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1.
Univ. salud ; 23(3): 301-308, sep.-dic. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1341777

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: El virus SARS-CoV-2 y su enfermedad COVID-19, afecta con mayor severidad a personas adultas mayores, sobre todo aquellas con multimorbilidad y fragilidad; esto debido a mecanismos fisiológicos como la inmunosenescencia o un pobre control de la actividad inflamatoria en esta población. Los estudios sobre el diagnóstico y tratamiento en estos pacientes son escasos y muchos de ellos tienen niveles de evidencia bajos. Objetivo: Describir las características clínicas y paraclínicas de una adulta mayor centenaria institucionalizada, frágil, con multimorbilidad quien sobrevive a la infección y desarrolla inmunidad en una unidad geriátrica de agudos. Presentación del caso: Centenaria institucionalizada con multimorbilidad y fragilidad con criterios de severidad de la enfermedad, quien fue manejada tempranamente y recuperada, llegando a desarrollar inmunidad. Conclusiones: El diagnóstico temprano, un manejo precoz y el abordaje geriátrico integral e interdisciplinar son indispensables para un desenlace favorable en pacientes adultos mayores con alto riesgo de progresión de enfermedad con COVID-19.


Abstract Introduction: SARS-CoV-2 virus, and the disease it causes (COVID-19), severely affects older adults (OA), especially those with multimorbidity and frailty. This is due to physiological mechanisms such as immunosenescence or poor control of inflammatory activity in this population. Studies of the diagnoses and treatments in these patients are scarce and many of them have low levels of evidence. Objective: To describe the clinical and paraclinical characteristics of a frail institutionalized centenarian female patient with multimorbidity who survived COVID-19 infection, developed immunity, and was treated in an acute geriatric unit. Case presentation: Institutionalized centenarian patient with multimorbidity and frailty who fulfilled the criteria for severe COVID-19 disease, was managed early, recovered, and eventually developed immunity. Conclusion: early diagnosis, early management and a comprehensive and interdisciplinary geriatric approach are essential for a favorable outcome in OA patients at high risk of COVID-19 disease progression.


Subject(s)
Aged , COVID-19 , Therapeutics , Mortality , Seroconversion
2.
Infectio ; 25(3): 145-152, jul.-set. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1250084

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: To determine the prevalence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 and the incidence of seroconversion in the first month of follow-up among interns, residents, and medical doctors attending patients at a University Hospital in Bogota (Colombia). Design or methods: A cross-sectional and a prospective study were performed during June, July, and August 2020 to assess seroprevalence and seroconversion rates using CLIA IgG for SARS-CoV-2. LFA IgG and IgM and ELFA IgM were also determined to explore concordance with CLIA IgG. Results: At baseline, 8 (2.28% 95%CI 1.16-4.43%) participants were IgG positive for SARS-CoV-2 by CLIA. At the end of the study, 21 (5.98% 95%CI 3.94-8.97%) individuals seroconverted by CLIA IgG. In all, 29 individuals had IgG by CLIA and of these 11 (3.13% 95%CI 1.76-5.52%) were asymptomatic. No associations with risk factors for infection were identified. CLIA IgG had moderate concordance (>962 samples) with LFA IgG and ELFA IgM, but minimal with LFA IgM. Conclusions: Our report is the first in Latina America on seroprevalence and seroconversion rates in medical healthcare workers. The relatively high rate (>3%) of asymptomatic health care workers with evidence of previous SARS-CoV-2 infection underscores the need to screen this population for infection to prevent infection/disease spread.


Resumen Objetivos: Determinar la prevalencia de anticuerpos frente al SARS-CoV-2 y la incidencia de seroconversión en el primer mes de seguimiento en internos, residentes y médicos que atienden pacientes en un Hospital Universitario de Bogotá (Colombia). Diseño y métodos: Se realizó un estudio transversal y prospectivo durante junio, julio y agosto de 2020 para evaluar las tasas de seroprevalencia y seroconversión utilizando CLIA IgG para SARS-CoV-2. También se determinaron LFA IgG e IgM y ELFA IgM para explorar la concordancia con CLIA IgG. Resultados: Al inicio del estudio, 8 (2,28% IC del 95% 1,16-4,43%) participantes fueron IgG positivos para SARS-CoV-2 por CLIA. Al final del estudio, 21 (5,98% IC 95% 3,94-8,97%) individuos seroconvirtieron por CLIA IgG. En total, 29 individuos tenían IgG por CLIA y de estos 11 (3,13% 95% IC 1,76-5,52%) eran asintomáticos. No se identificaron asociaciones con factores de riesgo de infección. El CLIA IgG tuvo una concordancia moderada (> 962 muestras) con LFA IgG y ELFA IgM, pero mínima con el LFA IgM. Conclusiones: Nuestro informe es el primero en América Latina sobre tasas de seroprevalencia y seroconversión en trabajadores médicos de la salud. La tasa relativamente alta (> 3%) de trabajadores de la salud asintomáticos con evidencia de infección previa por SARS-CoV-2 resalta la necesidad de realizar pruebas de detección de infección en esta población para prevenir la propagación de la infección.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Health Personnel , Seroconversion , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Colombia , Delivery of Health Care , COVID-19 , Occupational Groups
3.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 73(2): e551, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1347496

