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1.
Annals of Dermatology ; : 414-421, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-86520

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Senna, one of the major stimulant laxatives, is widely used for treating constipation. Chronic senna use has been reported to be associated with colonic disorders such as melanosis coli and/or epithelial hyperplasia. However, there is no obvious information on the influence of chronic senna use on organs except for the intestine. OBJECTIVE: To clarify the influence of senna laxative use on skin barrier function by repeated senna administration. METHODS: Eight-week-old male hairless mice received senna (10 mg/kg/day) for 21 days. After administration, we evaluated transepidermal water loss (TEWL), and investigated the biomarkers in plasma and skin using protein analysis methods. RESULTS: Fecal water content on day seven was significantly increased; however, on day 21, it was significantly decreased after repeated senna administration. In the senna-administered group, TEWL was significantly higher compared to the control on days seven and 21. Plasma acetylcholine concentration and NO2 −/NO3 − were increased on days seven and 21, respectively. In skin, tryptase-positive mast cells and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)-positive cells were increased on days seven and 21, respectively. The increase of TEWL on days seven and 21 was suppressed by the administration of atropine and N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, respectively. CONCLUSION: It was suggested that diarrhea or constipation induced by repeated senna administration caused the impairment of skin barrier function. There is a possibility that this impaired skin barrier function occurred due to degranulation of mast cells via cholinergic signals or oxidative stress derived from iNOS.


Subject(s)
Acetylcholine , Animals , Atropine , Biomarkers , Colon , Constipation , Diarrhea , Humans , Hyperplasia , Intestines , Laxatives , Male , Mast Cells , Melanosis , Mice , Mice, Hairless , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II , Oxidative Stress , Plasma , Senna Extract , Skin , Water
2.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Clín. Méd ; 12(1)jan.-mar. 2014. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-707346

ABSTRACT

JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVO: A constipação intestinal é um problema crônico, frequente, que afeta a Qualidade de Vida dos indivíduos. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a eficácia clínica e a tolerabilidade da composição Cassia fistula e Senna alexandrina Miller, na apresentação geleia sem açúcar, em pacientes diagnosticados com constipação intestinal funcional crônica. MÉTODOS: Estudo envolvendo 96 voluntários com diagnóstico de constipação intestinal funcional crônica, conforme Critérios de Roma III, randomizados em grupos ativo e placebo. A avaliação da eficácia primária foi realizada por meio da frequência média de evacuações, consistência média das fezes e melhora global da constipação. Foram realizadas ainda avaliações secundárias, como número de dias seguidos sem evacuação, proporção de evacuações com dor, esforço, sensação de evacuação incompleta ou bloqueio, uso de manobras manuais, sujeitos de pesquisa que aderiram às recomendações de hábitos de vida, uso de fármacos de resgate e melhora da constipação segundo avaliação do sujeito de pesquisa. RESULTADOS: A proporção de sujeitos da pesquisa que apresentou melhora global da constipação foi de 65,1% no grupo ativo e de 22,0% grupo placebo (p<0,0001). Para a maioria das avaliações secundárias de eficácia, o grupo ativo apresentou melhor desempenho quando comparado ao grupo pesquisa. De acordo com a avaliação dos sujeitos de pesquisa sobre a melhora da constipação, o grupo ativo apresentou melhor desempenho do que o grupo pesquisa. Quanto à segurança, os dois grupos apresentaram resultados similares. CONCLUSÃO: A geleia sem açúcar composta de Cassia fistula e Senna alexandrina Miller apresentou um comportamento seguro e eficaz, sendo uma alternativa para tratamento da constipação intestinal funcional crônica.


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Intestinal constipation is a chronic and frequent problem that affects Quality of Life. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of the composition Cassia fistula and Senna alexandrina Miller, as sugar free jelly, in patients diagnosed with chronic functional constipation. METHODS: We evaluated 96 volunteers diagnosed with functional constipation according to Rome III criteria. Volunteers were randomized into active and placebo groups. Primary efficacy endpoint was evaluated by mean frequency of bowel movements, consistency of stools and global improvement of constipation. Secondary endpoints were evaluated, such as number of days without bowel movements, proportion of bowel movements with pain, with strain, sensation of incomplete or blocked bowel movement, use of, manual maneuvers to facilitate defecation, subjects who adhered to the diet recommendation, use of rescue medication, and level of constipation improvement, according to subject evaluation. RESULTS: Global improvement of constipationwas observed in 65.1% of subjects enrolled in active group versus 22% in placebo group (p<0.0001). For most secondary efficacy evaluations, the active group performed better when compared to placebo group. According to the evaluation of the subjects on the improvement of constipation, the active group performed better than the placebo group. As for security, the two groups showed similar results. CONCLUSION: Cassia fistula and Senna alexandrina Miller sugar free jelly demonstrated to be safe and effective and it can be used as an alternative for the treatment of functional constipation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Cassia , Cathartics/therapeutic use , Constipation/drug therapy , Drug Tolerance , Laxatives/therapeutic use , Phytotherapy , Senna Extract
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-326619

