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1.
Vet. zootec ; 31: 1-11, 2024.
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1552885

ABSTRACT

This summary addresses the use of reproduction technologies in swine farming, with an emphasis on artificial insemination (AI). Brazilian swine farming has been growing significantly and seeks new technologies to achieve high productive indices sustainably and competitively. Pigs present favorable characteristics such as high prolificacy, fertility, rapid growth, feed efficiency, and carcass yield, which has led to intensive development of the activity with advanced genetic selection. AI is widely employed to disseminate genetic material among different regions and farms. Several AI techniques are used in modern swine farming: intrauterine insemination (IUI) allows semen deposition in the uterine region, reducing costs; fixed-time insemination (FTAI) synchronizes estrus in various females, facilitating management and increasing efficiency; deep intrauterine insemination (DIUI) deposits semen in the uterine horns, obtaining better results; and cervical insemination (CI), a traditional technique widely used, although it may be more time-consuming and present higher reflux rates. The success of AI is related to knowledge of the reproductive cycle of sows, proper nutrition, and genetic and environmental factors. Semen quality is essential, requiring collection by trained professionals and evaluation of sperm motility and morphology. Although it is a consolidated technique, there are issues to be further explored to optimize its application, defining the exact moment for insemination, reducing reflux, and adopting effective protocols. AI is an essential tool for the growth of Brazilian swine farming, but it requires continuous studies to maximize its efficiency and results, considering the farm's production goal and the size of the enterprise to achieve high reproductive and productive indices.


Este resumo aborda o uso de tecnologias de reprodução na suinocultura, com ênfase na inseminação artificial (IA). A suinocultura brasileira vem crescendo significativamente e busca novas tecnologias para alcançar altos índices produtivos de maneira sustentável e competitiva. Os suínos apresentam características favoráveis, como alta prolificidade, fertilidade, rápido crescimento, eficiência alimentar e rendimento de carcaça, o que levou ao desenvolvimento intensivo da atividade com seleção genética avançada. A IA é amplamente empregada para disseminar material genético entre diferentes regiões e granjas. Diversas técnicas de IA são utilizadas na suinocultura moderna: a inseminação intrauterina (IAIU) permite a deposição do sêmen na região uterina, reduzindo custos; a inseminação em tempo fixo (IATF) sincroniza o estro em várias fêmeas, facilitando o manejo e aumentando a eficiência; a inseminação intrauterina profunda (IAUP) deposita o sêmen nos cornos uterinos, obtendo melhores resultados; e a inseminação cervical (IAC), técnica tradicional amplamente utilizada, embora possa ser mais demorada e apresentar maiores taxas de refluxo. O sucesso da IA estar relacionado ao conhecimento do ciclo reprodutivo das matrizes, à nutrição adequada e aos fatores genéticos e ambientais. A qualidade do sêmen é essencial, exigindo coleta por profissionais treinados e avaliação da motilidade e morfologia dos espermatozoides. Apesar de ser uma técnica consolidada, há questões a serem aprofundadas para otimizar sua aplicação, definindo o momento exato para a realização da inseminação, a redução do refluxo e adoção de protocolos eficazes. A IA é uma ferramenta essencial para o crescimento da suinocultura brasileira, mas requer estudos contínuos para maximizar sua eficiência e resultados, considerando o objetivo produtivo da granja e o tamanho do empreendimento para alcançar altos índices reprodutivos e produtivos.