ABSTRACT

El dengue es la infección trasmitida por vectores con mayor impacto en carga de enfermedad, económica y social a nivel mundial, con más de 3,6 billones de personas en riesgo de infección. Sus manifestaciones son variables, caracterizadas en su mayoría por síndrome febril con riesgo de sangrado, choque y muerte. El compromiso pulmonar es infrecuente, siendo el síndrome de dificultad respiratoria aguda una complicación inesperada, aunque informada, asociada a un mal pronóstico. Se presenta un paciente sin antecedentes relevantes de importancia, con focalización pulmonar severa asociado a infección por el virus dengue. En el caso presentado se descartaron procesos infecciosos bacterianos u otros agentes causales de síndrome de dificultad respiratoria aguda, lo que sumado a las características clínicas de ingreso, zona de ocurrencia del caso considerada como endémica, curso clínico, paraclínico y la franca positividad de las pruebas para dengue así como la seroconversión de estas, a pesar de no haber sido realizadas pruebas moleculares, se consideró como el agente causal más probable el virus dengue. Todo esto lleva a recomendar siempre considerarlo como potencial agente causal, lo que permite así un diagnóstico y manejo óptimos(AU)


Dengue is the vector-borne infection with the greatest impact on disease, economic and social burden worldwide, with more than 3.6 billion people under risk of contagion. Its manifestations are varied, most of them characterized by febrile syndrome with a risk of bleeding, shock and death. Pulmonary involvement is infrequent, and acute respiratory distress syndrome is an unexpected complication, though it has been reported in association to a bad prognosis. A case is presented of a male patient without relevant antecedents of interest, with severe pulmonary focalization associated to dengue virus infection. Bacterial infectious processes and other causative agents of acute respiratory distress syndrome were ruled out. In view of the patient's clinical status at admission, the endemicity of the patient's area of residence, the clinical and paraclinical course, and the obvious positivity of the dengue tests performed and their seroconversion, despite not having conducted molecular tests, it was concluded that the most probable causative agent was dengue virus. Therefore, it is recommended that dengue infection always be considered as a potential causative agent of acute respiratory distress syndrome, thus contributing to optimal diagnosis and management(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn , Endemic Diseases , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Dengue Virus , Prognosis , Cost of Illness , Seroconversion
4.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 57(1): 69-73, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098064

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) vaccinated for hepatitis B have a low success rate in achieving protective antibody levels. The main factors suggested for this are IBD itself and the use of immunosuppressive drugs. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the concentration of anti-HBs antibodies and to verify factors associated with the effectiveness of hepatitis B vaccination in patients with IBD. METHODS: This is a prospective, consecutive, observational, descriptive and analytical, non-randomized, qualitative study that evaluated the levels of anti-HBs antibodies in IBD patients at the Interdisciplinary Inflammatory Bowel Disease Clinic of the Family and Community Health Unit of UNIVALI - Itajaí, Santa Catarina. RESULTS: Thirty-six patients were vaccinated against hepatitis B virus (HBV), of which 29 were female. The average age was 46.2 years. Regarding the type of IBD, twenty-four patients had Crohn's disease and the duration of inflammatory bowel disease was 74 months. Fifteen patients were on concomitant immunosuppressive therapy. The effective response rate to HBV vaccine was 72.2%, verified by anti-HBs titration ≥10 UI/L. Statistical analysis revealed a negative response to vaccination in patients with Crohn's disease and immunosuppressive drugs. CONCLUSION: The success rate of HBV immunization in IBD patients is low compared to the general population. Type of disease and use of immunosuppressive drugs appear to influence the vaccine response.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: Os pacientes com doenças inflamatórias intestinais (DII) vacinados para hepatite B possuem baixa taxa de sucesso em alcançar níveis protetores de anticorpos. Os principais fatores sugeridos para isso são a própria DII e o uso de medicamentos imunossupressores. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a titulação de anticorpos anti-HBs e verificar fatores associados a efetividade da vacinação contra hepatite B em pacientes com DII. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um estudo prospectivo e consecutivo, de caráter observacional, descritivo e analítico, não-randomizado, qualiquantitativo, que avaliou a titulação de anticorpos anti-HBs em pacientes portadores de DII no Ambulatório Interdisciplinar de Doença Inflamatória Intestinal da Unidade de Saúde da Família e Comunitária da UNIVALI - Itajaí, Santa Catarina. RESULTADOS: Trinta e seis pacientes foram vacinados contra o vírus da hepatite B (VHB), destes, 29 eram do sexo feminino. A média de idade foi de 46,2 anos. Em relação ao tipo de DII, 24 pacientes eram portadores de doença de Crohn e o tempo médio de doença inflamatória intestinal encontrado foi de 74 meses. Quinze pacientes estavam em uso de terapia imunossupressora concomitante à vacinação. A taxa de resposta à vacina contra o VHB foi de 72,2%, verificada através de titulação de anti-HBs ≥10 UI/L. A análise estatística revelou uma resposta negativa à vacinação em pacientes em uso de medicamentos imunossupressores e portadores de doença de Crohn. CONCLUSÃO: A taxa de sucesso na imunização contra o VHB em pacientes com DII é baixo quando comparado à população em geral. Tipo de doença e uso de medicamentos imunossupressores parecem desempenhar influência na resposta vacinal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Colitis, Ulcerative/immunology , Crohn Disease/immunology , Hepatitis B virus/immunology , Hepatitis B Vaccines/immunology , Hepatitis B/diagnosis , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Hepatitis B Antibodies/blood , Colitis, Ulcerative/drug therapy , Crohn Disease/drug therapy , Prospective Studies , Hepatitis B Vaccines/administration & dosage , Qualitative Research , Seroconversion , Hepatitis B/immunology , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens/immunology , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Middle Aged
5.
Bull. méd. Owendo (En ligne) ; 18(48): 34-37, 2020. tab
Article in French | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1260158

