Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 229
Filter
1.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(4): e353-e356, agosto 2021. tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1281861

ABSTRACT

La bibliografía no incluye frecuentemente alteraciones en el ritmo cardíaco de los pacientes que reciben corticoesteroides; se desconoce su mecanismo exacto. En este artículo, presentamos el caso de un paciente con bradicardia sinusal asociada con una dosis de estrés de corticoesteroides. Se ingresó a un niño de 9 años con antecedentes de panhipopituitarismo con gastroenteritis y neumonía y presentó choque septicémico el día de la hospitalización. El tratamiento con líquidos intravenosos, dosis de estrés de hidrocortisona y antibióticos permitió la recuperación. Sin embargo, luego se documentó bradicardia sinusal con una frecuencia cardíaca de 45 latidos por minuto. Esta se resolvió después de reducir gradualmente la hidrocortisona. La bradicardia sinusal inducida por corticoesteroides es un efecto adverso que suele resolverse tras interrumpir el tratamiento. Se debe considerar el monitoreo hemodinámico en estos casos. Este es el primer informe de bradicardia sinusal posterior al uso de hidrocortisona en niños con insuficiencia suprarrenal


The literature does not commonly describe cardiac rhythm disturbances, including bradycardia, in patients who are receiving corticosteroids, and the exact mechanism of such disturbances remains unknown. Herein, we present a case of sinus bradycardia associated with stress-dose corticosteroid therapy. A nine-year-old boy with a history of panhypopituitarism was admitted with gastroenteritis and pneumonia and developed septic shock on the day of admission. Management using intravenous fluids, stress doses of hydrocortisone, and antibiotics resulted in full recovery. However, within 24 hours following treatment, sinus bradycardia was documented, with a heart rate of 45 beats per minute (BPM). The bradycardia resolved after the dose of hydrocortisone was decreased gradually. Corticosteroidinduced sinus bradycardia is an adverse effect that usually resolves after corticosteroid treatment is discontinued. During stress-dose corticosteroid therapy, hemodynamic monitoring should be considered. To our knowledge, this is the first report of sinus bradycardia following the use of hydrocortisone in children who have adrenal insufficiency.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Sinoatrial Node , Bradycardia/chemically induced , Hydrocortisone/adverse effects , Adrenal Insufficiency/drug therapy , Sepsis/drug therapy , Bradycardia/diagnosis , Bradycardia/drug therapy , Hydrocortisone/administration & dosage , Adrenal Insufficiency/complications , Sepsis/complications
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879897

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the efficacy of sepsis risk calculator (SRC) in guiding antibiotic use in neonates with suspected early-onset sepsis (EOS).@*METHODS@#A total of 284 neonates with a gestational age of ≥ 35 weeks were enrolled as the control group, who were hospitalized in the Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University from March to July, 2019 and were suspected of EOS. Their clinical data were retrospectively collected and the use of antibiotics was analyzed based on SRC. A total of 170 neonates with a gestational age of ≥ 35 weeks were enrolled as the study group, who were admitted to the hospital from July to November, 2020 and were suspected of EOS. SRC was used prospectively for risk scoring to assist the decision making of clinical antibiotic management. The two groups were compared in terms of the rate of use of antibiotics, blood culture test rate, clinical outcome, and adherence to the use of SRC.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the control group, the study group had a significantly higher SRC score at birth and on admission (@*CONCLUSIONS@#The use of SRC reduces the rate of empirical use of antibiotics in neonates with suspected EOS and does not increase the risk of adverse outcomes, and therefore, it holds promise for clinical application.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Child , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Neonatal Sepsis/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Sepsis/drug therapy
3.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 85(3): 275-280, jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1126163

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Presentamos caso clínico de puérpera de cesárea de noveno día con cuadro febril en espigas, asintomática, en que se plantea desde su ingreso el diagnóstico de tromboflebitis séptica pelviana y se inicia tratamiento con antibióticos parenterales de amplio espectro y heparina de bajo peso molecular en dosis terapéuticas. La respuesta es a la mejoría al tercer día de tratamiento. Se discuten los métodos diagnósticos, el diagnóstico diferencial y el tratamiento.


ABSTRACT A case of a woman on her 9th post-operative day after childbirth by cesarean section (CS) consulting with febrile spikes, otherwise asymptomatic, is presented. The diagnosis of a septic pelvic thrombophlebitis is proposed from the admission and treated with parenteral broad-spectrum antibiotics and low-molecular-weight heparin at therapeutic doses. Patient significantly improved on her third day of treatment. The diagnostic procedures, differential diagnosis and treatment are discussed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Ovary/blood supply , Thrombophlebitis/etiology , Cesarean Section/adverse effects , Sepsis/etiology , Pelvis/blood supply , Thrombophlebitis/drug therapy , Thrombophlebitis/diagnostic imaging , Heparin/therapeutic use , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Sepsis/drug therapy , Sepsis/diagnostic imaging , Diagnosis, Differential , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879782