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To observe the prophylactic effects of senna extract 40 mg/kg on chemotherapy-induced constipation.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Eighty-two patients suffering from constipation after chemotherapy were assigned to Group AB and Group BA. Group AB referred to patients who first took senna extract in the 1st chemotherapeutic course and the crude fiber diet in the 2nd chemotherapeutic course. But the sequence was just the opposite in Group BA. The effective rates of relieving chemotherapy-induced constipation by senna extract and by the crude fiber diet were observed. The differences of the digestive tract reaction and the hematotoxicity reaction were compared. The conditions of patients' abdominal pain and stool properties were observed after they took senna extract.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The effective rate of constipation by taking senna extract was 92.68% and that by the crude fiber diet was 10.93%, with statistical difference shown (P < 0.01). There was no statistic difference in adverse reaction rate such as decreased neutrophils over degree II, decreased hemoglobin, decreased platelet, nausea, vomit, etc. (P > 0.05). The occurrence rate of abdominal pain over degree II after taking senna was 8.54%. In the distribution of stool properties, the rate of loose stool was 35.53%.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Senna extract 40 mg/kg was effective and safe in treating chemotherapy-induced constipation.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Antineoplastic Agents , Constipation , Cross-Over Studies , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Therapeutic Uses , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Senna Extract , Therapeutic Uses , Young Adult
4.
Journal of Reproduction and Infertility. 2012; 13 (4): 211-217
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-155607

ABSTRACT

The abortifacient claim of Senna alata [S. alata] was scientifically validated recently with alkaloids speculated to be the bioactive agent. This speculation is yet to be substantiated or refuted by scientific evidence. The present study was aimed to investigate the pregnancy terminating effects of the alkaloids from S. alata leaves. Twenty four Pregnant rats [143.99 +/- 1.21 g] allocated randomly to four groups: A, B, C and D respectively received, 0.5 ml of distilled water, 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight of the S. alata extracted alkaloids orally, once daily from day 10 until day 18 post-coitum. The indices of abortifacient were evaluated at the end of the exposure period. The results were analyzed by both the analysis of variance and Duncan's multiple range test and p<0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Thin-layer chromatographic separation produced five spots with Rf values of 0.28, 0.33, 0.39, 0.47 and 0.55 which gave positive reaction with Meyer's and Wagner's reagents, respectively. The number of implantation sites and corpora lutea, as well as the concentrations of FSH, LH, progesterone, weight of uterus, uterine/body weight ratio, glucose and cholesterol decreased significantly [p<0.05] whereas the resorption index, pre- and post-implantation losses, uterine protein content and alkaline phosphatase activity increased significantly. None of the alkaloid treated animals presented with provoked vaginal opening or bleeding except fetal deaths. The alkaloid decreased the maternal weight gain, as well as feed and water intake. Overall, the alkaloids from S. alata leaves exhibited anti-implantation, anti-gonadotropic, anti-progesteronic, embryonic resorptive, feto-maternal toxic activities but not complete abortifacient. The alkaloids alone may not be the sole abortifacient bioactive agent in the leaf extract


Subject(s)
Animals, Laboratory , Alkaloids , Senna Extract , Plant Leaves , Copulation , Pregnancy Outcome , Pregnancy, Animal , Abortifacient Agents , Rats
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-274355

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To determine the difference on purgative biopotency of different processed products of rhubarb and compare rhubarb before and after preparation.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>The prime biopotency of rhubarb reference substance was determined by comparing with the control substance of sennoside B using rat purgative model. Comparing with calibrated rhubarb reference substance, the bioactivity different processed products of rhubarb was determined by the 2,2',2" method.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>The purgative biopotency of crude rhubarb was 825.22 U x g(-1). The purgative biopotency of alcohol-processed rhubarb was 699.05 U x g(-1), The purgative biopotency of steamed rhubarb were 459.76 U x g(-1). Carbonized rhubarb cannot be determinate.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Crude rhubarb showed a significantly declineing purgative biopotency after being processed, alcohol-processed rhubarb showed less than crude rhubarb and followed by steamed rhubarb. Carbonized rhubarb lost almost all purgative bioactivity.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Cathartics , Pharmacology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred ICR , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Rheum , Chemistry , Senna Extract , Pharmacology
6.
Clinics ; 66(3): 483-486, 2011. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-585962