ABSTRACT

Introduction : Le Gabon connait une prolifération des centres d'hémodialyse. Nous voulions déterminer le taux d'incidence de l'hépatite C chez les hémodialysés chroniques à Libreville.Patients et méthode : Il s'agit d'une étude transversale, observationnelle et descriptive réalisée dans 4 centres d'hémodialyse de Libreville entre le 1er Février 2008 et le 31 Décembre 2017. Les patients hémodialysés depuis au moins 12 mois, ayant un statut sérologique connu pour l'hépatite C, l'hépatite B et le VIH avant et pendant le suivi en hémodialyse ont été inclus. Les données démographiques, sérologiques, la durée en hémodialyse, le nombre de transfusion ont étécolligés. L'analyse statistique a été faite grâce au logiciel SPSS 21. Résultats : Parmi les 287 patients inclus, il y avait 181 hommes (63,1%). L'âge moyen était de 49,8±14,1 ans. La séroprévalence de l'hépatite C avant l'entrée en hémodialyse était de 2,1% (n=6). En cours d'hémodialyse, 39 nouveaux cas d'hépatite C sont apparus (taux d'incidence 15,1 personnes-années). Les taux d'incidence respectifs de l'hépatite B et du VIH étaient de 1,5 et 3,9 cas pour 1000 personnes-années. La durée en hémodialyse (p=0,001)et la transfusion sanguine (p=0,008) étaient statistiquement associées à la séroconversion positive de l'hépatite C.Conclusion : La transmission de l'hépatite C en hémodialyse chronique est élevée à Libreville. La longue durée en hémodialyse et le recours à la transfusion semblent corrélés à ce risque accru


Subject(s)
Gabon , Seroconversion
6.
Journal of Liver Cancer ; : 165-170, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765711

ABSTRACT

Although post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) after liver transplantation is very rare, its prognosis is worse than that of PTLD following other types of solid organ transplantation. Here, we report a rare case of early onset polymorphic PTLD in a graft liver occurring five months after deceased-donor liver transplantation due to hepatocellular carcinoma and hepatitis C virus infection. Initially, findings from contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging mistakenly suspected the lesion was a necrotizing abscess with central necrosis. However, ¹⁸F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and biopsy findings confirmed an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated, B cell type polymorphic PTLD with central necrosis. Our case suggests regular monitoring of EBV serologic status for liver transplant recipients who were initially in an EBV seronegative state. Although early-onset PTLD is very rare after liver transplantation, PTLD should be suspected when recipients show the seroconversion for EBV proteins and the development of new tumors with various clinical presentations.