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the effect of mogroside VI (MVI) on acute liver injury induced by sepsis in mice and its possible mechanisms. Methods A total of 60 male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into five groups: sham-operation, model, low-dose MVI (25 mg/kg), high-dose MVI (100 mg/kg), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α) inhibitor (100 mg/kg MVI+30 mg/kg PGC-1α inhibitor SR-18292), with 12 mice in each group. Cecal ligation and puncture were performed to establish a mouse model of sepsis. The drugs were given by intraperitoneal injection after the model was established, once a day for 3 consecutive days. ELISA was used to measure the serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Colorimetry was used to measure the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in liver tissue. Hematoxylin-eosin staining was used to observe liver histopathological changes. Liver mitochondrial respiratory function was measured, and mitochondrial respiratory control rate was calculated. RT-PCR was used to measure the copy number of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in liver tissue and the mRNA expression levels of PGC-1α, nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF-1), and mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) in liver tissue. Western blot was used to measure the protein expression levels of PGC-1α, NRF-1, and TFAM in liver tissue.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the sham-operation group, the model group had significant increases in the serum levels of ALT and AST and the content of MDA in liver tissue (P0.05). The PGC-1α inhibitor SR-18292 significantly inhibited the intervention effect of high-dose MVI (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#MVI can effectively alleviate acute liver injury caused by sepsis in mice, possibly by enhancing mitochondrial biosynthesis mediated by PGC-1α.


Subject(s)
Animals , Liver , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Sepsis/drug therapy , Triterpenes
6.
Med. infant ; 26(3): 276-284, sept. 2019. Tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1024913

ABSTRACT

Chromobacterium violaceum es una bacteria gram negativa anaerobia facultativa, que se encuentra ampliamente distribuida en el agua y el suelo en regiones tropicales y subtropicales, que se asocia con infecciones respiratorias, gastrointestinales, abscesos hepáticos, meningitis, endocarditis, síndrome hemofagocítico y sepsis fulminante. Se presentan 2 casos en niños: el primero es un varón de 8 años con lesiones en piel, fiebre y adenitis inguinal, que ingresó con un cuadro de sepsis severa, síndrome de distrés respiratorio agudo (SDRA) y falleció a las 3 h del ingreso. De los hemocultivos se aisló Chromobacterium violaceum. El segundo caso, es una niña de 12 años con antecedente de fiebre y adenopatía inguinal secundaria a herida cortopunzante en el pie homolateral, que ingresó con un cuadro de sepsis, con desarrollo de abscesos múltiples profundos. De la colección obtenida de piel y partes blandas y de un aspirado traqueal se aisló Chromobacterium violaceum. Recibió tratamiento antibiótico adecuado y posteriormente fue dada de alta. Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica de esta infección en niños y se encontraron 44 casos en todo el mundo. Algunos de éstos, se relacionaron con inmunodeficiencia de base, como la enfermedad granulomatosa crónica. La infección por esta bacteria es rara y se presenta como un cuadro grave que no responde a antibióticos habituales de uso empírico y tiene una alta tasa de mortalidad (AU)


Chromobacterium violaceum is a facultative anaerobic Gramnegative bacillus, widely distributed in water and soil in tropical and subtropical regions and associated with respiratory and gastrointestinal infections, liver abscesses, meningitis, endocarditis, hemophagocytic syndrome, and fulminant sepsis. Here two pediatric cases are presented: The first was an 8-year-old boy with skin lesions, fever, and inguinal adenitis, who was admitted with severe sepsis, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and died three hours after. Chromobacterium violaceum was isolated from blood cultures. The second case was a 12-year-old girl with a history of fever and inguinal adenopathy secondary to a wound in the homolateral foot, who was admitted because of sepsis and multiple deep abscesses. From samples collected from the skin and soft tissues as well as tracheal aspirate Chromobacterium violaceum was isolated. Adequate antibiotic treatment was started and the patient was subsequently discharged. In a review of the literature, 44 cases worldwide were identified. Some of these cases were related to underlying immunodeficiency, such as chronic granulomatous disease. Infection with this bacterium is rare and presents with severe manifestations that do not respond to the common empirical antibiotics and are associated with a high mortality rate (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Chromobacterium/isolation & purification , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Sepsis/microbiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Mortality , Treatment Outcome , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Sepsis/diagnosis , Sepsis/drug therapy
7.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 36(4): 447-454, ago. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042661

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Escherichia coli es causa frecuente de un amplio espectro de infecciones, desde una infeccion urinaria no complicada hasta la sepsis grave y el choque septico, asociadas con desenlaces de alto impacto como ingreso a UCI y mortalidad. Objetivos: Determinar las diferencias en mortalidad. ingreso a UCI/UCE, presencia de cepas BLEE y tratamiento antimicrobiano en pacientes con sepsis grave y choque séptico por E. coli, con o sin bacteriemia, asi como su variabilidad dependiendo del foco infeccioso. Material y Métodos: Análisis secundario de estudio de cohorte prospective multicéntrico. Resultados: De 458 pacientes que tenian infeccion por E. coli, 123 tenian aislamiento solo en hemocultivo, 222 solo en urocultivo y 113 en ambas muestras. El aislamiento solo en hemocultivo se asocio mayor frecuencia de ingreso a UCI (n = 63; 5,2%). mayor necesidad de ventilacion mecánica (n = 19; 15,5%), mayor mortalidad y estancia hospitalaria (n = 22; 18%; mediana de 12 dias, RIQ= 7-17, respectivamente), pero con menor presencia de cepas productoras de BLEE en comparacion con urocultivos y hemocultivo, urocultivo (n = 20; 17,7% y n = 46; 20,7%, respectivamente). Recibieron tratamiento antimicrobiano en las primeras 24 h 424 pacientes (92,6%), con mas frecuencia piperacilina/ tazobactam (n = 256,60,3%). La proporcion de pacientes tratados empiricamente con carbapenemicos vs no carbapenemicos fue similar en los tres grupos. Discusión: El foco infeccioso. sumado a factores de nesgo para cepas productoras de BLEE, son herramientas utiles para definir pronostico y tratamiento en esta población, debido a la variabilidad clínica y microbiologica en los distintos aislados. Conclusión: Los pacientes con aislamiento de E. coli solo en hemocultivo presentan con mayor frecuencia desenlaces desfavorables en comparación con los pacientes con E. coli en urocultivo, con o sin bacteriemia. Llama la atencion en nuestro medio la menor cantidad de cepas productoras de BLEE en los pacientes con solo hemocultivo positivo.