ABSTRACT

Cassia angustifolia Vahl (senna) is a natural product that contains sennosides, which are active components that affect the intestinal tract and induce diarrhea. Authors have shown that senna produces DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) lesions in Escherichia coli cultures and can act as an antifungal agent. Natural drugs can alter the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m (99mTc) and can affect the biodistribution of radiopharmaceuticals. In this work, we have evaluated the influence of a senna extract on the radiolabeling of blood constituents and on the biodistribution of the radiopharmaceutical sodium pertechnetate (Na99mTcO4)in Wistar rats. Twelve animals were treated with senna extract for 7 days. Blood samples were withdrawn from the animals and the radiolabeling procedure was carried out. The senna extract did not modify the radiolabeling of the blood constituents. A biodistributional assay was performed by administering Na99mTcO4 and determining its activity in different organs and in blood. The senna extract altered the biodistribution of Na99mTcO4 in the thyroid, liver, pancreas, lungs and blood. These results are associated with properties of the chemical substances present in the aqueous senna extract. Although these assays were performed in animals, our findings suggest that caution should be exercised when nuclear medicine examinations using Na99mTcO4 are conducted in patients who are using senna extract.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Blood Cells/drug effects , Radiopharmaceuticals/pharmacokinetics , Senna Extract/pharmacology , Senna Plant/chemistry , /pharmacokinetics , Blood Cells/metabolism , Models, Animal , Rats, Wistar , Radiopharmaceuticals/blood , /blood , Time Factors
7.
IJRM-Iranian Journal of Reproductive Medicine. 2010; 8 (4): 179-184
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-125829

ABSTRACT

Cassia italica or Senna is a wild plant distributed in south of Iran. It increased water consumption and has a laxative effect. In traditional medicine this plant has been used for the dysmenorrheal. In this study we investigated the effect of aqueous extract of Cassia italica on uterus contraction. Virgin Wistar rats 200-300g were purchased. After laparotomy, a piece of uterus [1.5cm] was excised and mounted in an organ bath [10ml] containing De Jalon [29[degree sign] C] and isometric contractions were recorded under 1g tension. KCI [60mM] was used to produce contractions. Cassia italica extracts after washing were added at 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 mg/ml cumulatively to the organ bath and the contractions were recorded. Uterus was separately incubated with atropine sulfate [10 micro M], metoclopramide [10 micro M] and oxytocin [10mU/ml] and the tissue spasmodic effect of the extract were recorded. Cumulative concentrations of the extract [0.5-4 mg/ml] increased the basal, peak and frequency of uterus contractions, dose-dependently [p<0.001]. incubation of the tissue with atropine sulfate and metoclopramide did not reduce the spasmodic effect of the extract. Cassia italica extract was shown the oxytocic activity on the uterine smooth muscle which most concentrations of the extract [4mg/ml] were more potent than of oxytocin [10mU/ml]. Cassia italica stimulated the uterus contractions without involving dopaminergic [D2], and muscarinic receptors. This extract has oxytocin mimetic effects on uterus. Since the extract has uterus contraction, therefore we suggest that more study will be necessary about abortive or contraceptive effects of this plant on pregnant uterus


Subject(s)
Female , Animals, Laboratory , Senna Extract , Senna Plant , Plant Leaves , Plant Extracts , Uterine Contraction , Uterus , Rats, Wistar , Atropine , Metoclopramide , Oxytocin
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-242344

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the efficacy and safety of compound plantain-senna granule (CPSG) in the treatment of functional constipation.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Eighty patients with confirmed diagnosis of functional constipation were assigned to 2 groups. The 40 patients in the treatment group were treated with CPSG 5 g per day, while the 40 patients in the control group were treated with equal volume of starch granule, for 2 weeks totally. The defecating frequency and stool property, the scores of fecal discharge difficulty and accompanied symptoms, the gastrointestinal transmission time, and adverse reaction of treatment in the two groups were observed before and after treatment.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Parameters of defecating frequency, stool property, the scores of fecal discharge difficulty, accompanied symptoms and the gastrointestinal transmission time were unchanged after treatment in the control group (P > 0.05); while in the treatment group, they improved significantly (P < 0.05) and showed significant difference to those in the control group respectively (P < 0. 05). No serious adverse reaction occurred in both groups.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>CPSG can obviously increase the defecating frequency, change the stool property, alleviate the fecal discharging difficult symptom and accompanied symptom, and shorten the gastrointestinal transmission time in patients with functional constipation with good security and tolerability.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Cathartics , Therapeutic Uses , Chronic Disease , Constipation , Drug Therapy , Drug Combinations , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Phytotherapy , Plantago , Chemistry , Senna Extract , Therapeutic Uses , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-324284

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To establish a method for determining the content of primary chemical constituents in the leaves of Cassia angustifolia.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>The HPLC with Diamonsil C18 (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 microm) column was used , acetonitrile-1% acetic acid (10:90-15: 85-18: 82-20: 80-25: 75) in a gradient manner was used as a mobile phase, with flow rate of 1 mL x min(-1), column temperature at 40 degrees C and detection wavelength at 270 nm.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>The results showed that 5 effective components all separated well and showed good linearity.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The method was proved to be rapid, sensitive, accurate, credible and repeatable. It can be applied to quality control of Folium Sennae.</p>


Subject(s)
Anthraquinones , Chemistry , Apigenin , Chemistry , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Methods , Glucosides , Chemistry , Naphthalenes , Chemistry , Reproducibility of Results , Senna Extract , Senna Plant , Chemistry , Temperature
10.
Afr. j. pharm. pharmacol ; 2(1): 7-13, 2008. ilus
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1257546

ABSTRACT

Antimicrobial properties of leaf extracts of Senna obtusifolia (L) were investigated against both clinical and laboratory isolates of both bacteria and fungi using the disc diffusion method. Acetone extracts (12 mm zone diameter of inhibition, MIC 200 g/mL and MBC 300 g/mL) demonstrated the highest activity, followed by dichloromethane (8 mm zone diameter of inhibition, MIC 300 g/mL and MBC 400 g/mL), methane (7 mm zone diameter of inhibition, MIC 400 g/mL and MBC 400 g/mL) and hexane (6 mm zone diameter of inhibition, MIC 800 g/mL and MBC 1000 g/mL). Water extracts demonstrated the least activity against the test bacteria and fungi (4 mm zone diameter of inhibition, MIC 800 g/mL and MBC 800 g/mL). Phytotoconstituents present included Saponins, Tannins, Alkaloids and Flavonoids. S. obtusifolia (L) can be used to source antibiotic substances for possible treatment of bacterial and fungal infections including gonorrhea, pneumonia, urinary tract and some mycotic infections


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , Bacterial Infections , Nigeria , Senna Extract
11.
Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine [The]. 2006; 23 (June): 385-391
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-145518

ABSTRACT

Protection by the flavonoids, rutin and protochatechuic acid, against insecticide chlorpyrifos induced mitotic crossing over, gene conversion and reverse mutation were investigated in Saccharomyces cerevisia D7. The results indicate that Rutin and Protochatechuic acid have some antimutagenic potential against mutagenicity of chloropyrifos. There for, the flavonoids contained in Senna seem to be important as antimutagenic and antioxidants


Subject(s)
Protective Agents , Gene Conversion/genetics , Flavonoids , Rutin , Antimutagenic Agents , Saccharomyces/genetics , Yeasts/genetics , Senna Extract , Antioxidants
12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-147169

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Capsule endoscopy is an effective diagnostic tool for detecting small bowel disease. However, the method of bowel preparation for capsule endoscopy has not been standardized. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of oral sodium phosphate as a preparation for capsule endoscopy. METHODS: A total of 129 cases who underwent capsule endoscopy from Mar. 2003 to Sep. 2004 were analyzed retrospectively. Eighty- eight cases were prepared with sennosides (Alaxyl(R)) and 41 cases were prepared with sodium phosphate. The intestinal mucosa was defined as being unclean if the intestinal content, food materials, and bubbles covered more than 25% of the mucosal surface. Using a stopwatch, the exact time of the unclean image was recorded. The percentage of the unclean image for the small intestinal transit time (SITT) was calculated as an objective score. Small bowel cleansing was considered 'adequate' if the objective score was <10% and 'inadequate' if the objective score was 10% or greater. RESULTS: 35 cases (40%) showed an adequate image in the sennosides and simethicone group and 26 cases (63%) showed an adequate image in the sodium phosphate and simethicone group. The adequacy rate was significantly higher in the sodium phosphate group than in the sennosides group (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Capsule endoscopy prepared by sodium phosphate and simethicone produced a better visual image than sennosides and simethicone.