Subject(s)
Abscess , Biopsy , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Hepacivirus , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Liver Transplantation , Liver , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Necrosis , Organ Transplantation , Positron-Emission Tomography , Prognosis , Seroconversion , Transplant Recipients , Transplants
7.
Intestinal Research ; : 237-243, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764135

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The onset of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) usually occurs at young age, and therefore, women IBD patients experience pregnancy during their disease progression. Recently, the use of anti-tumor necrosis factor-α (anti-TNF-α) has been rapidly increasing. The aim of this study was to evaluate pregnancy related outcomes in women with IBD who were treated with anti-TNF-α during pregnancy and immunity of their children. METHODS: Korean women with IBD who had been treated with anti-TNF-α during pregnancy had been enrolled. Medical records were reviewed and a survey was performed for each patient. For the patients who agreed on additional examination for their children, children's growth, medical history and antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) titer were checked. RESULTS: All 18 patients had been diagnosed with Crohn's disease. There was not any case of preterm delivery, low birth-weight infant, congenital anomaly, nor stillbirth. All 12 children had followed the regular vaccination schedule for hepatitis B and 4 of them showed negative results for anti-HBs. After the 1 booster vaccination, all children demonstrated seroconversion. Regarding live vaccines, 4 children had bacillus Calmette-Guerin and 4 had rotavirus vaccine before 6 months, without any specific side effects. CONCLUSIONS: This was the first study of immunity of the children born from IBD women who had been treated with anti-TNF-α medication during their pregnancy. IBD women had comparable pregnancy outcomes with the general women population, suggesting that the disease activity rather than the administered medication would be more important in healthy pregnancy. Considering the history of vaccination and anti-HBs titers, immunity seems to be intact in the children.


Subject(s)
Appointments and Schedules , Bacillus , Child , Crohn Disease , Disease Progression , Female , Hepatitis B , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Humans , Infant , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Medical Records , Necrosis , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome , Rotavirus , Seroconversion , Stillbirth , Vaccination , Vaccines
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786531

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study was conducted to compare immunogenicities and reactogenicities of the trivalent inactivated subunit influenza vaccine and split influenza vaccine in Korean children and adolescents.METHODS: In total, 202 healthy children aged 36 months to <18 years were enrolled at six hospitals in Korea from October to December 2008. The subjects were vaccinated with either the split or subunit influenza vaccine. The hemagglutinin inhibition antibody titers against the H1N1, H3N2, and B virus strains were measured, and the seroconversion rates, seroprotection rates, and geometric mean titers were calculated. All subjects were observed for local and systemic reactions.RESULTS: Both the split and subunit vaccine groups had similar seroprotection rates against all strains (95.9%, 94.9%, 96.9% vs. 96.0%, 90.9%, and 87.9%). In children aged 36 to <72 months, the seroprotection rates were similar between the two vaccine groups. In children aged 72 months to <18 years, both vaccines showed high seroprotection rates against the H1N1, H3N2, and B strain (98.4%, 98.4%, 98.4% vs. 97.0%, 95.5%, and 91.0%), but showed relatively low seroconversion rates (39.1%, 73.4%, 35.9% vs. 34.3%, 55.2%, and 38.8%). There were more local and systemic reactions in the split vaccine group than in the subunit vaccine group; however, no serious adverse reactions were observed in both groups.CONCLUSIONS: Both the split and subunit vaccines showed acceptable immunogenicity in all age groups. There were no serious adverse events with both vaccines.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Hemagglutinins , Herpesvirus 1, Cercopithecine , Humans , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Korea , Seasons , Seroconversion , Vaccines , Vaccines, Subunit
9.
Laboratory Medicine Online ; : 210-217, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760516

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Discrepancies in the results between hepatitis B e-antigen (HBeAg) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA levels pose difficulties in the management of chronic hepatitis B (CHB). This study aims to better understand the different phases of CHB and to detect additional meaningful parameters for CHB patients. METHODS: We collected datasets of HBeAg and HBV DNA levels measured during 2016 and the follow-up results for CHB patients for past 3 years. We analyzed the collected data by applying the definitions of CHB clinical phase and compared the results of semi-quantitative and quantitative HBeAg assays. RESULTS: About 55% of 2,291 result pairs from CHB patients showed qualitative agreement between HBeAg and HBV DNA results. HBeAg (−) CHB was reported in 16.49%, while hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) loss occurred in 0.18% among 1,146 patients annually. HBeAg reversion occurred in 2.74% of 839 patients that experienced HBeAg seroconversion. Patients with HBeAg (+) and HBV DNA (−) showed statistically significant differences in the levels and percentage abnormality of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) based on whether HBV DNA was ‘Target not detected’ or ‘Detected,

Subject(s)
Alanine Transaminase , Dataset , DNA , DNA, Viral , Follow-Up Studies , Hepatitis B , Hepatitis B e Antigens , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B virus , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Hepatitis, Chronic , Humans , Seroconversion
10.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 76(9): 588-591, Sept. 2018.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973952

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Treatment options for multiple sclerosis (MS) have changed over the last few years, bringing about a new category of drugs with more efficient profiles. However, these drugs have come with a whole new profile of potential adverse events that neurologists have to learn well and quickly. One of the most feared complications of these MS treatments is progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy caused by the reactivation of the John Cunningham virus (JCV). Objective: To identify the serologic profile of JCV in patients with MS. Methods: Data on serum antibodies for JCV were obtained using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay provided by the STRATIFY-JCV program. Results: A total of 1,501 blood tests were obtained from 1,102 patients with MS. There were 633 patients (57.1%) who were positive for antibodies for JCV and 469 patients who were negative (42.9%). Twenty-three patients became positive after initially having negative JCV antibody status. The rate of seroconversion was 18.5% over 22 months. Conclusion: The JCV serologic profile and seroconversion in Brazilian patients were similar to those described in other countries.


RESUMO As opções terapêuticas para esclerose múltipla (EM) modificaram-se ao longo dos últimos anos, trazendo uma nova categoria de drogas com melhor perfil de eficácia. No entanto, estas drogas vieram com um novo perfil de potenciais eventos adversos que exigem que o neurologista os reconheça bem e rapidamente. Uma das complicações mais temidas destes tratamentos para a EM é a leucoencefalopatia multifocal progressiva (LEMP), causada pela reativação do vírus John Cunningham (JCV). Objetivo: Identificar o perfil sorológico de JCV em pacientes com EM. Métodos: Dados sorológicos de JCV foram obtidos através do ensaio por enzimas imuno-adsorvidas (ELISA) fornecido pelo programa STRATIFY-JCV. Resultados: Um total de 1.501 testes sanguíneos foram obtidos de 1.102 pacientes com EM. O grupo teve 633 pacientes (57,1%) soropositivos para anticorpos anti-JCV e 469 pacientes negativos (42,9%). Vinte e três pacientes se tornaram posivitos após resultados iniciais negativos para anticorpos anti-JCV. A taxa de soroconversão foi 18,5% em 22 meses. Conclusão: O perfil sorológico do JCV e a soroconversão nos pacientes brasileiros foi semelhante àquela descrita em outros países.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Leukoencephalopathy, Progressive Multifocal/immunology , JC Virus/immunology , Polyomavirus Infections/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Multiple Sclerosis/virology , Brazil/epidemiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Sex Factors , Prevalence , Leukoencephalopathy, Progressive Multifocal/blood , Polyomavirus Infections/epidemiology , Natalizumab/adverse effects , Seroconversion , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , Multiple Sclerosis/blood
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764908

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to compare the long-term efficacy of entecavir (ETV) and lamivudine (LAM) therapy in children with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) who had not received nucleoside analogue treatment. METHODS: In this multicenter, retrospective study, we included pediatric CHB patients younger than 20 years who received ETV or LAM treatment for at least 12 months and had no concomitant diseases. All of the patients were followed up every 1 to 3 months. At each visit, the patients underwent clinical evaluation and biochemical testing. RESULTS: Eight (53.3%), 14 (93.3%), and 2 (15.4%) of the ETV-treated patients achieved virologic suppression, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) normalization and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) seroconversion, respectively, at 1 year. In the ETV group, the cumulative rate of virologic suppression at 3 years was 91.7%, which was significantly higher than that in the LAM group (P < 0.001). The mean duration of treatment before virologic suppression was shorter in the ETV group than in the LAM group (P = 0.040). The cumulative rate of seroconversion in the ETV group at 3 years was 39.4%, which was not significantly different from that in the LAM group (P = 0.439). The ETV group showed lower cumulate rates of virologic breakthrough (33.3% at 6 years) and genotypic mutation than the LAM group (P = 0.033 and P = 0.011, respectively). CONCLUSION: ETV is superior to LAM in pediatric CHB treatment because of its higher virologic suppression rate and lower cumulative rates of virologic breakthrough and genotypic mutation.


Subject(s)
Alanine Transaminase , Child , Hepatitis B , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Hepatitis, Chronic , Humans , Lamivudine , Retrospective Studies , Seroconversion
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758813

ABSTRACT

The subtype H9N2 avian influenza virus greatly threatens the Chinese poultry industry, even with annual vaccination. Waterfowl can be asymptomatically infected with the H9N2 virus. In this study, three H9N2 virus strains, designated A/Goose/Jiangsu/YZ527/2011 (H9N2, Gs/JS/YZ527/11), A/Goose/Jiangsu/SQ119/2012 (H9N2, Gs/JS/SQ119/12), and A/Goose/Jiangsu/JD564/2012 (H9N2, Gs/JS/JD564/12), were isolated from domestic geese. Molecular characterization of the three isolates showed that the Gs/JS/YZ527/11 virus is a double-reassortant virus, combining genes of A/Quail/Hong Kong/G1/97 (H9N2, G1/97)-like and A/Chicken/Shanghai/F/98 (H9N2, F/98)-like; the Gs/JS/SQ119/12 virus is a triple-reassortant virus combining genes of G1/97-like, F/98-like, and A/Duck/Shantou/163/2004 (H9N2, ST/163/04)-like. The sequences of Gs/JS/JD564/12 share high homology with those of the F/98 virus, except for the neuraminidase gene, whereas the internal genes of Gs/JS/YZ527/11 and Gs/JS/SQ119/12 are closely related to those of the H7N9 viruses. An infectivity analysis of the three isolates showed that Gs/JS/SQ119/12 and Gs/JS/YZ527/11 replicated well, with seroconversion, in geese and chickens, the Gs/JS/JD564/12 did not infect well in geese or chickens, and the F/98 virus only infected chickens, with seroconversion. Emergence of these new reassortant H9N2 avian influenza viruses indicates that these viruses can infect both chicken and goose and can produce different types of lesions in each species.


