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1.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 35(6): 1932-1940, nov./dec. 2019. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1049172

ABSTRACT

Anacardium genus, Anacardiaceae, stands out for the presence of phenolic compounds. One of its species, investigated for its different potential uses, is Anacardium humile; however, little is known about its allelopathic effects. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine the chemical profile and evaluate the herbicide potential of your leaves in the germination of seeds and growth of seedlings of Lactuca sativa(lettuce), Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato) and Senna obtusifolia (sicklepod), both in vitro and in greenhouse. Leaves of A. humile were obtained from 20 matrices of Cerrado fragments in the municipality of Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul state, Brazil. A voucher specimen was deposited at the herbarium (no. 8448). The aqueous extract was obtained from dried and crushed leaves using the extraction method of ultrasonic bath (30 min) with subsequent static maceration. After solvent evaporation, 12.78 g of extract were obtained. The chemical profile of the aqueous extract included determination of total phenolic and flavonoid contents, pH, electrical conductivity, and soluble solids concentration. For the in vitro bioassays, the extract was used at different concentrations, namely, 25, 50, 100, 150, and 200 mg mL-1. In greenhouse, the substrates were prepared using 950 g of vermiculite and 50 g of A. humile leaf powder at the following ratios: (950/50) (5%), 900/100 (10%), 800/200 (20%), and a control (100% vermiculite), under a completely randomized experimental design. Phenolic compounds and anthraquinones were predominant in the chemical profile of the extract, which presented different levels of allelopathic effect on seed germination and seedling growth of plants both ingermination chamber and in greenhouse, indicating strong allelopathic activity associated with the different compounds found in the leaves. Therefore, the results showed germination and growth inhibition at different levels, indicating that the substances contained in the leaves of Anacardium humile may be a promising alternative for the control of invasive species.


O gênero Anacardium, Anacardiaceae, destaca-se pela presença de compostos fenólicos. Uma de suas espécies, investigada pelos diferentes potenciais de uso, é Anacardium humile. No entanto, pouco se sabe sobre seus efeitos alelopáticos. Portanto, o presente trabalho objetivou determinar o perfil químico e avaliar o potencial herbicida de suas folhas sobre a germinação e crescimento de Lactuca sativa (alface), Lycopersicon esculentum (tomate) e Senna obtusifolia (fedegoso) in vitro e em casa de vegetação. Folhas de A. humile foram obtidas de 20 matrizes de Cerrado, município de Campo Grande/MS, Brasil. Uma espécime foi depositada no herbário (N. 8448). O extrato aquoso foi obtido das folhas secas e trituradas e o método de extração foi banho de ultrassom (30 minutos) seguido de maceração estática, sendo o solvente evaporado e 12,78 g de extrato obtido. O extrato foi submetido ao perfil químico e determinado: teor de fenóis totais e flavonóides, pH, condutividade elétrica e concentração de sólidos solúveis. Para os bioensaios in vitro, o extrato foi utilizado em diferentes concentrações (25, 50, 100, 150 e 200 mg mL-1). Em casa de vegetação, os substratos foram preparados com 950 g do substrato vermiculita e 50 g do pó das folhas de A. humile (950/50) (5%); 900/100 (10%); 800/200 (20%), além do controle, 100% vermiculita, com delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado. O extrato apresentou como perfil químico predominante os compostos fenólicos e antraquinonas, com efeito alelopático sobre a germinação e crescimento em câmara de germinação e estufa, em diferentes graus, indicando que há uma forte atividade alelopática associada aos diferentes compostos encontrados nas folhas. Portanto, os resultados indicaram germinação e inibição do crescimento, em diferentes níveis, demonstrando que as substâncias contidas nas folhas de A. humile podem ser uma alternativa promissora para o controle de espécies invasoras.


Subject(s)
Lycopersicon esculentum , Lettuce , Senna Plant , Anacardium , Herbicides
2.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 86: e0542018, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | ID: biblio-1045996

ABSTRACT

The use of adjuvants associated with herbicides aims at improving the performance of application and the consequent increase in the biological effect of the treatment. However, the sequence of product added to the sprayer tank can influence the phytosanitary spray solution. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the control of Senna obtusifolia as a function of the sequence of addition of the herbicide aminopyralid + fluroxypyr and adjuvants in the preparation of spray solution. Two herbicide doses (1 and 2 L c.p. ha-1) associated with the adjuvants mineral oil (MO), silicone polyether copolymer (SIL), and a mixture of phosphatidylcholine and propionic acid (LEC), all in the proportion of 0.3% v v-1, with alternate addition to the spray solution to evaluate the effects of the preparation sequence. The spray solution volume considered was 150 L ha-1. Evaluations of spray solution stability were performed from the visual evaluation of homogeneity, electrical conductivity, and pH. The effect of treatment on S. obtusifolia control was measured using a scoring scale and dry matter. Correlation coefficients between the evaluations were also determined. No difference of the preparation sequence of spray solution was observed for stability, pH, and electrical conductivity, but an influence was observed on S. obtusifolia control, without changing dry matter accumulation. The treatment with the adjuvant LEC previously added to the herbicide provided a higher control rate at the highest dose, while the adjuvant SIL had the opposite effect.(AU)


O uso de adjuvantes associados a herbicidas visa melhorar o desempenho da aplicação e o consequente aumento do efeito biológico do tratamento. Porém, a ordem de adição dos produtos ao tanque do pulverizador pode trazer importantes influências à calda fitossanitária. Assim, o objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar o controle de Senna obtusifolia em função da sequência de adição do herbicida aminopiralide + fluroxipir e de adjuvantes no preparo das caldas. Foram utilizadas duas dosagens de herbicida (1 e 2 L p.c. ha-1), associadas aos adjuvantes óleo mineral (OM); copolímero de poliéter e silicone (SIL); mistura de fosfatidicolina e ácido propiônico (LEC), todos na proporção de 0,3% v v-1, com adição alternada à calda para avaliar os efeitos da sequência de preparo. O volume de calda considerado foi de 150 L ha-1. Foram realizadas avaliações da estabilidade da calda a partir da avaliação visual de homogeneidade, condutividade elétrica e pH. O efeito do tratamento no controle de S. obtusifolia foi mensurado por meio de uma escala de pontuação e pela massa seca. Também foram determinados os coeficientes de correlação entre as avaliações. Verificou-se que não houve diferença da sequência de preparo da calda para a estabilidade, o pH e a condutividade elétrica. Porém, a sequência de preparo influenciou o controle inicial de S. obtusifolia, sem efeito sobre a massa seca. O tratamento com o adjuvante LEC adicionado ao herbicida proporcionou maior taxa de controle na maior dosagem, enquanto o adjuvante de SIL teve o efeito oposto.(AU)


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Pharmaceutic/administration & dosage , Senna Plant/drug effects , Weed Control/methods , Herbicides/administration & dosage , Pasture
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777504

ABSTRACT

A total of ten compounds were isolated from the 90% Et OH extract of Cassia siamea by using various chormatographic techniques,and their structures were established as( 2' S)-2-( propan-2'-ol)-5,7-dihydroxy-benzopyran-4-one( 1),chrobisiamone( 2), 2-( 2'-hydroxypropyl)-5-methyl-7-hydroxychromone( 3), 2,5-dimethyl-7-hydroxychromone( 4), 2-methyl-5-acetonyl-7-hydroxychromone( 5),3-O-methylquercetin( 6),3,5,7,3',4'-pentahydroxyflavonone( 7),luteolin-5,3'-dimethylether( 8),4-( trans)-acetul-3,6,8-trihydroxy-3-methyl-dihydronapht halenone( 9) and 6-hydroxymellein( 10) based on the spectroscopic data.Compound 1 was a new compound,and 3,4,6,8 were isolated from this plant for the first time.


Subject(s)
Cassia , Luteolin , Senna Plant , Spectrum Analysis
4.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 38(8): 1471-1474, Aug. 2018. graf
Article in English | ID: biblio-976494

ABSTRACT

In a paddock highly invaded by Senna obtusifolia 10 out of 60 sheep showed muscle weakness and 9 died after a clinical manifestation period of 24-76 hours. Serum activities of creatine kinase were increased in all sheep examined. Multifocal polyphasic muscle segmental degeneration and necrosis was observed in skeletal muscles. Although the plant is a common weed in northeastern Brazil, the poisoning is rare, probably because the animals do not ingest it or due to toxicity variations.(AU)


Em um piquete altamente invadido por Senna obtusifolia, 10 de 60 ovelhas mostraram fraqueza muscular e 9 morreram após um período de manifestação clínica de 24-76 horas. As atividades séricas da creatina quinase foram aumentadas em todos os ovinos examinados. Foi observada degeneração segmentar e necrose polifásica muscular em músculos esqueléticos. Embora a planta seja uma erva daninha comum no Nordeste do Brasil, o envenenamento é raro, provavelmente porque os animais não o ingerem ou devido a variações de toxicidade.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Sheep/microbiology , Senna Plant/toxicity , Necrosis
5.
Journal of Medicinal Plants. 2017; 16 (64): 160-169
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-189625

ABSTRACT

Background: Senna leaf belongs to stimulant laxatives. The laxative effect of this medicinal plant is because of sennosides, aloe-emodin and dynatron which they all belongs to among anthraquinone derivatives family and uses to treat constipation, discharge of the intestine before surgery or abdomen surgeries and tests


Objective: In this study, different methods of extracting from the Senna plant was compared and the extraction of the active ingredient, sennoside B, was optimized by using the response level statistical method


Methods: For the extraction of Senna extract, various extraction methods, including maceration, dynamic maceration [stirrer], ultrasound assisted extraction, microwave assisted extraction and soxhlet extraction using ethanol 96° and 60° as solvent in different times. Regarding to the meanweights of the extracts and active substance sennoside B, The best method was selected. In the next phase, the amount of active substance of sennoside B was optimized using the statistical method of response surface


Results: Considering the mean weights of the extract and amount of sennoside B, dynamic maceration [stirrer] method is the most suitable method to obtain senna extract in the industrial and medicinal extraction.The results of the optimization of the best extraction method [maceration] showed that when influential variables temperature, time, the ratio of substance to solvent and filter mesh were 84°C, 119.7 minutes, 0.04 and 29.7 microns, respectively, the maximum amount of the active substance [3.009%] has been reached


Conclusion: Finally, it can be concluded that active maceration extraction method [stirrer] is suggested as one of the best method to obtain senna extract in industry and the output efficiency of the active substance of sennoside B is affected by introduced optimized conditions mentioned


Subject(s)
Senna Plant , Laxatives , Constipation/therapy , Plants, Medicinal , Plant Extracts , Phytotherapy
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812036

ABSTRACT

In the present study, one new cycloartane triterpenoid, named cycloccidentalic acid C (1) and its glucoside, cycloccidentaliside VI (2) were isolated from the whole plant of Cassia occidentalis. Their structures were elucidated by a combinational analyses of 1D and 2D NMR data and HRMS. Compound 2 showed modest anti-HIV-1 activity with EC value of 1.44 μmol·L and TI (Therapeutic Index) value of 15.59.


Subject(s)
Anti-HIV Agents , Pharmacology , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Survival , Glucosides , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Toxicity , Humans , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Molecular Structure , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Toxicity , Senna Plant , Chemistry , Triterpenes , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Toxicity
7.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 18(1,supl.1): 349-355, 2016. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-782971

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Aleloquímicos são substâncias liberadas por certas espécies vegetais no ambiente que influenciam a germinação e o desenvolvimento de outras plantas. O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar o potencial fitotóxico de Cleome guianensis Aubl., bem como determinar o grau de estresse oxidativo causado em Senna occidentalis L. Para isso, o óleo das folhas de C. guianensis, nas concentrações 0,5 µg/mL, 1,0 µg/mL, 2,5 µg/mL e 5,0 µg/mL, em solução de 5 ml foi testado em bioensaios de germinação e de crescimento da raiz primária e do hipocótilo de S. occidentalis. Os indivíduos de S. occidentalis foram macerados, homogeneizados e submetidos a ensaios de quantificação da catalase, peroxidase, SOD e de peroxidação lipídica. Os resultados indicam que todas as concentrações do óleo volátil causaram um efeito negativo sobre a germinação e crescimento de S. occidentalis. Na concentração 5,0 µg/mL, houve 56% de inibição da germinação e 83% de inibição de crescimento do hipocótilo. Ainda, o óleo aumentou a atividade das enzimas induzidas pelo estresse oxidativo catalase, peroxidase e superóxido dismutase (SOD). Quanto à peroxidação lipídica, o óleo nas concentrações 1,0 µg/mL, 2,5 µg/mL e 5,0 µg/mL aumentou a produção de malondialdeído. Sendo assim, conclui-se que C. guianensis apresenta aleloquímicos que influenciam na germinação e no crescimento de S. occidentalis, além de aumentar a atividade das enzimas catalase, peroxidase, SOD e a produção de malondialdeído em S. occidentalis. Dessa forma, sugere-se a realização de estudos sobre o perfil químico do óleo a fim de descobrir as substâncias responsáveis por tais resultados e consolidar o potencial fitotóxico de C. guianensis.


ABSTRACT Allelochemicals inhibit the germination and growth of other plants. The purpose of this study was to assess the phytotoxic potential of Cleome guianensis Aubl., as well as determine the degree of oxidative stress caused in Senna occidentalis L. For this purpose, oil from the leaves of C. guianensis in concentrations of 0.5 µg/mL, 1.0 µg/mL, 2.5 µg/mL, and 5.0 µg/mL were tested in bioassays on the germination and growth of S. occidentalis. Specimens of S. occidentalis were macerated, homogenized, and submitted to catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and lipid peroxidation quantification tests. Results showed that all concentrations of the volatile oil had a negative effect on S. occidentalis germination and growth. In the 5.0 µg/mL concentration, the oil inhibited 56% of germination and 83% of hypocotyl growth. In addition, the oil increased the activity of the enzymes induced by oxidative stress: catalase, peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase SOD. For lipid peroxidation, the oil in the 1.0 µg/mL, 2.5 µg/mL and 5.0 µg/mL concentrations increased the production of malondialdehyde. In addition, C. guianensis presents allelochemicals that influence the germination and growth of S. occidentalis, also enhancing activity of the catalase, peroxidase, and SOD enxymes, as well as malondialdehyde production in S. occidentallis. Hence, further studies of the chemical profile of this oil should be performed in order to discover which allelochemicals are responsible for these results and consolidate the phytotoxic potential of C. guianensis.


Subject(s)
Allelopathy , Cleome/chemistry , Senna Plant/classification , Oxidative Stress
8.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 20(3): 151-158, set.-dez. 2016.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-832965

ABSTRACT

O interesse em terapias alternativas e o uso terapêutico por derivados de plantas vêm crescendo nos últimos anos, obtendo um grande avanço científico no aspecto químico e farmacológico, a Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS), considera as plantas medicinais como importantes instrumentos da assistência farmacêutica. Objetivo: Determinar atividade antibacteriana comparada entre os extratos de Senna spectabilis, Rosmarinus officinalis e Eugenia uniflora frente à cepa padrão de Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 e Streptococcus pyogenes ATCC 19615. As folhas de E. uniflora, R. officinallis e S. spectabilis foram coletadas no Horto de plantas medicinais da Universidade Estadual de Maringá ­ UEM/PR e as cepas foram fornecidas pela Universidade Paranaense ­ Unipar. A atividade antibacteriana foi determinada por meio da técnica do microdiluição em placa, empregando revelador de crescimento Alamar Blue Assay (MABA). A concentração mínima inibitória (CIM) empregando R. officinalis, E. uniflora, frente a cepa de S. aureus ATCC pode revelar resultados de 125 µg/mL, para extratos de S. spectabilis o CIM foi de 250 µg/mL; para S. pyogenes o CIM de 125 µg/mL foi admitido apenas para R. officinalis e S. spectabilis, E. uniflora apresentou resultados de 500 µg/mL, para P. aeruginosa o CIM para os três extratos foi superior a 500 µg/mL. Os extratos são promissores quando empregados contra S. aureus e S. pyogenes, exceto para P. aeruginosa, no entanto cabe buscar novas alternativas para tratamento deste Gram-negativo.


The interest in alternative therapies and therapeutic use of plant extracts has been increasing in recent years, and has had great scientific advances regarding the chemical and pharmacological aspects. The World Health Organization (WHO) considers medicinal plants as important pharmaceutical care instruments. In order to determine the compared antibacterial activity between Senna spectabilis, Rosmarinus officinalis and Eugenia uniflora extracts against standard strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 and Streptococcus pyogenes ATCC 19615, the leaves of E. uniflora, R.officinallis and S. spectabilis were collected in the medicinal plant garden of the State University of Maringa - UEM/PR, and strains were provided by University Paranaense - Unipar. The antibacterial activity was determined by broth microdilution plate technique using Alamar Blue Assay (MABA) growth revelant. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) using R. officinalis, E. uniflora against the S. aureus ATCC strain revealed results of 125 µg/mL, for S. spectabilis extracts, MIC was of 250 µg/mL; S. pyogenes resulted in a MIC of 125 µg/mL was admitted only for R. officinalis and S. spectabilis, E. uniflora results showed 500 µg/mL, and for P. aeruginosa, MIC was greater than 500 µm/mL for the three extracts. The extracts are considered as promising when used against S. aureus and S. pyogenes, but not for P. aeruginosa. However, new alternatives are being sought for treating this gram-negative strain.


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Senna Plant/chemistry , Rosmarinus/chemistry , Eugenia/chemistry , Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Plants, Medicinal , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Streptococcus pyogenes/drug effects , Microbial Sensitivity Tests
9.
Acta sci., Biol. sci ; 37(1): 9-13, jan.- mar. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-847938

ABSTRACT

Senna species have been widely used by American, African and Indian ethic groups mainly in the treatment of feebleness, constipation, liver disorders and skin infections. Senna occidentalis (L.) Link is a perennial shrub native to South America and indigenous to tropical regions throughout the world. Current study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts from S. occidentalis prepared from different parts of the plant. Antimicrobial activity was assessed against standard pharmaceutical microorganisms by spectrophotometry and microdilution technique. Escherichia coli was sensitive only to compounds extracted from seeds which may be proteinaceous. A broader antimicrobial spectrum was demonstrated by the hydroalcoholic extract of seeds, mostly against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The in vitro toxicity using mouse fibroblasts indicated that the extract might be a biocompatible ingredient for topical formulations, while the hydroalcoholic extract of aerial parts demonstrated to be potentially cytotoxic.


Espécies de Senna são amplamente utilizadas por tribos americanas, africanas e indianas, principalmente para tratar a fraqueza, a constipação, as desordens do fígado e também em preparações tópicas para infecções de pele. A Senna occidentalis (L.) Link é um arbusto perene nativo da América do Sul encontrado em regiões tropicais. Este trabalho avaliou a atividade antimicrobiana de extratos aquosos e hidroalcoólicos de diferentes partes da planta. A atividade antimicrobiana foi estabelecida frente aos microrganismos padrões farmacêuticos por espectrofotometria e técnica de microdiluição. A Escherichia coli apresentou sensibilidade apenas a componentes extraídos das sementes, os quais podem ser de natureza proteica. O espectro mais amplo de atividade antimicrobiana foi obtido com o extrato hidroalcoólico das sementes, principalmente contra Pseudomonas aeruginosa. A toxicidade in vitro utilizando fibroblastos de camundongo indicou que este extrato pode ser um ingrediente biocompatível para formulações de uso tópico. Já o extrato hidroalcoólico de partes aéreas demonstrou ser potencialmente citotóxico.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Antifungal Agents , Fabaceae , Fibroblasts , Medicine, Traditional , Senna Plant/cytology
10.
Rev. biol. trop ; 62(2): 769-782, Jun.-Aug. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-715470

ABSTRACT

The system of Ibera lake and marshes in the Province of Corrientes, covers an area of approximately12 000km², and is considered one of the most important wetlands in Latin America. Given the wide diversity oftropical communities in this area, it is important to generate new information about the different species of this ecosystem, through pollen morphology, as lake sediments favor the pollen grains conservation. With the aim to promote future research on systematics, vegetation history and melissopalynology of this region, this study attempted to describe the pollen morphology of the well represented genus Senna. For this, we conducted 5-8 days collection trips in Southeast Ibera, on a monthly basis between 2009 and 2011. Based on the plants collected, the literature review and databases from the herbarium of the Botanical Institute of Northeast Argentina, we developed a list of species for the Province of Corrientes. For the pollen morphology, we manually took at least three flower buds per flower in the sampled sites, and for those species not sampled in the field, samples were obtained from the IBONE herbarium. Palynological material preparation was carried out by a modified tech nique of Erdtman acetolysis. The palynological descriptions considered the polar and equatorial diameter, exine thickness, openings and sculptural elements. Our results showed that Senna genus is euripalynic, composed of 3-colporate pollen grains, small to medium size, radiosymmetric, isopolar, oblates-spheroidals to prolates, subcircular field, subtriangular to triangular and long colpis. We described for the first time, the pollen morphology of 17 species of the genus Senna for this area, and recognized two groups considering endoapertures: lalongates and circular. The list of species belonging to the genus Senna presented here could be considered in restoration and recovery plans. A major constraint for the correct interpretation of the environmental changes impacts in vegetation, whether of climatic and/or anthropogenic origin, is the knowledge of pollen morphology of tropical species. A palynological database is of high value for the interpretation and determination of plant species.


El sistema de esteros y lagunas del Iberá, en la provincia de Corrientes abarcan aproximadamente 12 000km² de superficie y es considerado uno de los humedales más importantes de Latinoamérica. Dada la gran diversidad de las comunidades tropicales en esta área, es importante generar nueva información sobre las diferentes especies de este ecosistema, a través de la morfología del polen, ya que los sedimentos lacustres constituyen un medio ácido, pobre en oxígeno y favorable a la conservación de granos de polen que se depositan en su superficie. Con el objetivo de promover futuras investigaciones sobre la sistemática, historia de la vegetación y melisopalinología de esta región, el estudio trató de describir la morfología polínica del género Senna, que se halla bien representado en la zona. Se elaboró un listado de especies pertenecientes a la Provincia de Corrientes. Este listado se realizó mediante recolectas botánicas realizadas en el Sureste del Iberá, durante 5 a 8 días de cada mes entre 2009 y 2011, adicionalmente, se consultó literatura especializada y bases de datos de herbario del Instituto de Botánica del Nordeste Argentino. En cuanto al estudio morfológico del polen, se tomaron manualmente los botones florales de ejemplares en la zona de estudio. Para aquellas especies que no pudieron ser muestreadas en campo, se precisó de la toma de botones florales del herbario del IBONE. La preparación del material palinológico se llevó a cabo por la técnica modificada de acetólisis de Erdtman. Las descripciones palinológicas consideran el diámetro polar y ecuatorial, grosor de la exina, aberturas y elementos esculturales. Los resultados muestran que el género Senna es euripolínico, compuesto de granos 3-colporados pequeños a medianos, radiosimétricos, isopolares, oblatos-esferoidales a prolatos, ámbito subcircular, subtriangular a triangular; colpos largos. Aquí, se describen por primera vez para la zona, la morfología polínica de 17 especies del género Senna, del sureste del sistema Iberá, reconociéndose dos grupos teniendo en cuenta endoaperturas: lalongadas y circulares. El listado de especies pertenecientes al género Senna presentado en este trabajo debe ser considerado en las actividades de restauración y recuperación de los diferentes tipos de vegetación. Una limitación importante para la correcta interpretación del impacto de las variaciones ambientales en la vegetación, ya sean climáticas y/o antropogénicas, es el conocimiento de la morfología polínica de las especies tropicales, por lo tanto, se debe contar con una base de datos palinológica a nivel morfológico que ayude a la interpretación y determinación de especies vegetales.


Subject(s)
Pollen/ultrastructure , Senna Plant/classification , Argentina , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Senna Plant/ultrastructure
11.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 34(2): 147-152, fev. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-709858

ABSTRACT

Descreve-se um surto de intoxicação por Senna obtusifolia em bovinos no estado de Mato Grosso do Sul, na região do Pantanal. Em um lote de 313 novilhas, 165 adoeceram e morreram (coeficientes de morbidade de 52,7% e de letalidade de 100%). Os bovinos permaneceram no piquete infestado pela planta por 37 dias. Os sinais clínicos consistiram em relutância em movimentar-se, andar trôpego (incoordenação), decúbito esternal permanente, diminuição do tônus de língua, estado comportamental em alerta, mioglobinúria caracterizada por urina castanho-escuro e fezes ressecadas com ou sem muco (ocasionalmente diarreicas com estrias de sangue). As principais alterações macroscópicas observadas nos 12 bovinos necropsiados estavam nos músculos esqueléticos dos membros pélvicos e foram caracterizadas por graus variáveis de palidez nos grupos musculares. Histologicamente, a lesão mais relevante encontrada foi degeneração e necrose segmentar multifocal nos músculos estriados esqueléticos (miopatia degenerativa tóxica multifocal polifásica). O diagnóstico da intoxicação baseou-se na epidemiologia (massa de forragem e de planta tóxica, análise da lotação do piquete e análise da precipitação pluviométrica), no quadro clínico dos animais e nos achados de necropsia e histopatologia.


Senna sp. poisoning in livestock has been reported in several occasions in Brazil usually from southern Brazil and involving S. occidentalis as the culprit. The objective of this study is to report the occurrence of an outbreak of S. obtusifolia poisoning in cattle in the Pantanal Region of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. In a herd of 313 heifers, 165 were affected and died (morbidity rate of 52.7% and lethality rate of 100%). The 313 heifers remained in the paddock infested by S. obtusifolia for 37 days. Clinical signs consisted of reluctance to move, incoordination, permanent sternal recumbency, decrease in the tonus of the tongue, alertness, myoglobinuria characterized by dark brown urine, and dry stools with or without mucus; or occasionally diarrhea with streaks of blood. The main gross findings in 12 necropsied cattle were in the skeletal muscles of the hind limbs, and were characterized by varying degrees of paleness of muscle groups. Histologically, the most relevant lesion was segmental multifocal degeneration and necrosis in striated skeletal muscles (multifocal lypolyphasic toxic degenerative myopathy). The epidemiological, clinical and pathological data allowed to conclude for the diagnosis of poisoning by S. obtusifolia in this outbreak.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Cattle , Muscular Diseases/veterinary , Plant Poisoning/veterinary , Senna Plant , Autopsy/veterinary , Fabaceae/toxicity
12.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-705097

ABSTRACT

Senna alexandrina MILL é um arbusto alto, originário da Arábia, amplamente cultivado na Índia e largamente utilizado como laxativo na constipação aguda e em casos em que a defecação é aconselhável, como após intervenção cirúrgica antes ou depois de operação abdominal, sendo empregado na forma de pós, xaropes, comprimidos e cápsulas. Como estas formulações geralmente são preparadas à partir de derivados do extrato líquido, torna-se fundamental para a qualidade e eficácia que este tenha seu processo de extração otimizado. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo determinar as melhores condições de extração, por soluções hidroetanólicas, das folhas de Senna alexandrina, empregando planejamento fatorial completo com ponto central 23 (três fatores e dois níveis) onde os níveis dos fatores foram codificados como -1 (baixo), 0 (ponto central) e 1 (alto), e metodologia de superfícies de respostas, para avaliar a influência do solvente, da quantidade de planta e do método de extração sobre o teor de derivados hidroxiantracênicos expressos em senosídeo B (SB) e sobre o resíduo seco (RS) nos extratos líquidos preparados. Foram realizados planejamentos experimentais completos, sendo um realizado pelo deslocamento dos níveis, após a análise do primeiro planejamento. Após a análise da superfície de resposta do planejamento com os níveis deslocados encontrou-se a faixa de melhor extração dos derivados hidroxiantracênicos expressos em senosídeo B com a melhor relação SB/RS, utilizando o solvente etanol/água a 60% V/V, 15 gramas da planta, e extração com aquecimento e agitação.


Senna alexandrina Mill is an erect shrub, native toArabia but widely cultivated in India, that is widely employed as a purgative for acute constipation and when defecation is advisable, such as before or after abdominal surgery. It is used in the form of powder, syrup, tablets and capsules. As these formulations are typically prepared from derivatives of the liquid extract, it is crucial for both quality and efficiency that the extraction process is optimized. The aim of this study was to establish optimal conditions for hydroethanolic extraction of Senna alexandrina leaves, by employing a 23 full factorial experimental design with a central point (three factors and two levels), where the factor levels were coded as -1 (low), 0 (central point) and 1 (high), and response surface methodology, to assess the influence of the solvent, the amount of plant and the extraction method on the yield of hydroxyanthracene derivatives, expressed as sennoside B (SB), and on the dry matter (DM) in the prepared liquid extracts. Full factorial runs were conducted, one being carried out with the levels adjusted following the analysis of the first design. Upon the assessment of the response surface with adjusted levels, the optimum range for extraction of hydroxyanthracene derivatives, expressed as SB, was determined. The best SB/DM ratio was achieved byusing 60% (v/v) ethanol/water solvent, 15 g of the plantand extraction with heating and stirring.


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts , Plants, Medicinal , Senna Plant , Phytotherapy
13.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 32(12): 1263-1271, Dec. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-662558

ABSTRACT

Plantas do gênero Senna causam miopatia degenerativa em bovinos e o maior número de relatos envolve Senna occidentalis. O objetivo desse trabalho é relatar, pela segunda vez no Brasil, um surto de intoxicação natural por Senna obtusifolia. É descrito um surto de intoxicação por Senna obtusifolia, na região noroeste do estado do Paraná, que aconteceu em um lote de 200 vacas, com idade entre 45 e 152 meses, introduzidas em um confinamento para melhorar a condição corporal antes do parto. A área do confinamento estava invadida pela planta e as vacas permaneceram no local durante oito dias. Entre quatro e nove dias após a entrada no confinamento 20 vacas adoeceram e somente uma se recuperou. Os sinais consistiram em mioglobinúria, incoordenação e decúbito esternal permanente. As vacas doentes apresentaram aumento das atividades das enzimas creatina quinase, aspartato aminotransferase, gamaglutamiltransferase e fosfatase alcalina. Lesões na musculatura esquelética dos membros posteriores caracterizadas por áreas pálidas representaram as principais alterações observadas à necropsia de quatro bovinos. Necrose segmentar multifocal da musculatura esquelética e necrose paracentral multifocal no fígado foram as alterações histopatológicas mais relevantes. As evidências epidemiológicas, clínicas e patológicas indicam o diagnóstico de intoxicação por Senna obtusifolia. A planta demonstrou ter efeito miotóxico e hepatotóxico nos animais intoxicados e a doença foi quase sempre fatal.


Plants of the genus Senna cause a degenerative myopathy in cattle and most of the reports refer to Senna occidentalis. The aim of this paper is to report, for the second time in Brazil, an outbreak of natural poisoning by Senna obtusifolia. It happened in the northwestern Paraná in a herd of 200 cows, 45 to 152 months of age, which had been placed into a feedlot to improve their nutritional status before the calving period. The cows stayed for eight days in this feedlot infested by the plant. Four to nine days after they got into the feedlot, 20 cows became ill and only one recovered. The clinical signs consisted of myoglobinuria, incoordination and permanent sternal recumbency. The affected cows showed increased activity of creatine phosphokinase, aspartate aminotransferase, gama-glutamyltransferase, and alkaline phosphatase. The main postmortem changes were in skeletal muscles of the hind limbs characterized by pale areas. The histological alterations were multifocal segmental necrosis of skeletal muscles and hepatic multifocal paracentral necrosis. Epidemiological, clinical and pathological data led to the diagnosis of Senna obtusifolia poisoning. The plant showed miotoxic and hepatotoxic effects on the poisoned animals and the disease was almost always lethal.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Cattle/metabolism , Muscular Diseases/veterinary , Hepatic Encephalopathy/veterinary , Necrosis , Senna Plant/poisoning , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Botulism , Diagnosis, Differential , Ionophores/adverse effects , White Muscle Disease
15.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 83(4): 1159-1164, Dec. 2011. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-607419

ABSTRACT

2-acetyl physcion (2-acetyl-1,8-dihydroxy-6-methoxy-3-methyl-9,10-anthraquinone, 2), a rare anthraquinone, was isolated from Senna macranthera var. nervosa (Vogel) H.S. Irwin & Barneby (Fabaceae). The chemical structure was elucidated and all ¹H and 13C NMR chemical shifts were assigned by NMR one- (¹HNMR, {¹H}-13CNMR, and APT-13CNMR) and two (COSY, NOESY, HMQC and HMBC) dimensional of this natural compound. Furthermore, the minor anthraquinones chrysophanol (3), chrysophanol-8-methyl ether (4) and physcion (5) were characterized by GC-MS analysis. The occurrence of the anthraquinones 3-5 confirms that S. macranthera is a typical representative of the genus Senna.


2-acetil-fisciona (2-acetil-1, 8-di-hidróxi-6-metóxi-3-metil-9, 10-antraquinona, 2), uma antraquinona rara, foi isolada de Senna acranthera var. nervosa (Vogel) H.S. Irwin & Barneby (Fabaceae). estrutura química foi elucidada e todos os deslocamentos químicos de RMN ¹H e 13C foram atribuídos através de RMN uni- (RMN¹H, {¹H}-RMN-13C e APT-RMN13C) e bi- (COSY, NOESY, HMQC e HMBC) dimensional deste composto natural. Adicionalmente, as antraquinonas minoritárias crisofanol (3), crisofanol-8-metil éter (4) e fisciona (5) foram caraterizadas pela análise de CG-EM. A ocorrência das antraquinonas 3-5 confirma que S. macranthera é uma típica representante do gênero Senna.


Subject(s)
Anthraquinones/chemistry , Senna Plant/chemistry , Anthraquinones/isolation & purification , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Molecular Structure
16.
Rev. biol. trop ; 59(4): 1669-1678, Dec. 2011. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-646563

ABSTRACT

One important subject is to determine the effectiveness of conservation areas, where different management categories are being applied, to maintain effective sexual reproduction in plants and their interactions with animal groups. To evaluate this issue, we compared the phenology, reproductive success, pollination and pre-dispersal seed predation of the legume tree Senna multijuga in two differently managed protected areas in Southeastern Brazil: the Itatiaia National Park and the Environmental Protection Area of Serrinha do Alambari, from December 2007 to December 2008. Vegetative and reproductive phenodinamycs were registered monthly in 80 individuals; other evaluations included 104 observation hours for pollination (March-May 2008) in 51 inflorescences; besides, fruit counts, fecundity and seed predation. Sexual reproduction of S. multijuga depends on the transfer of pollen by large bees (Bombus, Centris, Epicharis and Xylocopa), as the species is self-incompatible. Bruchidae species of the genus Acanthoscelides and Sennius predate seeds. Vegetative and reproductive phenodynamics differed among sites. Our results indicated that ecological interactions were lower at the protected area, but the reproductive processes in S. multijuga were not ruptured or critically degraded. This reinforces the idea that landscape areas with intermediate levels of protection, such as environmental protection areas, are suitable as buffer zones, and thus, relevant to the conservation of ecological processes when associated with more strictly protected areas. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (4): 1939-1948. Epub 2011 December 01.


Es importante determinar la eficacia de las áreas de conservación cuando se están implementando diferentes categorías de manejo, y una forma de hacerlo es conociendo si se mantiene una reproducción sexual efectiva en las especies de plantas y sus interacciones con grupos de animales. Para evaluar esta cuestión, se comparó la fenología, el éxito reproductivo, la polinización y la pre-dispersión de semillas depredadas de la leguminosa Senna multijuga en dos áreas protegidas sometidas a diferente tipos de manejo en el sureste de Brasil: el Parque Nacional de Itatiaia y el Área de Protección Ambiental de Serrinha de Alambari, de diciembre 2007 a diciembre 2008. La fenodinámica vegetativa y reproductiva fue registrada mensualmente en 80 individuos; otras evaluaciones incluyeron 104 horas de observación de la polinización (marzo-mayo 2008) en 51 inflorescencias, además del conteo de frutos, fecundidad y depredación de semillas. S. multijuga tiene una reproducción sexual que depende de la polinización de abejas grandes (Bombus, Centris, Epicharis y Xylocopa) y se considera una especie auto-incompatible. Las semillas son depredadas por especies de Bruchidae de los géneros Acanthoscelides y Sennius. La fenodinámica vegetativa y reproductiva difirió entre sitios. Nuestros resultados indican que las interacciones ecológicas fueron menores en el área protegida, pero los procesos reproductivos de S. multijuga no se vieron interrumpidos ni degradados de manera crítica. Esto refuerza la idea de que las zonas de paisaje con niveles intermedios de protección, tales como las áreas de protección ambiental, son adecuadas como zonas de amortiguamiento, y por lo tanto, relevantes para la conservación de los procesos ecológicos cuando se asocian con áreas en las que se da una protección más estricta.


Subject(s)
Animals , Conservation of Natural Resources/methods , Ecosystem , Pollination/physiology , Seeds/physiology , Senna Plant/physiology , Brazil , Bees/physiology , Coleoptera/physiology , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Senna Plant/growth & development , Trees
17.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 31(2): 139-146, Feb. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-578908

ABSTRACT

Sixteen outbreaks of Senna occidentalis (coffee senna) that occurred in cattle in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, were reviewed. The great majority (75 percent) of the outbreaks occurred in adult cattle at pasture during the autumn and winter months with 50 percent in May, evidencing a striking seasonality. Mortality rates varied from 4.2 percent to 55.2 percent and cattle died 2 days up to 2 weeks after showing clinical signs that included dry feces (occasionally diarrhea), muscle weakness, reluctance to move, tachypnea, instability of the hind limbs with dragging of the toes, tremors in muscles of the thighs, neck, and head, ear dropping, sternal recumbency, lateral recumbency and death. Myoglobinuria characterized by a dark red or black discolored urine was a consistent finding in cattle affected at pasture but not in those poisoned by ration contaminated with coffee senna beans. Creatine phosphokinase serum activity was marked ly elevated. Main gross changes observed in 23 necropsies involved skeletal muscles of the hind limbs. These changes consisted of varying degrees of paleness of muscle groups. Subepicardial and subendocardial hemorrhages were present in the hearts of all affected cattle. Histologically a segmental degenerative myopathy of striated muscles was present in every case and had a multifocal polyphasic or monophasic character. Myocardial (3/23), hepatic (3/13), renal (3/10), and splenic (1/6) microscopic lesions were observed occasionally. Myocardial lesions were mild and consisted of vacuolation of cardiomyocytes or focal fibrosis. Hepatic changes consisted of diffuse hepatocelular vacuolation, cytosegrosomes within hepatocytes, and individual hepatocellular necrosis. Kidneys had vacuolar degeneration of tubular epithelium associated with acidophilic casts (proteinosis) within tubular lumina. In the spleen there was marked necrosis of lymphocytes of the white pulp. No histological changes were found in the brains of 13 affected cattle. The data of this study suggest that coffee senna poisoning is an important cause of death in cattle in southern Brazil.


Dezesseis surtos de intoxicação por Senna occidentalis (fedegoso) em bovinos do Rio Grande do Sul foram revisados. A grande maioria dos surtos (75 por cento) ocorreu em bovinos adultos em pastoreio durante o outono e inverno com 50 por cento dos surtos em maio, evidenciando uma notável sazonalidade. Os coeficientes de mortalidade variaram de 4,2 por cento a 55,2 por cento e os bovinos morriam 2 dias a duas semanas após mostrarem sinais clínicos que incluíam fezes ressecadas (ocasionalmente diarreia), fraqueza muscular, relutância em mover-se, taquipneia, instabilidade dos membros pélvicos com arrastamento das pinças, tremores nos músculos das coxas, pescoço e cabeça; orelhas caídas, decúbito esternal, decúbito lateral, e morte. Mioglobinúria, caracterizada por urina vermelho-escura ou preta foi regularmente encontrada em bovinos afetados em pastoreio, mas não naqueles que se intoxicaram ao ingerir ração contaminada com as sementes da planta. A atividade sérica da creatina fosfocinase estava acentuadamente elevada. As principais alterações macroscópicas observadas em 23 necropsias envolviam os músculos esqueléticos dos membros pélvicos. Essas alterações consistiam de graus variáveis de palidez em grupos musculares. Hemorragias subepicárdicas e subendocárdicas ocorreram nos corações de todos os bovinos afetados. Histologicamente, miopatia degenerativa dos músculos estriados esteve presente em todos os casos e tinha um caráter multifocal monofásico ou polifásico. Lesões microscópicas no miocárdio (3/23), fígado (3/13), rim (3/10) e baço (1/6) foram ocasionalmente observadas. As lesões miocárdicas eram discretas e consistiam de vacuolização dos cardiomiócitos ou fibrose focal. As lesões hepatocelulares consistiam de vacuolização difusa, formação de citossegrossomos e necrose individual. Nos rins havia degeneração vacuolar do epitélio tubular associada a cilindros eosinofílicos (proteinose) na luz tubular. No baço havia marcada necrose de linfócitos da polpa branca. Nenhuma alteração foi encontrada ao exame histológico do encéfalo de 13 bovinos afetados. Os dados deste estudo sugerem que a intoxicação por fedegoso é uma importante causa de morte em bovinos do sul do Brasil.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Cattle , Senna Plant/poisoning , Senna Plant/toxicity , Plant Poisoning , Disease Outbreaks/veterinary
18.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 10(1): 23-29, ene. 2011. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-686897

ABSTRACT

Chloroform, methanol and aqueous extracts of Penstemon roseus and Senna crotalarioides were investigated for their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. The aqueous extract had no activity on TPA-induced ear edema, but the chloroform and methanol extracts of both plants caused a significant inhibition of the edema. The chloroform extracts showed activity on carrageenan-induced paw edema and mouse ear edema induced by multiple topical applications of TPA, and only P. roseus (dose of 100 mg/kg) exhibited anti-arthritic activity. The methanol extracts of P. roseus and S. crotalarioides had the most activity in the DPPH and reducing power tests. The LD50 values in mice of both chloroform extracts were considerate as slight acute toxic and higher than the doses used in this study.


Las propiedades antiinflamatorias y antioxidantes de los extractos de cloroformo, metanol y agua de Penstemon roseus y Senna crotalarioides fueron investigadas. El extracto acuoso no tuvo actividad sobre el edema auricular inducido con TPA, pero el extracto de cloroformo y etanol de ambas plantas inhibieron significativamente el edema. El extracto de cloroformo mostró actividad sobre el edema plantar inducido con carragenina y el edema auricular en ratón inducido por múltiples aplicaciones de TPA, y solo P. roseus y S. crotalarioides tuvieron la mejor actividad en las pruebas de DPPH y poder reductor. Los valores de la DL50 en ratón de ambos extractos de cloroformo son considerados con ligera toxicidad aguda y mayores que las dosis empleadas en el estudio.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Rats , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Penstemon/chemistry , Senna Plant/chemistry , Chloroform , Methanol , Plants, Medicinal , Rats, Wistar , Water
19.
Clinics ; 66(3): 483-486, 2011. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-585962

ABSTRACT

Cassia angustifolia Vahl (senna) is a natural product that contains sennosides, which are active components that affect the intestinal tract and induce diarrhea. Authors have shown that senna produces DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) lesions in Escherichia coli cultures and can act as an antifungal agent. Natural drugs can alter the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m (99mTc) and can affect the biodistribution of radiopharmaceuticals. In this work, we have evaluated the influence of a senna extract on the radiolabeling of blood constituents and on the biodistribution of the radiopharmaceutical sodium pertechnetate (Na99mTcO4)in Wistar rats. Twelve animals were treated with senna extract for 7 days. Blood samples were withdrawn from the animals and the radiolabeling procedure was carried out. The senna extract did not modify the radiolabeling of the blood constituents. A biodistributional assay was performed by administering Na99mTcO4 and determining its activity in different organs and in blood. The senna extract altered the biodistribution of Na99mTcO4 in the thyroid, liver, pancreas, lungs and blood. These results are associated with properties of the chemical substances present in the aqueous senna extract. Although these assays were performed in animals, our findings suggest that caution should be exercised when nuclear medicine examinations using Na99mTcO4 are conducted in patients who are using senna extract.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Blood Cells/drug effects , Radiopharmaceuticals/pharmacokinetics , Senna Extract/pharmacology , Senna Plant/chemistry , /pharmacokinetics , Blood Cells/metabolism , Models, Animal , Rats, Wistar , Radiopharmaceuticals/blood , /blood , Time Factors
20.
cont. j. pharm. Sci ; 5(1): 1-10, 2011.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1273938

ABSTRACT

In traditional medicine practice the locally made soap is a vehicle for drug application and drugs are usually incorporated in powder form. Many herbal soaps being made incorporate the extract of the medicinal plant; but this makes the soap very expensive and not easily produced for the use of the majority of people. This study investigates the activity of a herbal soap incorporating two medicinal plants ; Senna alata (L) Roxb (Ceasalpinaceae) and Ageratum conyzoides Linn(Asteraceae) which are well known for their use in the treatment of skin diseases and their antimicrobial activity; comparing it to the extracts of the plants. The study also determines the optimum concentration of the herbs to be incorporated into the soap. Three soaps containing 3;5 and 8of the moderately fine powder of the two medicinal plants were prepared using the normal cold method for preparing hand and body soap with NaOH and Palm kernel oil. Extract of the two plants was prepared by cold extraction with methanol and concentrated in vacuo. The soaps and the extract were tested for antimicrobial activity against typed organisms and clinical isolates; gram negative; gram positive organisms and fungi. The results showed that the soap at 5herbal content was optimal. The soaps showed activity against mainly the gram positive organisms and fungi. The activity of the extract was not different from that of the soaps and therefore shows no advantage in using the extracts to prepare the herbal soap


Subject(s)
Herbal , Plant Preparations , Senna Plant , Soaps
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