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Gac. méd. Méx ; 156(4): 348-351, Jul.-Aug. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249923


Abstract Introduction: Reports of dermatological manifestations in patients with COVID-19 suggest a possible cutaneous tropism of SARS-CoV-2; however, the capacity of this virus to infect the skin is unknown. Objective: To determine the susceptibility of the skin to SARS-CoV-2 infection based on the expression of viral entry factors ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in this organ. Method: A comprehensive analysis of human tissue gene expression databases was carried out looking for the presence of the ACE2 and TMPRSS2 genes in the skin. mRNA expression of these genes in skin-derived human cell lines was also assessed. Results: The analyses showed high co-expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in the gastrointestinal tract and kidney, but not in the skin. Only the human immortalized keratinocyte HaCaT cell line expressed detectable levels of ACE2, and no cell line originating in the skin expressed TMPRSS2. Conclusions: Our results suggest that cutaneous manifestations in patients with COVID-19 cannot be directly attributed to the virus. It is possible that cutaneous blood vessels endothelial damage, as well as the effect of circulating inflammatory mediators produced in response to the virus, are the cause of skin involvement.

Resumen Introducción: Reportes de manifestaciones dermatológicas en pacientes con COVID-19 sugieren un posible tropismo cutáneo del virus SARS-CoV-2; sin embargo, se desconoce la capacidad de este virus para infectar la piel. Objetivo: Determinar la susceptibilidad de la piel a la infección por SARS-CoV-2 con base en la expresión de los factores de entrada viral ACE2 y TMPRSS2 en dicho órgano. Método: Se buscaron los genes ACE2 y TMPRSS2 en la piel, para lo cual se realizó un análisis extenso de las bases de datos de expresión genética en tejidos humanos. Asimismo, se evaluó la expresión de dichos genes en líneas celulares humanas derivadas de la piel. Resultados: Los análisis mostraron alta expresión conjunta de ACE2 y TMPRSS2 en el tracto gastrointestinal y en los riñones, pero no en la piel. Solo la línea celular de queratinocitos humanos inmortalizados HaCaT expresó niveles detectables de ACE2 y ninguna línea celular de origen cutáneo expresó TMPRSS2. Conclusiones: Los resultados sugieren que las manifestaciones dermatológicas en pacientes con COVID-19 no pueden ser atribuidas directamente al virus; es posible que sean originadas por el daño endotelial a los vasos sanguíneos cutáneos y el efecto de los mediadores inflamatorios circulantes producidos en respuesta al virus.

Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Skin Diseases, Viral/virology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , Skin/virology , Cell Line , Gene Expression Regulation , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Virus Internalization , Viral Tropism/physiology , Pandemics , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19
Gac. méd. Méx ; 156(4): 324-329, Jul.-Aug. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249919


Abstract In the efforts to explain COVID-19 pathophysiology, studies are being carried out on the correspondence between the expression of SARS-CoV-2 cell receptors and viral sequences. ACE2, CD147 and TMPRSS2 receptors expression could indicate poorly explored potential infection targets. For the genomic analysis of SARS-CoV-2 receptors, using BioGPS information was decided, which is a portal that centralizes genetic annotation resources, in combination with that of The Human Protein Atlas, the largest portal of human transcriptome and proteome data. We also reviewed the most recent articles on the subject. RNA and viral receptor proteins expression was observed in numerous anatomical sites, which partially coincides with the information reported in the literature. High expression in testicular cells markedly stood out, and it would be therefore important ruling out whether this anatomical site is a SARS-CoV-2 reservoir; otherwise, germ cell damage, as it is observed in infections with other RNA viruses, should be determined.

Resumen En el afán por explicar la fisiopatogenia de COVID-19 se están realizando estudios en torno a la correspondencia entre la expresión de receptores celulares de SARS-CoV-2 y las secuencias virales. La expresión de los receptores ACE2, CD147 y TMPRSS2 podría indicar blancos de infección poco explorados. Para el análisis genómico de los receptores de SARS-CoV-2 se optó por utilizar la información del BioGPS, un portal que centraliza los recursos de anotación genética, en combinación con la de The Human Protein Atlas, el portal más grande de datos del transcriptoma y proteoma humanos. También se revisaron los artículos más recientemente respecto al tema. En numerosos sitios anatómicos se observó la expresión de ARN y proteínas de los receptores del virus, que coinciden parcialmente con la información reportada en la literatura. Resaltó la alta expresión en las células de los testículos, por lo que sería importante descartar si este sitio anatómico es un reservorio de SARS-CoV-2; de no ser así, determinar el daño en las células germinales, tal como sucede en infecciones por otros virus ARN.

Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Testis/virology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation , Virus Latency , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Basigin/genetics , Pandemics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941989


OBJECTIVE@#To establish the drug-resistant cell lines of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) induced by sorafenib, and to screen out the high expression genes in drug-resistant cell lines of HCC induced by sorafenib, then to explore the genes related to sorafenib resistance in hepatocellular carcinoma.@*METHODS@#The human PLC and Huh7 cell lines were obtained, then the PLC and Huh7 drug-resistant cell lines were induced with sorafenib by using intermittent induction in vitro. CCK8 assay was used to detect the IC50 value of sorafenib for evaluation of drug sensitivity of hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines in PLC and Huh7. All the up regulated genes in PLC and Huh7 drug-resistant cell lines induced by sorafenib were screened out using high-throughput cDNA sequencing (RNA-Seq), Ualcan database was used to analyze the correlations between the up regulated genes in PLC and Huh7 drug-resistant cell lines induced and four clinical biological characteristics of hepatocellular carcinoma, including the gene expressions between normal samples and tumor samples, tumor stage, tumor grade, and patient overall survival, to find the genes that might be involved in the mechanism of sorafenib resistance of hepatocellular carcinoma.@*RESULTS@#All the up regulated genes detected by the using high-throughput cDNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) in PLC and Huh7 drug-resistant cell lines were further screened out by following conditions:(1) genes co-expressed in PLC and Huh7 drug-resistant cells induced by sorafenib, (2) the fold change was more than 4 times and the difference was statistically significant (P <0.05), the top 12 up regulated genes in PLC and Huh7 drug-resistant cell lines were found, which were TPSG1, CBX4, CLC, CLEC18C, LGI4, F2RL1, S100A6, HABP2, C15ORF48, ZG16, FOLH1, and EPCAM. Compared with the correlations between the twelve genes and the clinical biological characteristics by Ualcan database, the potentially significant gene CBX4 was screened out.@*CONCLUSION@#The human PLC and Huh7 drug-resistant cell lines of hepatocellular carcinoma induced by sorafenib were successfully established. CBX4, the gene related to sorafenib resistance in hepatocellular carcinoma, was screened out by the high-throughput cDNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) and further analysis using Ualcan database, which is providing a powerful basis for further research on the mechanism of sorafenib resistance of hepatocellular carcinoma.

Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/drug therapy , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm , Humans , Ligases , Liver Neoplasms/drug therapy , Polycomb-Group Proteins , Serine Endopeptidases , Sorafenib/therapeutic use
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879800


With the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) all over the world, there is an increasing number of children with such infection. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), one of the binding sites for SARS-CoV-2 infection in humans, can bind to viral spike proteins, allowing transmembrane serine protease (TMPRSS2) to activate S-protein to trigger infection and induce the production of various inflammatory factors such as interleukin-1, interferon-l, and tumor necrosis factor. Compared with adults, children tend to have lower expression levels of ACE2 and TMPRSS2, which are presumed to be associated with milder symptoms and fewer cases in children. The article summarizes the research advances in the role of ACE2 during SARS-CoV-2 infection, in order to help understand the pathogenic mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 and provide a reference for better development of drugs and vaccines to prevent and treat coronavirus disease 2019 in children.

Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19 , Child , Humans , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771889


OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the expression level of the serum soluble E cadherin (SE-CAD) and Matriptase and its clinical significance for evaluation of the disease condtions and prognosis in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML).@*METHODS@#One hundred and ten patients diagnosed as AML in our hospital were divided into 3 groups: newly diagnosed group (38 cases), remission group (40 cases) and recurrence group (32 cases). The expression levels of serum matriptase were detected by Western blot, and the expression levels of serum SE-CAD were detected by ELISA. The serum levels of serum SE-CAD and matriptase among 3 groups were compared. Followin-up for one year, according to the outcome of patients, all the patients were divided into 2 groups: the survival group and death group. The serum levels of SE-CAD and Matriptase were compared between 2 groups. The correlation of serum levels of SE-CAD and matriptase with the survival of AML patients was analyzed by multivariate Logistic analysis. The evaluation value of the serum levels of SE-CAD and matriptase for the prognosis of the patients with AML were analyzed by receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC).@*RESULTS@#The serum levels of SE-CAD and matriptase were siginificantly different among 3 groups (P<0.05). The serum levels of SE-CAD and matriptase in remission group were lowest (P<0.05), and the serum levels of SE-CAD and matriptase were not different between newly diagnoses and recurrence groups (P>0.05). Multivariate Logistic analysis showed that the serum levels of SE-CAD and matriptase were independent risk factors for the prognosis of AML patients (OR=3.157, P<0.05, OR=2.426, P<0.05). By follow-up for 1 year, the serum expression levels of SE-CAD and Matriptase in survival group were lower than that in death group. ROC curve showed that when the cut-off value of matriptase level was 0.73 and SE-CAD level was 3.42 ng/ml, the AUC of predictions for the poor prognosis in AML patients was 0.849 (P<0.05), the sensitivity was 85.6% (95%CI: 0.810~0.924) and specificity was 89.6% (95%CI: 0.849~0.941).@*CONCLUSION@#The serum levels of SE-CAD and matriptase can perfectly evaluate the condition and short-term prognosis of the patients with AML.