Subject(s)
Animals , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Chickens , Geese , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H7N9 Subtype , Influenza A Virus, H9N2 Subtype , Influenza in Birds , Neuraminidase , Population Characteristics , Poultry , Sequence Analysis , Seroconversion , Vaccination
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718324

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Accurate, rapid, and cost-effective screening tests for hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection may be useful in laboratories that cannot afford automated chemiluminescent immunoassays (CLIAs). We evaluated the diagnostic performance of a novel rapid automated fluorescent lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA). METHODS: A fluorescent LFIA using a small bench-top fluorescence reader, Automated Fluorescent Immunoassay System (AFIAS; Boditech Med Inc., Chuncheon, Korea), was developed for qualitative detection of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), antibody to HBsAg (anti-HBs), and antibody to HCV (anti-HCV) within 20 minutes. We compared the diagnostic performance of AFIAS with that of automated CLIAs—Elecsys (Roche Diagnostics GmbH, Penzberg, Germany) and ARCHITECT (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL, USA)—using 20 seroconversion panels and 3,500 clinical serum samples. RESULTS: Evaluation with the seroconversion panels demonstrated that AFIAS had adequate sensitivity for HBsAg and anti-HCV detection. From the clinical samples, AFIAS sensitivity and specificity were 99.8% and 99.3% for the HBsAg test, 100.0% and 100.0% for the anti-HBs test, and 98.8% and 99.1% for the anti-HCV test, respectively. Its agreement rates with the Elecsys HBsAg, anti-HBs, and anti-HCV detection assays were 99.4%, 100.0%, and 99.0%, respectively. AFIAS detected all samples with HBsAg genotypes A-F and H and anti-HCV genotypes 1, 1a, 1b, 2a, 2b, 4, and 6. Cross-reactivity with other infections was not observed. CONCLUSIONS: The AFIAS HBsAg, anti-HBs, and anti-HCV tests demonstrated diagnostic performance equivalent to current automated CLIAs. AFIAS could be used for a large-scale HBV or HCV screening in low-resource laboratories or low-to middle-income areas.


Subject(s)
Fluorescence , Genotype , Hepacivirus , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B virus , Hepatitis B , Hepatitis C , Hepatitis , Immunoassay , Mass Screening , Sensitivity and Specificity , Seroconversion
14.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 277-284, 2018.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715345

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) seroconversion may develop in seronegative adults. Although a positive correlation has been reported between alcohol consumption and seroconversion in Korea, an inverse correlation has been reported in other countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the risk factors for seroconversion in Korea. METHODS: We included Korean adults who were H. pylori-negative negative in their annual serum immunoglobulin G and pepsinogen assays, and in upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Subjects with a history of H. pylori eradication or gastrectomy were excluded. The criteria for heavy alcohol consumption were ≥ 15 drinks/week for males and ≥ 8 drinks/week for females. RESULTS: Of 267 H. pylori-seronegative subjects, 26 (9.7%) exhibited seroconversion at a mean follow-up time of 39.0 ± 19.1 months. Seroconversion was positively correlated with alcohol consumption (p = 0.001), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use (p = 0.015), a higher body mass index (p = 0.033), a longer follow-up period (p = 0.038), and a greater number of follow-up tests (p = 0.004). Heavy drinking (odds ratio 6.754, 95% confidence interval 1.892–24.102, p = 0.003) and social drinking (odds ratio 4.360, 95% confidence interval 1.130–16.826, p = 0.033) were independent risk factors for seroconversion. During follow-up, subjects with seroconversion had higher serum levels of pepsinogen II (12.0 ± 7.8 ng/mL) than others (9.1 ± 5.3 ng/mL) (p = 0.038). CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol consumption is related to seroconversion in Koreans. H. pylori transmission might be prevented by reducing alcohol consumption and controlling drinking habits.