Este resumen aborda el uso de tecnologías de reproducción en la producción porcina, con énfasis en la inseminación artificial (IA). La producción porcina brasileña ha crecido significativamente y busca nuevas tecnologías para alcanzar altos índices de productividad de manera sostenible y competitiva. Los cerdos presentan características favorables, como alta prolificidad, fertilidad, rápido crecimiento, eficiencia alimentaria y rendimiento de la canal, lo que ha llevado al desarrollo intensivo de la actividad con selección genética avanzada. La IA se utiliza ampliamente para difundir material genético entre diferentes regiones y granjas. Diversas técnicas de IA son utilizadas en la producción porcina moderna: la inseminación intrauterina (IAIU) permite la deposición del semen en la región uterina, reduciendo costos; la inseminación a tiempo fijo (IATF) sincroniza el estro en varias hembras, facilitando el manejo y aumentando la eficiencia; la inseminación intrauterina profunda (IAUP) deposita el semen en los cuernos uterinos, obteniendo mejores resultados; y la inseminación cervical (IAC), técnica tradicional ampliamente utilizada, aunque puede ser más demorada y presentar mayores tasas de reflujo. El éxito de la IA está relacionado con el conocimiento del ciclo reproductivo de las hembras, la nutrición adecuada y los factores genéticos y ambientales. La calidad del semen es esencial, requiriendo la recolección por profesionales capacitados y la evaluación de la motilidad y morfología de los espermatozoides. A pesar de ser una técnica consolidada, hay aspectos que deben ser profundizados para optimizar su aplicación, como la definición precisa del momento de la inseminación, la reducción del reflujo y la adopción de protocolos eficaces. La IA es una herramienta esencial para el crecimiento de la producción porcina brasileña, pero requiere estudios continuos para maximizar su eficiencia y resultados, considerando el objetivo productivo de la granja y el tamaño del emprendimiento para alcanzar altos índices reproductivos y productivos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Sperm Motility , Swine/physiology , Insemination, Artificial/veterinary , Reproductive Techniques, Assisted/veterinary , Semen Analysis/veterinary
2.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 240-244, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971021

ABSTRACT

The effects of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on male fertility have received considerable attention because human testes contain high levels of angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 receptors, through which severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can enter. Early studies showed decreases in semen quality during and after recovery from COVID-19. However, no semen quality studies have examined the effects of widespread subclinical and mild disease, as well as changes in lifestyle, psychosocial behavior, intake of dietary supplements, and stress. This cross-sectional study compared semen quality parameters in male partners of infertile couples between men who underwent semen analysis before the COVID-19 pandemic (prepandemic group) and men who underwent semen analysis during the pandemic period (pandemic group); the analysis sought to clarify the overall effects of the pandemic. No participants in the pandemic group had experienced clinically overt disease. Among the 239 participants, mean body weight (P = 0.001), mean body mass index (P < 0.001), median sperm concentration (P = 0.014), total sperm count (P = 0.006), and total percentages of motile (P = 0.013) and abnormal cells (P < 0.001) were significantly greater in the pandemic group (n = 137) than those in the prepandemic group (n = 102). Among abnormal cells, the percentages of cells with excess residual cytoplasm (P < 0.001), head defects (P < 0.001), and tail defects (P = 0.015) were significantly greater in the pandemic group than those in the prepandemic group. With the exception of morphology, the overall semenogram results were better in the pandemic group than those in the prepandemic group.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Pandemics , Infertility, Male , COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Testis , SARS-CoV-2 , Semen , Semen Analysis , Sperm Count
3.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 252-258, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971008

ABSTRACT

Wenzhou has improved its environmental quality because of comprehensive environmental remediation; nevertheless, the semen quality of infertile males remains unclear. This study determined whether better environmental quality improved semen quality in this region. We recorded semen quality data from 22 962 infertile males from January 2014 to November 2019 at the Center for Reproductive Health of The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University (Wenzhou, China). Patients were predominantly 30-35 years old (33.1%) and workers (82.0%), with high school education or lower (77.6%); more than a half of the patients (52.6%) were Wenzhou household registration; and most patients (77.5%) had abnormal semen quality. Patients who were older than 40 years and workers, and those with Wenzhou household registration, had significantly worse semen quality (all P < 0.05). From 2014 to 2019, progressive sperm motility, total sperm motility, and semen volume showed increasing linear trends in all patients (P = 0.021, 0.030, and 0.005, respectively), yet normal sperm morphology showed a linearly decreasing trend (P = 0.046). Sensitivity analyses for subgroups yielded similar results. In conclusion, the improvement of environmental quality and better function of the accessory glands are associated with progressive sperm motility, total sperm motility, and semen volume. Normal sperm morphology is influenced by occupational exposures and personal lifestyle and does not improve with environmental quality.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Adult , Semen Analysis , Semen , Sperm Count , Sperm Motility , Infertility, Male , Spermatozoa
4.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 29-37, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970983