Cadherins , Humans , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Prognosis , Serine Endopeptidases
Braz. j. biol ; 78(2): 281-288, May-Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888879


Abstract Knowledge of specific enzyme activity, along with animal habits and digestive capacity is essential in formulating an appropriate diet for any species. In this study, we evaluated and characterized the activity of digestive enzymes present in the liver, intestine, and stomach of Paralichthys orbignyanus. The effects of pH and temperature on enzyme activity were also evaluated via the use of specific substrates. The use of specific substrates and inhibitors showed strong evidence of the presence of trypsin (BApNA= 0.51 ± 0.2 mU mg-1), chimotrypsin (SApNA= 2.62 ± 1.8 mU mg-1), and aminopeptidases (Leu-p-Nan =0.9709 ± 0.83 mU mg-1) in the intestine. Optimum pH for the activity of trypsin, chemotrypsin, leucino aminopeptidase, amilase, and pepsin were 9.5, 9.0, 8.0, 7.5, and 3.5, respectively, while optimum temperatures were 50, 50, 50, 40, and 45 °C, respectively. These results provide additional information regarding the biology of Brazilian flounder and can be used as a basis for further studies regarding fish feeding physiology.

Resumo O conhecimento da atividade enzimática é essencial para formular uma correta dieta específica para espécie, além de estarem correlacionadas com o hábito da alimentação e capacidade digestive. Neste estudo determinamos e caracterizamos a atividade enzimática presente no intestino, estômago e fígado do linguado Paralichthys orbignyanus. Os efeitos da temperatura e pH sobre a atividade enzimática também foram avaliados utilizando substratos específicos. O uso de substratos e inibidores específicos mostrou uma forte evidência da presença da tripsina (BApNA = 0,51 ± 0,2 mU mg-1), quimotripsina (SAPNA = 2,62 ± 1,8 mU mg-1), e as aminopeptidases (Leu-p-Nan = 0,97 ± 0,83 mU mg-1) no intestino. O pH ótimo observado para a atividade de tripsina, quimotripsina, leucino aminopeptidase, amilase e pepsina foi 9,5, 9,0, 8,0, 7,5 e 3,5, respectivamente. A temperatura ótima observada foi 50, 50, 50, 40 e 45 °C, respectivamente. Estes resultados fornecem informações adicionais sobre a biologia do linguado brasileiro e pode ser usado como base para novos estudos sobre fisiologia alimentar.

Animals , Flounder/physiology , Fish Proteins/metabolism , Fish Proteins/chemistry , Gastrointestinal Tract/enzymology , Aminopeptidases/metabolism , Aminopeptidases/chemistry , Temperature , Enzyme Stability , Brazil , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Serine Endopeptidases/chemistry , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Liver/enzymology
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 32: 63-68, Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1022642


Background: Although immunosuppressive therapies have made organ transplantation a common medical procedure worldwide, chronic toxicity has a major issue for long-term treatment. One method to improve therapies and methods is the application of immunomodulatory agents from parasites such as Hypoderma lineatum. Hypodermin A (HA) is a serine esterase secreted by the larvae of Hypoderma lineatum, several studies demonstrated its immunosuppressive mechanism in vitro, and recently we discovered that HA inhibits the expression of interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-2 and activates IL-10 expression. Therefore, we hypothesized that it might be a potential agent used to block allograft rejections. However, most studies of the immunosuppressive mechanisms associated with HA were undertaken at the cellular level. In order to augment these studies, we evaluated the immunosuppressive effects of HA in vivo using an HA transgenic mouse model. Result: Our results revealed similar findings to those reported by in vitro studies, specifically that HA induced prostaglandin E2 expression, downregulated IFN-γ and IL-2 expression, and promoted IL-10 secretion via E-type prostanoid receptor 4. Additionally, we observed that HA overexpression inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced TLR4 activation. These findings provide insight into a new potential agent capable of blocking graft rejection. Conclusion: Our founding suggested that HA-related treatment could be a promising option to improve the viability of grafts in human.

Animals , Mice , Serine Endopeptidases/immunology , Diptera/enzymology , Diptera/immunology , Graft Rejection/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Blotting, Western , Cytokines , Immunosuppression Therapy , Interleukins/antagonists & inhibitors , Interferons/antagonists & inhibitors , Interleukin-10/metabolism , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Toll-Like Receptor 4 , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Graft Rejection/enzymology , Graft Rejection/prevention & control
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 559-565, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-772735


Zfyve16 (a.k.a. endofin or endosome-associated FYVE-domain protein), a member of the FYVE-domain protein family, is involved in endosomal trafficking and in TGF-β, BMP, and EGFR signaling. The FYVE protein SARA regulates the TGF-β signaling pathway by recruiting Smad2/3 and accelerating their phosphorylation, thereby altering their susceptibility to TGF-β-mediated T cell suppression. Zfyve16 binds to Smad4 and their binding affects the formation of Smad2/3-Smad4 complex in TGF-β signaling. However, the in vivo function of Zfyve16 remains unknown. In this study, we generated a Zfyve16 knockout mouse strain (Zfyve16) and examined its hematopoietic phenotypes and hematopoietic reconstruction ability. The proportion of Tcells in the peripheral blood of Zfyve16 mice increases compared with that in wild-type mice. This finding is consistent with the role of Zfyve16 in facilitating TGF-β signaling. Unpredictably, B cell proliferation is inhibited in Zfyve16 mice. The proliferation potential of Zfyve16 B-lymphoid cells also significantly decreases in vitro. These results suggest that Zfyve16 inhibits the proliferation of T cells, possibly through the TGF-β signaling, but upregulates the proliferation of B-lymphoid cells.