Subject(s)
Adult , Alcohol Drinking , Body Mass Index , Drinking , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Gastrectomy , Helicobacter pylori , Helicobacter , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Korea , Male , Pepsinogen A , Pepsinogen C , Risk Factors , Seroconversion
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741857

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This prospective study aimed to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of lamivudine in children with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. METHODS: During July 2003 through October 2015, children with chronic hepatitis B who visited our institution were included in this study. Fifty-five patients, who received first-line treatment of lamivudine (3 mg/kg, 100 mg maximum) for over three months, were enrolled. After initiating lamivudine, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), HBV-DNA, and HBV markers were followed up at 1 month, 3 months, and every 3 months, thereafter. The treatment endpoint was determined as 1) normalization of ALT, 2) HBeAg seroconversion, and 3) anti-HBe positivity for twelve consecutive months. RESULTS: Thirty-one male (56.4%) and 24 female (43.6%) patients were included. The mean age at treatment initiation was 8.1 years. The mean duration of treatment was 23.4 months. ALT normalization was found in 98.2% (54 of 55). Anti-HBe seroconversion was found in 70.6% (36/51). Loss of HBsAg was found in 10.9% (6/55). All biochemical responses occurred under age seven. The rate of virologic response (defined as HBV-DNA <2,000 IU/mL) at six months after treatment initiation was 78.7% (37/47). At twelve months after reaching treatment endpoint, 87.2% (34/39) maintained their virologic response. Resistance to lamivudine was found in 16.4% (9/55). CONCLUSIONS: Lamivudine treatment in Korean pediatric patients with chronic hepatitis B showed better outcomes compared with other studies that implemented similar protocols in foreign populations. Further studies are needed to investigate the efficacy of newly recommended antiviral drugs on the Korean pediatric population.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Alanine Transaminase , Antiviral Agents , Child , Female , Hepatitis B e Antigens , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Hepatitis, Chronic , Humans , Lamivudine , Male , Prospective Studies , Seroconversion
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741848

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of a trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) among healthy Korean children and adolescents. METHODS: From October to December 2008, 65 healthy patients aged 6 months to 18 years who visited Korea University Ansan Hospital for influenza vaccination were enrolled in this study. We measured the hemagglutinin inhibition antibody titers at baseline and 30 days after vaccinating enrollees with split influenza vaccine and calculated the seroprotection rates, geometric mean titers, and seroconversion rates. Local and systemic adverse events were assessed after vaccination. RESULTS: The seroprotection rates against all three viral strains (A/H1N1, A/H3N2, B) were 87.7%, 89.2%, and 89.2% (≥70%), respectively; seroconversion rates were 44.6%, 73.8%, and 63.1% (≥40%), respectively; and seroconversion factors were 4.5, 8.4, and 10.5 (>2.5), respectively. The TIV immunogenicity was acceptable according to the CPMP (Committee for Proprietary Medicinal Products) criteria. Although 48 patients (73.8%) reported one or more adverse events, no severe adverse events such as anaphylaxis and convulsion were observed. Forty-two patients (64.6%) reported a local skin reaction, including redness (29.2%), pain (43.1%), or swelling (41.5%) of the injected site, and 26 (40.0%) reported a systemic reaction: fatigue (23.1%), myalgia (20.0%), headache (10.8%), arthralgia (10.8%), chills (9.2%), or fever (7.7%). CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that the immunogenicity of the TIV vaccine is acceptable. As there were no serious adverse events aside from local reactions and mild systemic reactions, this vaccine can be safely used among healthy Korean children and adolescents.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Anaphylaxis , Arthralgia , Child , Chills , Fatigue , Fever , Headache , Hemagglutinins , Humans , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Korea , Myalgia , Seizures , Seroconversion , Skin , Vaccination
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741509

ABSTRACT

We assessed the seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii (C. burnetii) in cattle on Ulleung Island, Korea in a population-based follow up study for 4 years and determined the spatial distribution and risk factors associated with C. burnetii. The seroprevalence of C. burnetii was determined to be 1.4–2.0% during 2011–2014. Overall, nine cattle from three farms that tested seropositive showed C. burnetii antibody seroconversions between 2011 and 2014. The number of seropositive cattle was low, suggesting that movement of and contact between animals was possible risk factors for the transmission of C. burnetii.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , Animals , Cattle , Coxiella burnetii , Coxiella , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Follow-Up Studies , Korea , Q Fever , Risk Factors , Seroconversion , Seroepidemiologic Studies
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713706

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The frequency with which the 2 B lineages have been found to cocirculate in a season has been on the rise, which has spurred the need for a quadrivalent influenza vaccine (QIV) to protect against both B lineages. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommended that QIV include both B lineages beginning in the 2013–2014 flu season. This study was conducted to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of an egg-cultivated QIV in healthy Korean children and adolescents aged ≥ 6 months to < 19 years. METHODS: A total of 528 subjects were randomized 4:1 to receive either a QIV (GC3110A) or a trivalent influenza vaccine. Hemagglutination inhibition antibody responses were assessed 28 days after the last dose. Safety was also evaluated. RESULTS: The proportion of subjects in the GC3110A group who achieved seroconversion was confirmed to exceed 40% across all age groups. The proportion of subjects aged ≥ 6 months to < 3 years in the GC3110A group who achieved seroprotection failed to meet the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety (MFDS) standard of 70%. Potential causes may include the small number of subjects, as well as the small dosage. However, results pertaining to the other age groups satisfied the MFDS standard. The safety profile was also comparable to that of the control. CONCLUSION: The new quadrivalent split influenza vaccine may offer broader protection to children and adolescents aged ≥ 3 years to < 19 years of age against both influenza B lineages than the existing trivalent influenza vaccines (Registered at the ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02541253).


