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1.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1287-1297, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878631

ABSTRACT

L-Homoserine is a non-essential amino acid that is often used as an important platform compound and additive in industrial production. To improve the production efficiency, a previously constructed L-homoserine producing strain E. coli H0-0 was used as a chassis for further metabolic modification. Firstly, the ppc and pyccgP458S genes were overexpressed to optimize the Kreb's cycle. Subsequently, thrAC1034T and lysCcgC932T were overexpressed to improve the product synthesis, followed by inactivation of iclR gene to reduce the accumulation of by-products. The introduction of three sucrose metabolism genes, scrA, scrB and scrK, enabled E. coli to ferment sucrose. The titer of L-homoserine increased from 3.2 g/L to 11.1 g/L.


Subject(s)
Escherichia coli/genetics , Homoserine , Metabolic Engineering , Serine
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811061

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Reduction-oxidation reaction homeostasis is vital for regulating inflammatory conditions and its dysregulation may affect the pathogenesis of chronic airway inflammatory diseases such as asthma. Peroxiredoxin-6, an important intracellular anti-oxidant molecule, is reported to be highly expressed in the airways and lungs. The aim of this study was to analyze the expression pattern of peroxiredoxin-6 in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of asthmatic patients and in bronchial epithelial cells (BECs).METHODS: The expression levels and modifications of peroxiredoxin-6 were evaluated in PBMCs from 22 asthmatic patients. Phosphorylated and acetylated peroxiredoxin-6 in hydrogen peroxide-treated human BECs was detected using immunoprecipitation analysis. The expression level of peroxiredoxin-6 was also investigated in BECs treated with hydrogen peroxide. Cycloheximide and proteasome inhibitors were used to determine whether peroxiredoxin-6 is degraded by proteasomes.RESULTS: Peroxiredoxin-6 expression was significantly reduced in the PBMCs of asthmatic patients compared to control subjects. Distinct modification patterns for peroxiredoxin-6 were observed in the PBMCs of asthmatic patients using 2-dimensional-electrophoresis. The levels of phosphorylated serine and acetylated lysine in peroxiredoxin-6 were significantly increased in the BECs following hydrogen peroxide treatment. The level of peroxiredoxin-6 expression was reduced in hydrogen peroxide-stimulated BECs, presumably due to proteasomes.CONCLUSIONS: The expression of peroxiredoxin-6, which is down-regulated in the immune cells of asthmatic patients and BECs, can be modified by oxidative stress. This phenomenon may have an effect on asthmatic airway inflammation.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Cycloheximide , Epithelial Cells , Homeostasis , Humans , Hydrogen , Hydrogen Peroxide , Immunoprecipitation , Inflammation , Lung , Lysine , Oxidative Stress , Proteasome Inhibitors , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , Serine
3.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 26: e20200037, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1135157

ABSTRACT

Proteases play an important role for the proper physiological functions of the most diverse organisms. When unregulated, they are associated with several pathologies. Therefore, proteases have become potential therapeutic targets regarding the search for inhibitors. Snake venoms are complex mixtures of molecules that can feature a variety of functions, including peptidase inhibition. Considering this, the present study reports the purification and characterization of a Kunitz-type peptide present in the Dendroaspis polylepis venom as a simultaneous inhibitor of elastase-1 and cathepsin L. Methods: The low molecular weight pool from D. polylepis venom was fractionated in reverse phase HPLC and all peaks were tested in fluorimetric assays. The selected fraction that presented inhibitory activity over both proteases was submitted to mass spectrometry analysis, and the obtained sequence was determined as a Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitor homolog dendrotoxin I. The molecular docking of the Kunitz peptide on the elastase was carried out in the program Z-DOCK, and the program RosettaDock was used to add hydrogens to the models, which were re-ranked using ZRANK program. Results: The fraction containing the Kunitz molecule presented similar inhibition of both elastase-1 and cathepsin L. This Kunitz-type peptide was characterized as an uncompetitive inhibitor for elastase-1, presenting an inhibition constant (Ki) of 8 μM. The docking analysis led us to synthesize two peptides: PEP1, which was substrate for both elastase-1 and cathepsin L, and PEP2, a 30-mer cyclic peptide, which showed to be a cathepsin L competitive inhibitor, with a Ki of 1.96 µM, and an elastase-1 substrate. Conclusion: This work describes a Kunitz-type peptide toxin presenting inhibitory potential over serine and cysteine proteases, and this could contribute to further understand the envenomation process by D. polylepis. In addition, the PEP2 inhibits the cathepsin L activity with a low inhibition constant.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Peptides , Serine , Snake Venoms , Cysteine Proteases , Elapidae , Peptide Hydrolases/isolation & purification , Mass Spectrometry
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-816633

ABSTRACT

The increased incidence of thyroid cancer is a worldwide phenomenon; however, the issue of overdiagnosis has been most prominent in South Korea. The age-standardized mortality rate of thyroid cancer in Korea steeply increased from 1985 to 2004 (from 0.17 per 100,000 to 0.85 per 100,000), and then decreased until 2015 to 0.42 per 100,000, suggesting that early detection reduced mortality. However, early detection of thyroid cancer may be cost-ineffective, considering its very high prevalence and indolent course. Therefore, risk stratification and tailored management are vitally important, but many prognostic markers can only be evaluated postoperatively. Discovery of preoperative marker(s), especially for small cancers, is the most important unmet clinical need for thyroid cancer. Herein, we discuss some such factors that we recently discovered. Another unmet clinical need is better treatment of radioiodine-refractory (RAIR) differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) and undifferentiated cancers. Although sorafenib and lenvatinib are available, better drugs are needed. We found that phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase, a critical enzyme for serine biosynthesis, could be a novel therapeutic target, and that the lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio is a prognostic marker of survival in patients with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma or RAIR DTC. Deeper insights are needed into tumor-host interactions in thyroid cancer to improve treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Incidence , Korea , Medical Overuse , Mortality , Phosphoglycerate Dehydrogenase , Prevalence , Prognosis , Serine , Thyroid Carcinoma, Anaplastic , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828103

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the protective effect of serine hydroxymethyl transferase 2 (SHMT2) against hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury in mice.@*METHODS@#Sixty C57BL/6 mice were divided equally into sham-operated group, saline adeno-associated virus group (AVV-GFP), and adeno-associated virus silencing group (AAV-SHMT2). The adeno-associated virus and normal saline were injected into the tail vein of the mice 2 weeks before establishment of a 70% ischemia-reperfusion model in the liver. qPCR, Western blotting, immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry were used to detect the changes of AST/ALT concentration, SHMT2, JNK, NF-κB, caspase-3 and downstream inflammatory factors in the mice, and HE staining was used to observe the pathological damage of the liver tissue in each group; the cell apoptosis in the liver was detected using TUNEL assay.@*RESULTS@#The expression of SHMT2 increased with time after hepatic ischemia-reperfusion and reached the highest level at 24 h (the relative expression was 1.5, < 0.05). At 24 h after hepatic ischemia-reperfusion, the levels of AST/ALT in AAV-SHMT2 group (588/416 U/L) were significantly higher than those in the control group (416/345 U/L) and the empty vector group (387/321 U/L) ( < 0.05). Compared with those in the control group and the empty vector group, the level of SHMT2 was significantly decreased in AAV-SHMT2 group (with a relative expression of 0.24, < 0.05), the levels of p-JNK and p-p65 were significantly increased (relative expression of 0.80 and 0.97, respectively, < 0.05), and the levels TNF-α and IL-1β were consistently elevated (relative expression levels of 1.6 and 1.2, respectively, < 0.05). No significant differences were found in these parameters between the empty vector group and the control group (>0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#SHMT2 may alleviate liver cell apoptosis in mice with hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury by inhibiting the activation of JNK pathway and excessive activation of NF-κB pathway to reduce hepatic damage.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Liver , Methyltransferases , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , NF-kappa B , Reperfusion Injury , Serine
6.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 500-508, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762086

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Lung adenocarcinoma (LA) is one of the major types of lung cancer. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an essential role in regulating responses of natural killer (NK) cells to cancer malignancy. However, the mechanism of miR-218-5p involved in the killing effect of NK cells to LA cells remains poorly understood. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The expression of miR-218-5p was examined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Serine hydroxymethyl transferase 1 (SHMT1) level was detected by qRT-PCR or western blots. Cytokines production of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were detected by ELISA. The killing effect of NK cells to LA cells was investigated using lactate dehydrogenase cytotoxicity assay kit. The interaction of miR-218-5p and SHMT1 was probed by luciferase activity assay. Xenograft model was established to investigate the killing effect of NK cells in vivo. RESULTS: miR-218-5p was enhanced and SHMT1 was inhibited in NK cells of LA patients, whereas stimulation of interleukin-2 (IL-2) reversed their abundances. Addition of miR-218-5p reduced IL-2-induced cytokines expression and cytotoxicity in NK-92 against LA cells. Moreover, SHMT1 was negatively regulated by miR-218-5p and attenuated miR-218-5p-mediated effect on cytotoxicity, IFN-γ and TNF-α secretion in IL-2-activated NK cells. In addition, miR-218-5p exhaustion inhibited tumor growth by promoting killing effect of NK cells. CONCLUSION: miR-218-5p suppresses the killing effect of NK cells to LA cells by targeting SHMT1, providing a potential target for LA treatment by ameliorating NK cells function.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma , Blotting, Western , Cytokines , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Heterografts , Homicide , Humans , Interleukin-2 , Killer Cells, Natural , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase , Luciferases , Lung Neoplasms , Lung , MicroRNAs , Necrosis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Serine , Transferases
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764307

ABSTRACT

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary malignant tumor of the liver and the third most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide. HCC is caused by infection of hepatitis B/C virus and liver dysfunctions, such as alcoholic liver disease, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and cirrhosis. Amino acids are organic substances containing amine and carboxylic acid functional groups. There are over 700 kinds of amino acids in nature, but only about 20 of them are used to synthesize proteins in cells. Liver is an important organ for protein synthesis, degradation and detoxification as well as amino acid metabolism. In the liver, there are abundant non-essential amino acids, such as alanine, aspartate, glutamate, glycine, and serine and essential amino acids, such as histidine and threonine. These amino acids are involved in various cellular metabolisms, the synthesis of lipids and nucleotides as well as detoxification reactions. Understanding the role of amino acids in the pathogenesis of liver and the effects of amino acid intake on liver disease can be a promising strategy for the prevention and treatment of liver disease. In this review, we describe the biochemical properties and functions of amino acids and to review how they have been applied to treatment of liver diseases.


Subject(s)
Alanine , Amino Acids , Amino Acids, Essential , Aspartic Acid , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Fibrosis , Glutamic Acid , Glycine , Hepatitis , Histidine , Liver Diseases , Liver Diseases, Alcoholic , Liver , Metabolism , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Nucleotides , Serine , Therapeutic Uses , Threonine
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766105

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Several studies have shown that the oral cavity is a secondary location for Helicobacter pylori colonization and that H. pylori is associated with the severity of periodontitis. This study investigated whether H. pylori had an effect on the periodontium. We established an invasion model of a standard strain of H. pylori in human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (hPDLFs), and evaluated the effects of H. pylori on cell proliferation and cell cycle progression. METHODS: Different concentrations of H. pylori were used to infect hPDLFs, with 6 hours of co-culture. The multiplicity of infection in the low- and high-concentration groups was 10:1 and 100:1, respectively. The Cell Counting Kit-8 method and Ki-67 immunofluorescence were used to detect cell proliferation. Flow cytometry, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and western blots were used to detect cell cycle progression. In the high-concentration group, the invasion of H. pylori was observed by transmission electron microscopy. RESULTS: It was found that H. pylori invaded the fibroblasts, with cytoplasmic localization. Analyses of cell proliferation and flow cytometry showed that H. pylori inhibited the proliferation of periodontal fibroblasts by causing G2 phase arrest. The inhibition of proliferation and G2 phase arrest were more obvious in the high-concentration group. In the low-concentration group, the G2 phase regulatory factors cyclin dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) and cell division cycle 25C (Cdc25C) were upregulated, while cyclin B1 was inhibited. However, in the high-concentration group, cyclin B1 was upregulated and CDK1 was inhibited. Furthermore, the deactivated states of tyrosine phosphorylation of CDK1 (CDK1-Y15) and serine phosphorylation of Cdc25C (Cdc25C-S216) were upregulated after H. pylori infection. CONCLUSIONS: In our model, H. pylori inhibited the proliferation of hPDLFs and exerted an invasive effect, causing G2 phase arrest via the Cdc25C/CDK1/cyclin B1 signaling cascade. Its inhibitory effect on proliferation was stronger in the high-concentration group.