Animals , B-Lymphocytes , Metabolism , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Metabolism , Cell Movement , Cell Proliferation , Genetics , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins , Genetics , Metabolism , Mice , Mice, Knockout , Serine Endopeptidases , Genetics , Metabolism , Signal Transduction , Smad Proteins, Receptor-Regulated , Metabolism , Transforming Growth Factor beta , Metabolism , Up-Regulation
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-689541


<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the expression and clinical significances of HGFA, Matriptase, HAI-1 and HAI-2 in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The bone marrow samples from 91 AML patients, 41 AML patients in complete remission, and 32 normal controls were collected. Real time fluorescence quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to detect the mRNA expressions levels of HGFA, Matriptase, HAI-1, HAI-2 . The expressions of these genes were compared among AML untreated group, the complete remission group and the healthy control group. The correlation of their expression with clinical characteristics was analyzed.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The level of HGFA in the AML untreated group was higher than that in the healthy control group(P<0.05), while the HAI-2 mRNA level was lower than that in the healthy control group(P<0.05). The mRNA levels of HAI-1 and Matriptase were not changed significantly in all groups. The HAI-2 mRNA expression level was significantly lower in the high white blood cell group (P<0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The abnormal activation of HGF/c-Met signaling system in AML may result from the increase of HGFA expression and the decrease of HAI-2 expression of the upstream regulatory factors.</p>

Hepatocyte Growth Factor , Humans , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Membrane Glycoproteins , Proteinase Inhibitory Proteins, Secretory , Serine Endopeptidases
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2055-2062, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773926


Background@#The pathogenicity of cleft lip (CL) is pretty complicated since it is influenced by the interaction of environment and genetic factors. The purpose of this study was to conduct a genome-wide screening of aberrant methylation loci in partial lesion tissues of patients with nonsyndromic CL (NSCL) and preliminarily validate candidate dysmethylated genes associated with NSCL.@*Methods@#Fifteen healthy and sixteen NSCL fetal lip tissue samples were collected. The Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip was used to screen aberrant methylation loci in three NSCL and three healthy lip tissues. The differential methylation sites and functions of the annotated genes between NSCL and healthy lip tissues were analyzed using minfi package of R software, cluster analysis, Gene Ontology (GO) annotation, and metabolic pathway annotation. Gene expression was assessed in nine differentially methylated genes by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The transcriptions mRNA levels of three out of nine candidate genes were downregulated remarkably in NSCL lip tissues, and these three genes' abnormal methylation loci were validated by pyrosequencing in 16 NSCL cases and 15 healthy cases.@*Results@#In total, 4879 sites in the genes of NSCL odinopoeia fetuses showed aberrant methylation when compared with normal lip tissue genome. Among these, 3661 sites were hypermethylated and 1218 sites were hypomethylated as compared to methylation levels in healthy specimens. These aberrant methylation sites involved 2849 genes and were widely distributed among the chromosomes. Most differentially methylated sites were located in cytosine-phosphoric acid-guanine islands. Based on GO analysis, aberrantly methylated genes were involved in 11 cellular components, 13 molecular functions, and a variety of biological processes. Notably, the transcription of DAB1, REELIN, and FYN was significantly downregulated in lesion tissues of NSCL fetus (P < 0.05). Pyrosequencing results validated that there were two loci in DAB1 with high methylation status in patient tissues (P < 0.05).@*Conclusions@#We detected numerous aberrantly methylated loci in lesion tissues of NSCL fetus. Aberrant gene expression in the REELIN signaling pathway might be related with NSCL. Decreased transcription of DAB1, a member of REELIN signal pathway, resulted from its abnormal high methylation, which might be one of the factors underlying the occurrence of NSCL.

Case-Control Studies , Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuronal , Genetics , Cleft Lip , Genetics , DNA Methylation , Extracellular Matrix Proteins , Genetics , Humans , Methylation , Nerve Tissue Proteins , Genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Serine Endopeptidases , Genetics , Signal Transduction
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 37(supl.2): 135-142, jul.-set. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-888532


Resumen Introducción. Aedes aegypti y Ae. albopictus son reconocidos vectores de arbovirus como los del dengue, la fiebre amarilla, el chikungunya y el Zika, en regiones tropicales y subtropicales del mundo. En Colombia, la distribución geográfica de Ae. albopictus ha sufrido un incremento y hoy incluye ciudades como Cali y Medellín. Hasta ahora, sin embargo, no se ha recabado información concluyente sobre su infección viral y su capacidad de transmisión a los humanos. Objetivo. Determinar la infección natural por dengue en ejemplares de Ae. albopictus recolectados en un área urbana de Medellín. Materiales y métodos. Se recolectaron individuos de Ae. albopictus en el campus de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, sede Medellín. Se confirmó su clasificación taxonómica mediante el análisis del gen citocromo oxidasa I (COI), y se extrajo el ARN total para la identificación del virus del dengue y de los respectivos serotipos. La presencia del genotipo DENV se infirió mediante el análisis del gen NS3. Resultados. El análisis del COI corroboró el estatus taxonómico de Ae. albopictus. Uno de los mosquitos procesados fue positivo para DENV-2 y el análisis del NS3 mostró una gran similitud con el genotipo asiático-americano. Conclusión. Se reporta la infección con DENV-2 en Ae. albopictus en Medellín, Colombia. La presencia del genotipo asiático-americano en una zona urbana sugiere su posible circulación entre humanos y en Ae. albopictus, lo cual alerta sobre su eventual papel en la transmisión del DENV-2, y sobre la necesidad de incluir esta especie en la vigilancia entomológica en Colombia.