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Antibody Formation , Child , Hemagglutination , Humans , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Seasons , Seroconversion , World Health Organization
19.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 21(3): 213-218, May-June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839216

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Aims: To evaluate the HBeAg seroconversion rate in real clinical setting and explore its predictors in long-term nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs) treatment for chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Methods: 251 patients were recruited from January 2001 to September 2009 in four hospitals in Hebei province, China, for this retrospective study. Clinical and laboratory data before and after treatment with lamivudine (LAM, 100 mg daily), adefovir (ADV, 10 mg daily), telbivudine (LDT, 600 mg daily), entecavir (ETV, 0.5 mg daily), and LAM/ADV combination were compared among three groups according to treatment outcomes: synchronous HBeAg loss and HBeAg seroconversion, anti-HBe development after treatment, and no anti-HBe. Adherence was also evaluated. Results: In real clinical setting, cumulative HBeAg seroconversion rates were 14.3%, 32.7%, 43.0%, 46.9%, and 50.5% after 1, 2, 3, 5, and 8 years, respectively. 45 patients (17.9%) were non-adherent. Adherence (p < 0.001, Hazard Ratio (HR) = 2.203), elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels (p < 0.001, HR = 2.049), and non-vertical transmission (p = 0.006, HR = 1.656) were predictors of HBeAg seroconversion. Conclusion: Adherence, elevated ALT, and non-vertical transmission are predictors of HBeAg seroconversion in CHB patients treated with NAs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Hepatitis B, Chronic/immunology , Hepatitis B, Chronic/drug therapy , Hepatitis B e Antigens/blood , Time Factors , Case-Control Studies , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Hepatitis B, Chronic/enzymology , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Drug Therapy, Combination , Seroconversion/drug effects
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786900

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Infection and malignancy represent two common complications after solid organ transplantation, which are often characterized by poorly specific clinical symptomatology. Herein, we have evaluated the role of 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-Dglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in this clinical setting.METHODS: Fifty-eight consecutive patients who underwent FDG PET/CT after kidney, lung or heart transplantation were included in this retrospective analysis. Twelve patients underwent FDGPET/CT to strengthen or confirma diagnostic suspicion of malignancies. The remaining 46 patients presented with unexplained inflammatory syndrome, fever of unknown origin (FUO), CMVor EBV seroconversion during post-transplant follow-up without conclusive conventional imaging. FDG PET/CT results were compared to histology or to the finding obtained during a clinical/imaging follow-up period of at least 6 months after PET/CT study.RESULTS: Positive FDG PET/CT results were obtained in 18 (31 %) patients. In the remaining 40 (69 %) cases, FDG PET/CT was negative, showing exclusively a physiological radiotracer distribution. On the basis of a patient-based analysis, FDG PET/CT's sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV were respectively 78 %, 90 %, 78 % and 90 %, with a global accuracy of 86 %. FDG PET/CT was true positive in 14 patients with bacterial pneumonias (n = 4), pulmonary fungal infection (n = 1), histoplasmosis (n = 1), cutaneous abscess (n = 1), inflammatory disorder (sacroiliitis) (n = 1), lymphoma (n = 3) and NSCLC (n = 3). On the other hand, FDG PET/CT failed to detect lung bronchoalveolar adenocarcinoma, septicemia, endocarditis and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), respectively, in four patients. FDG PET/CT contributed to adjusting the patient therapeutic strategy in 40 % of cases.CONCLUSIONS: FDG PET/CT emerges as a valuable technique to manage complications in the post-transplantation period. FDG PET/CT should be considered in patients with severe unexplained inflammatory syndrome or FUO and inconclusive conventional imaging or to discriminate active from silent lesions previously detected by conventional imaging particularly when malignancy is suspected.


Subject(s)
Abscess , Adenocarcinoma , Diagnosis , Electrons , Endocarditis , Fever of Unknown Origin , Follow-Up Studies , Graft vs Host Disease , Hand , Heart Transplantation , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Histoplasmosis , Humans , Kidney , Lung , Lung Diseases, Fungal , Lymphoma , Organ Transplantation , Pneumonia, Bacterial , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Sepsis , Seroconversion , Transplants
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