Subject(s)
Capsule Endoscopy , Gastrointestinal Contents , Intestinal Mucosa , Retrospective Studies , Senna Extract , Simethicone , Sodium
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-246034

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the difference and causes of purgative activity in three species of certified rhubarb, so as to lay steady foundations of further research on assessing purgative activity impersonally by using measurable indexes.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>The potencies of three species were comparied with purgative ED, of mice as quantitative index which were calculated, and activities of Na+ K + -ATP ase in mouse colonic epithelial cell membrane were also investigated . The related purgative contents (conjunct and free rhein, chrysophanol, chrysophanic acid, sennoside A) were detected by HPLC and contents (total anthraquinones, anthraglucosennin; conjunct and free anthraquinones) were detected by UV.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>There were different purgative activities among three spieces of certified rhubarb. Each purgative ED, of mice was Rheum tanguticum ( ED50 = 0. 37 g x kg (-1)) , R. officinale ( ED50 = 0. 99 g x kg(-1) ) and R. palrnatum from Gansu (ED50 = 1. 83 g x kg(-1)) , the ratio of potency of those was 4. 94: 1. 85: 1. In the meanwhile, the difference of the inhibitory effect on Na+ -K + -ATP ase in mouse colonic epithelial cell membrane and relative purgative components also existed in the three species of certified rhubarb.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>It disclosed that there was notable diference of purgative activity and components among three spieces of certified Rhubarb, which probably resulted in the ultimate diference in clinical prescription and the production of Chinese patent medicines.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Anthraquinones , Cathartics , Pharmacology , Cell Membrane , China , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Colon , Cell Biology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Epithelial Cells , Female , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred ICR , Rheum , Chemistry , Classification , Senna Extract , Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase , Metabolism , Species Specificity
14.
Rev. cuba. plantas med ; 10(3/4)jul.-dic. 2005. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-460718

ABSTRACT

En el presente trabajo se expone una técnica analítica cuantitativa que permite determinar la concentración de quinonas presentes en la droga cruda y en el extracto fluido de la Senna alata (L.) Roxb., conocida popularmente como Guacamaya francesa. Se modificaron algunos aspectos del procedimiento analítico como fueron el tiempo de reflujo, tiempo de desarrollo de color y la forma en que se trabajó con las fases etéreas. Se estudiaron 3 métodos de cuantificación, todos mostraron buena linealidad, exactitud y precisión pero se seleccionó aquel que redujo en mayor porcentaje las interferencias debidas a los productos de degradación y fue el método de espectrofotometría diferencial, que además, mostró mayor especificidad y un menor porcentaje de error. Se empleó una solución de referencia de CoCl2. Las modificaciones introducidas en el procedimiento analítico permitieron disponer de una técnica rápida y sencilla, ideal para ser realizada en un centro de producción farmacéutica


An analytical quantitative technique that allows to determine the concentration of quinones present in the crude drug and in the fluid extract of Senna alata (L.) Roxb., popularly known as “Guacamaya francesa”, is exposed. Some aspects of the analytical procedure, such as the reflux time, the color development time and the way in which the ethereal phases were worked with, were modified. 3 methods of quantification were studied. All of them showed a good lineality, exactness and precision, but the differential spectrophotometry method was selected since it reduced in a higher percentage the interferences due to the degradation products, and it also had the highest specificity and the lowest percentage of error. A reference solution of CoCl2 was used. The modifications introduced in the analytical procedure allowed to have a fast and simple technique to be applied in a pharmaceutical production center.


Subject(s)
Anthraquinones , Senna Extract , Senna Plant , Analytical Methods
15.
Rev. cuba. plantas med ; 9(1)ene.-abr. 2004. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-394327

ABSTRACT

Las plantas medicinales constituyen una fuente natural importante en la búsqueda de nuevos compuestos con actividades farmacológicas de interés. Senna alata (Caesalpinaceae) crece en Cuba y tiene un amplio uso popular. En el presente trabajo fue evaluada la actividad antimicrobiana in vitro de diferentes formulaciones elaboradas a partir de esta especie. Se empleó el método de diluciones en medio líquido y se determinó la concentración mínima inhibitoria y/o mínima microbicida frente a microorganismos de interés clínico humano. Fue demostrado el potencial antimicrobiano de S. alata, especialmente la actividad antimicrobiana del extracto fluido con menstruo al 70 por ciento. La cinética de la actividad antimicrobiana corroboró los resultados obtenidos, los que justifican el uso tradicional de esta planta medicinal y a la vez permite elaborar cremas con una notable actividad antidermatofítica


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts , Plants, Medicinal , Senna Extract
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