Abstract Introduction: Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus are recognized vectors of dengue, yellow fever, chikungunya and Zika arboviruses in several countries worldwide. In Colombia, Ae. albopictus geographical distribution has increased to include highly populated cities such as Cali and Medellín. Although this species has been frequently found in urban and semi-urban zones in the country, its role as vector of the dengue fever is poorly known. Objective: To identify the presence of Ae. albopictus specimens naturally infected with dengue virus collected in Medellín. Materials and methods: Insects were collected in the Universidad Nacional de Colombia campus in Medellín. Individuals were classified as Ae. albopictus and confirmed by DNA barcode region analysis. Mosquitoes were processed for dengue virus identification, and a fragment of the NS3 gen was sequenced and compared with DENV-2 genotypes reported in the literature. Results: Sequence analysis of COI indicated Ae. albopictus individuals were similar to those recently reported in Colombia, and genetically close to those from other regions worldwide. Among the pools tested one was positive for DENV-2, and the NS3 analysis indicated it belonged to the Asian-American clade. Conclusion: We report the presence Ae. albopictus naturally infected with the Asian-American genotype of DENV-2 in Colombia. The presence of Ae. albopictus specimens carrying the most common genotype infecting humans in a highly populated city such as Medellín indicates its potential role as dengue vector in Colombia and highlights the relevance of including it in current vector surveillance strategies.

Animals , Humans , Aedes/virology , Dengue/epidemiology , Dengue Virus/isolation & purification , Mosquito Vectors/virology , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Serotyping , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Cities , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics , Colombia/epidemiology , DNA, Complementary/analysis , Electron Transport Complex IV/genetics , Insect Proteins/genetics , Aedes/genetics , RNA Helicases/genetics , Dengue/transmission , Dengue Virus/classification , Dengue Virus/genetics , Genotype
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 29: 7-12, sept. 2017. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1016095


Background: DegP is a serine protease that specifically cleaves and refolds unfolding proteins in the periplasmic space of the cells. To date, there is no information regarding DegP from halophilic bacteria. Chromohalobacter salexigens BKL5 is a moderately halophilic bacterium that has the ability to grow in a media containing more than 15% salt. Therefore, the objectives of this work were to clone and overexpress DegP-encoding gene from C. salexigens BKL5 and characterize its biochemical properties. Results: DegP-encoding gene was overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) CodonPlus in an active form. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that the molecular weight of the recombinant DegP was 45 kDa. Size-exclusion chromatography analysis suggested that recombinant DegP was present in two multimeric states, hexameric and dodecameric, with molecular weights of 297.9 and 579.12 kDa, respectively. Both conformations were enzymatically active when casein was used as substrate for enzymatic assay. Circular dichroism analysis showed that recombinant DegP was composed of 0.21­0.29 helical content, which was comparable to the helical content in the crystal structure of E. coli DegP. The basic/acidic residue ratio of recombinant DegP was 0.56, which was slightly higher than that of DegP from extreme halophiles (average, 0.45) but significantly lower than that of DegP from nonhalophiles (average, 0.94). Conclusions: Recombinant DegP from C. salexigens BKL5 showed proteolytic activity when ß-casein was used as a substrate. In silico analysis indicated that recombinant DegP had characteristics similar to those of halophilic proteins depending on its amino acid composition.

Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Periplasmic Proteins/genetics , Chromohalobacter/enzymology , Proteolysis , Heat-Shock Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Proteins , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Caseins , Chromatography, Gel , Circular Dichroism , Cloning, Molecular , Periplasmic Proteins/metabolism , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Escherichia coli , Salinity , Chromohalobacter/genetics , Heat-Shock Proteins/metabolism , Molecular Weight
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 37(supl.1): 121-132, abr. 2017. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-888518