Subject(s)
Blotting, Western , CDC2 Protein Kinase , Cell Count , Cell Cycle , Cell Proliferation , Coculture Techniques , Colon , Cyclin B1 , Cytoplasm , Fibroblasts , Flow Cytometry , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , G2 Phase , Helicobacter pylori , Helicobacter , Humans , Methods , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Mouth , Periodontal Ligament , Periodontitis , Periodontium , Phosphorylation , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Serine , Tyrosine
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785299

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Dysregulation of hepatic glucose production (HGP) contributes to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Telmisartan, an angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker (ARB), has various ancillary effects in addition to common blood pressure-lowering effects. The effects and mechanism of telmisartan on HGP have not been fully elucidated and, therefore, we investigated these phenomena in hyperglycemic HepG2 cells and high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice.METHODS: Glucose production and glucose uptake were measured in HepG2 cells. Expression levels of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose-6-phosphatase α (G6Pase-α), and phosphorylation levels of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) and protein kinase C ζ (PKCζ) were assessed by western blot analysis. Animal studies were performed using HFD-fed mice.RESULTS: Telmisartan dose-dependently increased HGP, and PEPCK expression was minimally increased at a 40 μM concentration without a change in G6Pase-α expression. In contrast, telmisartan increased phosphorylation of IRS-1 at Ser302 (p-IRS-1-Ser302) and decreased p-IRS-1-Tyr632 dose-dependently. Telmisartan dose-dependently increased p-PKCζ-Thr410 which is known to reduce insulin action by inducing IRS-1 serine phosphorylation. Ectopic expression of dominant-negative PKCζ significantly attenuated telmisartan-induced HGP and p-IRS-1-Ser302 and -inhibited p-IRS-1-Tyr632. Among ARBs, including losartan and fimasartan, only telmisartan changed IRS-1 phosphorylation and pretreatment with GW9662, a specific and irreversible peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) antagonist, did not alter this effect. Finally, in the livers from HFD-fed mice, telmisartan increased p-IRS-1-Ser302 and decreased p-IRS-1-Tyr632, which was accompanied by an increase in p-PKCζ-Thr410.CONCLUSION: These results suggest that telmisartan increases HGP by inducing p-PKCζ-Thr410 that increases p-IRS-1-Ser302 and decreases p-IRS-1-Tyr632 in a PPARγ-independent manner.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blotting, Western , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diet, High-Fat , Ectopic Gene Expression , Glucose , Glucose-6-Phosphatase , Hep G2 Cells , Insulin Receptor Substrate Proteins , Insulin , Liver , Losartan , Mice , Peroxisomes , Phosphoenolpyruvate , Phosphorylation , Protein Kinase C , Protein Kinases , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1 , Receptor, Insulin , Serine
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-772059

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#Citron Rho-interacting serine/threonine kinase (CIT) was identified recently as an oncogene involved in the progression of various malignant tumors, but its role in prostate cancer (PCa) remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate the biological functions of CIT in PCa.@*METHODS@#We analyzed the expression of CIT in PCa tissues and its clinical correlations based on the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) dataset. We then examined the effects of RNA interference-mediated CIT silencing on the proliferation, migration and invasion of PC-3 cells using cell counting kit-8, wound healing assay and Transwell assay. We also investigated the effect of CIT silencing on epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and Hippo-Yap signaling pathway in the cells using Western blotting.@*RESULTS@#CIT expression was significantly elevated in PCa tissues from TCGA cohort ( < 0.05). MSKCC dataset analysis showed that an elevated expression of CIT was significantly correlated with N stage (=0.001), distant metastasis ( < 0.001), Gleason score (=0.010) and PSA (=0.004). In cultured PC-3 cells, knockdown of CIT significantly inhibited cell proliferation, migration and invasion, reversed the EMT phenotype and decreased the expression and activity of YAP.@*CONCLUSIONS@#CIT might function as an oncogene in PCa by modulating the Hippo-YAP signaling pathway and serve as a candidate therapeutic target for PCa.


