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1.
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 54(3): 257-266, set. 2020. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1130600

ABSTRACT

EL HOMA-IR (homeostasis model assessment-insulin-resistance) es un estimador de insulinorresistencia (IR) pero depende de la determinación de insulina. Los índices triglicéridos-glucosa (T-G)-circunferencia de la cintura (CC) (T-G-CC) o triglicéridos-glucosa-índice de masa corporal (TG- IMC) podrían ser sustitutos. Los objetivos de este trabajo consistieron en investigar en personas con riesgo de desarrollar diabetes tipo 2 (DT2): a) los índices T-G, T-G-CC y T-G-IMC como estimadores de HOMA-IR>2,1; b) determinar su poder discriminante. Se realizó un estudio prospectivo en el que se estudiaron 223 individuos ≥45 años con riesgo de desarrollar diabetes tipo 2 (DT2). La relación T-G se calculó como ln [triglicéridos (mg/dL) x glucemia (mg/dL)/2]. La relación T-G-CC y T-G-IMC fue el producto de T-G por CC o IMC. Se utilizó análisis de regresión logística y se calcularon las áreas bajo las curvas ROC (receiver operating characteristic curves) (ABC) para comparar las asociaciones de T-G, T-G-CC y T-G-IMC con HOMA-IR>2,1. Mediante análisis discriminante se evaluó la clasificación de los sujetos entre HOMA-IR>2,1 y HOMA-IR≤2,1. ABC, sensibilidad, especificidad, poder predictivo positivo y negativo para T-G-CC y T-G-IMC fueron mayores que para T-G, con los siguientes valores de corte: T-G=8,75, T-G-CC=821 y T-G-IMC=255. Los odds ratios (OR) para HOMA-IR>2,1, ajustados para confusores, fueron: T-G>8,75, OR: 4,85 (IC 95% 2,73-8,62); T-G-CC>821, OR: 10,41 (IC 95% 5,55-19,53); T-GIMC> 255, OR: 10,41 (IC 95% 5,55-19,53). Con el análisis discriminante T-G>8,75 clasificó correctamente 69,2% individuos con HOMA-IR≤2,1 y 68,3% con HOMA-IR>2,1; T-G-CC y T-G-IMC clasificaron 74,4% y 78,2% respectivamente (p<0,001 en todos los casos). Se concluyó que T-GCC> 821 y T-G-IMC>255 fueron mejores estimadores de HOMA-IR>2,1 que T-G>8,75. Estas son determinaciones simples y accesibles y podrían ser útiles en la práctica clínica y en estudios epidemiológicos.


HOMA-IR ((homeostasis model assessment-insulin-resistance) is a surrogate estimator of insulin resistance (IR) but it depends on insulin determination. Triglyceride-glucose-waist circumference (T-G-WC) or triglyceride-glucose-body mass index (BMI) (T-G-BMI) could be substitutes. The objectives of this work were: to investigate in people at risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D): a) T-G, T-G-CC and T-G-BMI as estimators of HOMA-IR>2.1 and b) to determine their discriminating power. A prospective study was conducted studying 223 individuals ≥45 years of age at risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D). The T-G ratio was calculated as ln [triglycerides (mg/dL) x glycemia (mg/dL)/2]. The T-G-CC and T-G-BMI ratio was the product of T-G by CC or BMI. Logistic regression analysis was used and the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC) curves were calculated to compare the associations of T-G, T-G-CC and T-G-BMI with HOMA-IR>2.1. Using a discriminant analysis, the classification of the subjects between HOMA-IR>2.1 or HOMA-IR≤2.1 was evaluated. AUC, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive powers for T-G-CC and T-G-BMI were higher than for T-G, with the following cut-off values: TG=8.75, T-G-CC=821 and T-G-BMI=255. Odds ratios (OR) for HOMA-IR>2.1, adjusted for confounders, were: T-G>8.75, OR 4.85 (95% CI 2.73-8.62); T-G-CC>821, OR 10.41 (95% CI 5.55-19.53); T-G-BMI>255, OR 10.41 (95% CI 5.55-19.53). With the discriminant analysis T-G>8.75, 69.2% correctly classified with HOMA-IR≤2.1 and 68.3% with HOMA-IR>2.1; T-G-CC and T-G-BMI correctly classified 74.4% and 78.2% respectively (p <0.001 in all cases). It is concluded that T-G-CC>821 and T-G-BMI>255 were better estimators of HOMA-IR>2.1 than T-G>8.75. T-G-WC and T-G-BMI are simple and reliable determinations and could be useful in clinical practice and epidemiological studies.


O HOMA-IR (homeostasis model assessment-insulin-resistance) e um estimador de resistencia a insulina (RI), mas depende da determinacao da insulina. Triglicerideos-glicose (T-G), circunferencia da cintura (CC) (T-G-CC) ou triglicerideos-glicose-indice de massa corporal (T-G-IMC) poderiam ser substitutos. Os objetivos desse trabalho foram investigar em pessoas com risco de desenvolver diabetes tipo 2 (DT2): a) os indices T-G, T-G-CC e T-G-IMC como estimadores de HOMA-IR> 2,1; b) determinar seu poder discriminante. Um estudo prospectivo foi realizado em 223 pessoas ≥45 anos com risco de desenvolver diabetes tipo 2 (DT2). A razao T-G foi calculada como ln [triglicerideos (mg/dL) x glicemia (mg/dL)/2]. A razao T-G-CC e T-G-IMC foi o produto de T-G por CC ou IMC. A analise de regressao logistica foi utilizada e as areas sob as curvas ROC (receiver operating features) ABC foram calculadas para comparar as associacoes de T-G, T-G-CC e T-G-IMC com HOMA-IR>2.1. Por meio de analise discriminante, avaliou-se a classificacao dos sujeitos entre HOMA-IR>2,1 e HOMA-IR≤2,1. ABC, sensibilidade, especificidade, poder preditivo positivo e negativo para TG-CC e TG-IMC foram maiores que para TG, com os seguintes valores de corte: TG=8,75, TG-CC=821 e TG-IMC=255. Odds Ratios (OR) para HOMA-IR>2,1, ajustados para fatores de confusao, foram: TG>8,75, OR 4,85 (IC95% 2,73-8,62); T-G-CC>821, OR 10,41 (IC 95% 5,55-19,53); T-G-IMC>255, OR 10,41 (IC 95% 5,55-19,53). Com a analise discriminante T-G>8,75, 69,2% foram classificados corretamente com HOMA-IR≤2,1 e 68,3% com HOMA-IR>2,1; T-G-CC e T-G-IMC classificaram 74,4% e 78,2%, respectivamente (p<0,001 em todos os casos). Conclui-se que T-G-CC>821 e TG- IMC>255 foram melhores estimadores de HOMA-IR>2,1 que T-G>8,75. Elas sao determinacoes simples e acessiveis e poderiam ser uteis na pratica clinica e em estudos epidemiologicos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Triglycerides , Power, Psychological , Epidemiologic Studies , Logistic Models , Odds Ratio , Confounding Factors, Epidemiologic , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity , Classification , Area Under Curve , Courtship , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Glucose , Goals , Insulin , Persons , Organization and Administration , Association , Blood Glucose , Insulin Resistance , Body Mass Index , Discriminant Analysis , Risk , Regression Analysis , Waist Circumference
2.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(4): 815-819, Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124859