Resumen Introducción. El virus del Zika (ZIKV) es un flavivirus con envoltura, transmitido a los seres humanos principalmente por el vector Aedes aegypti. La infección por ZIKV se ha asociado con un gran neurotropismo y con efectos neuropáticos, como el síndrome de Guillain-Barré en el adulto y la microcefalia fetal y posnatal, así como con un síndrome de infección congénita similar al producido por el virus de la rubéola (RV). Objetivo. Comparar las estructuras moleculares de la proteína de envoltura E del virus del Zika (E-ZIKV) y de la E1 del virus de la rubéola (E1-RV), y plantear posibles implicaciones en el neurotropismo y en las alteraciones del sistema nervioso asociadas con el ZIKV. Materiales y métodos. La secuencia de aminoácidos de la proteína E-ZIKV (PDB: 5iZ7) se alineó con la de la glucopreteína E1 del virus de la rubéola (PDB: 4ADG). Los elementos de la estructura secundaria se determinaron usando los programas Vector NTI Advance®, DSSP y POSA, así como herramientas de gestión de datos (AlignX®). Uno de los criterios principales de comparación y alineación fue la asignación de residuos estructuralmente equivalentes, con más de 70 % de identidad. Resultados. La organización estructural de la proteína E-ZIKV (PDB: 5iZ7) fue similar a la de E1-RV (PDB: 4ADG) (70 a 80 % de identidad), y se observó una correspondencia con la estructura definida para las glucoproteínas de fusión de membrana de clase II de los virus con envoltura. E-ZIKV y E1-RV exhibieron elementos estructurales de fusión muy conservados en la región distal del dominio II, asociados con la unión a los receptores celulares de entrada del virus de la rubéola (glucoproteína de mielina del oligodendrocito, Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein, MOG), y con los receptores celulares Axl del ZIKV y de otros flavivirus. Conclusión. La comparación de las proteínas E-ZIKV y E1-RV es un paso necesario hacia la definición de otros factores moleculares determinantes del neurotropismo y la patogenia del ZIKV, el cual puede contribuir a generar estrategias de diagnóstico, prevención y tratamiento de las complicaciones neurológicas inducidas por el ZIKV.

Abstract Introduction: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an enveloped flavivirus transmitted to humans mainly by Aedes aegypti. ZIKV infection has been associated with high neurotropism and neuropathic effects such as the Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults, and fetal and postnatal microcephaly and the congenital Zika virus syndrome similar to that produced by rubella virus (VR). Objective: To compare Zika virus membrane protein E (E-ZIKV) and rubella virus membrane protein E1 (E1-RV), and to propose possible implications for neurotropism and nervous system disorders associated with ZIKV infections. Materials and methods: The amino acid sequence of E-ZIKV protein (PDB: 5iZ7) was aligned to that of rubella virus glycoprotein E1 (PDB: 4ADG). The secondary structure elements were determined using the programs Vector NTI Advance®, DSSP, and POSA, and integrated data management tools (AlignX®). One of the main comparison and alignment criteria was the allocation of structurally equivalent residues with more than 70% identity. Results: E-ZIKV structural organization (PDB: 5iZ7) was similar to that of E1-RV (PDB: 4ADG) (70%-80% identity), and it was consistent with relevant structural features of viral membrane class II fusion glycoproteins. E-ZIKV and E1-RV exhibited highly conserved fusion structural elements at the distal region of domain II, which has been associated with the RV myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein and Axl cell receptors in ZIKV and other flaviviruses. Conclusion: The comparison of E-ZIKV and E1-RV proteins constitutes an essential step towards the definition of ZIKV neurotropism and pathogenesis molecular determinants, and for the adoption of diagnosis, prevention and treatment strategies against neurological complications induced by ZIKV infection.

Humans , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Serine Endopeptidases/chemistry , Viral Envelope Proteins/metabolism , Zika Virus/chemistry , Measles virus/chemistry , Viral Proteins/physiology , Viral Proteins/genetics , Zika Virus/physiology , Zika Virus/pathogenicity , Measles virus/physiology , Measles virus/pathogenicity , Molecular Biology
Ann. hepatol ; 16(1): 77-85, Jan.-Feb. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-838089


Abstract: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. We have previously shown that hepatic reticuloendothelial system (RES) iron deposition is associated with an advanced degree of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in humans. In this study, we aimed to determine differentially expressed genes related to iron overload, inflammation and oxidative stress pathways, with the goal of identifying factors associated with NASH progression. Seventy five patients with NAFLD were evaluated for their biochemical parameters and their liver tissue analyzed for NASH histological characteristics. Gene expression analysis of pathways related to iron homeostasis, inflammation and oxidative stress was performed using real-time PCR. Gene expression was compared between subjects based on disease status and presence of hepatic iron staining. We observed increased gene expression of hepcidin (HAMP) (2.3 fold, p = 0.027), transmembrane serine proteinase 6 (TMPRSS6) (8.4 fold, p = 0.003), signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) (5.5 fold, p = 0.004), proinflammatory cytokines; IL-1β (2.7 fold, p = 0.046) and TNF-α (3.8 fold, p = 0.001) in patients with NASH. TMPRSS6, a negative regulator of HAMP, is overexpressed in patients with NASH and HIF1α (hypoxia inducible factor-1) is downregulated. NAFLD patients with hepatic iron deposition exhibited higher hepcidin expression (3.1 fold, p = 0.04) but lower expression of cytokines. In conclusion, we observed elevated hepatic HAMP expression in patients with NASH and in NAFLD patients who had hepatic iron deposition, while proinflammatory cytokines displayed elevated expression only in patients with NASH, suggesting a regulatory role for hepcidin in NAFL to NASH transition and in mitigating inflammatory responses.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Oxidative Stress/genetics , Iron Overload/genetics , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/genetics , Inflammation/genetics , Iron/analysis , Liver/chemistry , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/genetics , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Iron Overload/diagnosis , Iron Overload/blood , STAT3 Transcription Factor/genetics , Interleukin-1beta/genetics , Interleukin-1beta/blood , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Hepcidins/genetics , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/diagnosis , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/blood , Inflammation/diagnosis , Inflammation/blood , Liver/pathology , Membrane Proteins/genetics
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 37(1): 131-140, ene.-feb. 2017. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-888451