ABSTRACT

Mycoplasma species (spp.) are bacteria that are difficult to detect. Currently, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is considered the most effective diagnostic tool to detect these microorganisms in both human and veterinary medicine. There are 13 known species of human Mycoplasma and 15 species of canine Mycoplasma. Owing to the difficulties in identifying the individual species of Mycoplasma, there is a lack of information regarding which species are saprophytic and which are pathogenic. The prevalence of the individual species is also unknown. In addition, in both humans and dogs, the results of some studies on the impact of Mycoplasma are conflicting. The presence of Mycoplasma spp. on the epithelium of reproductive tract is often associated with infertility, although they are also detected in healthy individuals. The occurrence of Mycoplasma spp. is more common in dogs (even 89%) than in humans (1.3%-4%). This is probably because the pH of a dog's genital is more conducive to the growth of Mycoplasma spp. than that of humans. Phylogenetically, human and canine Mycoplasma are related, and majority of them belong to the same taxonomic group. Furthermore, 40% of canine Mycoplasma spp. are placed in common clusters with those of human. This suggests that species from the same cluster can play a similar role in the canine and human reproductive tracts. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge about the impact of Mycoplasma on canine and human male fertility as well as the prospects of further development in this field.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dogs , Male , Animals , Mycoplasma/genetics , Infertility , Semen Analysis , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Prevalence , Semen/chemistry
5.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 339-344, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981949

ABSTRACT

The process of semen collection plays a key role in the quality of semen specimens. However, the association between semen collection time and semen quality is still unclear. In this study, ejaculates by masturbation from 746 subfertile men or healthy men who underwent semen analysis were examined. The median (interquartile range) semen collection time for all participants was 7.0 (5.0-11.0) min, and the median time taken for semen collection was lower in healthy men than that in subfertile men (6.0 min vs 7.0 min). An increase in the time required to produce semen samples was associated with poorer semen quality. Among those undergoing assisted reproductive technology (ART), the miscarriage rate was positively correlated with the semen collection time. After adjusting for confounders, the highest quartile (Q4) of collection time was negatively associated with semen volume and sperm concentration. A longer time to produce semen samples (Q3 and Q4) was negatively correlated with progressive and total sperm motility. In addition, there was a significant negative linear association between the semen collection time and the sperm morphology. Higher risks of asthenozoospermia (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 2.06, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.31-3.25, P = 0.002) and teratozoospermia (adjusted OR = 1.98, 95% CI: 1.10-3.55, P = 0.02) were observed in Q3 than those in Q1. Our results indicate that a higher risk of abnormal semen parameter values was associated with an increase in time for semen collection, which may be related to male fertility through its association with semen quality.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Semen Analysis , Semen , Sperm Motility , Sperm Count , Asthenozoospermia , Spermatozoa
6.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 382-388, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981939

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has yet to be proven to alter male reproductive function, particularly in the majority of mild/asymptomatic patients. The purpose of this study was to explore whether mild/asymptomatic COVID-19 affects semen quality and sex-related hormone levels. To find suitable comparative studies, a systematic review and meta-analysis was done up to January 22, 2022, by using multiple databases (Web of Science, PubMed, and Embase). Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were used to identify and choose the studies. Meta-analysis was used to examine the semen parameters and sex-related hormones of mild/asymptomatic COVID-19 patients before and after infection. The effects of semen collection time, fever, and intensity of verification on semen following infection were also investigated. A total of 13 studies (n = 770) were included in the analysis, including three case-control studies, six pre-post studies, and four single-arm studies. A meta-analysis of five pre-post studies showed that after infection with COVID-19, sperm concentration (I2 = 0; P = 0.003), total sperm count (I2 = 46.3%; P = 0.043), progressive motility (I2 = 50.0%; P < 0.001), total sperm motility (I2 = 76.1%; P = 0.047), and normal sperm morphology (I2 = 0; P = 0.001) decreased. Simultaneously, a systematic review of 13 studies found a significant relationship between semen collection time after infection, inflammation severity, and semen parameter values, with fever having only bearing on semen concentration. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in sex-related hormone levels before and after infection in mild/asymptomatic patients. Mild/asymptomatic COVID-19 infection had a significant effect on semen quality in the short term. It is recommended to avoid initiating a pregnancy during this period of time.


Subject(s)
Pregnancy , Female , Humans , Male , Semen Analysis , Semen , Infertility, Male , Sperm Motility , COVID-19 , Sperm Count , Spermatozoa , Testosterone , Gonadal Steroid Hormones
7.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 317-322, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928544