Background: Escherichia coli is a common cause of a broad spectrum of infections, from non-complicated urinary tract infection, to severe sepsis and septic shock, that are associated to high impact outcomes, such as ICU admission and mortality. Aims: To establish differences in mortality, ICU admission, ESBL positive strains and antibiotic treatment, between patients with E. coli related severe sepsis and septic shock, with or without bacteremia and its variability based on the source of infection. Method: Secondary data analysis of a multicentric prospective cohort study. Results: From 458 patients with E. coli isolation, 123 had E. coli exclusively in blood culture, 222 solely in urine culture, and 113 in both samples. Escherichia coli isolation exclusively in blood culture was associated with higher frequency of ICU admission (n = 63; 51.2%), higher rate of mechanical ventilation requirement (n = 19; 15.5%), higher mortality and longer hospital stay (n = 22; 18%; median of 12 days, IQR= 7 - 17, respectively); but with a lower occurrence of ESBL strains, compared to patients with positive urine culture and positive blood/urine cultures (n = 20; 17.7% and n = 46; 20.7%, respectively). 424 patients (92.6%) received antibiotic treatment in the first 24 hours. The most commonly prescribed was piperacilin/tazobactam (n = 256;60.3%). The proportion of patients empirically treated with carbapenems vs non-carbapenems was similar in the three groups. Discussion: The source of infection, associated with ESBL strains risk factors, are useful tools to define prognosis and treatment in this population, because of their clinical and microbiological variability. Conclusion: Patients with E. coli isolation exclusively in the blood culture had higher frequency of non-favorable outcomes in comparison to patients with E. coli in urine culture with or without bacteremia. Additionally, in our population patients with E. coli solely in blood culture have lower prevalence of ESBL positive strains.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Shock, Septic/microbiology , Sepsis/microbiology , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Escherichia coli Infections/mortality , Shock, Septic/mortality , Shock, Septic/drug therapy , Prospective Studies , Colombia/epidemiology , Sepsis/mortality , Sepsis/drug therapy , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Escherichia coli Infections/drug therapy
8.
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 32(2): e1431, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001043

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Sepsis is an important public health issue and is associated with high treatment costs and high mortality rates. Glutamine supplementation has proven to be beneficial to the functions of the immune system, acting beneficially in the evolution of patients in severe catabolic states. Aim: To evaluate the effect of glutamine supplementation via intraperitoneal in rats, induced sepsis, considering the following organs: intestines, liver, kidneys and lungs. Methods: Male Wistar rats subjected to sepsis by ligature and cecal puncture were divided into two groups: control C (n=6) and glutamine G (n=11), in which were administered dipeptiven 20% at a dose of 2 ml/kg/day (equivalent to 0.4g N(2)-L-alanyl-L-glutamine/kg) intraperitoneally 48 h prior to sepsis induction. After 48 h they were euthanized and intestine, liver, lung and kidney were removed for histological analysis. Results: Intestinal epithelial desquamation of the control group was more intense compared to the glutamine group (p=0.008). In the kidneys, degenerative tubular epithelial changes were less severe in the animals that received glutamine (p=0.029). Regarding to the liver, glutamine group showed lower levels of cell swelling than the control group (p=0.034). In the lung there were no results with statistical significance. Conclusion: Prior intraperitoneal supplementation with glutamine in experimental animals is able to reduce the damage to the intestinal mucosa, to the kidneys and liver's histoarchitecture.


RESUMO Racional: A sepse é importante problema de saúde pública, sendo relacionada com altos custos de tratamento e elevadas taxas de mortalidade. A suplementação de glutamina tem provado ser benéfica às funções do sistema imune, atuando em estados catabólicos graves. Objetivo: Avaliar o efeito da suplementação de glutamina via intraperitoneal em ratos induzidos à sepse. Método: Foram utilizados ratos Wistar submetidos à sepse por ligadura e punção do ceco, separados em grupo controle C (n=6) e glutamina G (n=11), aos quais foram administrados dipeptiven a 20% com dose de 2 ml/kg/dia (equivalente a 0,4 g N(2)-L-alanil-L-glutamina/kg), via intraperitoneal, 48 h antes da indução da sepse. Após 48 h todos os animais foram submetidos à eutanásia e intestino, fígado, pulmão e rim foram retirados para análise histológica. Resultados: No intestino a descamação epitelial do grupo controle foi mais intensa em comparação ao da glutamina (p=0,008). Nos rins, houve menor degeneração do epitélio tubular nos animais que receberam glutamina (p=0,029). No fígado, o grupo glutamina apresentou índices menores de tumefação celular do que o grupo controle (p=0,034). No pulmão não houve resultados com significância estatística. Conclusão: A suplementação prévia de animais experimentais com glutamina via intraperitoneal é capaz de reduzir os danos causados à mucosa intestinal, histoarquitetura dos rins e do fígado.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Sepsis/drug therapy , Glutamine/administration & dosage , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Wistar , Sepsis/pathology , Infusions, Parenteral , Intestines/drug effects , Intestines/pathology , Kidney/drug effects , Kidney/pathology , Liver/drug effects , Liver/pathology , Lung/drug effects , Lung/pathology
9.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 30(4): 414-422, out.-dez. 2018. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-977983

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Descrever os efeitos de melhorias sucessivas nos sistemas de alerta precoce para identificação de pacientes com sepse, no que se refere ao tempo até o diagnóstico, à administração de antibióticos e à mortalidade. Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo observacional de coorte, que descreve as sucessivas melhorias implantadas em um período de 10 anos no sistema de alerta precoce para detecção de sepse, incluindo vigilância ativa manual sistemática, alertas eletrônicos via telefonista, e alertas enviados diretamente a dispositivos móveis da enfermagem. Para todos os períodos, após o desencadeamento do alerta, o tratamento foi realizado segundo as diretrizes institucionais para sepse. Resultados: Durante estes anos, detectaram-se 637 pacientes com sepse. O tempo mediano entre a triagem e o diagnóstico foi reduzido de 19:20 (9:10 - 38:15) horas para 12:40 (2:50 - 23:45) horas quando se utilizou o método manual de vigilância (p = 0,14), para 2:10 (1:25 - 2:20) horas quando o alerta foi enviado automaticamente ao serviço telefônico do hospital (p = 0,014) e para 1:00 (0:30 - 1:10) horas quando o alerta foi enviado diretamente ao telefone celular da enfermagem (p = 0,02), com manutenção de valores similares nos anos que se seguiram. Não houve diferença no tempo até o tratamento em relação aos pacientes sobreviventes e não sobreviventes. Conclusão: Sistemas eletrônicos auxiliam na redução do tempo entre a triagem e o diagnóstico e entre o diagnóstico e o início da antibioticoterapia em pacientes com sepse.


ABSTRACT Objective: To describe the improvements of an early warning system for the identification of septic patients on the time to diagnosis, antibiotic delivery, and mortality. Methods: This was an observational cohort study that describes the successive improvements made over a period of 10 years using an early warning system to detect sepsis, including systematic active manual surveillance, electronic alerts via a telephonist, and alerts sent directly to the mobile devices of nurses. For all periods, after an alert was triggered, early treatment was instituted according to the institutional sepsis guidelines. Results: In total, 637 patients with sepsis were detected over the study period. The median triage-to-diagnosis time was reduced from 19:20 (9:10 - 38:15) hours to 12:40 (2:50 - 23:45) hours when the manual surveillance method was used (p = 0.14), to 2:10 (1:25 - 2:20) hours when the alert was sent automatically to the hospital telephone service (p = 0.014), and to 1:00 (0:30 - 1:10) hour when the alert was sent directly to the nurse's mobile phone (p = 0.016). The diagnosis-to-antibiotic time was reduced to 1:00 (0:55 - 1:30) hours when the alert was sent to the telephonist and to 0:45 (0:30 - 1:00) minutes when the alert was sent directly to the nurse's mobile phone (p = 0.02), with the maintenance of similar values over the following years. There was no difference in the time of treatment between survivors and non-survivors. Conclusion: Electronic systems help reduce the triage-to-diagnosis time and diagnosis-to-antibiotic time in patients with sepsis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Telephone , Triage/methods , Sepsis/diagnosis , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Time Factors , Cohort Studies , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Sepsis/mortality , Sepsis/drug therapy
10.
Rev. cuba. med ; 57(3)jul.-set. 2018. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1003935

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las complicaciones infecciosas se han convertido en la causa de mortalidad más frecuente en los pacientes con afecciones hematológicas sometidos a regímenes terapéuticos agresivos. Objetivo: Caracterizar la infección por Acinetobacter baumannii en pacientes con afecciones hematológicas. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio ambispectivo y descriptivo en el servicio de hematología del Hospital Clínico Quirúrgico Hermanos Ameijeiras, entre enero de 2010 y diciembre de 2016. La muestra se conformó con 29 pacientes que cumplieron los criterios de inclusión establecidos. Resultados: La edad promedio fue de 48,3±14,8 años, con predominio del sexo masculino (65,5 por ciento). Resultaron más frecuentes los casos con linfomas (48,3 por ciento). En cuanto al estado de la enfermedad se apreció que prevalecieron por igual (34,5 por ciento) los grupos de pacientes con enfermedad en su inicio y en remisión completa. La neutropenia febril (48,3 por ciento) y la sepsis respiratoria (31,1 por ciento) fueron las manifestaciones clínicas más detectadas. Los enfermos con algún grado de neutropenia resultaron los más frecuentes (55,1 por ciento), principalmente aquellos con neutropenia severa y muy severa. La resistencia a los carbapenémicos entre los infectados fue de 58,6 por ciento. 24,1 por ciento de los casos fallecieron y la resistencia a los carbapenémicos se asoció significativamente (p<0,05) a esta mortalidad. De los procederes invasivos empleados en estos pacientes, predominó la colocación de catéter centro-venoso (58,6 por ciento). Conclusiones: La infección por A. baumannii es más frecuente en pacientes con afecciones hematológicas malignas y que recibieron tratamiento mielodepresor así como en aquellos que presentaron neutropenia severa/muy severa, manifestándose clínicamente de forma mayoritaria como una neutropenia febril; es muy importante señalar que la mortalidad por este agente biológico resultó elevada, principalmente si existe resistencia a los carbapenémicos(AU)