Resumen Introducción: El dengue es una enfermedad causada por uno de los cuatro serotipos del virus del dengue (DENV) y es endémica en, aproximadamente, 130 países. Su incidencia ha aumentado notablemente en las últimas décadas, así como la frecuencia y la magnitud de los brotes. A pesar de los esfuerzos, no existen tratamientos profilácticos ni terapéuticos contra la enfermedad y, en ese contexto, el estudio de los procesos que gobiernan el ciclo de infección del DENV es esencial para desarrollar vacunas o terapias antivirales. Una de las moléculas del DENV más prometedoras es la proteína no estructural 3 (NS3), la cual es indispensable para la replicación viral y es uno de los principales blancos inmunológicos durante la infección. Objetivo: Producir anticuerpos policlonales para contribuir a los futuros estudios sobre las interacciones entre la proteína NS3 y otras proteínas celulares. Materiales y métodos: Se expresaron dos proteínas recombinantes del dominio helicasa de NS3 del DENV de serotipo 2, las cuales se emplearon para inmunizar ratas y producir anticuerpos policlonales. Resultados: Los anticuerpos producidos fueron útiles en ensayos de Western blot e inmunofluorescencia y se reportó por primera vez un anticuerpo policlonal anti-NS3 que permitió la inmunoprecipitación de la proteína viral y la detecta con Western blot sin necesidad de inducir sobreexpresión de NS3 o de usar extractos de células marcados metabólicamente con radioisótopos. Conclusión: Las proteínas recombinantes expresadas y los anticuerpos producidos constituyen herramientas valiosas para estudiar procesos infecciosos del DENV que involucren a la proteína NS3 y evaluar pruebas dirigidas a interferir las funciones de esta proteína.

Abstract Introduction: Dengue is a disease caused by one of four serotypes of the dengue virus (DENV) and is endemic in approximately 130 countries. The incidence of dengue has increased dramatically in recent decades, as well as the frequency and magnitude of outbreaks. Despite all efforts, there are no prophylactic or therapeutic treatments for the disease. Accordingly, research on the processes governing the DENV infection cycle is essential to develop vaccines or antiviral therapies. One of the most attractive DENV molecules to investigate is nonstructural protein 3 (NS3), which is essential for viral replication and a major immune target for infection. Objective: To produce antibodies to support future studies on NS3 and its cellular interactions with other proteins. Materials and methods: Two recombinant proteins of the helicase domain of DENV NS3 serotype 2 were expressed, and used to immunize mice and produce polyclonal antibodies. Results: The antibodies produced were useful in Western blot and immunofluorescence tests. We report an NS3 antibody that immunoprecipitates the viral protein and detects it in Western blot with no need to over-express it or use cell extracts with metabolic radiolabeling.

Animals , Humans , Mice , Virus Replication/physiology , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Dengue/virology , Dengue Virus/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Virus Replication/genetics , Virus Replication/immunology , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Serine Endopeptidases/chemistry , Blotting, Western , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry , RNA Helicases/genetics , RNA Helicases/metabolism , RNA Helicases/chemistry , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral/chemistry
Acta cir. bras ; 31(5): 314-319, May 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-783800


ABSTRACT PURPOSE : To evaluate the effects of platelet rich plasma (PRP) on the healing of fascia wherein peritonitis has been created. METHODS: Twenty eight Wistar Albino rats were divided into four groups. Only a primary fascial repair following laparotomy was performed on Group 1, a primary fascial repair performed and PRP treatment applied following laparotomy on Group 2, and a fecal peritonitis created following laparotomy and a primary fascial repair carried out on Group 3. A fecal peritonitis was created following laparotomy and primary fascial repair and PRP treatment on the fascia was carried out on Group 4. RESULTS: TNF-α was found to be significantly lower in the control group (Group 1). It was detected at the highest level in the group in which fecal peritonitis was created and PRP applied (Group 4). TGF-β was determined as being significantly higher only in Group 4. Histopathologically, the differences between the groups in terms of cell infiltration and collagen deposition were not found to be significant. CONCLUSION: When platelet rich plasma was given histologically and biochemicaly as wound healing parameters cellular infiltration, collagen accumulation, and tissue hydroxyiproline levels were not increased but neovascularization, fibroblast activation and TNF Alfa levels were increased and PRP accelerated wound healing.