Subject(s)
Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Movement , Cell Proliferation , Humans , Male , Neoplasm Metastasis , Phosphoproteins , Prostatic Neoplasms , Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases , Serine , Signal Transduction
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786673

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Stem cell engineering is appealing consideration for regenerating damaged endothelial cells (ECs) because stem cells can differentiate into EC-like cells. In this study, we demonstrate that tonsil-derived mesenchymal stem cells (TMSCs) can differentiate into EC-like cells under optimal physiochemical microenvironments.METHODS: TMSCs were preconditioned with Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) or EC growth medium (EGM) for 4 days and then replating them on Matrigel to observe the formation of a capillary-like network under light microscope. Microarray, quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting and immunofluorescence analyses were used to evaluate the expression of gene and protein of EC-related markers.RESULTS: Preconditioning TMSCs in EGM for 4 days and then replating them on Matrigel induced the formation of a capillary-like network in 3 h, but TMSCs preconditioned with DMEM did not form such a network. Genome analyses confirmed that EGM preconditioning significantly affected the expression of genes related to angiogenesis, blood vessel morphogenesis and development, and vascular development. Western blot analyses revealed that EGM preconditioning with gelatin coating induced the expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), a mature EC-specific marker, as well as phosphorylated Akt at serine 473, a signaling molecule related to eNOS activation. Gelatin-coating during EGM preconditioning further enhanced the stability of the capillary-like network, and also resulted in the network more closely resembled to those observed in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.CONCLUSION: This study suggests that under specific conditions, i.e., EGM preconditioning with gelatin coating for 4 days followed by Matrigel, TMSCs could be a source of generating endothelial cells for treating vascular dysfunction.


Subject(s)
Blood Vessels , Blotting, Western , Eagles , Endothelial Cells , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Gelatin , Genome , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Morphogenesis , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III , Palatine Tonsil , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Serine , Stem Cells
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788653

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify the susceptibility genes responsible for lumbar spondylosis (LS) in Korean patients.METHODS: Data from 1427 subjects were made available for radiographic grading and genome wide association studies (GWAS) analysis. Lateral lumbar spine radiographs were obtained and the various degrees of degenerative change were semi-quantitatively scored. A pilot GWAS was performed using the AffymetrixGenome-Wide Human single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 500K array. A total of 352228 SNPs were analyzed and the association between the SNPs and case-control status was analyzed by stepwise logistic regression analyses.RESULTS: The top 100 SNPs with a cutoff p-value of less than 3.7×10⁻⁴ were selected for joint space narrowing, while a cutoff p-value of 6.0×10⁻⁴ was applied to osteophytes and the Kellgren-Lawrence (K-L) osteoarthritis grade. The SNPs with the strongest effect on disc space narrowing, osteophytes, and K-L grade were serine incorporator 1 (rs155467, odds ratio [OR]=17.58, p=1.6×10⁻⁴), stromal interaction molecule 2 (STIM1, rs210781, OR=5.53, p=5×10⁻⁴), and transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily C (rs11224760, OR=3.99, p=4.8×10⁻⁴), respectively. Leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor 4 was significantly associated with both disc space narrowing and osteophytes (rs1979400, OR=2.01, p=1.1×10⁻⁴ for disc space narrowing, OR=1.79, p=3×10⁻⁴ for osteophytes), while zinc finger and BTB domain containing 7C was significantly and negatively associated with both osteophytes and a K-L grade >2 (rs12457004,OR=0.25, p=5.8×10⁻⁴ and OR=0.27, p=5.3×10⁻⁴, respectively).CONCLUSION: We identified SNPs that potentially contribute to the pathogenesis of LS. This is the first report of a GWAS in an Asian population.


Subject(s)
Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Case-Control Studies , Genome-Wide Association Study , Humans , Joints , Logistic Models , Odds Ratio , Osteoarthritis , Osteophyte , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Serine , Spine , Spondylosis , Zinc Fingers
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765223

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify the susceptibility genes responsible for lumbar spondylosis (LS) in Korean patients. METHODS: Data from 1427 subjects were made available for radiographic grading and genome wide association studies (GWAS) analysis. Lateral lumbar spine radiographs were obtained and the various degrees of degenerative change were semi-quantitatively scored. A pilot GWAS was performed using the AffymetrixGenome-Wide Human single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 500K array. A total of 352228 SNPs were analyzed and the association between the SNPs and case-control status was analyzed by stepwise logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: The top 100 SNPs with a cutoff p-value of less than 3.7×10⁻⁴ were selected for joint space narrowing, while a cutoff p-value of 6.0×10⁻⁴ was applied to osteophytes and the Kellgren-Lawrence (K-L) osteoarthritis grade. The SNPs with the strongest effect on disc space narrowing, osteophytes, and K-L grade were serine incorporator 1 (rs155467, odds ratio [OR]=17.58, p=1.6×10⁻⁴), stromal interaction molecule 2 (STIM1, rs210781, OR=5.53, p=5×10⁻⁴), and transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily C (rs11224760, OR=3.99, p=4.8×10⁻⁴), respectively. Leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor 4 was significantly associated with both disc space narrowing and osteophytes (rs1979400, OR=2.01, p=1.1×10⁻⁴ for disc space narrowing, OR=1.79, p=3×10⁻⁴ for osteophytes), while zinc finger and BTB domain containing 7C was significantly and negatively associated with both osteophytes and a K-L grade >2 (rs12457004,OR=0.25, p=5.8×10⁻⁴ and OR=0.27, p=5.3×10⁻⁴, respectively). CONCLUSION: We identified SNPs that potentially contribute to the pathogenesis of LS. This is the first report of a GWAS in an Asian population.


Subject(s)
Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Case-Control Studies , Genome-Wide Association Study , Humans , Joints , Logistic Models , Odds Ratio , Osteoarthritis , Osteophyte , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Serine , Spine , Spondylosis , Zinc Fingers
14.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714071

ABSTRACT

10–30% of patients with pancreatitis can be categorized as idiopathic pancreatitis, and some of them may be due to genetic alterations. Since hereditary pancreatitis develops from pediatric patients with symptoms related to pancreatitis, which usually progresses to chronic pancreatitis around 30 years of age, special attention should be paid to the development of pancreatic cancer in such patients. Up to now, there have been more than 30 genetic alterations associated with pancreatitis. Alterations in protease serine 1 (PRSS1), serine protease inhibitor Kazal type 1 (SPINK1), cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and chymotrypsin C (CTRC) are common, which show diversity according to race and region. It is important to understand the characteristics of Korean patients with idiopathic pancreatitis through genetic studies. The purpose of this article is to review the role of genetic variations in the pathophysiology of idiopathic pancreatitis and to survey the results of Korean studies of idiopathic pancreatitis.


Subject(s)
Chymotrypsin , Continental Population Groups , Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator , Genetic Variation , Humans , Pancreatic Neoplasms , Pancreatitis , Pancreatitis, Chronic , Serine , Serine Proteases
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713262

ABSTRACT

Intestinal microbiota is involved in the atherosclerotic process by development of an atheromatous core with foam cells in carotid arteries. It has reported that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Escherichia coli localizes in human atherosclerotic plaque and causes inflammation via interaction with toll like receptor 4. However, there is no evidence that whether LPS-activated macrophages regulate endothelial cell (EC) function. We evaluated whether LPS-activated macrophage acts as one of the stimulants activating EC and its underlying signaling pathways. Using Western blotting and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), we confirmed that intraperitoneal injection with LPS increases iNOS protein and inflammatory cytokine, TNF-α and IL-6 mRNA expressions. To determine whether LPS-mediated macrophage inflammatory condition affects EC activation and inflammation, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were incubated with isolated peritoneal macrophages from LPS-injected mice. Interestingly, p90RSK Serine 380 phosphorylation and protein expression were significantly increased by macrophage treatment in EC. Messenger RNA levels of vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 and p90RSK was increased, but endothelial nitric oxide synthase was decreased. In addition, NF-κB promoter activity, which plays an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammation, was strongly enhanced by the macrophage treatment in EC. We further evaluated the effects of LPS on EC function in the mouse aorta using en face staining. In agreement with in vitro result, p90RSK expression was strongly increased in the steady laminar flow region of the mouse aorta in mice injected with LPS. Together, our study demonstrates that p90RSK might be a one of the major therapeutic candidates for the prevention of vascular diseases mediated by LPS.


Subject(s)
Animals , Aorta , Atherosclerosis , Blotting, Western , Carotid Arteries , Endothelial Cells , Escherichia coli , Foam Cells , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Inflammation , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Interleukin-6 , Macrophage Activation , Macrophages , Macrophages, Peritoneal , Mice , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III , Phosphorylation , Plaque, Atherosclerotic , RNA, Messenger , Serine , Toll-Like Receptor 4 , Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 , Vascular Diseases
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716069

ABSTRACT

Cancer metabolism is considered as one of major cancer hallmarks. It is important to understand cancer-specific metabolic changes and its impact on cancer biology to identify therapeutic potentials. Among cancer-specific metabolic changes, a role of serine metabolism has been discovered in various cancer types. Upregulation of serine synthesis pathway (SSP) supports cell proliferation and metastasis. The change of serine metabolism is, in part, mediated by epigenetic modifiers, such as Euchromatic histone-lysine N-methyltransferase 2 and Lysine Demethylase 4C. On the other hand, SSP also influences epigenetic landscape such as methylation status of nucleic acids and histone proteins via affecting S-adenosyl methionine production. In the review, we highlight recent evidences on interactions between SSP and epigenetic regulation in cancer. It may provide an insight on roles and regulation of SSP in cancer metabolism and the potential of serine metabolism for cancer therapy.


Subject(s)
Biology , Cell Proliferation , Epigenomics , Hand , Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase , Histones , Lysine , Metabolism , Methionine , Methylation , Neoplasm Metastasis , Nucleic Acids , Serine , Up-Regulation
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-813201

ABSTRACT

To investigate the effect of serine/threonine-protein kinase B-Raf (BRAF)-activated long-chain non-coding RNA (lncRNA-BANCR) on apoptosis and autophagy in thyroid carcinoma cells and the underlying mechanisms.
 Methods: RT-PCR was used to detect the expression of lncRNA-BANCR in thyroid carcinoma and normal thyroid tissues. The association between lncRNA-BANCR and clinicopathological data was analyzed in patients with thyroid cancer. Cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) was used to detect the effect of lncRNA-BANCR on the proliferation of thyroid cancer cells. The effect of lncRNA-BANCR on the apoptosis of thyroid carcinoma cells was detected by flow cytometry. Transwell invasion assay was used to detect the effect of lncRNA-BANCR on the invasive ability of thyroid cancer cells. Western blot was used to detect the changes of autophagy proteins LC3-I and LC3-II after the lncRNA-BANCR expression was suppressed.
 Results: Compared with normal thyroid tissues, the expression level of lncRNA-BANCR in thyroid carcinoma tissues was elevated (P<0.05). The expression of lncRNA-BANCR was positively related to the pathological stage of thyroid carcinoma and the lymph node metastasis. Inhibition of lncRNA-BANCR expression attenuated the proliferation and invasion ability of thyroid cancer cells (both P<0.05); but the apoptosis was enhanced (P<0.05); the expression levels of autophagy protein LC3-I and LC3-II were also increased (P<0.05).
 Conclusion: The expression level of lncRNA-BANCR affects the proliferation, invasion and apoptosis of thyroid cancer cells through modulation of autophagy behavior.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Autophagy , Cell Proliferation , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Humans , Neoplasm Invasiveness , Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf , Metabolism , RNA, Long Noncoding , Metabolism , Serine , Metabolism , Threonine , Metabolism , Thyroid Gland , Cell Biology , Metabolism , Thyroid Neoplasms , Metabolism , Pathology
18.
Immune Network ; : e18-2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715082

ABSTRACT

Mast cells integrate innate and adaptive immunity and are implicated in pathophysiological conditions, including allergy, asthma, and anaphylaxis. Cross-linking of the high-affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI) initiates diverse signal transduction pathways and induces release of proinflammatory mediators by mast cells. In this study, we demonstrated that hyperactivation of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling using the mTOR activator MHY1485 suppresses FcεRI-mediated mast cell degranulation and cytokine secretion. MHY1485 treatment increased ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K) and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) phosphorylation, which are downstream targets of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1), but decreased phosphorylation of Akt on mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2) target site serine 473. In addition, this activator decreased β-hexosaminidase, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) release in murine bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) after FcεRI stimulation. Furthermore, MHY1485-treated BMMCs showed significantly decreased proliferation when cultured with IL-3. These findings suggested hyperactivation of mTORC1 as a therapeutic strategy for mast cell-related diseases.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity , Anaphylaxis , Asthma , Cell Degranulation , Cell Proliferation , Hypersensitivity , Immunoglobulin E , Interleukin-3 , Interleukin-6 , Mast Cells , Peptide Initiation Factors , Phosphorylation , Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases , Serine , Signal Transduction , Sirolimus , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
19.
Rev. bras. neurol ; 53(4): 27-37, out.-dez. 2017.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-876891

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A Esclerose Lateral Amiotrófica (ELA) é definida como uma doença neurológica progressiva e inexorável, com cerca de 80% dos casos de etiologia desconhecida. Novos medicamentos têm emergido no tratamento de doenças neurodegenerativas, inclusive na ELA, redesenhando o modelo fisiopatológico. Dentre eles, destacam-se o uso da: Edaravone, Vitamina K2, Serina, Metilcobalamina, Pirroloquinolina quinona (PQQ), Ubiquinol e Glutationa. Especificamente na ELA, alguns já foram validados em estudos randomizados-controlados. Metodologia: Atualização da literatura (PUBMED, Medline) sobre a utilização desses fármacos em doenças neurológicas degenerativas, com enfoque para a Doença do Neurônio Motor (DNM-ELA), nos idiomas Português, Inglês, Espanhol e Francês, compreendidos entre os anos de (2010-2017). Discussão: A associação desses medicamentos tem mostrado resultados positivos em inúmeras doenças neurológicas. Alguns, como, por exemplo, a Metilcobalamina e o Edaravone,exerceriam mecanismos de ação capazes de interferir no processo de depleção dos neurônios motores da ponta anterior e do feixe piramidal em pacientes com ELA. Conclusão: Seria precipitado concluir que o uso associado desses fármacos poderia modificar ou mesmo restaurar os danos às unidades motoras; entretanto, faz-se necessário destacar seus mecanismos de ação e potencial capacidade de intervir na evolução da doença, principalmente, a partir de estudos em modelos fisiopatológico que culminam na degeneração dos neurônios motores.(AU)


Introduction: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is defined as a progressive and inexorable neurological disease, with about 80% of cases of unknown etiology. New drugs have emerged in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, including ALS, redesigning the pathophysiological model. Among them, the use of: Edaravone, Vitamin K2, Serine, Methylcobalamin, Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ), Ubiquinol and Glutathione are noteworthy. Specifically in ALS, some have been validated in randomized controlled trials. Methodology: Update of the literature (PUBMED, Medline) on the use of these drugs in degenerative neurological diseases, with a focus on Motor Neuron Disease (DNM-ELA) in the Portuguese, English, Spanish and French languages, of (2010-2017). Discussion: The association of these drugs has shown positive results in neurological diseases. Some, such as Methylcobalamin and Edaravone, would exert mechanisms of action capable of interfering in the process of depletion of the motor neurons of the anterior horn and pyramidal tracts in patients with ALS. Conclusion: It would be precipitate to conclude that the associated use of these drugs could modify or even restore damage to motor units; however, it is necessary to highlight its mechanisms of action and potential ability to intervene in the evolution of the disease, mainly from studies in pathophysiological models that culminate in the degeneration of motor neurons (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/physiopathology , Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/drug therapy , Motor Neurons/pathology , Serine/therapeutic use , Vitamin K/therapeutic use , Review Literature as Topic , Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage , Neuroprotective Agents/therapeutic use
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-25933

ABSTRACT

In several human tumors, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and nuclear factor κB (NFκB) are activated and interact; how these STAT3–NFκB complexes are transported to the nucleus is not fully understood. In this study, we found that Rac1 was activated in starved cancer cells and that activated Rac1 coexisted with STAT3 and NFκB. Rac1 knockdown and overexpression of the dominant-negative mutant Rac1N19 inhibited the degradation of IκBα, an inhibitor of NFκB. MG132, an inhibitor of the ubiquitin proteasome pathway, increased the amount of non-phosphorylated IκBα, but not serine-phosphorylated IκBα, indicating that IκBα degradation by Rac1 in starved cancer cells is independent of IκBα serine phosphorylation by IKK. Rac1 knockdown also inhibited the nuclear translocation of STAT3–NFκB complexes, indicating that this translocation requires activated Rac1. We also demonstrated that the mutant STAT3 Y705F could form complexes with NFκB, and these unphosphorylated STAT3–NFκB complexes translocated into the nucleus and upregulated the activity of NFκB in starved cancer cells, suggesting that phosphorylation of STAT3 is not essential for its translocation. To our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating the crucial role of Rac1 in the function of STAT3–NFκB complexes in starved cancer cells and implies that targeting Rac1 may have future therapeutic significance in cancer therapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Phosphorylation , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex , Serine , STAT3 Transcription Factor , Ubiquitin
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