ABSTRACT

This study aims to compare the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) with semen quality in men from couples with primary and secondary infertility. Semen samples were collected from 133 men who requested fertility evaluation. Seminal tract infection with Ureaplasma spp. (UU), Mycoplasma hominis (MH), Mycoplasma genitalium (MG), Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), and herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) was assessed by PCR-based diagnostic assays. Among all patients, the prevalence of STIs was higher in men from couples with primary infertility than that in men from couples with secondary infertility (39.7% vs 21.7%, P = 0.03). The prevalence of UU was 28.8% and 13.3% in men from couples with primary and secondary infertility, respectively. Men from couples with primary infertility were more likely to be positive for UU than men from couples with secondary infertility (P = 0.04). Regarding the UU subtype, the prevalence of Ureaplasma urealyticum (Uuu) and Ureaplasma parvum (Uup; including Uup1, Uup3, Uup6, and Uup14) did not differ between the two groups. No associations between the prevalence rates of MH, MG, and CT were found in men from either infertility group. A lower sperm concentration was associated with STI pathogen positivity in men with primary infertility according to the crude model (P = 0.04). The crude and adjusted models showed that semen volume (both P = 0.03) and semen leukocyte count (both P = 0.02) were independently associated with secondary infertility. These findings suggest the importance of classifying the type of infertility during routine diagnosis of seminal tract infections.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Infertility, Male/epidemiology , Mycoplasma genitalium , Mycoplasma hominis , Prevalence , Semen , Semen Analysis , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/epidemiology , Ureaplasma urealyticum
8.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 73-77, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928539

ABSTRACT

This study analyzed the effects of male age and abstinence time on semen quality and explored the best abstinence time for Chinese males among different age groups. Semen parameters, including sperm kinetics, morphology, and DNA fragmentation index (DFI), were reviewed from 2952 men. Samples were divided into six age groups (≤25 years, 26-30 years, 31-35 years, 36-40 years, 41-45 years, and >45 years) and were divided into six groups according to different abstinence time (2 days, 3 days, 4 days, 5 days, 6 days, and 7 days). The differences in semen quality between the groups were compared, and the effect of age and abstinence time on semen quality was analyzed. Significant differences were observed in semen volume, progressive motility (PR), and DFI among the age groups (all P < 0.05), and no significant differences were observed in sperm morphological parameters (all P > 0.05). There were significant differences in semen volume, PR, and DFI among different abstinence time groups (all P < 0.05) and no significant differences in sperm morphological parameters (all P > 0.05). Pearson analysis showed that male age and abstinence time were both significantly correlated with sperm kinetics and DFI (both P < 0.05), while no significant correlation was found with sperm morphological parameters (all P > 0.05). The box plots and histograms of men's age, abstinence time, and semen quality show that most semen quality parameters differ significantly between the 2 days and 7 days abstinence groups and other groups at different ages. Except for the sperm morphology parameters, sperm kinetic parameters and sperm DFI are linearly related to male age and abstinence time.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Male , DNA Fragmentation , Retrospective Studies , Semen , Semen Analysis , Sperm Count , Sperm Motility , Spermatozoa
9.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 26-31, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928522

ABSTRACT

Environmental factors may negatively contribute to a progressive worsening of semen quality, and differences in semen quality may result from different environmental exposures (regional differences) or lifestyle differences. Heavy metals are factors with a confirmed negative influence on male fertility. Among them, lead and cadmium are commonly found in human surroundings. Thus, we analyzed semen parameters (according to the World Health Organization 2010 recommendations) and semen lead and cadmium concentrations in 188 men from two different regions in Poland, a typical agricultural area and an industrial area, in couples that had been diagnosed with infertility. The assays were performed using flameless electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. In the statistical analysis, regional comparisons and then taxonomic comparisons based on three parameters (age, semen concentration, and sperm morphology) were applied. We showed that more cadmium than lead accumulated in semen, a higher cadmium concentration was observed in semen obtained from men from the agricultural region, and better semen quality and lower cadmium concentrations were found in the semen of men from the industrial, more polluted region. We thus showed an existing regionalism in the sperm quality properties. However, semen parameters such as morphology and progressive and nonprogressive motility followed the same trends, regardless of the patient's age, region, or class. We could conclude that the environment has a minor impact on sperm morphology and progressive and nonprogressive motility and that other existing factors could have an indirect influence on semen quality.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Cadmium , Environmental Exposure/analysis , Infertility, Male/chemically induced , Semen , Semen Analysis , Sperm Count , Sperm Motility , Spermatozoa
10.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 15-20, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928511

ABSTRACT

Semen analysis is characterized by high levels of intra- and inter-laboratory variability, due to a low level of standardization, high subjectivity of the assessments, and problems with automated procedures. To improve consistency of laboratory results, quality control and training of technicians are important requisites. The goals of this study are to evaluate the results of an external quality control (EQC) program and standardized training by ESHRE Basic Semen Analysis Courses (BSAC) on the variability in manual assessments of semen parameters. We performed retrospective analyses of (1) the interlaboratory variability in the Dutch EQC program and (2) the interobserver variability in BSACs for concentration, motility, and morphology assessments. EQC data showed that the interlaboratory coefficient of variation (CV) for concentration assessment decreased (range from 24.0%-97.5% to 12.7%-20.9%) but not for morphology and motility assessments. Concentration variability was lower if improved Neubauer hemocytometers were used. Morphology assessment showed highest CVs (up to 375.0%), with many outliers in the period of 2007-2014. During BSAC, a significant reduction of interobserver variability could be established for all parameters (P < 0.05). The absence of an effect in the EQC program for motility and morphology might be explained by respectively the facts that motility assessment was introduced relatively late in the EQC program (since 2013) and that criteria for morphology assessment changed in time. BSAC results might have been influenced by the pretraining level of participants and the influence of external factors. Both EQC and training show positive effects on reducing variability. Increased willingness by laboratories to change their methods toward standards may lead to further improvements.


Subject(s)
Humans , Netherlands , Quality Control , Retrospective Studies , Semen , Semen Analysis , Sperm Count , Sperm Motility
11.
Rev. cienc. forenses Honduras (En línea) ; 8(supl.2): 6-14, 2022. tab., ilus.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BIMENA | ID: biblio-1519460

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La Sociedad Latinoamericana de Genética Forense, desde el año 2003 organiza ejercicios colaborativos de comparación interlaboratorios a fin de apoyar el fortalecimiento de los laboratorios de genética forense de Latinoamérica. Objetivo: presentar los resultados del análisis del ejercicio de calidad correspondiente al año 2022. Metodología: se diseñó un ejercicio práctico con cinco muestras: dos hisopados bucales (M1 y M2), una muestra de sangre en FTA (M3), una muestra mezcla de sangre-semen en FTA (M4) y un resto óseo (M5), siendo el ejercicio de calidad de SLAGF el único grupo que incluye en su ejercicio de calidad muestras óseas. Se envió además un ejercicio teórico con seis casos; dos contenían una mutación en un marcador especifico, uno consistió en una exclusión materna, otro de exclusión paterna, una paternidad sencilla trío y un caso de identificación de desaparecido, con muestras de referencia de presunta hija; su madre y abuela y tíos paternos, los ejercicios teóricos están disponibles en: http://slagf.org/resultados-control-slagf-2022/x Resultados: participaron 16 laboratorios y cinco peritos. En el ejercicio práctico, las muestras de mezcla y los restos óseos presentaron los mayores desafíos, el consenso por muestra fue de 100% para M1, de 93,75% para M2, de 87,5% para M3, 0% para M4 y de 75% para M5...(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Semen Analysis , Blood Chemical Analysis , DNA , Laboratories
12.
urol. colomb. (Bogotá. En línea) ; 31(4): 155-161, 2022. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1412091

ABSTRACT

La evidencia sugiere que la exposición a sustancias psicoactivas se relaciona con alteraciones en la espermatogénesis que afectan la calidad espermática. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar los parámetros espermáticos en consumidores habituales de cigarrillos de marihuana. Se analizaron muestras seminales de 42 consumidores activos de cigarrillos de marihuana y de 16 voluntarios no consumidores de marihuana. Mediante un análisis de semen, se determinaron los parámetros seminales convencionales (viabilidad, movilidad, morfología, y concentración de los espermatozoides) siguiendo los lineamientos establecidos por la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS). Adicionalmente, se evaluó la capacidad antioxidante del plasma seminal mediante la determinación del porcentaje de inhibición del radical estable 1,1-difenil-2-picril-hidracilo. Los valores de la mediana de los consumidores respecto al grupo control fueron: volumen ­ 2,98 mL versus 3,95 mL (p = 0,0221); concentración total ­ 189 millones/mL versus 291,1 millones/mL (p = 0,0636); movilidad progresiva ­ 50% versus 56,5% (p = 0,0052); viabilidad ­ 65,3% versus 73,1% (p = 0,0732); y morfología normal ­ 5% versus 7% (p = 0,0167), respectivamente. Los resultados obtenidos en este estudio indican que el consumo de cigarrillos de marihuana afecta negativamente la movilidad progresiva, la morfología normal y la concentración total de espermatozoides; además, la concentración total de espermatozoides está afectada por la frecuencia del consumo de cigarrillos de marihuana.


Evidence suggests that exposure to psychoactive substances is related to spermatogenesis alterations that affect sperm quality. The objective of the present work was to determine sperm parameters in regular users of marijuana cigarettes. Seminal samples from 42 active consumers of marijuana cigarettes and 16 volunteer non-marijuana users were analyzed. Through a semen analysis, we identify conventional seminal parameters (viability, motility, morphology, and sperm concentration) according to the guidelines established by the World Health Organization (WHO). The antioxidant effect of the seminal plasma was evaluated through the determination of the percentage of inhibition of the stable radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl. The median values of consumers with respect to the control group were respectively: volume ­ 2.98 mL versus 3.95 mL (p = 0.0221); total concentration ­ 189 million/mL versus 291.1 million/mL (p = 0.0636); progressive motility ­ 50% versus 56.5% (p = 0.0052); viability ­ 65.3% versus 73.1% (p = 0.0732); and normal morphology ­ 5% versus 7% (p = 0.0167). The results obtained in the present study indicate that the consumption of marijuana cigarettes negatively affects progressive motility, normal morphology, and total sperm concentration. In addition, the total sperm concentration is affected by the frequency of consumption of marijuana cigarettes


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Spermatozoa , Marijuana Use , Reference Standards , Semen , Spermatogenesis , Semen Analysis , Tobacco Products , Antioxidants
13.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(4): 763-770, Jul.-Aug. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285283

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to determine the scrotal thermographic profile and to verify the influence of temperature and humidity of the humid tropical climate on testicular temperature and seminal quality of Mangalarga Marchador stallions. The thermal profiles of the proximal, middle, and distal zones of the testicles and total surface temperature (TSTT) were recorded using an FLIR E60bx thermal imager. The average air temperature (°C) and relative humidity (%) were obtained 1, 5, 9, 33, and 66 days before semen collection and showed a mean value of 26.5±2.4 and 80.4±6.0 respectively. The scrotal surface temperature was close to 34°C and there was no variation with the age of the stallion, reproductive activity, and characteristics of the ejaculate (P>0.05). The only significant correlations obtained were between TSTT and minor defects (R = 0.41; P<0.05), between TSTT and total defects (R = 0.46; P<0.01), and between TSTT and percentage of morphologically normal sperm (R = -0.46; P<0.05). It was concluded that the Mangalarga Marchador stallions maintained the testicular temperature within favorable conditions for spermatogenesis, demonstrating the efficiency of testicular thermoregulation mechanisms in the Atlantic Forest biome.


O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar o perfil termográfico escrotal e verificar a influência da temperatura e da umidade do clima tropical úmido na temperatura testicular e na qualidade seminal de garanhões Mangalarga Marchador. Os perfis térmicos das zonas proximal, média e distal dos testículos e a temperatura da superfície total (TSTT) foram registrados usando-se um termovisor FLIR E60bx. A temperatura média do ar (° C) e a umidade relativa (%) foram obtidas um, cinco, nove, 33 e 66 dias antes da coleta de sêmen e apresentaram valor médio de 26,5 ± 2,4 e 80,4 ± 6,0, respectivamente. A temperatura da superfície escrotal foi próxima a 34°C, e não houve variação com a idade do garanhão, a atividade reprodutiva e as características do ejaculado (P>0,05). As únicas correlações significativas obtidas foram entre TSTT e defeitos menores (R=0,41; P<0,05), entre TSTT e defeitos totais (R=0,46; P<0,01), e entre TSTT e porcentagem de espermatozoides morfologicamente normais (R=-0,46; P<0,05). Concluiu-se que os garanhões Mangalarga Marchador mantiveram a temperatura testicular dentro de condições favoráveis para a espermatogênese, demonstrando a eficiência dos mecanismos de termorregulação testicular no bioma Mata Atlântica.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Spermatogenesis/radiation effects , Temperature , Testis , Body Temperature Regulation , Semen Analysis/veterinary , Horses/physiology , Humidity/adverse effects , Semen , Tropical Climate/adverse effects , Thermography/veterinary
14.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 47(3): 495-502, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154505

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Testicular cancer is considered a rare disease affecting approximately 1% to 2% of the male population. This neoplasm has a cure rate of over 95%; as a result, a major concern is the future of fertility of carriers from this disease. There are several histological subtypes of testicular tumors; however, the Testicular Germ Cell Tumors (TGCTs), comprising both seminoma and non-seminoma tumors, are considered the main subtypes of testicular neoplasms. TGCT are characterized by being a solid tumor that mostly affects young men aged between 15 and 40 years old. While TGCT subtypes may have an invasive potential, seminoma subtype does not affect other cells rather than germ cells, while non-seminomas have more invasive properties and can achieve somatic cells; thus, having a more aggressive nature. This research intends to review the literature regarding information about sperm parameters, correlating the data found in those studies to the subfertility and infertility of patients with TCGTs. Furthermore, it will also correlate the data to the non-seminoma and seminoma histological subtypes from pre- and post-cancer therapy. PubMed databases were used. Searched keywords included: seminoma AND non-seminoma; male infertility; germ cell tumor; chemotherapy AND radiotherapy. Only articles published in English were considered. Current studies demonstrate that both TGCT subtypes promote deleterious effects on semen quality resulting in decreased sperm concentration, declined sperm total motility and an increase in the morphology alterations. However, findings suggest that the non-seminoma subtype effects are more pronounced and deleterious. More studies will be necessary to clarify the behavior of seminoma and non-seminoma tumors implicating the reproductive health of male patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Testicular Neoplasms/therapy , Seminoma , Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal/therapy , Spermatozoa , Semen Analysis
15.
Rev. Méd. Clín. Condes ; 32(2): 180-188, mar.-abr. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1518261

ABSTRACT

En una pareja con infertilidad, la evaluación masculina es fundamental por dos razones principales. En primer lugar, es la única causa de infertilidad en el 20% de las parejas y en el 50% se encuentra asociada a una causa de infertilidad femenina; en segundo lugar, existe evidencia de la relación entre infertilidad masculina y comorbilidades, como enfermedades cardiovasculares, oncológicas, reumatológicas e incluso con aumento de la mortalidad. Por esto, los pacientes deben ser evaluados por urólogos-andrólogos entrenados que permitan llegar al diagnóstico etiológico, como también buscar comorbilidades asociadas. Una correcta historia clínica, examen físico, espermiograma y exámenes complementarios permitirán obtener el diagnóstico etiológico y por lo tanto el tratamiento adecuado. Las causas genéticas de infertilidad son al menos el 15% de las etiologías, aumentando hasta el 25% en casos de azoospermia. A través del desarrollo y avance en biología molecular, en el futuro se podrán identificar otras causas genéticas que actualmente son categorizadas como infertilidad de origen idiopático.


When treating infertility, a study of the male partner is necessary for two main reasons: 1) In 20% of cases of infertility there is only a male root cause and in addition, in 50% of the cases the root cause is associated with the male and the female. 2) There is supporting and growing evidence that male infertility is related to comorbidities, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, rheumatologic disease, and even mortality. A thorough clinical history, physical examination, semen analysis and auxiliary tests will help us identify the cause and the correct treatment. Near 15% of male infertility are attributed to genetic causes, and this goes up to 25% in cases of azoospermia. With evolving advances and development of molecular biology, some causes of male infertility currently classified as idiopathic, will be specifically identified and categorized.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infertility, Male/diagnosis , Infertility, Male/etiology , Azoospermia , Semen Analysis
16.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 67(4): 577-584, Apr. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340637

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: Testicular tumor constitutes 1% of male neoplasms. Infertility can be determined in patients with testicular tumors before orchiectomy due to the deterioration of spermatogenesis. The aim of this study was to show the clinical, radiological, and pathological characteristics and spermiogram results of patients with testicular tumor and their relationship with each other. METHODS: The data of patients who underwent orchiectomy due to testicular tumor between 2016 and 2019 were reviewed retrospectively. These data included sociodemographic data of the patients, pretreatment spermiogram characteristics, level of serum tumor markers, characteristics of the ultrasonography, type of orchiectomy, and histopathological examination. RESULTS: This study included 53 male patients, with a mean age of 33.51±12.86 years. The mean levels of all tumor markers were above the reference levels. The mean tumor size was 34.68±23.32 mm. Multiple localizations and microlithiasis were detected in 11.3 and 13.2% of the tumors, respectively. The most common masses were hypoechoic (n=37; 69.8%) and hypervascular (n=47; 81%). Spermiogram and cryopreservation were performed in 29 (54.7%) of 53 patients preoperatively. The mean sperm concentration before orchiectomy was 24.21×106 /mL and group A sperm motility 0.79%, group B sperm motility 39.10%, group C sperm motility 9.83%, and group D sperm motility 22.69% in testicular tumors. CONCLUSION: Spermatogenesis adversely affected before the treatment due to local and systemic effects of testicular cancer. Fertility expectations can be increased in the subsequent years by semen analysis and referral to cryopreservation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Young Adult , Testicular Neoplasms/surgery , Sperm Count , Sperm Motility , Orchiectomy , Retrospective Studies , Semen Analysis , Middle Aged
17.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 37: e37028, Jan.-Dec. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1358719

ABSTRACT

This paper proposes to classify the sperm chromatin compaction alterations in bulls, according to the affected area location and its objective is evaluating the correlation of the intensity, the heterogeneity and these kinds of chromatin decompaction with the rates of cleavage and the formation of blastocysts of in vitro production of embryos (IVPE). It was used several subfertile animals sperm samples, which were evaluated using the toluidine blue staining and computer image analysis, making possible the categorization of the chromatin decompaction according to their location. The percentages of chromatin decompaction and heterogeneity were also evaluated. IVPEs were done and the rates of cleavage and of blastocysts were correlated with the chromatin characteristics. It made possible the classification of the chromatin decompaction according to the head affected part in at least four types: base decompaction, basal half decompaction, central axis decompaction, total decompaction. Based on the correlation, it can be implicated that each type of classification has different influences on the bull fertility. It made possible understanding that sperms amount with 5% or more of chromatin decompaction intensity interferes in the bull fertility and this condition can be featured as an uncompensable defect, while the heterogeneity of chromatin is not an important factor in the IVPE results.


Subject(s)
Semen/diagnostic imaging , Spermatozoa , Cattle , Fertilization in Vitro , Semen Analysis
18.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 1321-1324, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921053

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To compare the clinical therapeutic effect between herb-separated moxibustion on navel combined with @*METHODS@#A total of 66 patients with non-liquefaction semen of dampness and heat diffusing downward were randomized into an observation group (33 cases, 2 cases dropped off) and a control group (33 cases, 2 cases dropped off). In the control group, @*RESULTS@#After treatment, the time of semen liquefaction was shortened (@*CONCLUSION@#Herb-separated moxibustion on navel combined with


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Hot Temperature , Moxibustion , Semen , Semen Analysis , Sperm Motility
19.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 479-483, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888459

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic is emerging as a global health threat and shows a higher risk for men than women. Thus far, the studies on andrological consequences of COVID-19 are limited. To ascertain the consequences of COVID-19 on sperm parameters after recovery, we recruited 41 reproductive-aged male patients who had recovered from COVID-19, and analyzed their semen parameters and serum sex hormones at a median time of 56 days after hospital discharge. For longitudinal analysis, a second sampling was obtained from 22 of the 41 patients after a median time interval of 29 days from first sampling. Compared with controls who had not suffered from COVID-19, the total sperm count, sperm concentration, and percentages of motile and progressively motile spermatozoa in the patients were significantly lower at first sampling, while sperm vitality and morphology were not affected. The total sperm count, sperm concentration, and number of motile spermatozoa per ejaculate were significantly increased and the percentage of morphologically abnormal sperm was reduced at the second sampling compared with those at first in the 22 patients examined. Though there were higher prolactin and lower progesterone levels in patients at first sampling than those in controls, no significant alterations were detected for any sex hormones examined over time following COVID-19 recovery in the 22 patients. Although it should be interpreted carefully, these findings indicate an adverse but potentially reversible consequence of COVID-19 on sperm quality.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Male , Asthenozoospermia/virology , COVID-19/physiopathology , China , Gonadal Steroid Hormones/blood , Progesterone/blood , Prolactin/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Semen/physiology , Semen Analysis , Sperm Count , Sperm Motility , Spermatozoa/physiology , Time Factors
20.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 188-193, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879553

ABSTRACT

DNA methylation as an important aspect of epigenetics plays an important role in spermatogenesis and embryonic development. In recent years, researchers have found that male infertility, in particular abnormal semen quality, is related to abnormal DNA methylation. To further delineate the pathogenesis of male infertility and inspire new ideas for the treatment of male infertility, a comprehensive review over the correlation between abnormal methylation of imprinted genes, repetitive DNA elements and non-imprinted genes, semen quality (including sperm count, morphology, and vitality) and male infertility is provided.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , DNA Methylation , Infertility, Male/genetics , Semen Analysis , Sperm Count , Spermatogenesis , Spermatozoa/pathology
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