ABSTRACT

The skull is a reliable structure for determining the sex of an adult individual; it is generally resistant in adverse conditions, allowing it to be used for the analysis of sexual dimorphism. In the present study we analysed 10 non-metric characteristics of skulls of Brazilian adult individuals in order to: Determine the strength of association between sex and the morphological characteristics of the skull, the morphological characteristic(s) with greatest diagnostic influence for sex, and analyse whether the morphological characteristics of the skull predict sex. The study included 179 macerated skulls of Brazilian adults, (69 female, 110 male). The sex of all the skulls included was identified. The investigators were calibrated prior to analysis and all the evaluations were carried out under blinding. Pearson's Chi-squared test was used. The sensitivity and specificity were analysed and a ROC curve was constructed. Binary logistic regression was carried out. The SPSS v.22 software was used, with a significance threshold of 5 %. All the characteristics analysed presented statistically significant differences (p<0.05). The frontal profile, the superciliary arch and the glabella presented the greatest sensitivity, best balance between sensitivity and specificity and greatest area under curve. The regression model with the frontal profile, superciliary arch and mastoid process was significant [X2(2) = 115,728 p=0.000, R2 Negelkerke=0.657], and presented correct sex classification in 90 % of cases (Males: 87.4 %; Females: 83.1 %). In unknown individuals for whom the skull is present, non-metric analysis of the frontal profile, superciliary arch, mastoid process and glabella can be used as instruments for sex identification.


El cráneo es una estructura confiable para la determinación sexual de un individuo adulto y suele ser resistente en condiciones adversas, por lo que puede ser utilizado para el análisis del dimorfismo sexual. En el presente estudio analizamos 10 características no métricas de cráneos de individuos brasileños adultos a fin de determinar la fuerza de asociación entre el sexo y características morfológicas del cráneo; determinar la(s) característica(s) morfológica(s) con mejor poder para diagnosticar el sexo; y analizar si las características morfológicas del cráneo son previsoras del sexo. Fueron incluidos 179 cráneos macerados de brasileños adultos, (69 femeninos, 110 masculinos). Todos los cráneos incluidos presentaban identificación de sexo. Los investigadores fueron previamente calibrados y todas las evaluaciones fueron realizadas de forma ciega. Se utilizó la prueba de Chicuadrado de Pearson. Se analizó la sensibilidad y especificidad y se construyó una curva ROC. Se realizó regresión logística binaria. Se utilizó el software SPSS v.22, considerando umbral de significación de 5 %. Todas las características analizadas presentaron diferencias estadísticas significativas (p<0,05). El perfil frontal, el arco superciliar y la glabela fueron las características que presentaron mayor sensibilidad, mejor equilibrio sensibilidad/especificidad y mayor area under curve. El modelo de regresión con el perfil frontal, arco superciliar y proceso mastoides fue significativo [X2(2) = 115,728 p=0.000, R2 Negelkerke=0,657], y presentó una clasificación sexual correcta de 90 % (Males; 87,4 %; Females: 83,1 %). En individuos desconocidos en los cuales esté presente el cráneo, el análisis no-métrico del perfil frontal, del arco superciliar, del proceso mastoides y de la glabela pueden ser utilizados como herramienta para identificación sexual.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Skull/anatomy & histology , Sex Determination by Skeleton/methods , Brazil , Logistic Models , Predictive Value of Tests , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity
3.
Cuad. Hosp. Clín ; 61(1): [7], jul. 2020. ilus.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIBOCS | ID: biblio-1118888

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: el objetivo de este estudio fue verificar si los puntos de corte fijos y el límite inferior de lo normal (LLN) para el volumen espiratorio forzado en un segundo (FEV1) y el volumen espiratorio forzado en 6 segundos (FEV6) FEV1/FEV6 y el FEV6 son una medida alternativa para el FEV1 y la capacidad vital forzada (FVC), FEV1/FVC y la FVC en la detección de la enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica (EPOC), en una muestra de pacientes del oriente boliviano. MÉTODOS: se analizaron un total de 92 pruebas espirométricas, 66 varones y 26 mujeres con riesgo de EPOC. La población del estudio incluyó a residentes de la ciudad de Santa Cruz de la Sierra-Bolivia (ciudad cosmopolita) de 35 a 90 años de edad. RESULTADOS: la sensibilidad y la especificidad fueron del 97,0% y el 96,9%, respectivamente, cuando se compararon los valores de corte fijos de FEV1/FEV6 de 0,73 con los de FEV1/FVC < 0,7 como regla estándar, según las recomendaciones del global obstructive lung diseases (GOLD) para detectar la obstrucción de las vías respiratorias. La sensibilidad y la especificidad fueron de 93,4% y 81,2%, respectivamente, cuando el LLN de FEV1/FVC y FEV1/FEV6 fueron utilizados. CONCLUSIONES: en conclusión, el FEV6 es un sustituto válido de la CVF para detectar la obstrucción de las vías respiratorias, ya sea utilizando puntos de corte fijos o el LLN. Se necesitan más estudios para verificar estos resultados en una población más grande y para establecer los valores predictivos espirométricos locales.


INTRODUCTION: the aim of this study was to verify if fixed cut-off points and lower limit of normal (LLN) for forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1)/FEV6 and FEV6 as an alternative for FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC) and FVC are valid for the detection of obstructive lung disease in a sample of Bolivian subjects. METHODS: a total of 92 spirometric consecutive tests from subjects, 66 males and 26 females at risk for COPD were analyzed. The study population included residents of city Santa Cruz de la Sierra, (Bolivia) aged from 35 to 90 yrs., from various ethnical origins (cosmopolitan city). RESULTS: sensibility and specificity were 97.0% and 96.9%, respectively when fixed cut-off values of FEV1/FEV6 of 0.73 was compared to FEV1/FVC<0.7 as standard, according to GOLD recommendations to detect airway obstruction. Sensibility and specificity were 100% and 89.5%, respectively when LLN of FEV1/FVC and FEV1/FEV6 were used. CONCLUSIONS: in conclusion, FEV6 is a valid surrogate for FVC to detect airway obstruction, either using fixed cut-off points or LLN. Further study is needed to verify these results in a larger population and to establish local spirometric predicted values


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Forced Expiratory Volume , Sensitivity and Specificity , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Women , Vital Capacity
4.
Rev. cuba. estomatol ; 57(2): e2825, abr.-jun. 2020. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126514

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Introdução: Diariamente o cirurgião dentista se depara com diversos casos que exigem acurácia no diagnóstico inicial e atenção para o tratamento que irá ser proposto, uma dessas é a amelogênese imperfeita, que é uma rara alteração dentária de caráter hereditário. As características principais da amelogênese imperfeita são hipomineralização ou hipoplasia da matriz de esmalte, o que ocasiona descoloração, sensibilidade e fragilidade deste tecido, apresentando diferentes subtipos clínicos, sendo a variante hipoplásica a mais prevalente. Objetivo: Relatar dois casos de amelogênese imperfeita do tipo hipoplásica entre membros de uma mesma família, correlacionando-os. Apresentação do caso: O diagnóstico foi feito através dos exames clínico e radiográfico, além da correlação entre os achados clínicos encontrados em cada paciente e com outros familiares, sendo proposto um plano de tratamento multidisciplinar e consistente com a condição adequada. Conclusões: É importante para o cirurgião dentista estudar e conhecer essas alterações raras para poder estabelecer diagnóstico preciso. Além disso, deve-se ampliar a conduta clínica através de um planejamento individualizado e/ou familiar, tratando não apenas aspectos estéticos e funcionais, mas também psicológico e sociais(AU)


RESUMEN Introducción: Diariamente el cirujano dentista se enfrenta a varios casos que exigen precisión en el diagnóstico inicial y atención para el tratamiento que se propondrá, una de las cuales es la amelogénesis imperfecta, que es un rara alteración dental de carácter hereditario. Las características principales de la amelogénesis imperfecta son hipomeralización o hipoplasia de la matriz de esmalte, lo que ocasiona decoloración, sensibilidad y fragilidad de este tejido, con la presencia de diferentes subtipos clínicos, siendo la variante hipoplásica la más prevalente. Objetivo: Informar dos casos de amelogénesis imperfecta del tipo hipoplásica entre miembros de una misma familia, correlacionándolos. Presentación del caso: El diagnóstico se realizó a través de los exámenes clínicos y radiográficos, además de la correlación entre los hallazgos clínicos encontrados en cada paciente y con otros familiares, por lo que fue propuesto un plan de tratamiento multidisciplinario y consistente con la condición adecuada. Conclusiones: Es importante para el cirujano dentista que estudie y conozca estos cambios raros para poder establecer un diagnóstico preciso. Además, se debe ampliar la conducta clínica a través de una planificación individualizada y / o familiar, tratando no solo aspectos estéticos y funcionales, sino también psicológicos y sociales(AU)


ABSTRACT Introduction: Dental surgeons are confronted every day with several cases that require accuracy in the initial diagnosis and attention to the treatment that will be proposed. One of these is amelogenesis imperfecta, a rare hereditary tooth alteration. The main features of amelogenesis imperfecta are hypomineralization or hypoplasia of the enamel matrix resulting in discoloration, sensitivity and fragility of this tissue. Of the existing clinical subtypes, the hypoplastic variant is the most prevalent. Objective: Report and correlate two cases of hypoplastic amelogenesis imperfecta in members of the same family. Case presentation: The diagnosis was based on clinical and radiographic examination, as well as analysis of the correlation between the clinical findings obtained from each patient and other relatives. The treatment plan proposed was therefore multidisciplinary and appropriately consistent with the condition. Conclusions: It is important for dental surgeons to study and be aware of these rare changes to be able to establish an accurate diagnosis. On the other hand, clinical management should be broadened through individualized and/or family planning, paying attention not only to esthetic and functional aspects, but psychological and social as well(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Patient Care Planning/standards , Sensitivity and Specificity , Amelogenesis Imperfecta/diagnostic imaging
5.
Rev. cuba. cir ; 59(2): e892, abr.-jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126412

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: La apendicitis aguda es la enfermedad quirúrgica más común en cirugía de urgencia; sin embargo, sigue siendo un problema diagnóstico. Objetivos: Evaluar la escala de Alvarado como herramienta diagnóstica en la apendicitis aguda. Métodos: Se desarrolló un estudio observacional y descriptivo con fases analíticas en un universo de 107 pacientes con sospecha diagnóstica de apendicitis aguda, en el Hospital Universitario "Carlos Manuel de Céspedes", Bayamo, Granma, en el período de enero a mayo de 2019. Los datos fueron procesados en el sistema Excel estimándose los parámetros predictivos de efectividad clínica. Resultados: Predominaron los pacientes masculinos (63,55 por ciento) con una edad media de 29,64 años y un tiempo medio de evolución de los síntomas de 33,74 horas. La aplicación de la escala de Alvarado resultó en 87 pacientes (81,31 por ciento) con probable diagnóstico de apendicitis aguda y donde el 3,74 por ciento de los pacientes no padecían la enfermedad. La escala demostró una sensibilidad (84 por ciento) y una especificidad (80 por ciento) que la hace recomendable para la práctica clínica habitual. Conclusiones: La escala de Alvarado es un sistema de puntuación predictivo simple, no invasivo y recomendable para su uso en la práctica clínica habitual en cualquier escenario y por cualquier médico de asistencia(AU)


ABSTRACT Introduction: Acute appendicitis is the commonest surgical disease in emergency surgery; however, it remains a diagnostic problem. Objectives: To evaluate the Alvarado score as a diagnostic tool for acute appendicitis. Methods: We carried out an observational and descriptive study, with analytical phases, of a population of 107 patients with suspected diagnosis of acute appendicitis, at Carlos Manuel de Céspedes University Hospital in Bayamo, Granma, from January to May 2019. The data were processed in the Excel system, and the predictive parameters of clinical effectiveness were estimated. Results: Male patients (63.55 percent) predominated, with a mean age of 29.64 years and a mean time of evolution of symptoms of 33.74 hours. Application of the Alvarado score resulted in 87 patients (81.31 percent) with a probable diagnosis of acute appendicitis, 3.74 percent of which did not suffer from the disease. The score demonstrated a sensitivity (84 percent) and a specificity (80 percent) that makes it recommendable for routine clinical practice. Conclusions: The Alvarado score is a simple, noninvasive predictive scoring system recommended to be used in routine clinical practice in any setting and by any attending physician(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Appendicitis/diagnosis , Sensitivity and Specificity , Emergencies , Appendicitis/surgery , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Observational Studies as Topic
6.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 55(3): 293-297, May-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138018

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To investigate the accuracy of the applied kinesiology muscle strength test for sacroiliac dysfunction and compared it with four validated orthopedic tests. Methods This is a cross-sectional accuracy survey developed at a private practice in the city of Manaus, Brazil, during February 2017. The sample consisted of 20 individuals, with a median age of 33.5 years. Four tests were applied: distraction, thigh thrust, compression and sacral thrust, and the diagnosis was confirmed when three of these tests were positive. Soon after, the applied kinesiology test was applied to the piriformis muscle. Results The prevalence of sacroiliac joint dysfunction was of 45%; the thigh thrust test had the highest specificity, and the sacral thrust test had the highest sensitivity. The applied kinesiology test presented good results (sensitivity: 0.89; specificity: 0.82; positive predictive value: 0.80; negative predictive value: 0.82; accuracy: 0.85; and area under the receiver operating characteristic [ROC] curve: 0.85). Conclusion The applied kinesiology muscle strength test, which has great clinical feasibility, showed good accuracy in diagnosing sacroiliac joint dysfunction and greater discriminatory power for the existing dysfunction in comparison to other tests.


Resumo Objetivo Investigar a acurácia do teste de força muscular da cinesiologia aplicada para disfunção sacroilíaca, comparando-o com quatro testes ortopédicos validados. Métodos Trata-se de uma pesquisa transversal de acurácia desenvolvida em uma clínica particular da cidade de Manaus no mês de fevereiro de 2017. A amostra teve 20 indivíduos, com mediana de idade 33,5 anos. Foram aplicados quatro testes: distração, thigh thrust, compressão e thrust sacral, e o diagnóstico foi confirmado quando três destes testes deram positivo. Logo após, foi aplicado o teste da cinesiologia aplicada para o músculo piriforme. Resultados A prevalência de disfunção da articulação sacroilíaca observada foi de 45%, tendo o teste thigh thrust alta especificidade, e o teste thrust sacral, alta sensibilidade. O teste da cinesiologia aplicada obteve bons resultados (sensibilidade: 0,89; especificidade: 0,82; valor preditivo positivo: 0,80; valor preditivo negativo: 0,82; acurácia: 0,85; área abaixo da curva de característica de operação do receptor [COR]: 0,85). Conclusão O teste de força muscular da cinesiologia aplicada, de grande viabilidade clínica, mostrou ter boa acurácia no diagnóstico da disfunção da articulação sacroilíaca, e maior poder discriminatório da disfunção existente, em comparação aos demais testes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Sacroiliac Joint , Predictive Value of Tests , Surveys and Questionnaires , Sensitivity and Specificity , Kinesiology, Applied , Muscle Strength
7.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 86(3): 321-326, May-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132601

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Many studies have been done on proteomics, genomics, epigenetic, immunogenetics in many body fluids. Among these, circulating cell-free DNA (ccfDNA) entered the literature in 1948, but it has not been studied for many years due to technological deficiencies. Following recent advances, geno-metastasis has been mentioned and new research is needed in this area. ccfDNA is known to be an important biomolecule in this regard. Objective: The presence of cell-free DNA in the circulatory system may offer a tremendous opportunity to provide novel biomarkers for thyroid diseases. This experimental study was conducted to determine the amount of ccfDNA in different thyroid diseases, then to evaluate whether the ccfDNA concentration varied between the disease groups and control group. Methods: In total, we included 121 individuals in the present study. We collected blood samples and then determined the ccfDNA concentration in plasma of collected blood samples from three groups: thyroiditis (n = 33), benign (n = 37), and malignant (n = 30) and from a control group (n = 21). Results: The median values of the ccfDNA groups were found as 1610, 1665, 1685 and 576 ng/mL for the thyroiditis, benign, malign, and control groups, respectively. Findings showed that the ccfDNA of the three groups was significantly higher than the control (p < 0.0001). Each group was compared in terms of ccfDNA and the p-values of benign-thyroiditis, benign-malign, and thyroiditis-malign were 0.09, 0.65, and 0.29, respectively. Conclusions: The clear differences between thyroid diseases and controls suggest that ccfDNA is worthy of attention as a biomarker for further evaluation of different thyroid diseases. Likewise, it might indicate a clear tendency that ccfDNA can also be used to distinguish different thyroid diseases.


Resumo Introdução: Muitos estudos foram realizados em proteômica, genômica, epigenética e imunogenética em vários fluidos corporais. Entre esses, o DNA circulante livre de células (cfDNA) despontou na literatura em 1948, mas não foi estudado por muitos anos devido a deficiências tecnológicas. Após recentes avanços, a genometástase é mencionada e novas pesquisas tornam-se necessárias nessa área. Nesse sentido, o cfDNA é conhecido por ser uma importante biomolécula. Objetivo: A presença de DNA livre de células no sistema circulatório pode oferecer uma excelente oportunidade para fornecer novos biomarcadores para doenças da tireoide. Este estudo experimental foi conduzido para determinar a quantidade de cfDNA em diferentes doenças da tireoide e então avaliar se a concentração de cfDNA variou entre os grupos com doença e o grupo controle. Método: No total, 121 indivíduos foram incluídos no estudo. Coletamos amostras de sangue e, em então, determinamos a concentração de cfDNA no plasma de amostras de sangue de três grupos: tireoidite (n = 33), benigno (n = 37) e maligno (n = 30) e de um grupo controle (n = 21). Resultados: As medianas dos valores dos grupos de cfDNA foram de 1.610, 1.665, 1.685 e 576 ng/mL para os grupos tireoidite, benigno, maligno e controle, respectivamente. Os achados mostraram que o cfDNA dos três grupos com doença era significativamente maior do que o do grupo controle (p < 0,0001). Cada grupo foi comparado em termos de cfDNA e os p-valores de benigno-tireoidite, benigno-maligno e tireoidite-maligno foram de 0,09, 0,65 e 0,29, respectivamente. Conclusões: Como resultado, as óbvias diferenças entre as doenças da tireoide e os controles sugerem que o cfDNA é digno de atenção como um biomarcador para avaliação adicional das diferentes doenças da tireoide. Da mesma forma, isso pode indicar uma clara tendência de que o cfDNA também pode ser utilizado para distinção das diferentes doenças da tireoide.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Thyroid Diseases/diagnosis , Thyroid Diseases/blood , Cell-Free Nucleic Acids/blood , Biomarkers/blood , Sensitivity and Specificity , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
8.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 86(3): 339-342, May-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132587

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Bilirubin levels have been associated with risk of several malignancies. The association between pretreatment serum bilirubin levels and overall survival of patients with parotid gland carcinoma is unclear. Objectives: In this study, we assessed the effect of serum bilirubin levels to overall survival in malignant parotid tumors. Methods: This study included a total of 35 patients, 15 female and 20 male. The mean age of these patients was 60.7 ± 14.5 years. All patients who were diagnosed with parotid gland carcinoma and underwent total parotidectomy between 2008 and 2018, were retrospectively assessed. The relationship between the overall survival of patients and total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, and indirect bilirubin levels was estimated. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to determine the optimal cut-off points. Results: Patients with low direct bilirubin, total bilirubin and indirect bilirubin had significantly longer overall survival than those with high levels. Cut-off values for total bilirubin, direct bilirubin and indirect bilirubin were detected as 0.545 mg/dL, 0.175 mg/dL and 0.435 mg/dL, respectively. Conclusion: In our study, we observed that increased preoperative bilirubin levels are associated with reduced survival time in the postoperative period of patients with parotid gland carcinoma.


Resumo Introdução: Os níveis de bilirrubina têm sido associados ao risco de várias lesões malignas. A associação entre os níveis séricos de bilirrubina pré-tratamento e a sobrevida global dos pacientes com carcinoma da glândula parótida ainda não é clara. Objetivos: Neste estudo, avaliamos o efeito dos níveis séricos de bilirrubina na sobrevida global em tumores malignos de parótida. Método: Este estudo avaliou 35 pacientes, 15 do sexo feminino e 20 do masculino. A média de idade foi de 60,7 ± 14,5 anos. Pacientes diagnosticados com carcinoma da glândula parótida e submetidos a parotidectomia total entre 2008 e 2018 foram avaliados retrospectivamente. A relação entre a sobrevida global dos pacientes e os níveis de bilirrubina total, bilirrubina direta e bilirrubina indireta foi estimada. A análise da curva Receiver Operating Characteristic foi realizada para determinar os pontos de corte ideais. Resultados: Pacientes com níveis mais baixos de bilirrubina direta, bilirrubina indireta e bilirrubina total tiveram sobrevida global significantemente maior do que aqueles com valores mais altos. Valores de corte para bilirrubina total, bilirrubina direta e bilirrubina indireta foram estabelecidos como 0,545 mg/dL, 0,175 mg/dL e 0,435 mg/dL, respectivamente. Conclusão: Em nosso estudo, verificamos que níveis de bilirrubina aumentados no pré-operatório estão associados à redução do tempo de sobrevida no período pós-operatório em pacientes com carcinoma da glândula parótida.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bilirubin/blood , Parotid Neoplasms/mortality , Parotid Neoplasms/blood , Biomarkers, Tumor/blood , Survival Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity
9.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(2): 247-251, abr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056430

ABSTRACT

Nine tumor and various potential biomarkers were measured and combined the information to diagnose disease, all patients accepted fiber bronchoscopy brush liquid based cytologyand histopathology examination in order to reliably detect lung cancer. The samples from 314 Chinese lung cancer patients were obtained and CK5/6, P63, P40, CK7, TTF-1, NapsinA CD56, Syn and CgA were measured with the immunohistochemical SP method and analyzed correlation of the expression of these markers with pathological and clinical features of squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and small cell lung carcinoma. Squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma and small cell carcinoma were 61 cases, 114 cases and 139 cases,CK5/6 and P63 expression were more frequent in squamous cell carcinoma, with sensitivity and specificity of 77.05 % and 96.44 %, 83.61 % and 88.93 %,and compared with adenocarcinoma and small cell carcinoma difference was statistically significant (P<0.05), The incidences of a positive P40 expression were 100 % in squamous cell carcinoma, with specificity of 98.81 %.CK7, TTF-1 and NapsinA expression were more frequent in adenocarcinoma, with sensitivity and specificity of 85.09 % and 78.69 %, 79.82 % and 93.44 %, 56.14 % and 95.08 %, and compared with squamous cell carcinoma and small cell carcinoma difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). TTF-1, Syn, CgA and CD56 expression were more frequent in adenocarcinoma, with sensitivity and specificity of 86.33 % and 93.44 %, 89.21 % and 98.36 %, 74.10 % and 100 %, 96.40 % and 96.72 %. The combined detection of CK5/6, P63 and P40 were more useful and specific in differentiating squamous cell carcinoma. CK7, TTF-1 and NapsinA were more useful and specific in differentiating lung adenocarcinoma. The impaired CD56, TTF-1, Syn and CgA reflects the progression of small cell lung cancer.


Se midieron tumores y utilizaron nueve biomarcadores potenciales y se analizó la información para diagnosticar la enfermedad. A todos los pacientes se les realizó citología en líquido con broncoscopía de fibra y examen histopatológico para detectar de manera confiable el cáncer pulmonar. Se obtuvieron muestras de 314 pacientes chinos con cáncer de pulmón y CK5 / 6, P63, P40, CK7, TTF-1, Napsina A, CD56, Syn y CgA se midieron a través de histoquímica SP y analizaron la correlación de la expresión de estos marcadores con características patológicas y clínicas de carcinoma de células escamosas, adenocarcinoma y carcinoma de células pequeñas en el cáncer de pulmón. El carcinoma de células escamosas, el adenocarcinoma y el carcinoma de células pequeñas fueron 61 casos, 114 casos y 139 casos, respectivamente, la expresión de CK5 / 6 y P63 fueron más frecuentes en el carcinoma de células escamosas, con una sensibilidad y especificidad del 77,05 % y 96,44 %, 83,61 % y 88,93 %, y en comparación con el adenocarcinoma y el carcinoma de células pequeñas, la diferencia fue estadísticamente significativa (P <0,05). La incidencia de ap la expresión positiva P40 fue del 100 % en el carcinoma de células escamosas, con una especificidad del 98,81 %. La expresión de CK7, TTF-1 y NapsinA fueron más frecuentes en el adenocarcinoma, con una sensibilidad y especificidad del 85,09 % y 78,69 %, 79,82 % y 93,44 %, 56,14 % y 95,08 %, y en comparación con el carcinoma de células escamosas y la diferencia de carcinoma de células pequeñas fue estadísticamente significativa (P <0,05) .TTF-1, Syn, CgA y la expresión de CD56 fueron más frecuentes en adenocarcinoma, con sensibilidad y especificidad de 86.33 % y 93.44 %, 89.21 % y 98.36 %, 74.10 % y 100 %, 96.40 % y 96.72 %. La detección combinada de CK5 / 6, P63 y P40 fue más útil y específica en la diferenciación del carcinoma de células escamosas. CK7, TTF-1 y NapsinA fueron más útiles y específicos para diferenciar el adenocarcinoma de pulmón. El deterioro de CD56, TTF-1, Syn y CgA refleja la progresión del cáncer de pulmón de células pequeñas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma/metabolism , Carcinoma/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/metabolism , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Peptide Fragments/metabolism , Transcription Factors/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/metabolism , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/pathology , Adenocarcinoma/metabolism , Adenocarcinoma/pathology , Biomarkers, Tumor/metabolism , Aspartic Acid Endopeptidases/metabolism , Sensitivity and Specificity , Carcinoma, Small Cell/metabolism , Carcinoma, Small Cell/pathology , CD56 Antigen/metabolism , Tumor Suppressor Proteins/metabolism , Keratins, Type II/metabolism , Keratin-7/metabolism , Thyroid Nuclear Factor 1/metabolism
10.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 85(2): 175-184, abr. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115514

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: revisar los diferentes métodos de diagnóstico de la tricomoniasis vaginal disponibles hasta el presente. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: se revisó la bibliografía latinoamericano e internacional a través de los sitios electrónicos de Pub-Med y Scielo. RESULTADOS: la Tricomonas vaginalis es considera como la enfermedad de transmisión sexual no viral, curable más frecuente y prevalente en el mundo. Se revisan los diferentes de métodos para diagnosticar la presencia de la tricomonas vaginalis en pacientes femeninos con síntomas y signos de la infección producida por el protozoario flagelado. CONCLUSIONES: se revisaron los diferentes métodos de diagnostico de la infección producida por la Tricomonas vaginalis en pacientes femeninas, desde los clásicos hasta los más actuales que emplean alta tecnología.


OBJECTIVE: to review the different diagnostic methods of Trichomonas vaginal available at the present time. MATERIAL AND METHOD: it was reviewed the Latin-American and international bibliography using the Pub-Med and Scielo web sites. RESULTS: Trichomonas vaginalis is considered the most common and prevalent sexual transmitted disease curable and non-viral worldwide. It was reviewed the different methods to diagnose the presence of Trichomonas vaginalis in female patients with symptoms and signs of infection produces by the flagellate protozoa. CONCLUSION: Different methods of diagnosis of the infection produced by Trichomonas vaginalis, since the classics to the most current methods that use high technology, were reviewed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Trichomonas Vaginitis/diagnosis , Trichomonas vaginalis , Vaginal Smears , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/diagnosis , Sensitivity and Specificity , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , Culture Techniques , Antigens/analysis
11.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 86(2): 237-241, March-Apr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132567

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Laryngeal lesions are usually evaluated by microlaryngoscopy/direct laryngoscopy under anaesthesia for disease mapping and tissue diagnosis. However patients with anticipated airway compromise due to laryngeal mass may require either a protective tracheotomy or emergency tracheotomy to secure the airway. To minimise risk of unplanned tracheotomy and expedite the diagnosis we performed ultrasound-guided transcutaneous fine needle aspiration cytology. Objective: To evaluate the feasibility and performance of ultrasound-guided transcutaneous fine needle aspiration cytology of suspicious/recurrent laryngo-hypopharyngeal masses. Methods: Fine needle aspiration cytology was performed under ultrasound guidance. Twenty- four patients were recruited, of which 17 had a pure laryngeal lesion; 6 patients had laryngo-pharyngeal, and one patient had a base tongue lesion with supra-glottis extension. Results: Out of 24 patients, 21 had positive cytology for squamous cell carcinoma, 2 patients had non-diagnostic cytology (atypical cells) and the other had inadequate tissue for definitive diagnosis. Patients with negative and inconclusive cytology underwent direct laryngoscopy biopsy, which was positive for squamous malignancy. All patients tolerated the procedure well and no adverse events were noted. Conclusion: Although direct laryngoscopy remains the standard of care in evaluation of laryngo-hypopharyngeal lesions, this pilot study has shown that ultrasound-guided transcutaneous fine needle aspiration cytology was feasible as an out-patient procedure, employing safe and sensitive technique enabling rapid diagnosis and avoiding the need for direct laryngoscopy under GA for tissue diagnosis.


Resumo Introdução: As lesões laríngeas são geralmente avaliadas por microlaringoscopia/laringoscopia direta sob anestesia para mapeamento da doença e diagnóstico tecidual. No entanto, em pacientes com comprometimento prévio das vias aéreas devido à lesão laríngea, pode ser necessária uma traqueostomia protetora ou traqueostomia de emergência para assegurar as vias aéreas. Para minimizar o risco de uma traqueostomia não planejada e facilitar o diagnóstico, realizamos punção aspirativa por agulha fina guiada por ultrassonografia transcutânea. Objetivo: Avaliar a viabilidade e o desempenho da punção aspirativa por agulha fina guiada por ultrassonografia transcutânea em lesões laríngeo-hipofaríngeas suspeitas/recorrentes. Método: A punção aspirativa por agulha fina foi realizada sob orientação ultrassonográfica. Foram recrutados 24 pacientes, 17 com lesão laríngea apenas, 6 com lesão laríngeo-faríngea e um com lesão na base da língua com extensão supraglótica. Resultados: Dos 24 pacientes, 21 apresentaram citologia positiva para carcinoma espinocelular, 2 citologia não diagnóstica (células atípicas) e o outro tecido inadequado para o diagnóstico definitivo. Os pacientes com citologia negativa e inconclusiva foram submetidos à biópsia através de laringoscopia direta, que foi positiva para lesão maligna espinocelular. Todos os pacientes toleraram bem o procedimento e nenhum evento adverso foi observado. Conclusão: Embora a laringoscopia direta continue a ser o padrão de cuidado na avaliação das lesões laríngeo-hipofaríngeas, este estudo piloto demonstrou que a punção aspirativa por agulha fina guiada por ultrassonografia transcutânea é uma técnica viável, ambulatorial, segura e sensível, permite rápido diagnóstico e evita a necessidade de laringoscopia direta sob anestesia geral para diagnóstico tecidual.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/pathology , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/diagnostic imaging , Pharyngeal Neoplasms/pathology , Pharyngeal Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Laryngeal Neoplasms/pathology , Laryngeal Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Pilot Projects , Sensitivity and Specificity , Ultrasonography, Interventional , Biopsy, Fine-Needle/methods
12.
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 80(1): 28-38, mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1099199

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Recientes investigaciones mencionan que, debido a los altos niveles de ruidos, el 75% de los habitantes en las ciudades industrializadas padecen algún tipo de deficiencia auditiva. La audiometría de alta frecuencia es un examen complementario importante para detectar tempranamente la pérdida de audición. OBJETIVO: Determinar la utilidad diagnóstica de la audiometría de alta frecuencia en la detección temprana de la hipoacusia en sujetos expuestos a ruido recreacional. MATERIAL Y MÉTODO: Estudio analítico de corte transversal. Se evaluaron 87 estudiantes de fonoaudiología. Se aplicó una audiometría convencional y de alta frecuencia mediante audiómetro clínico. RESULTADOS: La audiometría de alta frecuencia presenta una sensibilidad del 100%, especificidad del 64,60%. El valor predictivo (+) es de 14,70%, mientras que el valor predictivo (-) es del 100%. La razón de verosimilitud (+) es de 2,28, y para la razón de verosimilitud (-) es de 0,0. CONCLUSIÓN: La audiometría de alta frecuencia puede ser utilizada para monitorizar la audición de los sujetos, comprobando que efectivamente los umbrales auditivos de alta frecuencia se encuentren dentro de rangos normales. Lo anterior, dado por sus valores de sensibilidad, valor predictivo negativo, razón de verosimilitud negativa y por el aumento entre la probabilidad preprueba y posprueba.


INTRODUCTION: Recent research mentions that, due to the high noise levels, 75% of the habitants in industrialized cities suffer from some type of hearing impairment. High frequency audiometry is an important complementary test to detect early hearing loss. AIM: To determine the diagnostic utility of high frequency audiometry in the early detection of hearing loss in subjects exposed to recreational noise. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Study analytical type and cross section. 87 speech therapy students were evaluated. A conventional and high frequency audiometry was applied, using a clinical audiometer. RESULTS: High frequency audiometry has a sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 64,60%. The predictive value (+) is 14,70%, while the predictive value (-) is 100%. The likelihood ratio (+) is 2,28, and for the likelihood ratio (-) it is 0,0. CONCLUSION: High frequency audiometry can be used to monitor the hearing of the subjects, checking that effectively the high frequency hearing thresholds are within normal ranges. The above, given by their values of sensitivity, negative predictive value, negative likelihood ratio and the increase between the pre-test probability and the posttest probability.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Young Adult , Recreation , Audiometry/methods , Hearing Loss, Noise-Induced/diagnosis , Reference Values , Auditory Threshold , Students , Cross-Sectional Studies , Predictive Value of Tests , Sensitivity and Specificity , Early Diagnosis , Hearing Loss, Noise-Induced/etiology , Hearing Loss, Noise-Induced/physiopathology
13.
Rev. cuba. cir ; 59(1): e890, ene.-mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126403

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: La escala RIPASA fue elaborada para el diagnóstico de apendicitis aguda y ha demostrado buena sensibilidad y precisión diagnóstica, sobre todo en poblaciones asiáticas. Objetivo: Determinar la utilidad de la escala RIPASA para el diagnóstico de la apendicitis aguda. Métodos: Estudio observacional, analítico y prospectivo con 70 pacientes ingresados y operados con diagnóstico presuntivo de apendicitis aguda en el Hospital "General Freyre de Andrade" entre septiembre de 2015 y diciembre de 2017. Resultados: El 91,4 por ciento de los casos presentaron apendicitis por diagnóstico histológico. El síntoma, el signo y el dato de laboratorio más frecuentes fueron el dolor en fosa ilíaca derecha (97,1 por ciento), el rebote positivo (100 por ciento), y la leucocitosis (87,1 por ciento), respectivamente. Las diferencias entre los casos con y sin apendicitis para la puntuación de la escala fueron estadísticamente significativas. Predominaron los casos con puntajes altos (62,8 por ciento). A los 7,5 puntos la sensibilidad fue de 94 por ciento, la especificidad de 33 por ciento, la razón de verosimilitud positiva de 1,41, la razón de verosimilitud negativa de 0,19, y la precisión diagnóstica de 88,6 por ciento. El área bajo la curva de Características Operativas del Receptor fue de 0,81. Conclusiones: La escala RIPASA tuvo una buena sensibilidad y una moderada razón de verosimilitud negativa que permitirían descartar casos negativos con puntuaciones bajas. También exhibió una precisión diagnóstica y un desempeño discriminativo general aceptable. Sin embargo, la pobre especificidad y muy baja razón de verosimilitud positiva la hacen poco útil como medio diagnóstico único para la apendicitis aguda(AU)


ABSTRACT Introduction: The RIPASA scale was developed for the diagnosis of acute appendicitis and has shown good sensitivity and diagnostic precision, especially in Asian populations. Objective: To determine the utility of the RIPASA scale for the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Methods: Observational, analytical and prospective study with 70 patients admitted and operated on with a presumptive diagnosis of acute appendicitis at the Hospital "General Freyre de Andrade" between September 2015 and December 2017. Results: 91.4 percent of the cases presented appendicitis due to histological diagnosis. The most frequent symptom, sign and laboratory data were pain in the right iliac fossa (97.1 percent), positive rebound (100 percent), and leukocytosis (87.1 percent), respectively. The differences between the cases with and without appendicitis for the scale score were statistically significant. Cases with high scores predominated (62.8 percent). At 7.5 points the sensitivity was 94 percent, the specificity was 33 percent, the positive likelihood ratio was 1.41, the negative likelihood ratio was 0.19, and the diagnostic precision was 88.6 percent. The area under the Receiver Operating Characteristics curve was 0.81. Conclusions: The RIPASA scale had good sensitivity and a moderate negative likelihood ratio that would allow us to rule out negative cases with low scores. It also exhibited diagnostic accuracy and acceptable overall discriminatory performance. However, the poor specificity and very low positive likelihood ratio make it of little use as a single diagnostic means for acute appendicitis(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Appendicitis/surgery , Sensitivity and Specificity , Appendicitis/diagnosis , Prospective Studies , Observational Studies as Topic
14.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 25(3): 1073-1082, mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089475

ABSTRACT

Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a validade e a acurácia do Índice de Massa Corporal (IMC) e da Circunferência da Cintura (CC) na avaliação de obesidade avaliada pelo excesso de gordura corporal (GC) e propor pontos de corte mais adequados para idosos. Os pontos propostos da literatura IMC (25,27 ou 30 kg/m2) e CC (≥ 102 cm-homens e ≥ 88 cm-mulheres ou ≥ 90 cm-homens e ≥ 80 cm-mulheres) foram avaliados conforme densitometria corporal total. A elevada GC foi definida por percentil > 90. Dos 132 idosos, 60,6% eram mulheres de 60-91 anos. Os pontos de corte recomendados de IMC ≥ 25 e ≥ 27kg/m2 apresentaram desempenhos similares, sendo que o IMC ≥ 30kg/m2 apresentou alta especificidade e baixa sensibilidade no sexo masculino e melhor desempenho para GC nas mulheres. Os pontos de corte convencionais de CC não apresentaram boa sensibilidade/especificidade. Foram propostos novos pontos de corte para IMC (masculino-25 kg/m2; feminino-26,6 kg/m2) e CC (masculino-98,8 cm; feminino-77,8 cm). Estes valores demonstraram sensibilidade e especificidade > 74% e acurácia > 76%. As áreas sob a curva foram > 0,86. O presente estudo propõe a utilização de pontos de corte mais acurados para diagnóstico de obesidade/GC em idosos, sendo para homens IMC 25kg/m2 e CC de 98,8cm e para mulheres IMC de 26,6kg/m2 e CC de 77,8cm, com melhores níveis de sensibilidade e especificidade.


Abstract The main objectives were to analyse the validity and accuracy of Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist Circumference (WC) to evaluate obesity by excess of body fat in older adults and to identify more adequate cut-off points for this age group. The recommended cut-off points for BMI (25, 27 or 30 kg/m2) and WC (≥ 102 cm for men and ≥ 88 cm for women or ≥ 90cm for men and ≥ 80 cm for women) were compared to the total body densitometry. BF was defined by a value higher than the 90th percentile. Out of the 132 participants, 61% were women and aged between 60 and 91 years. The recommended cut-off points of BMI ≥ 25kg/m2 and BMI ≥ 27 kg/m2 showed similar performances. BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 showed high specificity but low sensitivity to identify BF in men and better performance in women. Conventional WC cut-off points showed low sensitivity and specificity. Based on our analyses, new cut-off points for BMI (25 kg/m2 for men and 26.6 kg/m2 for women) and WC (98.8 cm for men and 77.8cm for women) were proposed. The new cut-off points showed sensitivity and specificity values > 74% and accuracy > 76%. The areas under the curve (ROC) were > 0.86. The new BMI and WC cut-off points proposed in the present study for the diagnosis of obesity in older adults showed the best levels of sensitivity and specificity for this age group.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Body Mass Index , Waist Circumference , Dimensional Measurement Accuracy , Predictive Value of Tests , Sensitivity and Specificity , Middle Aged , Obesity/epidemiology
16.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 118(1): 11-17, 2020-02-00. tab, graf
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1095278

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Las causas más frecuentes de la linfadenopatía cervical son las afecciones inflamatorias y reactivas; solo unos pocos casos representan una patología seria. El objetivo fue evaluar la relación entre los hallazgos ecográficos y el diagnóstico histopatológico. Población y métodos. Este estudio retrospectivo abarcó la linfadenopatía cervical en los menores de 20 años seguidos en nuestro centro, entre enero de 2007 y diciembre de 2016. Según los informes anatomopatológicos, se dividió a los pacientes en dos grupos: benigno y maligno. Se compararon los resultados anatomopatológicos y los hallazgos ecográficos. Resultados. Después del análisis de los resultados histopatológicos y los hallazgos ecográficos, se incluyó a 107 pacientes con linfadenopatía cervical persistente (44 casos malignos; 63, benignos). La media de edad de los grupos maligno y benigno fue de 14 ± 6,1 años y de 11,9 ± 4,8 años, respectivamente. La presencia de vascularidad hiliar fue estadísticamente significativa (p < 0,0001) en la linfadenopatía benigna, mientras que el flujo periférico y la vascularidad mixta lo fueron (p < 0,05) en la linfadenopatía maligna. No se observó una diferencia significativa en el diámetro máximo (27,3 ± 11,1 mm y 29,8 ± 12,3 mm, respectivamente), pero sí en el diámetro mínimo entre los grupos benigno y maligno (13,7 ± 7,3 mm y 18,7 ± 8,8 mm, respectivamente). Conclusiones. Este estudio sugiere que existe una relación entre los hallazgos ecográficos y de la biopsia para la diferenciación entre la linfadenopatía benigna y maligna, en especial, en el patrón vascular intraganglionar y el hilio ganglionar.


Introduction. The most common causes of cervical lymphadenopathy (LAP) are inflammatory and reactive conditions; only a small proportion have serious pathology, such as malignancy. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between USG findings and histopathological diagnosis of the cervical LAP. Population and Methods. This retrospective study comprised the cases of cervical LAP in patients aged under 20 years old followed in our center between January 2007 to December 2016. Based on pathology reports, we divided the patients into two groups: benign and malignant. Pathology results and USG findings were compared. Results. After the analyze of the histopathological results and USG findings, 107 patients with persistent cervical LAP (44 malignant; 63 benign) were included in the study. Mean age of malignant and benign group were 14 ± 6.1; 11.9 ± 4.8 years, respectively. Hilar vascularity for benign LAP was highly statistically significant (P < 0.0001) and peripheral flow and mixed vascularity for malignant LAP were also statistically significant (p < 0.05). There was not a significant difference in the maximum diameter (27.3 ± 11.1 mm and 29.8 ± 12.3 mm, respectively), however, there was a significant difference in the minimum diameter between benign and malignant groups (13.7 ± 7.3 mm and 18.7 ± 8.8 mm, respectively).Conclusions. The present study suggests that there is a relationship between US and biopsy findings for the differentiation of benign from malignant LAP, especially in terms of nodal hilus and intranodal vascular pattern.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Ultrasonography , Lymphadenopathy/diagnostic imaging , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Lymphadenopathy/pathology , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Lymphatic Diseases/physiopathology , Lymphoma/diagnosis , Lymphoma/etiology
17.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 83(1): 43-47, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088951

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of anterior chamber depth and axial length on clinical performance of the Spot Vision Screener in detecting amblyopia risk factors in children aged 3-10 years. Methods: A total of 300 eyes from 150 patients aged 3-10 years were prospectively tested with Spot Vision Screener (firmware version 3.0.02.32, software version 3.0.04.06) and a standard autorefractometer (Nidek ARK-1). The anterior chamber depth and axial length were measured with an optical biometer (Nidek AL-Scan). The sensitivity and specificity values for detecting significant refractive errors using the referral criteria of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus were determined. Pearson's correlation analysis was employed to evaluate the relationship between the Spot Vision results and the anterior chamber depth and axial length. Results: Compared with the standard autorefractometer results, the Spot Vision Screener's sensitivity and specificity was 59% and 94%, respectively. The differences between the cycloplegic autorefractometer and the Spot Vision Screener spherical equivalents were negatively correlated with anterior chamber depth (r=-0.48; p<0.001) and axial length (r=-0.45; p<0.001). Conclusion: The Spot Vision Screener has moderate sensitivity and high specificity, using the criteria of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. The anterior chamber depth and axial length affect the Spot Vision results.


RESUMO Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito da profundidade da câmara anterior e do comprimento axial sobre o desempenho clínico do Spot Vision Screener, na deteção de fatores de risco para a ambliopia em crianças de 3 a 10 anos de idade. Métodos: Um total de 300 olhos de 150 pacientes de 3-10 anos de idade foram prospectivamente testados com o Spot Vision Screener (firmware: 3.0.02.32, software: 3.0.04.06) e com autorefratómetro padrão (Nidek ARK-1). Todas as medições de profundidade e comprimento axial da câmara anterior dos pacientes foram realizadas através de Nidek AL Scan. A sensibilidade e especificidade para a deteção de erros refrativos significativos foram determinadas de acordo com os critérios de referência da Associação Americana de Oftalmologia e Estrabismo Pediátricos. A análise da Correlação de Pearson foi utilizada para avaliar a correlação entre os resultados do Spot Vision e a profundidade ou comprimento axial da câmara anterior dos pacientes. Resultados: Em comparação com os resultados do autorefratómetro padrão, a sensibilidade do Spot foi de 59% e a especificidade de 94%. As diferenças entre os equivalentes esféricos do autorefratómetro cicloplégico e o Spot Vision Screener foram correlacionados negativamente com a profundidade (r=-0,48; p<0,001) e o comprimento axial (r=-0,45; p<0,001) da câmara anterior dos casos. Conclusão: O Spot Vision Screener possui uma sensibilidade moderada e uma especificidade elevada utilizando os critérios da Associação Americana de Oftalmologia Pediátrica e Estrabismo; a profundidade da câmara anterior e o comprimento axial dos pacientes afetam os resultados do Spot Vision.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Vision Screening/instrumentation , Amblyopia/diagnosis , Refractive Errors/diagnosis , Amblyopia/etiology , Strabismus , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sensitivity and Specificity , Retinoscopy , Axial Length, Eye , Anterior Chamber
18.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 24(1): 58-64, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089331

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Although performance of rapid immunochromatographic tests (RITs) for dengue virus (DENV) serotypes 1, 2 and 3 is relatively settled, evidence on accuracy of RITs for DENV-4 are based on studies with small sample sizes and with discrepant results. Objectives: To assess accuracy and inter-observer agreement of RITs targeting dengue nonstructural protein-1 (NS1) antigen - Dengue NS1-Bioeasy™, Dengue NS1 Ag Strip-Bio-Rad™, IVB Dengue Ag NS1-Orangelife™ and Dengue NS1-K130-Bioclin™ in DENV-4 samples. Methods: Study sample (n = 324) included adults presenting at an emergency unit in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, with fever of ≤72 h and two or more dengue symptoms. A serum sample from each patient was tested by each RIT. A positive reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction was considered as the reference standard for dengue diagnosis. The diagnostic parameters analyzed for each RIT were sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and likelihood ratios. Each RIT was read by homogeneous (two junior nurses) or heterogeneous (one junior nurse and one senior biologist) pairs. Agreement was estimated by simple kappa with 95% confidence interval, positive (Ppos) and negative (Pneg) proportion concordance and prevalence and bias adjusted kappa, rated from poor (k < 0.0) to almost perfect (0.8 < k < 1.0), and perfect (k = 1). Results: NS1 RITs for DENV-4 diagnosis showed high specificity (95.9%-99.4%), but low sensitivity (14.7%-45.4%). Bioeasy™ had the best performance, with a positive likelihood ratio of 26.0 (95% CI: 8.4;81.0). Inter-observer agreement was almost perfect for all evaluated RITs. Mismatches in confirmed dengue were more common for the Bioclin™ (Ppos 88.3-90.0 %) and Orangelife™ (Ppos 91.7-94.1 %) tests. Conclusions: For DENV-4, the tested RITs had high specificity, but lower sensitivity compared to published results for other serotypes. They should not be used for screening purposes. Different brands may have very different performances. This should be considered upon deciding of using RITs in DENV-4 outbreaks.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Chromatography, Affinity/standards , Dengue/diagnosis , Dengue Virus/isolation & purification , Reference Standards , Brazil , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Observer Variation , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Chromatography, Affinity/methods , Sensitivity and Specificity , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Dengue/immunology , Dengue/virology , Serogroup
19.
Asia Pacific Allergy ; (4): 3-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785462

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A reliable objective tool using as a predictor of asthma control status could assist asthma management.OBJECTIVE: To find the parameters of forced oscillation technique (FOT) as predictors for the future loss of asthma symptom control.METHODS: Children with well-controlled asthma symptom, aged 6–12 years, were recruited for a 12-week prospective study. FOT and spirometer measures and their bronchodilator response were evaluated at baseline. The level of asthma symptom control was evaluated according to Global Initiative for Asthma.RESULTS: Among 68 recruited children, 41 children (60.3%) maintain their asthma control between 2 visits (group C-C), and 27 children (39.7%) lost their asthma control on the follow-up visit (group C-LC). Baseline FOT parameters, including the values of respiratory resistance at 5 Hz (R5), respiratory resistance at 20 Hz (R20), respiratory reactance at 5 Hz, area of reactance, %predicted of R5 and percentage of bronchodilator response (%∆) of R5 and R20 were significantly different between C-C and C-LC groups. In contrast, only %∆ of forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV₁), and FEF25%–75% (forced expiratory flow 25%–75%) were significantly different between groups. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that %predicted of R5, %∆R5, %predicted of FEV₁ and %∆FEV₁ were the predictive factors for predicting the future loss of asthma control. The following cutoff values demonstrated the best sensitivity and specificity for predicting loss of asthma control: %predicted of R5=91.28, %∆R5=21.2, %predicted of FEV₁=89.5, and %∆FEV₁=7.8. The combination of these parameters predicted the risk of loss of asthma control with area under the curve of 0.924, accuracy of 83.8%.CONCLUSION: Resistance FOT measures have an additive role to spirometric parameter in predicting future loss of asthma control.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Child , Follow-Up Studies , Forced Expiratory Volume , Humans , Logistic Models , Prospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Spirometry , Vital Capacity
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785424

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To develop and validate a clinical scoring model to predict 1-year access survival among end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients who received a new arteriovenous fistula (AVF).METHODS: The data of 195 ESRD patients in the development cohort who underwent first-time AVF creation between January 2009 and June 2013 and who had successful cannulation for dialysis use were reviewed. The clinical features that were significantly associated with 1-year AVF survival were incorporated into a clinical scoring model. The validity of this clinical score was then tested in a validation cohort of 204 ESRD patients who received a new AVF between July 2013 and December 2017.RESULTS: Of the 195 patients in the development cohort, 168 patients (86.2%) had a well-functioning AVF at 1 year. Absence of diabetes mellitus, no previous history of central venous catheter insertion, and absence of intervention performed to achieve access maturation were positively associated with 1-year AVF survival. These 3 factors were incorporated into a clinical scoring model, which ranged from 0 to 4 points. For a cutoff score of ≥3, the sensitivity, specificity and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve to predict 1-year AVF survival were 81.5%, 70.4%, and 0.760, respectively. The predictive performance of the clinical score was confirmed in the validation cohort, with a sensitivity of 76.1%, a specificity of 64.4% and an area under the curve of 0.703.CONCLUSION: The scoring model using clinical data yielded acceptable performance in predicting 1-year access survival among patients receiving a new AVF.


Subject(s)
Arteriovenous Fistula , Catheterization , Central Venous Catheters , Cohort Studies , Diabetes Mellitus , Dialysis , Humans , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Renal Dialysis , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity , Treatment Outcome
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