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1.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 122(2): e202310149, abr. 2024. ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1537741

ABSTRACT

La sepsis es un problema global de salud y la progresión hacia el shock séptico se asocia con un incremento marcado de la morbimortalidad. En este escenario, el aumento del lactato plasmático demostró ser un indicador de gravedad y un predictor de mortalidad, y suele interpretarse casi exclusivamente como marcador de baja perfusión tisular. Sin embargo, últimamente se produjo un cambio de paradigma en la exégesis del metabolismo y propiedades biológicas del lactato. En efecto, la adaptación metabólica al estrés, aun con adecuado aporte de oxígeno, puede justificar la elevación del lactato circulante. Asimismo, otras consecuencias fisiopatológicas de la sepsis, como la disfunción mitocondrial, se asocian con el desarrollo de hiperlactatemia sin que necesariamente se acompañen de baja perfusión tisular. Interpretar el origen y la función del lactato puede resultar de suma utilidad clínica en la sepsis, especialmente cuando sus niveles circulantes fundamentan las medidas de reanimación.


Sepsis is a global health problem; progression to septic shock is associated with a marked increase in morbidity and mortality. In this setting, increased plasma lactate levels demonstrated to be an indicator of severity and a predictor of mortality, and are usually interpreted almost exclusively as a marker of low tissue perfusion. However, a recent paradigm shift has occurred in the exegesis of lactate metabolism and its biological properties. Indeed, metabolic adaptation to stress, even with an adequate oxygen supply, may account for high circulating lactate levels. Likewise, other pathophysiological consequences of sepsis, such as mitochondrial dysfunction, are associated with the development of hyperlactatemia, which is not necessarily accompanied by low tissue perfusion. Interpreting the origin and function of lactate may be of great clinical utility in sepsis, especially when circulating lactate levels are the basis for resuscitative measures.


Subject(s)
Humans , Shock, Septic , Sepsis/diagnosis , Hyperlactatemia/complications , Hyperlactatemia/etiology , Lactic Acid/metabolism
2.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 122(1): e202202934, feb. 2024. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1525294

ABSTRACT

La pileflebitis es definida como la trombosis supurativa de la vena porta como complicación de infecciones abdominales. En pediatría, la etiología más frecuente es la apendicitis, generalmente de diagnóstico tardío, que se presenta como sepsis, con una elevada mortalidad. Para el diagnóstico son necesarios métodos de diagnóstico por imágenes; los más utilizados son la ecografía Doppler y la angiotomografía. El tratamiento se basa en la intervención quirúrgica, la antibioticoterapia y la anticoagulación. Esta última tiene indicación controvertida, pero podría mejorar el pronóstico y disminuir la morbimortalidad. Se presenta un caso clínico de pileflebitis secundaria a sepsis por Escherichia coli con punto de partida en una apendicitis aguda, en un paciente pediátrico que evoluciona a la transformación cavernomatosa de la vena porta. Es de importancia conocer el manejo de esta entidad, ya que, una vez superado el cuadro inicial, requerirá un minucioso seguimiento por la posibilidad de evolucionar a la insuficiencia hepática.


Pylephlebitis is defined as suppurative thrombosis of the portal vein as a complication of abdominal infections. In pediatrics, the most frequent etiology is appendicitis, generally of late diagnosis, presenting as sepsis, with a high mortality rate. Imaging methods are necessary for diagnosis; the most common are the Doppler ultrasound and computed tomography angiography. Treatment is based on surgery, antibiotic therapy, and anticoagulation. The indication for the latter is controversial, but it may improve prognosis and decrease morbidity and mortality. Here we describe a clinical case of pylephlebitis secondary to Escherichia coli sepsis, which started as acute appendicitis in a pediatric patient who progressed to cavernomatous transformation of the portal vein. It is important to know the management of this disease because, once the initial symptoms are overcome, it will require close follow-up due to a potential progression to liver failure.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Appendicitis/diagnosis , Thrombophlebitis/diagnosis , Thrombophlebitis/etiology , Thrombophlebitis/drug therapy , Sepsis/etiology , Liver Diseases , Portal Vein , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
3.
Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology ; (12): 89-94, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009480

ABSTRACT

Early secreted antigenic target of 6 kDa protein (ESAT-6) is the major virulence factor of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), which can resist the clearance of MTB in bodies by inhibiting macrophage phagocytosis and autophagy reaction, thus impeding the immune defense function of the body against MTB infection. In addition, ESAT-6-induced apoptosis of macrophage and massive necrosis of innate immune cells can foster MTB proliferation and colonization, leading to systemic MTB infection. Moreover, ESAT-6 hampers the protective immune response of Th1 cells, reducing the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and contributing to immune dysfunction, thus accelerating the course of MTB infection. During the process, the high immunogenicity of ESAT-6 can be leveraged as a dominant antigen in the development of new TB vaccines, making it a promising candidate with broad prospects for further development.


Subject(s)
Humans , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Vaccines , Cytokines , Apoptosis , Autophagy , Sepsis
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253065, 2024. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1350311

ABSTRACT

Abstract Routine blood culture is used for the detection of bloodstream infections by aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and by common pathogenic yeasts. A retrospective study was conducted in a public hospital in Maceió-AL, by collecting data of all medical records with positive blood cultures. Out of the 2,107 blood cultures performed, 17% were positive with Staphylococcus coagulase negative (51.14%), followed by Staphylococcus aureus (11.21%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (6.32%). Gram-positive bacteria predominated among positive blood cultures, highlighting the group of Staphylococcus coagulase-negative. While Gram-negative bacteria had a higher number of species among positive blood cultures.


Resumo A cultura sanguínea de rotina é usada para a detecção de infecções na corrente sanguínea por bactérias aeróbias e anaeróbias e por leveduras patogênicas comuns. Estudo retrospectivo realizado em hospital público de Maceió-AL, por meio da coleta de dados de todos os prontuários com culturas sanguíneas positivas. Das 2.107 culturas sanguíneas realizadas, 17% foram positivas com Staphylococcus coagulase negativo (51,14%), seguido por Staphylococcus aureus (11,21%) e Klebsiella pneumoniae (6,32%). As bactérias Gram-positiva predominaram entre as culturas de sangue positivas, destacando-se o grupo das Staphylococcus coagulase-negativo. Enquanto as bactérias Gram-negativas apresentaram um número maior de espécies entre as culturas de sangue positivas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Sepsis , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Brazil , Retrospective Studies , Hospitals
5.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 230-242, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010324

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To examine the therapeutic effect of Fangji Fuling Decoction (FFD) on sepsis through network pharmacological analysis combined with in vitro and in vivo experiments.@*METHODS@#A sepsis mouse model was constructed through intraperitoneal injection of 20 mg/kg lipopolysaccharide (LPS). RAW264.7 cells were stimulated by 250 ng/mL LPS to establish an in vitro cell model. Network pharmacology analysis identified the key molecular pathway associated with FFD in sepsis. Through ectopic expression and depletion experiments, the effect of FFD on multiple organ damage in septic mice, as well as on cell proliferation and apoptosis in relation to the mitogen-activated protein kinase 14/Forkhead Box O 3A (MAPK14/FOXO3A) signaling pathway, was analyzed.@*RESULTS@#FFD reduced organ damage and inflammation in LPS-induced septic mice and suppressed LPS-induced macrophage apoptosis and inflammation in vitro (P<0.05). Network pharmacology analysis showed that FFD could regulate the MAPK14/FOXO signaling pathway during sepsis. As confirmed by in vitro cell experiments, FFD inhibited the MAPK14 signaling pathway or FOXO3A expression to relieve LPS-induced macrophage apoptosis and inflammation (P<0.05). Furthermore, FFD inhibited the MAPK14/FOXO3A signaling pathway to inhibit LPS-induced macrophage apoptosis in the lung tissue of septic mice (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#FFD could ameliorate the LPS-induced inflammatory response in septic mice by inhibiting the MAPK14/FOXO3A signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 14/metabolism , Wolfiporia , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Sepsis/complications , Signal Transduction , Inflammation/drug therapy , Oxygen Radioisotopes
6.
Acta Medica Philippina ; : 64-68, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1016684

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study aims to assess the correlation of ferritin serum level and PELOD-2 score, and determine the effectiveness of ferritin serum level as early indicator of organ dysfunction.@*Methods@#This was a cross-sectional study carried out to pediatric patients with sepsis in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit Haji Adam Malik and Universitas Sumatera Utara hospital from June 2021 – January 2022. Complete blood work was done, and ferritin serum level and PELOD-2 score were measured on the first and third day of hospital stay of all the sixty participants aged 1-18 years old with sepsis. The correlation was measured using Spearman test, with p<0.05 indicating a significant correlation.@*Results@#The median level of serum ferritin level was 480 (24.7 – 22652) ng/mL. There were 20% patients with ferritin level <200 ng/mL, 26.7% with ferritin level 200-500 ng/mL, and 53.3% patients with ferritin >500 ng/mL. The median score of PELOD-2 was 4. There was a significant correlation of serum ferritin and PELOD-2 score on day 1 of hospital stay.@*Conclusion@#The ferritin serum level is effective as an early indicator of organ dysfunction until PELOD-2 score is established. There is a positive correlation between serum ferritin and PELOD-2 score. There is a link between elevated ferritin and worse disease prognosis.


Subject(s)
Ferritins , Sepsis , Infections
7.
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 31: e4064, Jan.-Dec. 2023. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1530184

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: evaluar la asociación entre la clasificación de riesgo y el tiempo puerta-antibiótico en pacientes con sospecha de sepsis. Método: estudio de cohorte retrospectivo, con una muestra de 232 pacientes con sospecha de sepsis atendidos en el departamento de emergencias. Se dividieron en 2 grupos: con y sin clasificación de riesgo. Una vez identificado el tiempo puerta-antibiótico, se realizó un análisis de varianza de un factor con la prueba post hoc de Bonferroni o la prueba t de Student independiente para variables cuantitativas continuas; pruebas de correlación de Pearson, correlación biserial puntual o correlación biserial para análisis de asociación; y procedimiento de bootstrap cuando no había distribución normal de variables. Para el análisis de los datos se utilizó el software Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. Resultados: el tiempo puerta-antibiótico no difirió entre el grupo que recibió clasificación de riesgo en comparación con el que no fue clasificado. El tiempo puerta-antibiótico fue significativamente más corto en el grupo que recibió una clasificación de riesgo de alta prioridad. Conclusión: no hubo asociación entre el tiempo puerta-antibiótico y si se realizó o no la clasificación de riesgo, ni con la hospitalización en enfermería y en unidad de cuidados intensivos, ni con la duración de la estancia hospitalaria. Se observó que cuanto mayor era la prioridad, más corto era el tiempo puerta-antibiótico.


Objective: to evaluate the association between risk classification and door-to-antibiotic time in patients with suspected sepsis. Method: retrospective cohort study, with a sample of 232 patients with suspected sepsis treated at the emergency department. They were divided into 2 groups: with and without risk classification. Once the door-to-antibiotic time was identified, one-way analysis of variance was performed with Bonferroni post hoc test or independent Student's t-test for continuous quantitative variables; Pearson correlation tests, point-biserial correlation or biserial correlation for association analyses; and bootstrap procedure when there was no normal distribution of variables. For data analysis, the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software was used. Results: the door-to-antibiotic time did not differ between the group that received risk classification compared to the one that was not classified. Door-to-antibiotic time was significantly shorter in the group that received a high priority risk classification. Conclusion: there was no association between door-to-antibiotic time and whether or not the risk classification was performed, nor with hospitalization in infirmaries and intensive care units, or with the length of hospital stay. It was observed that the higher the priority, the shorter the door-to-antibiotic time.


Objetivo: avaliar a associação entre a realização de classificação de risco e o tempo porta-antibiótico no paciente com suspeita de sepse. Método: estudo de coorte retrospectivo, com amostra de 232 pacientes com suspeita de sepse atendidos no pronto atendimento. Foram distribuídos em 2 grupos: com e sem classificação de risco. Identificado o tempo porta-antibiótico, realizou-se análise de variância de um fator com post hoc de Bonferroni ou teste T-Student independente para variáveis quantitativas contínuas; testes de correlação de Pearson, correlação bisserial por pontos ou correlação bisserial para análises de associação; e procedimento de bootstrap quando não havia distribuição normal de variáveis. Para a análise dos dados foi utilizado o software Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. Resultados: o tempo porta-antibiótico não diferiu entre o grupo que recebeu classificação de risco comparado ao que não foi classificado. O tempo porta-antibiótico foi significativamente menor no grupo que recebeu classificação de risco de alta prioridade. Conclusão: não houve associação entre o tempo porta-antibiótico e a realização ou não da classificação de risco, tampouco com internação em enfermaria e em unidade de terapia intensiva, ou com o tempo de internação hospitalar. Observou-se que quanto maior a prioridade, menor o tempo porta-antibiótico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Retrospective Studies , Sepsis/drug therapy , Emergency Service, Hospital , Hospitalization , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
8.
Rev. cuba. med ; 62(4)dic. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1550886

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La sepsis es una respuesta inflamatoria del cuerpo a una infección. En la actualidad continúa como una causa importante de morbimortalidad en todo el mundo. La administración temprana de líquidos es una estrategia fundamental en el manejo de la sepsis. Sin embargo, la cantidad y el tipo de líquidos administrados en pacientes con sepsis es aún objeto de debate. Objetivo: Evaluar los resultados de ensayos clínicos aleatorios para una comprensión más profunda de la efectividad de la restricción de líquidos en pacientes con sepsis. Métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda sistemática en diferentes bases de datos para realizar una evaluación crítica acerca de los artículos incluidos, se utilizaron las herramientas de evaluación de riesgo de sesgo cochrane y análisis de datos. Resultados: Se incluyeron 13 ensayos clínicos aleatorios controlados que compararon la restricción de líquidos versus la administración de líquidos en pacientes adultos con sepsis. Conclusiones: Se encontró que la restricción de líquidos se asoció con una reducción en la mortalidad y un menor número de días de soporte respiratorio y cardiovascular en pacientes con sepsis. Sin embargo, algunos estudios no encontraron diferencias significativas en la mortalidad entre la restricción de líquidos y la administración de líquidos(AU)


Introduction: Sepsis is an inflammatory response of the body to an infection. Currently it continues as a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Early fluid administration is a fundamental strategy in the management of sepsis. However, the amount and type of fluids administered in patients with sepsis is still a matter of debate. Objective: To evaluate the results of randomized clinical trials for a deeper understanding of the effectiveness of fluid restriction in patients with sepsis. Methods: A systematic search was carried out in different databases to carry out a critical evaluation of the included articles, the Cochrane risk of bias assessment tools and data analysis were used. Results: Thirteen randomized controlled trials were included, which compared fluid restriction versus fluid administration in adult patients with sepsis. Conclusions: We found that fluid restriction was associated with a reduction in mortality and a lower number of days of respiratory and cardiovascular support in patients with sepsis. However, some studies found no significant difference in mortality between fluid restriction and fluid administration(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Sepsis/mortality , Water Discharge , Ecuador
9.
Cambios rev. méd ; 22 (2), 2023;22(2): 938, 16 octubre 2023. ilus., tabs.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1526598

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN. La procalcitonina, es un biomarcador que puede usarse como apoyo diagnóstico en infecciones bacterianas y la monitorización del tratamiento antibiótico, sobre todo en pacientes con sepsis. De ahí que, fue utilizado durante la pandemia COVID-19 OBJETIVO. Determinar los valores de procalcitonina en pacientes con COVID-19 y definir una p osible correlación entre su incremento y vinculación en coinfección o infección secundaria por Klebsiella pneumoniae y Pseudomonas aeruginosa con multidrogo resistencia y resistencia extendida a los antibióticos. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS. Estudio retrospectivo observacional, descriptivo transversal, realizado del 1 de mayo al 31 de octubre del 2020 en el Hospital de Especialidades Carlos Andrade Marín sobre 7028 pacientes adultos, hospitalizados, con diagnóstico de COVID-19, y resultados de procalcitonina, cuyas muestras de secreción traqueal y/o hemocultivo presentaron desarrollo de Klebsiella pneumoniae y Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Su análisis estadístico fue desarrollado mediante la prueba Chi Cuadrado de Pearson. RESULTADOS. Se recibieron 861 muestras de hemocultivo y 391 de secreción traqueal, obteniéndose: 32% aislamientos de Klebsiella pneumoniae y Pseudomonas aeruginosa multidrogo y extremadamente resistente. Entre los pacientes COVID-19 que fallecieron, 34,4% mostraron incrementos de procalcitonina. Al contrario, entre los pacientes que sobrevivieron sólo en 8,8% se observó incrementos de procalcitonina evidenciándose un vínculo entre el incremento de procalcitonina y mortalidad. CONCLUSIONES. No existe diferencia en relación al incremento en los valores de procalcitonina en pacientes COVID-19 con co-infección o infección secundaria por Klebsiella pneumoniae y Pseudomonas aeruginosa multidrogo y extremadamente resistente y los valores de procalcitonina en pacientes con coinfección e infección secundaria con otro tipo de aislamientos bacterianos.


INTRODUCTION. Procalcitonin is a biomarker that can be used as a diagnostic support in bacterial infections and the monitoring of antibiotic treatment, especially in patients with sepsis. Hence, it was used during the COVID-19 pandemic OBJECTIVE. To determine the values of procalcitonin in patients with COVID-19 and to define a possible correlation between its increase and linkage in co-infection or secondary infection by Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa with multidrug resistance and extended resistance to antibiotics. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Retrospective observational, descriptive cross-sectional study, conducted from May 1 to October 31, 2020 at the Hospital de Especialidades Carlos Andrade Marín on 7028 adult patients, hospitalized, with diagnosis of COVID-19, and procalcitonin results, whose tracheal secretion and/or blood culture samples presented development of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Their statistical analysis was developed using Pearson's Chi-squared test. RESULTS. We received 861 blood culture and 391 tracheal secretion samples, obtaining: 32% isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae and multidrug-resistant and extremely resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Among the COVID-19 patients who died, 34.4% showed increased procalcitonin levels. On the contrary, among patients who survived, only 8.8% showed increased procalcitonin levels, showing a link between increased procalcitonin levels and mortality. CONCLUSIONS. There is no difference in relation to the increase in procalcitonin values in COVID-19 patients with co-infection or secondary infection by Klebsiella pneumoniae and multidrug-resistant and extremely resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and procalcitonin values in patients with co-infection and secondary infection with other types of bacterial isolates.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Drug Resistance, Multiple , Coinfection , Procalcitonin , COVID-19 , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Trachea , Biomarkers , Sepsis , Ecuador , Anti-Bacterial Agents
10.
Rev. cuba. med ; 62(3)sept. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1530147

ABSTRACT

La sepsis representa en la actualidad un problema emergente en salud. Los consensos alcanzados sobre las definiciones de sepsis y sus complicaciones asociadas han permitido establecer con mayor precisión la magnitud del problema. A pesar de la instauración de protocolos uniformes de actuación, la sepsis continúa siendo la primera causa de muerte en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos Pediátricos (UCIP) y la cuarta causa de defunción en los hospitalizados no coronarios.1 La sepsis severa fue definida en The Third International Consensus Definitions for Sepsis an Septic Shock como el síndrome de respuesta inflamatoria sistémica asociada a infección que cursa con disfunción aguda de un órgano, hipoperfusión o hipotensión, considerada como un proceso continuo.2 Se han realizado diversos estudios donde la mortalidad anual atribuible a sepsis grave es de 135 000 casos en Europa, y es superior en Estados Unidos con 200 000 casos, superada discretamente por las muertes por infarto agudo de miocardio. Estados Unidos ocupa el lugar número 11 como causa aislada de fallecimiento, se estima que más de 500 pacientes mueren diariamente a consecuencia de esta enfermedad, hecho que se transforma en un significativo desafío para la salud pública.3 Por lo que significa lo anteriormente expuesto, en reuniones de consensos, los laboratorios se han visto retados y han facilitado el diagnóstico con herramientas útiles. Marcadores biológicos de infección El retraso en la instauración de un tratamiento adecuado de las infecciones y de la sepsis se asocia a una mayor mortalidad, por lo que es crucial establecer un diagnóstico precoz en este contexto. Los análisis microbiológicos que confirman o no la presencia de infección suelen tardar, en ese sentido se han buscado marcadores biológicos que puedan servir como indicadores fiables de la infección grave y la sepsis. Dada la complejidad creciente de la fisiopatología de la sepsis a medida que avanza en su conocimiento, es probable que el éxito llegue, no a través de un único marcador, sino a través de la combinación de varios de ellos que tengan en cuenta distintos aspectos de la respuesta del huésped. La combinación de varios marcadores puede ayudar a vencer las limitaciones en sensibilidad y especificidad de un solo biomarcador. Características de un marcador ideal Precisión Sensibilidad alta: pacientes que presentan respuesta inflamatoria mínima o ausente. Especificidad: lograr discriminar la infección de otros padecimientos que causan el síndrome de respuesta inflamatoria sistémica (SRIS). Valor predictivo positivo (VPP) y valor predictivo negativo (VPN). Diagnóstico certero con reactantes de fase aguda La proteína C reactiva (PCR) de alta sensibilidad es un marcador precoz de infección e inflamación con una vida media plasmática de 19 h. Su concentración plasmática en adulto sano es de 0,08 mg/dL. Su biocinética se hace útil como marcador de respuesta terapéutica y diagnóstica de infecciones intercurrentes. Las determinaciones seriadas de estas es un buen indicador de la actividad inflamatoria. Sus grandes elevaciones se deben a infecciones bacterianas. Las determinaciones seriadas diarias de PCR pueden ser útiles para el diagnóstico precoz en las infecciones nosocomiales es de ≥ 5 mg/dL o ≥ 25 % del valor previo. La procalcitonina es una hormona producida por células parenquimatosas, proteína de la familia CAPA precursora de la calcitonina. En condiciones normales las concentraciones en sangre son muy bajas, menor de 0,09 ng/mL. Tienen una vida media de 22-35 h. No se conocen valores umbrales, diagnósticos y pronósticos, pero los valores mayores de 2 ng/mL suelen indicar la presencia de sepsis. Los valores mayores de 10 ng/mL suelen asociarse a sepsis grave y shock séptico. Los niveles de procalcitonina (PCT) son superiores a la PCR en el diagnóstico de sepsis por lo que debería ser incluida en las guías diagnósticas de sepsis. Podemos decir además, que la interleucina 6 (IL-6), fue descrita inicialmente como interferón beta-2, como factor de crecimiento de plasmocitoma o factor estimulante de hepatocitos.4 Es generada por un único gen que codifica un producto de 212 aminoácidos y es la citoquina que más consistentemente se ha asociado con la mortalidad por sepsis, por su acción proinflamatoria es uno de los principales inductores de la síntesis de la PCR en el hígado, por lo que muestra picos séricos más precoces que esta.5 Las determinaciones secuenciales de estas en el suero plasma en pacientes internados en la unidad de cuidados intensivos han demostrado ser útiles para evaluar la severidad del síndrome de respuesta inflamatoria(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Sepsis/complications , Sepsis/diagnosis , Sepsis/mortality
11.
Cambios rev. méd ; 22(1): 865, 30 Junio 2023. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1451331

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN. La sepsis es un estado de disfunción multisistémica, que se produce por una respuesta desregulada del huésped a la infección. Diversos factores influyen en la gravedad, manifestaciones clínicas y progresión de la sepsis, tales como, heterogeneidad inmunológica y regulación dinámica de las vías de señalización celular. La evolución de los pacientes depende del tratamiento oportuno, las escalas de puntuación clínica permiten saber la mortalidad estimada. OBJETIVO. Evaluar la mortalidad en la unidad de cuidados intensivos; establecer el manejo y la utilidad de aplicar paquetes de medidas o "bundlers" para evitar la progresión a disfunción, fallo multiorgánico y muerte. METODOLOGÍA. Modalidad de investigación tipo revisión sistemática. Se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica en bases de datos como Google académico, Mendeley, ScienceDirect, Pubmed, revistas como New England Journal Medicine, Critical Care, Journal of the American Medical Association, British Medical Journal. Se obtuvo las guías "Sobreviviendo a la sepsis" actualización 2021, 3 guías internacionales, 10 estudios observacionales, 2 estudios multicéntricos, 5 ensayos aleatorizados, 6 revisiones sistémicas, 5 metaanálisis, 1 reporte de caso clínico, 4 artículos con opiniones de expertos y actualizaciones con el tema mortalidad de la sepsis en UCI con un total de 36 artículos científicos. RESULTADOS. La mortalidad de la sepsis en la unidad de cuidados intensivos, fue menor en el hospital oncológico de Guayaquil, seguido de Australia, Alemania, Quito, Francia, Estados Unidos de Norteamérica y Vietnan, La mortalidad más alta se observa en pacientes con enfermedades del tejido conectivo. DISCUSIÓN. La aplicación de los paquetes de medidas o "bundlers" en la sepsis, se asocia con una mejor supervivencia y menores días de estancia hospitalaria. CONCLUSIÓN. Las escalas SOFA, APACHE II y SAPS II ayudan a predecir la mortalidad de forma eficiente, en la detección y el tratamiento temprano en pacientes con enfermedades agudas y de alto riesgo.


INTRODUCTION. Sepsis is a state of multisystem dysfunction, which is caused by a dysregulated host response to infection. Several factors influence the severity, clinical manifestations and progression of sepsis, such as immunological heterogeneity and dynamic regulation of cell signaling pathways. The evolution of patients depends on timely treatment, clinical scoring scales allow to know the estimated mortality. OBJECTIVE. To evaluate mortality in the intensive care unit; to establish the management and usefulness of applying bundlers to prevent progression to dysfunction, multiorgan failure and death. METHODOLOGY. Systematic review type research modality. A bibliographic search was carried out in databases such as Google Scholar, Mendeley, ScienceDirect, Pubmed, journals such as New England Journal Medicine, Critical Care, Journal of the American Medical Association, British Medical Journal. We obtained the guidelines "Surviving Sepsis" update 2021, 3 international guidelines, 10 observational studies, 2 multicenter studies, 5 randomized trials, 6 systemic reviews, 5 meta-analyses, 1 clinical case report, 4 articles with expert opinions and updates on the subject of sepsis mortality in ICU with a total of 36 scientific articles. RESULTS. The mortality of sepsis in the intensive care unit, was lower in the oncological hospital of Guayaquil, followed by Australia, Germany, Quito, France, United States of America and Vietnam, The highest mortality is observed in patients with connective tissue diseases. DISCUSSION. The application of bundlers in sepsis is associated with better survival and shorter days of hospital stay. CONCLUSIONS. The SOFA, APACHE II and SAPS II scales help to predict mortality efficiently in the early detection and treatment of patients with acute and high-risk disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Tertiary Healthcare , Hospital Mortality , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Sepsis , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Intensive Care Units , Vasodilator Agents , Drug Resistance, Multiple , Candida glabrata , Candida tropicalis , Ecuador , Hypotension , Immunosuppressive Agents , Multiple Organ Failure
13.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 121(3): e202202779, jun. 2023. tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1435653

ABSTRACT

Introducción. En neonatos internados es frecuente sospechar sepsis neonatal, pero solo en el 25 % al 30 % se confirma con cultivos positivos. La selección del esquema antibiótico basándose en la epidemiología local favorece el uso racional y minimiza sus efectos colaterales. Objetivo primario. Describir la prevalencia de sepsis precoz y tardía con rescate microbiológico y sus características clínicas. Población y método. Estudio transversal retrospectivo, realizado del 1 de enero de 2013 al 31 de diciembre de 2017, en una maternidad pública de Argentina, que incluyó todos los recién nacidos internados en la unidad con diagnóstico de sepsis precoz y tardía con rescate microbiológico, y aquellos reingresados dentro del mes de vida. Resultados. Ingresaron 3322 recién nacidos, 1296 evaluados por sospecha de sepsis precoz, cultivos positivos en 25 (1,9 %; tasa: 0,86 ‰). El 52 % eran menores de 33 semanas de edad gestacional. Microorganismos: Escherichia coli 5, Listeria monocytogenes 4, Streptococcus agalactiae (SGB) 3, Streptococcus pneumoniae 3. Sepsis tardía (tasa 8,73 ‰), el 68 % ocurridas en menores de 33 semanas. Microorganismos intrahospitalarios: Staphylococcus coagulasa negativos 115, Staphylococcus aureus 47, Escherichia coli 30, Cándida spp. 16, Enterococcus faecalis 13, Klebsiella pneumoniae 11 y Streptococcus agalactiae 10. En los reingresos: E. coli 11, S. aureus 12, SGB 3 y Haemophilus influenzae 3. Conclusiones. Se observa en el período estudiado una frecuencia de sepsis precoz similar a los reportes internacionales, con predominio de E. coli y L. monocytogenes. La tasa de sepsis tardía presentó una tendencia descendente en los años analizados, con predominio de los cocos grampositivos


Introduction. Neonatal sepsis is often suspected in hospitalized newborn infants, but only in 25­30% of cases it is confirmed via a positive culture. Selecting the antibiotics based on local epidemiology favors their rational use and minimizes their side effects. Primary objective. To describe the prevalence of early- and late-onset sepsis with microorganism isolation and their clinical characteristics. Population and method. Retrospective, cross-sectional study conducted between 01-01-2013 and 12-31-2017 in a public maternity center of Argentina in all hospitalized newborn infants with a diagnosis of early- and late-onset sepsis with microorganism isolation, and those re-admitted in their first month of life. Results. A total of 3322 newborn infants were admitted; 1296 were assessed for suspected early- onset sepsis; 25 had a positive culture (1.9%; rate: 0.86‰). Of these, 52% were born before 33 weeks of gestation. Microorganisms: Escherichia coli 5, Listeria monocytogenes 4, Streptococcus agalactiae (SGB) 3, Streptococcus pneumoniae 3. Also, 68% of late-onset sepsis cases (rate: 8.73‰) occurred in infants born before 33 weeks of gestation. Hospital-acquired microorganisms: coagulase-negative Staphylococcus 115, Staphylococcus aureus 47, Escherichia coli 30, Candida spp. 16, Enterococcus faecalis 13, Klebsiella pneumoniae 11, and Streptococcus agalactiae 10. In re-admissions: E. coli 11, S. aureus 12, SGB 3, and Haemophilus influenzae 3. Conclusions. During the study period, the frequency of early-onset sepsis was similar to international reports, with a predominance of E. coli and L. monocytogenes. The rate of late-onset sepsis showed a downward trend in the analyzed years, with a predominance of Gram-positive cocci.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Sepsis/microbiology , Neonatal Sepsis/drug therapy , Neonatal Sepsis/epidemiology , Staphylococcus aureus , Streptococcus agalactiae , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Escherichia coli , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
14.
Oncología (Guayaquil) ; 33(1): 40-48, 4 de Abril 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1427635

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Se ha reportado la utilidad de la procalcitonina para predecir bacteriemia en pacientes oncológicos con fiebre, pero existen pocos datos sobre la utilidad de la interleucina 6. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo establecer la especificidad y sensibilidad de la procalcitonina y la interleucina en pacientes oncológicos con bacteriemia y sangre positiva. cultura. Métodos : Este estudio transversal, de fuente prospectiva, se realizó en el Hospital de SOLCA, Guayaquil. El período de estudio fue de enero a diciembre de 2015. Se incluyeron pacientes mayores de edad y menores de 65 años con diagnóstico de enfermedad oncológica con diagnóstico de SIRS, sepsis o shock séptico. Las variables fueron presencia de bacteriemia, procalcitonina (PCT), interleucina-6 (IL-6), edad, sexo y reporte de hemocultivo. La muestra fue no probabilística . Se utilizó estadística descriptiva e inferencial. Se analizaron dos grupos: la presencia y ausencia de bacteriemia, y en cada grupo se realizó una prueba diagnóstica de procalcitonina e interleucina-6. Resultados : Participaron un total de 169 pacientes, 69 con hemocultivos positivos (G1) y 100 controles sin bacteriemia (G2). La procalcitonina fue de 14,6 en G1 frente a 0,54 ng/ml en G2 ( P = 0,0001). IL-6 fue de 1479,47 ng/ml en G1 frente a 4,37 ng/ml en G2 ( P < 0,001). La sensibilidad (S) de la PCT fue del 81,2 %, la especificidad (E) del 79 % y el área bajo la curva de 0,862. P<0.0001. La S de IL-6 fue 98,6%, la E fue 95% y el área bajo la curva fue 0,996 P<0,0001. Conclusión: La interleucina-6 es una buena prueba como predictor de bacteriemia en pacientes oncológicos por su alto valor de especificidad y para establecer que si se tiene bacteriemia es por su alta especificidad.


Introduction: The utility of procalcitonin to predict bacteremia in cancer patients with fever has been reported, but few data exist on the utility of interleukin 6. This study aimed to establish the specificity and sensitivity of procalcitonin and interleukin in cancer patients with bacteremia and positive blood culture. Methods: This cross-sectional study, from a prospective source, was carried out at the Hospital de SOLCA, Guayaquil. The study period was from January to December 2015. Patients of legal age and under 65 years of age with a diagnosis of oncological disease with a diagnosis of SIRS, sepsis, or septic shock were included. The variables were the presence of bacteremia, procalcitonin (PCT), interleukin-6 (IL-6), age, sex, and blood culture report. The sample was nonprobabilistic. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used. Two groups were analyzed: the presence and absence of bacteremia, and a diagnostic test for procalcitonin and interleukin-6 was performed in each group. Results: A total of 169 patients participated, 69 with positive blood cultures (G1) and 100 controls without bacteremia (G2). Procalcitonin was 14.6 in G1 vs 0.54 ng/ml in G2 (P =0.0001). IL-6 was 1479.47 ng/ml in G1 vs 4.37 ng/ml in G2 (P < 0.001). The sensitivity (S) of PCT was 81.2%, the specificity (E) was 79%, and the area under the curve was 0.862. P<0.0001. The S of IL-6 was 98.6%, the E was 95%, and the area under the curve was 0.996 P<0.0001. Conclusion: Interleukin-6 is a good test as a predictor of bacteremia in cancer patients due to its high specificity value and to establish that if you have bacteremia, it is due to its high specificity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Sepsis , Neoplasms , Interleukin-6 , Procalcitonin
15.
Rev. epidemiol. controle infecç ; 13(1): 22-27, jan.-mar. 2023. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1512586

ABSTRACT

Background: Sepsis currently represents a challenge for health systems, this fact may be related to the spread of bacterial resistance, the increase in the population of elderly, immunosuppressed individuals, and the improvement of emergency care, favoring the survival of critically ill patients. This article aimed to evaluate the accuracy of mortality indicators due to sepsis in 2018. Method: Validation study of death certificates that occurred in the Federal District in 2018. Declarations whose basic causes of death identified were classified as garbage codes were identified, which were investigated by a multidisciplinary team, capable of reclassifying them with codes that allow for the improvement of health data. In order to assess accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, positive and negative likelihood ratios of death certificates from sepsis were calculated, with 95% confidence intervals. Results: A total of 6.244 statements were evaluated, of which 233 (3.74%) presented sepsis as the underlying cause before being investigated and only 35 (0.56%) maintained it after the investigation. The filling of statements with sepsis as the underlying cause by physicians showed a sensitivity of 0.9% (95%CI: 0.6 to 1.3) and a specificity of 92.0% (95%CI: 90.9 to 93.1). Conclusion: The low accuracy of the declarations demonstrates the non-reliability of the underlying cause of death from sepsis, especially the completion of death certificates that occurred in the Federal District in 2018.(AU)


Justificativa: A sepse, atualmente, representa um desafio para os sistemas de saúde, tal fato pode estar relacionado com a disseminação da resistência bacteriana, o aumento da população de idosos, os indivíduos imunossuprimidos, e a melhoria do atendimento de emergência, favorecendo a sobrevivência de pacientes críticos. Este artigo teve por objetivo avaliar a acurácia dos indicadores de mortalidade devido à sepse em 2018. Método: Estudo de validação da causa básica dos óbitos ocorridos no Distrito Federal em 2018. Foram identificadas as declarações de óbito cujas causas básicas de morte apontadas foram classificadas como garbage code sepse, as quais foram investigadas por uma equipe multidisciplinar, capacitada para reclassificá-las com códigos que permitem o aprimoramento dos dados em saúde. A fim de avaliar a acurácia, foram calculados os valores de sensibilidade, especificidade, valores preditivos positivo e negativo, razões de verossimilhança positiva e negativa das declarações dos óbitos por sepse, com intervalos de confiança de 95%. Resultados: Um total de 6.244 declarações foram avaliadas, das quais 233 (3,74%) apresentavam a sepse como causa básica antes de serem investigadas e apenas 35 (0,56%) mantiveram-na após a investigação. O preenchimento das declarações com a sepse enquanto causa básica pelos médicos apresentou sensibilidade de 0,9% (IC95%: 0,6 a 1,3) e especificidade de 92,0% (IC95%: 90,9 a 93,1). Conclusão: A baixa acurácia das declarações demonstra a não fidedignidade da causa básica de óbito por sepse, sobretudo, do preenchimento das declarações dos óbitos ocorridos no Distrito Federal em 2018.(AU)


Justificación: Sepsis representa en la actualidad un desafío para los sistemas de salud, este hecho puede estar relacionado con propagación de resistencias bacterianas, aumento de la población de ancianos, inmunodeprimidos, y mejora de la atención de urgencias, favoreciendo la supervivencia de los pacientes críticos. Este artículo tuvo como objetivo evaluar la precisión de los indicadores de mortalidad por sepsis en 2018. Método: Estudio de validación de causa básica de muertes ocurridas en Distrito Federal en 2018. Se identificaron actas de defunción cuyas causas básicas de muerte fueron clasificadas como sepsis código basura y fueron investigadas por un equipo multidisciplinario capacitado para reclasificarlas con códigos que permitan la mejora de datos de salud. Para evaluar la precisión, se calcularon sensibilidad, especificidad, valores predictivos positivo y negativo y razones de verosimilitud positiva y negativa de certificados de defunción por sepsis, con intervalos de confianza del 95%. Resultados: se evaluaron 6.244 declaraciones, de las cuales 233 (3,74%) tenían como causa básica la sepsis antes de ser investigadas y solo 35 (0,56%) mantuvieron después de investigación. Realización de declaraciones con sepsis como causa subyacente por parte de los médicos mostró sensibilidad del 0,9% (95%IC: 0,6 a 1,3) y especificidad del 92,0% (95%IC: 90,9 a 93,1). Conclusión: Baja precisión de las declaraciones demuestra la poca confiabilidad de la causa subyacente de muerte por sepsis, especialmente la finalización de los certificados de defunción ocurridos en Distrito Federal en 2018.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Indicators of Morbidity and Mortality , Sepsis/mortality , Data Accuracy , Cause of Death
16.
Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 45(1): 66-71, Jan.-Mar. 2023. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1421544

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Hyperglycemia occurs in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) due to chemotherapeutic agents and may be stress-induced. Given the potential impact of hyperglycemia on the clinical outcomes of ALL patients, we sought to determine the association of hyperglycemia with the development of infectious complications. Methods This is a retrospective cohort involving adult Filipino ALL patients admitted at a tertiary referral center. Patients were stratified according to blood glucose levels and infections were classified into microbiologically and clinically defined infections. Logistic regression was performed to determine whether hyperglycemia was associated with the development of infectious complications. Results Of the 174 patients admitted for ALL, only 76 patients (44%) underwent blood glucose monitoring and were thus included in this study. Hyperglycemia was observed in 64 patients (84.21%). Infectious complications were seen in 56 patients (73.68%), of whom 37 patients (48.68%) had microbiologically defined infections and 19 (25%) had clinically defined infections. The respiratory tract was the most common site of infection and gram-negative bacteria were the predominant isolates. Hyperglycemia significantly increased the likelihood of infectious complications, particularly at blood glucose levels ≥ 200 mg/dL. Conclusion Hyperglycemia is associated with an increased likelihood of infectious complications in Filipino ALL patients. With sepsis being one of the main causes of mortality in this population, our study provides compelling evidence for us to consider routine blood glucose monitoring in order to manage and potentially decrease the occurrence of infections in these patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Young Adult , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Hyperglycemia , Sepsis , Infections
17.
Alerta (San Salvador) ; 6(1): 12-17, ene. 30, 2023. graf, ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | BISSAL, LILACS | ID: biblio-1413600

ABSTRACT

Presentación del caso. Lactante femenina de 14 meses de edad con desarrollo psicomotor normal, sin comórbidos. Con historia de un día de fiebre de 40 °C, intermitente, acompañada de evacuaciones diarreicas y vómitos. Fue llevada por sus padres a una clínica privada sin notar mejoría con el tratamiento médico indicado. Posteriormente, presentó deterioro clínico y fue llevada a un hospital, donde se diagnosticó un síndrome febril agudo, diarrea con deshidratación leve y faringitis. Al cuarto día de evolución inició con máculas y pápulas que progresaron a vesículas y costras. Además, presentó intolerancia a la vía oral, disnea, distensión abdominal, coma y desequilibrio hidroelectrolítico. Intervención terapéutica. Inició el tratamiento con hidratación parenteral, antivirales, esteroides endovenosos y antihistamínicos; se diagnosticó shock séptico con compromiso respiratorio, se proporcionó ventilación mecánica asistida y fue referida al hospital de tercer nivel para atención por medicina crítica. Los estudios reportaron un derrame pleural derecho del 40 % y hepatomegalia. Continuó el tratamiento con antibiótico terapia, hidratación parenteral, antivirales, diuréticos, antipiréticos y hemoderivados, presentó mejoría, continuó el manejo terapéutico. Evolución clínica. El día 18 presentó fiebre, hepatoesplenomegalia, los exámenes reportaron elevación de ferritina, triglicéridos y citopenia se diagnosticó un síndrome hemofagocítico que evolucionó con una falla multisistémica y falleció al siguiente día


Case presentation. A 14-month-old female infant with normal psychomotor development, without comorbidities. With a one-day history of fever of 40 °C, intermittent, accompanied by diarrhea and vomiting. She was taken by her parents to a private clinic without improvement with the indicated medical treatment. Subsequently, she presented clinical deterioration and was taken to a hospital, where she was diagnosed with acute febrile syndrome, diarrhea with mild dehydration, and pharyngitis. On the fourth day of evolution, she started with macules and papules that progressed to vesicles and crusts. In addition, she presented oral intolerance, dyspnea, abdominal distension, coma, and hydro electrolytic imbalance. Therapeutic intervention. She started treatment with parenteral hydration, antivirals, intravenous steroids, and antihistamines; septic shock with respiratory distress was diagnosed, assisted mechanical ventilation was provided, and she was referred to a tertiary hospital for critical care medicine. Studies reported a 40 % right pleural effusion and hepatomegaly. She continued treatment with antibiotic therapy, parenteral hydration, antivirals, diuretics, antipyretics, and hemoderivatives, presented improvement, and continued therapeutic management. Clinical evolution. On day 18 he presented fever and hepatosplenomegaly. Tests reported elevated ferritin, triglycerides, and cytopenia, and was diagnosed with hemophagocytic syndrome that evolved with multisystemic failure and died the following day


Subject(s)
Syndrome , Chickenpox , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic , Pleural Effusion , Sepsis , Critical Care , Hepatomegaly
18.
São Paulo; s.n; 2023. 1-74 p. tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, CONASS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP, SESSP-ACVSES, SESSP-TESESESSP, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1436762

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Infecções de Corrente Sanguínea (ICS) por Candida spp. apresentam alta letalidade em casos de atraso terapêutico. Na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva (UTI) do Instituto de Infectologia Emílio Ribas, a taxa de candidemia correspondeu a aproximadamente 20% das ICS em 2016, sendo o segundo agente mais frequente de ICS desde 2011. Dada tamanha relevância e demanda por métodos baratos e acessíveis de triagem de pacientes de alto risco para tal complicação, criar escores para detecção de candidemia tem se tornado uma prática frequente. De tal forma, avaliamos três escores preditores publicados na literatura aplicados em pacientes críticos com resultado sorológico majoritariamente HIV positivo. Objetivo: Identificar os fatores de risco para candidemia e o escore preditor de candidemia com melhor correlação estatística para uma população com HIV atendida em UTI especializada. Metodologia: Estudo epidemiológico retrospectivo, observacional. Por meio de revisão de literatura, onde foram identificados os escores de Leon et al, Ostrosky et al e Guillamet et al, para cálculo de amostra mínima necessária para o estudo. A seguir, foram incluídos todos os casos notificados de ICS de novembro de 2015 a setembro de 2019, de acordo com os critérios laboratoriais da ANVISA, 2017. Foram então analisados os fatores de risco para candidemia a partir de prontuários eletrônicos. Para comparar os escores, foi empregado cálculo de Kolmogorov Smirnov para definição de normalidade, Qui-quadrado e depois Teste de Fisher ou U de Mann-Whitney para amostras não dicotômicas. Resultados: Para candidemia na amostra total, na regressão univariada, infecção hospitalar prévia nos últimos 90 dias [OR 5,68, IC 95% 1,62 ­ 19,94, p = 0,007], uso de nutrição parenteral total (NPT) durante a internação [OR 3,54, IC 95% 1,49 ­ 8,41, p = 0,004], NPT nos 3 dias anteriores ao desfecho [OR 3,34 IC 95% 1,39 ­ 8,03, p = 0,007], pancreatite nos 7 dias anteriores ao desfecho [OR 3,72, IC 95% 1,19 ­ 11,59, p = 0,024] e choque séptico de foco não pulmonar [OR 2,69, IC 95% 1,07 ­ 6,81, p = 0,036], apresentaram significância. Já no modelo de regressão logística múltipla, manteve-se NPT [OR 3,55, IC 95% 1,43-8,78, p = 0,006] e pancreatite há menos de 7 dias [OR 5,68, IC 95% 1,58-20,47, p = 0,008] como fatores associados a candidemia. Nenhum dos escores de risco, quando com a pontuação mínima atingida, apresentou significância estatística ao desfecho candidemia para a amostra total. Na análise restrita aos pacientes com HIV, para desfecho candidemia, a regressão logística univariada revelou significância estatística para pancreatite nos últimos 7 dias [OR 3,58, IC 95% 1,35 ­ 12,37, p = 0,044], o uso de NPT em qualquer momento da internação [OR 3,37, IC 95% 1,26-8,98, p = 0,015), o uso de NPT nos últimos 3 dias prévios à manifestação de ICS [OR 3,13, IC 95% 1,15-8,49, p = 0,025], choque séptico de foco pulmonar [OR 3,34, IC 95% 1,20-9,31, p = 0,021], e um escore de Guillamet et al igual ou superior a 3 [OR 3,72, IC 95% 1,34-10,39, p = 0,012]. Já no modelo de regressão logística múltipla, manteve-se o escore de Guillamet et al, [OR 3,47, IC 95% 1,21 ­ 9,90, p = 0,02] e uso de NPT durante a internação [OR 3,09, IC 95% 1,12 ­ 8,54, p 0,03] como fatores associados ao desfecho candidemia. Corticoterapia nos últimos 7 dias prévios à ICS [OR 2,42, IC95% 1,06 ­ 5,49], sepse grave [OR 3,89, IC 95% 1,57 ­ 9,66], neutropenia [OR 7,26, IC 95% 1,43 ­ 37,01] e qualquer cirurgia prévia [OR 3,38, IC 95% 1,23 ­ 9,33] foram fatores associados a óbito na amostra total. Conclusão: Em UTIs com grande prevalência de pacientes com HIV, NPT e pancreatite podem ser fatores clínicos associados a candidemia. Caso tal indivíduo seja PVHA, a presença de NPT e o escore de Guillamet et al podem ser relevantes em estudos para descartar ou aumentar suspeição clínica sobre candidemia, sendo necessário mais análises sobre esse desfecho e a relevância desses escores nessa população. (AU)


Introduction: Bloodstream Infections (BSI) by Candida spp presents high lethality in cases of therapeutic delay. In the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of our institution, the candidemia rate corresponded to approximately 20% of the BSI in 2016, being the second most frequent agent of BSI since 2011. Given such relevance and demand for easy to use and affordable methods of screening patients at high risk for such complication, creating scores for candidemia has become a frequent practice. Thus, we evaluated three predictive scores published in the literature applied in critically ill patients with HIV positive status. Objective: To identify the risk factors for candidemia and the predictor score of candidemia with the best statistical correlation for a population with HIV treated in a specialized ICU. Methodology: Retrospective, observational study. Through literature review, the scores of Leon et al, Ostrosky et al and Guillamet et al were identified, and the minimum sample required for the study was calculated. Next, all reported cases of CSI from November 2015 to April 2018 were included, according to ANVISA laboratory criteria, 2017. Risk factors for candidemia were analyzed from electronic medical records. To compare the scores, Kolmogorov Smirnov was calculated for normality definition, Chi-square and then Fisher's Test or Mann-Whitney U test for non-dichotomic samples. Results: For the whole ICU population, on univariate analysis for candidemia outcome, previous hospital acquired infection over the last 90 days [OR 5.68, IC 95% 1.62 ­ 19.94 (p = 0.007)], Total Parenteral Nutrition (TPN) use during hospital stay [OR 3.54, IC 95% 1.49 ­ 8.41, p = 0.004], TPN use over the the last 3 days before BSI incidence [OR 3.34 IC 95% 1.39 ­ 8.03, p = 0.007], pancreatitis 7 days prior to BSI incidence [OR 3.72, IC 95% 1.19 ­ 11.59, p = 0.024] and non-pulmonary septic shock syndrome [OR 2.69, IC 95% 1.07 ­ 6.81, p = 0.036] were significant. On the multivariate regression, TPN [OR 3.55, IC 95% 1.43-8.78, p = 0.006] and pancreatitis 7 days prior to BSI incidence [OR 5.68, IC 95% 1.58-20.47, p = 0.008] remained as candidemia associated factors. No candidemia risk score was significant to candidemia outcome when minimum requirements were attained for the whole sample. For HIV positive patients only, on univariate analysis, pancreatitis 7 days prior to BSI incidence [OR 3.58, IC 95% 1.35 ­ 12.37, p = 0.044], TPN use during hospital stay [OR 3.37, IC 95% 1.26-8.98, p = 0.015], TPN use over the the last 3 days before BSI incidence [OR 3.13, IC 95% 1.15-8.49, p = 0.025], non-pulmonary septic shock syndrome [OR 3.34, IC 95% 1.20-9.31, p = 0.021], and a Guillamet et al score point equal or superior to 3 [OR 3.72, IC 95% 1.34-10.39, p = 0.012] were significant. On the multivariate analysis, Guillamet et al, [OR 3.47, IC 95% 1.21 ­ 9.90, p = 0.02] and TPN use during hospital stay [OR 3.09, IC 95% 1.12 ­ 8.54, p = 0.03] remained significant towards candidemia outcome. Corticoid use on the last seven days before BSI [OR 2,42, IC95% 1,06 ­ 5,49], severe sepsis [OR 3,89, IC 95% 1,57 ­ 9,66], neutropenia [OR 7,26, IC 95% 1,43 ­ 37,01] and any previous surgery [OR 3,38, IC 95% 1,23 ­ 9,33] were associated with death outcome on the whole sample. Conclusion: When a patient manifest BSI in ICUs with high prevalence of HIV positive patients among its population, TPN and pancreatitis may be clinical factors associated with candidemia. Nonetheless, in HIV positive critical patients who manifest BSI, besides TPN, Guillamet et al score might also be a relevant tool to discard or raise suspicion of candidemia, although more clinical trials are required about such outcome and candidemia risk scores accuracy on this population. (AU)


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , HIV , Sepsis , Candidemia , Intensive Care Units
19.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, CONASS, ColecionaSUS, SES-GO | ID: biblio-1444769

ABSTRACT

As infecções hospitalares caracterizam-se como um fator importante para a saúde pública, por tratar-se de infecções recorrentes, principalmente em unidades de terapia intensiva (UTI), que tem causando alta taxa de morbidade e mortalidade, consequentemente aumento no tempo de internação e nos custos associados à internação. O objetivo deste estudo é analisar os indicadores de infecção hospitalar na unidade de terapia intensiva e descrever a incidência das Infecções Relacionadas à Assistência à Saúde (IRAS) na UTI. Trata-se de um estudo transversal, descritivo, com abordagem quantitativa, realizado na UTI de um hospital de grande porte do estado de Goiás. Durante o período analisado, foram notificados 44 casos de IRAS pela SCIH e 1779 pacientes passaram pela unidade. A partir da análise das notificações nas Fichas Referência do SCIH no período de abril a junho de 2022, foi possível observar o registro de IRAS nos referentes meses do semestre na UTI II, com um número maior de ocorrências no mês de maio com 23 casos, e um menor número de casos em abril, com 10 casos notificados. Em relação aso indicadores a PAV destacou-se como o indicador mais prevalente e de grande relevância entre as IRAS notificadas a SCIH. Conclui-se que é extremamente necessário conhecer a importância e a efetividade que os indicadores possuem e como eles podem contribuir para desenvolver medidas eficazes de prevenção e controle de infecção, melhorando tanto a qualidade dos cuidados prestados quanto os custos e credibilidade do estabelecimento de saúde


Hospital infections are characterized as an important factor for public health, because they are recurrent infections, especially in intensive care units (ICU), which has caused a high morbidity and mortality rate, consequently an increase in hospitalization time and costs associated with hospitalization. OBJECTIVE: the objective of this study is to analyze the indicators of nosocomial infection in the intensive care unit and to describe the incidence of HAI in the ICU. This is a cross-sectional, descriptive study with a quantitative approach, conducted in the ICU of a large hospital in the state of Goiás. During the analyzed period, 44 cases of AIS were reported by SCIH and 1779 patients passed through the unit. From the analysis of the notifications in the SCIH Reference Forms from April to June 2022, it was possible to observe the record of IRAS in the referring months of the semester in ICU II, with a higher number of occurrences in The Month of May with 23 cases, and a smaller number of cases in April, with 10 cases reported. In relation to the indicators, VAP stood out as the most prevalent and relevant indicator among the HAI reported to SCIH. It is concluded that it is extremely necessary to know the importance and effectiveness that the indicators have and how they can contribute to develop effective measures for prevention and infection control, improving both the quality of care provided and the costs and credibility of the health establishment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Health Status Indicators , Intensive Care Units , Sepsis , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated , Catheter-Related Infections
20.
Acta cir. bras ; 38: e380323, 2023. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1419862

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Sepsis is characterized by an acute inflammatory response to infection, often with multiple organ failures, especially severe lung injury. This study was implemented to probe circular RNA (circRNA) protein tyrosine kinase 2 (circPTK2)-associated regulatory mechanisms in septic acute lung injury (ALI). Methods: A cecal ligation and puncture-based mouse model and an lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-based alveolar type II cell (RLE-6TN) model were generated to mimic sepsis. In the two models, inflammation- and pyroptosisrelated genes were measured. Results: The degree of lung injury in mice was analyzed by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and the apoptosis was by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling staining. In addition, pyroptosis and toxicity were detected in cells. Finally, the binding relationship between circPTK2, miR-766, and eukaryotic initiation factor 5A (eIF5A) was detected. Data indicated that circPTK2 and eIF5A were up-regulated and miR-766 was down-regulated in LPS-treated RLE-6TN cells and lung tissue of septic mice. Lung injury in septic mice was ameliorated after inhibition of circPTK2. Conclusion: It was confirmed in the cell model that knockdown of circPTK2 effectively ameliorated LPS-induced ATP efflux, pyroptosis, and inflammation. Mechanistically, circPTK2 mediated eIF5A expression by competitively adsorbing miR-766. Taken together, circPTK2/ miR-766/eIF5A axis ameliorates septic ALI, developing a novel therapeutic target for the disease.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Sepsis , Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-5 , MicroRNAs , Focal Adhesion Kinase 1/adverse effects , Lung Injury , Pyroptosis
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