Animals , Peritonitis/complications , Wound Healing , Platelet-Rich Plasma , Fascia/physiology , Peritonitis/metabolism , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Random Allocation , Transforming Growth Factor beta/analysis , Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism , Collagen/drug effects , Collagen/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/analysis , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Rats, Wistar , Gelatinases/metabolism , Neovascularization, Physiologic , Models, Animal , Fascia/blood supply , Hydroxyproline/analysis , Hydroxyproline/metabolism , Membrane Proteins/metabolism
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-259438


<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To observe the expression of serine protease HtrA1 in human periodontal ligament tissue and to explore the effect of HtrA1 on the proliferation of human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLC).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Six human premolars and three human third molars(patient's ages ranging from 12 to 25, with intact root, without caries and/or periodontitis) were obtained in the Department of Maxillofacial Surgery of Wuhan University Hospital of Stomatology. Reverse transcription-PCR(RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry analysis were applied to investigate the expression of HtrA1. Primary hPDLC were obtained by tissue-culture method in vitro. The proliferation of hPDLC was determined by methyl thiazolytetrazolium(MTT). Lentivirus-mediated over-expression and reduction of HtrA1 level was performed. An empty vector was used as negative control. On days 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9, the growth of hPDLC was characterized using cell counting kit-8(CCK-8) assay.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>RT-PCR data indicated that HtrA1 mRNA was expressed in human periodontal ligament tissue. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed HtrA1 was expressed in human periodontal ligament, mainly in the cytoplasm of hPDLC and the extracellular matrix. The MTT result suggested that the growth curve was consistent with the growth characteristics of hPDLC. The stable over-expression and knockdown cell lines was successfully established by lentivirus with more than 90% transfection efficiency. CCK-8 assay showed that HtrA1 over-expression inhibited the proliferation of hPDLC(0.897±0.060, 0.890±0.083, 1.631±0.038, 1.111±0.041, 1.110±0.189), while cell proliferation increased after down-regulation of HtrA1(0.329±0.021, 0.529±0.044, 0.973±0.056, 1.626±0.102, 2.344±0.198)(P<0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>HtrA1 is expressed in human periodontal ligament tissue at both mRNA and protein levels, and may play an important role in regulating the proliferation of hPDLC.</p>

Adolescent , Adult , Cell Count , Cell Proliferation , Cells, Cultured , Child , Down-Regulation , Genetic Vectors , High-Temperature Requirement A Serine Peptidase 1 , Humans , Lentivirus , Physiology , Periodontal Ligament , Cell Biology , Metabolism , RNA, Messenger , Metabolism , Serine Endopeptidases , Genetics , Metabolism , Transfection , Young Adult
Biol. Res ; 49: 1-10, 2016. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950843


Schizophrenia is a severe psychiatric disorder that results in a significant disability for the patient. The disorder is characterized by impairment of the adaptive orchestration of actions, a cognitive function that is mainly dependent on the prefrontal cortex. This behavioral deficit, together with cellular and neurophysiological alterations in the prefrontal cortex, as well as reduced density of GABAergic cells and aberrant oscillatory activity, all indicate structural and functional deficits of the prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia. Among the several risk factors for the development of schizophrenia, stress during the prenatal period has been identified as crucial. Thus, it is proposed that prenatal stress induces neurodevelopmental alterations in the prefrontal cortex that are expressed as cognitive impairment observed in schizophrenia. However, the precise mechanisms that link prenatal stress with the impairment of prefrontal cortex function is largely unknown. Reelin is an extracellular matrix protein involved in the development of cortical neural connectivity at embryonic stages, and in synaptic plasticity at postnatal stages. Interestingly, down-regulation of reelin expression has been associated with epigenetic changes in the reelin gene of the prefrontal cortex of schizophrenic patients. We recently showed that, similar to schizophrenic patients, prenatal stress induces down-expression of reelin associated with the methylation of its promoter in the rodent prefrontal cortex. These alterations were paralleled with altered prefrontal cortex functional connectivity and impairment in prefrontal cortex-dependent behavioral tasks. Therefore, considering molecular, cellular, physiological and behavioral evidence, we propose a unifying framework that links prenatal stress and prefrontal malfunction through epigenetic alterations of the reelin gene.

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/physiopathology , Schizophrenia/etiology , Schizophrenia/physiopathology , Stress, Physiological/physiology , Brain/embryology , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuronal/genetics , Extracellular Matrix Proteins/genetics , Epigenesis, Genetic/physiology , Nerve Tissue Proteins/genetics , Social Behavior Disorders/physiopathology , Brain/physiopathology , Gene Expression , Risk Factors , Cognition Disorders/physiopathology , DNA Methylation
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(3): 879-883, July-Sept. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-755800


Studies investigating rickettsial infections in ticks parasitizing wild animals in the Northeast region of Brazil have been confined to the detection of Rickettsia amblyommii in immature stages of Amblyomma longirostre collected from birds in the state of Bahia, and in immatures and females of Amblyomma auriculariumcollected from the striped hog-nosed skunk (Conepatus semistriatus) and armadillos (Euphractus sexcinctus) in the state of Pernambuco. The current study extends the distribution of R. amblyommii (strain Aranha), which was detected in A. longirostre collected from the thin-spined porcupine Chaetomys subspinosus and the hairy dwarf porcupine Coendou insidiosus. In addition, we report the first detection of Rickettsia bellii in adults of A. longirostre collected from C. insidiosus in the state of Bahia.


Animals , Ixodidae/microbiology , Rickettsia Infections/microbiology , Rickettsia/genetics , Rickettsia/isolation & purification , Tick Infestations/microbiology , Animals, Wild , Armadillos , Base Sequence , Birds , Brazil , Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Citrate (si)-Synthase/genetics , DNA, Bacterial , Heat-Shock Proteins/genetics , Mephitidae , Molecular Sequence Data , Molecular Typing , Porcupines , Periplasmic Proteins/genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics