission period, and healthy individuals. Methods: Three main groups were evaluated, including epileptic seizure, patients with epilepsy in the non-seizure period, and healthy volunteers. The patients having a seizure in the Emergency department or brought by a postictal confusion were included in the epileptic attack group. The patients having a seizure attack or presenting to the Neurology outpatient department for follow up were included in the non-seizure (remission period) group. Results: The UCH-L1 enzyme levels of 160 patients with epilepsy (80 patients with epileptic attack and 80 patients with epilepsy in the non-seizure period) and 100 healthy volunteers were compared. Whereas the UCH-L1 enzyme levels were 8.30 (IQR=6.57‒11.40) ng/mL in all patients with epilepsy, they were detected as 3.90 (IQR=3.31‒7.22) ng/mL in healthy volunteers, and significantly increased in numbers for those with epilepsy (p<0.001). However, whereas the UCH-L1 levels were 8.50 (IQR=6.93‒11.16) ng/mL in the patients with epileptic seizures, they were 8.10 (IQR=6.22‒11.93) ng/mL in the non-seizure period, and no significant difference was detected (p=0.6123). When the UCH-L1 cut-off value was taken as 4.34 mg/mL in Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) Curve analysis, the sensitivity and specificity detected were 93.75 and 66.00%, respectively (AUG=0.801; p<0.0001; 95%CI 0.747‒0.848) for patients with epilepsy. Conclusion: Even though UCH-L1 levels significantly increased more in patients with epilepsy than in healthy individuals, there was no difference between epileptic seizure and non-seizure periods.


RESUMO Objetivo: Níveis da enzima ubiquitina C-terminal hidrolase-L1 (UCH-L1) foram investigados em pacientes com epilepsia, crise epiléptica, período de remissão e indivíduos saudáveis. Método: Foram avaliados três grupos principais, incluindo crise epiléptica, epilepsia no período não convulsivo e voluntários saudáveis. Pacientes com convulsão no departamento de emergência ou trazidos por confusão pós-ictal foram incluídos no grupo de crise epiléptica. Os pacientes que tiveram crise epiléptica ou foram ao ambulatório de Neurologia para acompanhamento foram incluídos no grupo não convulsivo (período de remissão). Resultados: Os níveis da enzima UCH-L1 de 160 pacientes com epilepsia (80 pacientes com crise epiléptica e 80 pacientes com epilepsia no período não convulsivo) e 100 voluntários saudáveis foram comparados. Enquanto os níveis da enzima UCH-L1 foram 8,30 (IQR=6,57‒11,40) ng/mL em todos os pacientes com epilepsia, os níveis detectados foram de 3,90 (IQR=3,31‒7,22) ng/mL em voluntários saudáveis e aumentaram significativamente na epilepsia (p<0,001). No entanto, ao passo que os níveis de UCH-L1 foram 8,50 (IQR=6,93‒11,16) ng/mL nos pacientes com crise epiléptica, foram 8,10 (IQR=6,22‒11,93) ng/mL no período não convulsivo, e nenhuma diferença significativa foi detectada (p=0,6123). Quando o valor de corte de UCH-L1 foi considerado 4,34 mg/mL com base na análise da curva ROC, sensibilidade e especificidade foram detectadas como 93,75 e 66,00%, respectivamente (AUG=0,801; p<0,0001; IC95% 0,747‒0,848) para os pacientes com epilepsia. Conclusão: Embora os níveis de UCH-L1 tenham aumentado significativamente nos pacientes com epilepsia em relação aos indivíduos saudáveis, não foi observada diferença entre crise epiléptica e períodos não convulsivos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Seizures/etiology , Ubiquitin Thiolesterase/blood , Epilepsy/diagnosis , Seizures/blood , Biomarkers/blood , Case-Control Studies , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity , Epilepsy/blood
19.
Rev. Soc. Peru. Med. Interna ; 33(2): 82-84, abr.-jun. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIPECS | ID: biblio-1103790

ABSTRACT

Se presenta el caso de un varón de 53 años de edad con un tiempo de enfermedad de tres días, con malestar general, fiebre, dolor faríngeo, y tos seca. Al ingresar al hospital, se le halló febril y presentó convulsiones tónicas-clónicas y desorientación. La tomografía pulmonar mostró lesiones compatibles con COVID-19; TAC cerebral normal; y, rT-PCR para COVID-19: positivo. La punción lumbar mostró solo hiperglucorraquia, El paciente falleció al tercer día. Se concluye que se trató de un paciente con COVID-19 y compromiso neurológico tipo encefalitis. (AU)


This is the case of a 53-year-old male with a three-day disease time, with malaise, fever, pharyngeal pain and dry cough. Upon entering the hospital, he was febrile and had tonic-clonic seizures and disorientation. The pulmonary tomography showed COVID-19-compatible lesions; normal brain CT; and, rT-PCR for COVID-19: positive. The lumbar puncture showed only hyperglucorraquia, The patient died on the third day. It is concluded that it was a patient with COVID-19 and neurological involvement type encephalitis. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Seizures , Coronavirus Infections , Encephalitis
20.
Rev. colomb. psiquiatr ; 49(2): 116-120, abr.-jun. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1115652

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: El síndrome de Otelo, epónimo del personaje de Shakespeare, es un término diagnóstico transnosológico que designa un cuadro caracterizado por delirios de infidelidad respecto a la pareja que, por consiguiente, puede acarrear actitudes celotípicas y conductas violentas hacia ella. En su forma pura, corresponde al trastorno delirante de infidelidad, pero también puede ser secundario a organicidad cerebral y a consumo de drogas. Métodos: Reporte de caso y revisión no sistemática de la literatura relevante. Presentación del caso: Varón de 26 arios con antecedente de consumo de drogas y víctima de maltrato infantil, 3 años antes había sufrido crisis convulsivas tónico-clónicas e hipertensión intracraneal, por lo que se sometió a una craneotomía, en la que se halló un tuberculoma cerebral frontal derecho. Tras un lapso, comenzó con delirios de infidelidad y conductas violentas hacia su pareja. Revisión de la literatura: Los celos delirantes se asocian, como otros delirios, a lesiones del lóbulo frontal derecho. Pese a la elevada y creciente prevalencia mundial de tuberculosis, no se han publicado casos de síndrome de Otelo secundario a tuberculoma cerebral. Conclusiones: El síndrome de Otelo, aunque no es la principal causa de violencia doméstica, puede asociarse con manifestaciones particularmente violentas y ser secundario a tuberculoma cerebral. Este es el primer caso de tal índole que se publica.


ABSTRACT Introduction: Othello syndrome, an eponym of Shakespeare's character, is a transnosological diagnostic term that designates a clinical picture characterised by the presence of delusions of infidelity with respect to a partner and that, consequently, can lead to typical jealousy attitudes and violent behaviour towards the partner. In its pure form, it corresponds to delusional disorder of infidelity, but it may also be secondary to brain organicity and drug use. Methods: Case report and non-systematic review of the relevant literature. Case presentation: A 26-year-old man, with a history of drug abuse and a victim of domestic violence as a child, presented with tonic-clonic seizures and intracranial hypertension three years ago, for which he underwent a craniotomy with the finding of a right frontal cerebral tuberculoma. After a lapse, he developed a clinical picture of delusions of infidelity regarding his partner and violent behaviour towards her. Literature review: Delusional jealousy is associated, like other delusions, with lesions of the right frontal lobe. Despite the high and growing prevalence of tuberculosis worldwide, there are no reported cases of Othello syndrome secondary to cerebral tuberculoma in the literature. Conclusion: Othello syndrome, although not the main cause of domestic violence, can be associated with particularly violent manifestations and be secondary to cerebral tuberculoma. This is the first published case of its kind.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Syndrome , Substance-Related Disorders , Jealousy , Schizophrenia, Paranoid , Seizures , Attitude , Prevalence , Domestic Violence , Intracranial Hypertension , Craniotomy , Diagnosis , Eponyms , Frontal Lobe
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