Introduction: Infectious complications have become the most frequent cause of mortality in patients with hematological conditions subjected to aggressive therapeutic regimens. Objective: To characterize Acinetobacter baumannii infection in patients with hematological disorders. Methods: An ambispective and descriptive study was carried out in the hematology department at Hermanos Ameijeiras Clinical Surgical Hospital from January 2010 to December 2016. Twenty nine patients, who met the established inclusion criteria, formed the sample. Results: The average age was 48.3 ± 14.8 years, males were majority (65.5 percent). The lymphomas cases were more frequent (48.3 percent). Regarding the state of the disease, it was observed that the groups of patients with disease in its initial stage and in complete remission prevailed equally (34.5 percent). Febrile neutropenia (48.3 percent) and respiratory sepsis (31.1 percent) were the most detected clinical manifestations. Patients with some degree of neutropenia were the most frequent (55.1 percent), mainly those with severe and very severe neutropenia. The resistance to carbapenems among the infected subjects was 58.6 percent. The deceased cases represented 24.1 percent and resistance to carbapenems was significantly associated (p <0.05) with this mortality. Out of the invasive procedures used in these patients, central venous catheter placement was predominant (58.6 percent). Conclusions: A. baumannii infection is more frequent in patients with malignant haematological conditions and who received myeloablative treatment as well as in those who presented severe or very severe neutropenia, mainly exhibiting as a febrile neutropenia. It is very important to point out that mortality due to this biological agent was high, mainly if there is resistance to carbapenems(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Carbapenems/therapeutic use , Sepsis/drug therapy , Acinetobacter baumannii , Hematologic Diseases/complications , Epidemiology, Descriptive
11.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 35(4): 424-430, ago. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-978054

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción La infección por Streptococcus agalactiae (β-hemolítico del grupo B (SGB) continúa siendo una de las principales causas de sepsis precoz en países desarrollados a pesar de la implementación de profilaxis efectiva. Objetivos Describir la incidencia, características clínicas y mortalidad de sepsis precoz por SGB en recién nacidos del Centro Hospitalario Pereira Rossell (CHPR), y analizar las fallas de adherencia a las estrategias de prevención. Métodos Estudio retrospectivo de descripción de casos entre los años 2007 a 2015 identificados a partir de la base de datos del laboratorio de bacteriología. Resultados Se identificaron 15 casos de sepsis neonatal precoz a SGB con una incidencia en el período de estudio de 0,23‰. La quimioprofilaxis intraparto no fue realizada en caso alguno. Todos los recién nacidos se presentaron sintomáticos en las primeras 15 h de vida. La dificultad respiratoria fue el signo más frecuente (80%). En un caso se aisló SGB de líquido cefalorraquídeo. La mortalidad fue de 20%. Todas las muertes ocurrieron en las primeras 24 h de vida, siendo dos tercios prematuros. Conclusión La incidencia de sepsis precoz por SGB en el CHPR fue similar a la incidencia en centros donde se realiza quimioprofilaxis. Una mejor adherencia a las estrategias de prevención podría disminuir la incidencia.


Background: Group B Streptococcus (GBS) disease remains the leading cause of early-onset sepsis (EOS) in developed countries despite effective prophylaxis strategies. Aims: To describe the incidence, clinical features and mortality of GBS EOS in infants born at Centro Hospitalario Pereira Rossell (CHPR) and analyse failure of adherence to prevention strategies. Methods: Retrospective review of EOS cases between 2007 and 2015 collected from the bacteriology laboratory database. Results: Fifteen cases of GBS EOS were identified, with an incidence of 0.23% during the study period. Intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP) was not administered in any of the cases. All infants were symptomatic within the first 15 hours of life, mainly due to respiratory signs (80%). In one case, GBS was isolated from spinal fluid. Mortality rate was 20%. All deaths occurred in the first 24 hours of life, corresponding two thirds to preterm infants. Conclusion: The incidence of GBS EOS at CHPR was similar to other centers where IAP is implemented. Better adherence to prophylaxis strategies could reduce the incidence.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/mortality , Streptococcal Infections/mortality , Streptococcal Infections/prevention & control , Sepsis/mortality , Sepsis/prevention & control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/microbiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Streptococcal Infections/microbiology , Streptococcal Infections/drug therapy , Streptococcus agalactiae/isolation & purification , Retrospective Studies , Sepsis/diagnosis , Sepsis/drug therapy , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Antibiotic Prophylaxis , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
12.
Rev. bras. enferm ; 71(4): 1921-1927, Jul.-Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-958662

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant action of N-acetylcysteine and diosmin-hesperidin in an experimental model of sepsis-induced acute kidney injury in rats. Methods: The study used 20 Wistar adult male rats divided into the following groups: control (laparotomy with no induction of abdominal sepsis), sepsis (experimental model of sepsis with cecal ligation and puncture), N-acetylcysteine + sepsis and diosmin-hesperidin + sepsis. The evaluation contemplated physiological parameters (temperature, glycemia, and average blood pressure), kidney function (creatinine clearance), oxidative stress (urinary peroxides) and kidney histology. Results: The animals submitted to cecal ligation and puncture (sepsis) presented lower body temperature, lower average blood pressure, reduced creatinine clearance and increased urinary hydrogen peroxide levels. Treatment with diosmin-hesperidin improved kidney function and led to a reduction in the excretion of oxidative metabolites. Conclusion: The present study highlighted the protective antioxidant action of diosmin-hesperidin in the experimental model of sepsis-induced acute kidney injury.


RESUMEN Objetivo: Evaluar la acción antioxidante de agentes como la N-acetilcisteína y Diosmina-Hesperidina en modelo experimental de lesión renal aguda inducida por sepsis en ratones. Método: Fueron utilizados veinte ratones Wistar, adultos y machos, divididos en los grupos: Control (laparotomía sin inducción de sepsis abdominal), Sepsis (modelo experimental de sepsis con ligadura y punción de ciego-LPC), N-acelsisteína+Sepsis y Diosmina Hesperidina+Sepsis. Se evaluaron parámetros fisiológicos (temperatura, glucemia y presión arterial promedio), la función renal (clearance de creatinina), el estrés oxidativo (peróxidos urinarios) e histología renal. Resultados: Los animales sometidos a LPC (sepsis) presentaron reducción de la temperatura corporal, de la presión arterial promedio, del clearance de creatinina e incremento de niveles de peróxidos de hidrógeno urinarios. El tratamiento con Diosmina-Hesperidina mejoró la función renal, reduciendo la excreción de metabolitos oxidativos. Conclusión: Este estudio destacó la acción renoprotectora antioxidante de la Diosmina-Hesperidina en el modelo experimental de lesión renal aguda inducida por sepsis.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a ação antioxidante de agentes como a N-acetilcisteína e diosmina-hesperidina em modelo experimental de lesão renal aguda induzida pela sepse em ratos. Método: Foram utilizados vinte ratos Wistar, adultos e machos, divididos nos seguintes grupos: Controle (laparotomia sem indução de sepse abdominal), Sepse (modelo experimental de sepse com ligadura e punção do cécum- LPC), N-acetilcisteína+Sepse e Diosmina Hesperidina+Sepse. Foram avaliados parâmetros fisiológicos (temperatura, glicemia e pressão arterial média), função renal (clearance de creatinina), estresse oxidativo (peróxidos urinários) e histologia renal. Resultados: Os animais submetidos à LPC (sepse) apresentaram redução da temperatura corporal, da pressão arterial média, do clearance de creatinina e elevação nos níveis de peróxidos de hidrogênio urinários. O tratamento com a Diosmina-Hesperidina melhorou a função renal com redução na excreção dos metabólitos oxidativos. Conclusão: Este estudo destacou a ação renoprotetora antioxidante da Diosmina-Hesperidina no modelo experimental de lesão renal aguda induzida pela sepse.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Sepsis/complications , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Acute Kidney Injury/drug therapy , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Acetylcysteine/therapeutic use , Acetylcysteine/pharmacology , Brazil , Cecum/drug effects , Cecum/injuries , Sepsis/drug therapy , Diosmin/therapeutic use , Diosmin/pharmacology , Disease Models, Animal , Acute Kidney Injury/prevention & control , Hesperidin/therapeutic use , Hesperidin/pharmacology , Antioxidants/therapeutic use
13.
Rev. cuba. salud pública ; 44(2)abr.-jun. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-901572

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La última década muestra aumento de la prevalencia de sepsis grave por microorganismos multidrogorresistentes, lo que representa una alerta para los gobiernos y sistemas de salud en el manejo de la multirresistencia. Objetivo: Identificar los microorganismos causantes de sepsis grave y sensibilidad a los antimicrobianos, así como relacionar los niveles de proteína C reactiva con la sepsis grave. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo de corte transversal que incluyó a 30 pacientes con diagnóstico de sepsis grave ingresados en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos del hospital del Instituto de Medicina Tropical Pedro Kourí durante el 2016. Resultados: Las neumonías fueron el foco primario dominante (43,3 por ciento), y las infecciones por gérmenes gramnegativos las más frecuentes. Los aislamientos microbiológicos (pseudomonas y acinetobacter baumannii) mostraron multidrogorresistencia que incluye a carbapenémicos y colistina, lo que sugiere utilización de forma indiscriminada y no justificada de antibióticos en pacientes inmunodeprimidos VIH. Se demostró asociación entre la infección por gérmenes gramnegativos y títulos elevados de proteína C reactiva con el desarrollo de sepsis grave y evolución desfavorable. El aumento de las supervivencias de los pacientes VIH con las terapias antirretrovilales, demostraron la predisposición de estos enfermos a infecciones por gérmenes multidrogorresistentes. Conclusiones: Los pacientes VIH tienen predisposición a infecciones por microorganismos multidrogorresistentes, la proteína C reactiva es útil como marcador de sepsis grave en estos enfermos. Estudios de este tipo demuestran a los sistemas de salud la necesidad trazar estrategias a corto plazo para el manejo de pacientes con VIH y sepsis grave por microorganismos multidrogorresistentes(AU)


Introduction: The last decade shows an increase in the prevalence of severe sepsis by multidrug resistant microorganisms which represent an alert for governments and health systems in relation with multiresistance management. Objective: To identify the microorganisms that cause severe sepsis and sensitivity to the antimicrobials, as well as to relate the levels of C-reactive protein with the severe sepsis. Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was carried out involving 30 patients diagnosed with severe sepsis and admitted in 2016 to the Intensive Care Unit of the Hospital in Pedro Kourí Tropical Medicine Institute. Results: The prevalence of severe sepsis was 24.8 percent mainly in male patients (71.1 percent) and with ages from 41 to 50 years old (40.0 percent). Pneumonias were the predominant primary source (43.3 percent), and infections caused by negative Gram germs were the most frequent. Microbiological isolates (pseudomonas and acinetobacterbaumannii) showed multidrug resistance including carbapenems and colistin, which suggests an indiscriminate and non-justified use of antibiotics in HIV inmunodepressed patients. It was demonstrated a relation between infection by negative Gram germs and elevated levels of C-reactive protein with the development of severe sepsis and unfavorable evolution. The increasing survival rate in patients with HIV showed a predisposition of them to infections caused by multidrug resistant germs. Conclusions: HIV positive patients have a predisposition to infections caused by multidrug resistant microorganisms. C-reactive protein is useful as a marker of severe sepsis in this kind of patients. Studies of this type show to health systems the need to develop strategies in short term for managing HIV patients and the severe sepsis caused by multidrug resistant microorganisms(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia/complications , Carbapenems/therapeutic use , HIV/immunology , Colistin/therapeutic use , Sepsis/drug therapy , Critical Care , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies
14.
Acta cir. bras ; 33(5): 446-453, May 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-949343

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the response of aging rats with sepsis to two different antibiotic regimens. Methods: The study was conducted with 30 aging rats (18 month-old) with autologous feces peritonitis. The animals were divided into three groups: Group 0 received no therapeutic intervention (control), while Group 1 received a single dose of 40 mg/kg meropenem and Group 2 received a single dose of 20 mg/kg moxifloxacin. The intervention in both Groups was made 6 hours after induction of peritonitis. The animals were followed up to 15 days for evaluating morbidity and mortality. The weights at baseline were similar in all groups. Results: At the end of follow-up, weight loss was significantly greater (p=0.0045) in Group 0 (non-intervention controls). Culture from a blood sample at the end of follow-up was positive in all the animals in Group 0, in two animals in Group 1 and in four animals in Group 2. Morbidity/mortality was significantly higher in Group 0 compared to both Groups 1 and 2 (p=0.003) but the scores were not significantly different between Groups 1 and 2 (p=0.6967). Conclusion: Both antibiotic regimens rendered promising results for the treatment of fecal peritonitis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Peritonitis/drug therapy , Bacteroides Infections/complications , Aging , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Peritonitis/microbiology , Rats, Wistar , Sepsis/drug therapy , Disease Models, Animal , Feces
15.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 35(2): 117-122, abr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-959420

ABSTRACT

Resumen La solicitud de hemocultivos en la atención médica es frecuente, especialmente en las Unidades de Neonatologia, donde se realiza en forma rutinaria frente a la sospecha de sepsis precoz o tardia. Este documento tiene como objetivo estandarizar la técnica de obtención de muestra con la finalidad de aumentar su rendimiento y establecer criterios de cómo interpretar un hemocultivo positivo.


The request of blood cultures in medical care is frequent, especially in Neonatal Units, where it is performed routinely in case of suspected early or late sepsis. The purpose of this document is to standardize the sampling technique in order to increase its performance and establish criteria to interpret a positive blood culture.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Sepsis/diagnosis , Sepsis/blood , Blood Culture/standards , Specimen Handling , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Sensitivity and Specificity , Infection Control , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Sepsis/drug therapy , Blood Culture/methods , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
16.
J. bras. nefrol ; 40(1): 95-97, Jan.-Mar. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893819

ABSTRACT

Abstract Histoplasmosis is a fungus infection that mainly affects immunosuppressed patients. The authors present a case of a kidney transplant recipient who developed sepsis-like histoplasmosis, na atypical but severe manifestation of the disease. The fungus was found in blood and in a skin biopsy, and the treatment with liposomal amphotericin resulted in hepatotoxicity.


Resumo Histoplasmose é uma infecção fúngica que afeta principalmente pacientes imunossuprimidos. Os autores apresentam um caso de uma receptora de transplante de rim que desenvolveu histoplasmose disseminada, uma manifestação atípica, mas grave da doença. O fungo foi encontrado no sangue e na biópsia cutânea, e o tratamento com anfotericina lipossomal resultou em hepatotoxicidade.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Postoperative Complications/diagnosis , Postoperative Complications/drug therapy , Kidney Transplantation , Sepsis/diagnosis , Histoplasmosis/diagnosis , Histoplasmosis/drug therapy , Fatal Outcome , Sepsis/drug therapy
17.
J. bras. nefrol ; 39(3): 323-328, July-Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893774

ABSTRACT

Abstract Sepsis is the most common cause of death in critically ill patients and it may be associated with multiorgan failure, including acute kidney injury (AKI). This situation can require acute renal support and increase mortality. Therefore, it is essential to administrate antimicrobials in dosis to achieve adequate serum levels, preventing overdosis and drug toxicity or underdosing and risk for resistance to antibiotics and higher mortality. To date, there aren't validated guidelines on antibiotic dosis adjustment in septic patients with AKI and the recommendations are extrapolated from studies conducted in non-critical patients with chronic kidney disease in end stage receiving chronic renal replacement therapy. This study aimed to review and discuss the complexity of that issue, considering the several factors related to the drugs removal: critically ill patient characteristics, antimicrobial properties and dialysis method.


Resumo A sepse é a principal causa de óbito em pacientes críticos e pode cursar com falência de vários órgãos, entre eles os rins, requerendo, com frequência, suporte renal agudo e elevando a mortalidade. Assim, torna-se imprescindível a administração de antimicrobianos em dose que garanta nível sérico adequado para evitar superdosagem e toxicidade medicamentosa ou ainda subdosagem e risco de resistência microbiana, ambas as situações contribuindo para maior mortalidade. Até o momento, não há diretrizes validadas para auxiliar no ajuste de dose de antibióticos nos pacientes sépticos com lesão renal aguda em suporte renal, sendo as recomendações extrapoladas de estudos realizados em pacientes não críticos e com doença renal em estádio final recebendo terapia renal substitutiva crônica. Esse estudo teve como objetivo revisar e discutir a complexidade desse assunto, levando em consideração os vários fatores relacionados à remoção de drogas: características do paciente crítico, propriedades dos antimicrobianos e método dialítico utilizado.


Subject(s)
Humans , Sepsis/complications , Sepsis/drug therapy , Acute Kidney Injury/complications , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Acute Kidney Injury/metabolism , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacokinetics
18.
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 44(3): 231-237, mai.-jun. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-896580

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: analisar a influência da glutamina nas alterações morfo-histológicas observadas em íleo, pulmão, rim e fígado de ratos Wistar submetidos à sepse. Métodos: a sepse foi induzida por meio de ligadura e punção do ceco. Os animais foram divididos em dois grupos: grupo A, controle, com cinco animais, e grupo B, experimento, com dez animais que utilizaram previamente glutamina por dois dias por via enteral. Na análise histológica, classificou-se as lesões de acordo com um escore cujo valor atribuído dependia da gravidade da lesão e do órgão acometido. A somatória dos valores atribuídos a cada animal resultou em sua nota final. No íleo, avaliaram-se as vilosidades; no fígado, esteatose microgoticular; no pulmão, pneumonite intersticial; e no rim, vacuolização dos túbulos contorcidos proximais. Resultados: a lise celular e a destruição das vilosidades no íleo do grupo controle foram mais intensas em relação aos animais que receberam glutamina. No rim, verificou-se vacuolização mais acentuada dos túbulos contorcidos proximais no grupo controle em relação aos animais que receberam glutamina. Tanto a esteatose microgoticular como a pneumonite intersticial mostraram-se semelhantes em ambos os grupos. Conclusão: o uso de glutamina via enteral previamente à sepse na dose de 0,5 g/kg/dia preservou de maneira significativa a estrutura histológica do intestino delgado e os rins em ratos.


ABSTRACT Objective: to analyze the influence of glutamine on morphological and histological changes observed in the ileum, lung, kidney and liver of Wistar rats subjected to sepsis. Methods: we induced sepsis by cecal ligature and puncture. We divided the animals in two groups: group A, control, with five animals, and group B, experience, with ten animals that received enteral glutamine two days before sepsis induction. We used histological analysis to rank the injury according to a score dependent on the injury severity and the affected organ. The sum of values assigned to each animal resulted in a final grade. We assessed the villi in the ileum, microgoticular steatosis in the liver, interstitial pneumonitis in the lungs, and vacuolation of the proximal convoluted tubules in the kidneys. Results: cell lysis and destruction of the villi of the ileum were more intense in the control group when compared with animals receiving glutamine. In the kidney, we found more pronounced vacuolization in the proximal convoluted tubules in the control group compared with animals receiving glutamine. Both microgoticular steatosis and interstitial pneumonitis were similar between groups. Conclusion: administration of enteral glutamine prior to sepsis preserved the histological structure.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Sepsis/prevention & control , Glutamine/administration & dosage , Rats, Wistar , Sepsis/drug therapy
20.
J. bras. nefrol ; 39(1): 82-85, Jan.-Mar. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-841189

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Salmonellosis is a relatively rare complication in kidney transplant recipients that cannot be clinically distinguished from other forms of enteritis. Among kidney transplant patients, it varies broadly in intensity, and is highly associated with extra-intestinal disease, bacteremia, and, in this case, a high mortality rate. Case Report: Here we describe a clinical case of ciprofloxacin resistant salmonellosis in a kidney transplant patient. Conclusion: This case illustrates how immunosuppressed patients can be exposed to rare forms of infection, often clinically difficult to identify, and possibly with severe clinical courses and poor outcomes despite evidence-based empiric antibiotic therapy.


Resumo Introdução: A salmonelose é uma complicação relativamente rara em transplantados renais, e não pode ser diferenciada de outras formas de enterite pela apresentação clínica. Em pacientes transplantados renais, a salmonelose varia em gravidade, e é frequentemente associada com formas extra intestinais, bacteremia, e, neste caso, com elevada mortalidade. Relato de Caso: Descrevemos o caso clínico de um paciente transplantado renal com salmonelose Ciprofloxacino-resistente. Conclusão: Este caso ilustra o risco, relacionado à imunossupressão, da ocorrência de formas raras de infecção, por vezes de difícil diagnóstico, e com cursos clínicos potencialmente graves e prognóstico ruim, apesar do emprego de antibioticoterapia empírica adequada e de acordo com as evidências disponíveis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Ciprofloxacin/therapeutic use , Ciprofloxacin/pharmacology , Kidney Transplantation , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Postoperative Complications/microbiology , Postoperative Complications/drug therapy , Salmonella/drug effects , Salmonella Infections/drug therapy , Sepsis/drug therapy
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL