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1.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 43(3): 330-343, sept. 2023. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1533944

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La psitacosis es una enfermedad zoonótica causada por Chlamydia psittaci. Esta bacteria es catalogada como un agente con potencial bioterrorista y ha causado múltiples brotes en trabajadores con exposición laboral a aves en diferentes lugares del mundo. En Colombia, no se hace seguimiento epidemiológico de la infección y existe una gran brecha en el conocimiento. Objetivos. Determinar la frecuencia de anticuerpos contra C. psittaci en trabajadores con exposición laboral a aves y sus factores asociados. Además, revisar la literatura en relación con los estudios sobre el tema realizados en Colombia. Materiales y métodos. Se llevó a cabo un estudio descriptivo, transversal, con intención analítica, en trabajadores en contacto con aves y se revisó la literatura científica relacionada en Colombia. Se detectaron anticuerpos IgM e IgG contra C. psittaci en suero por microinmunofluorescencia. La descripción de las características sociodemográficas y de exposición se hizo con frecuencias y medidas de resumen. Se exploraron factores asociados por análisis bivariados y multivariados. La revisión de la literatura científica y gris se hizo con búsqueda estructurada. Resultados. Se analizaron 54 trabajadores en contacto con aves y se encontró una prevalencia de anticuerpos del 31,5 %. El ejercer funciones de sacrificio y faenado de las aves sin ser médico veterinario fue un factor de riesgo para la presencia de anticuerpos. Solo se encontraron cuatro estudios previos sobre C. psittaci hechos en Colombia. Conclusiones. Este estudio constituye la primera evidencia de la circulación de C. psittaci en trabajadores en contacto con aves en Antioquia y el segundo reporte en el país. Estos hallazgos aportan desde la salud pública a la estrategia One Health.


Introduction. Psittacosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Chlamydia psittaci, a bacterium classified as an agent with bioterrorist potential. It has caused multiple outbreaks in exposed poultry workers around the world. Colombia has no epidemiological follow-up of the infection and a big knowledge gap. Objectives. To determine the antibodies' frequency against C. psittaci in workers with occupational exposure to birds and to review the literature on studies conducted in Colombia. Materials and methods. We conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study with analytical intent on workers in contact with birds and reviewed the related literature in Colombia. IgM and IgG serum antibodies against C. psittaci were detected by microimmunofluorescence. The sociodemographic and exposure characteristics were expressed as frequencies and summary measures. Associated factors were explored by bivariate and multivariate analysis. The scientific and gray literature review was done with a structured search. Results. We analyzed 54 workers in contact with birds. Antibody prevalence was 31.5%. Slaughtering and evisceration by non-veterinarians was a risk factor for antibody presence. There are only four previous studies on C. psittaci in Colombia. Conclusions. Here, we present the first evidence of C. psittaci circulation among workers exposed to birds in Antioquia and the second report in the country. These findings contribute to the "One Health" public health strategy.


Subject(s)
Psittacosis , Birds , Occupational Exposure , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Chlamydophila psittaci , One Health
2.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 151(1): 72-80, feb. 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1515423

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The prevention and control of SARS-CoV-2 infection in hemodialysis (HD) units is challenging. AIM: To describe the clinical characteristics and outcome of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) on HD with COVID-19, between March 2020 and January 28, 2021, attending a single HD unit in Bogotá, Colombia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this prospective observational study, incidence, prevalence, and case-fatality rate were estimated, including screening results with RT-PCR and anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgM antibodies in all patients and health personnel in the HD unit. RESULTS: Among patients and health workers, 55 and 9 cases of COVID-19 were identified, respectively. The median age of patients was 63 years (84% males). Fifty five percent of patients were symptomatic, with fever, cough and/or myalgia. The most common comorbidities were hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and coronary heart disease. The cumulative incidence of infection was 30.2%, population seroprevalence was 24.9%, and fatality was 9.1%. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in this HD unit was high. Strict biosafety protocols are required to prevent outbreaks.


INTRODUCCIÓN: La prevención y el control de la infección por SARS-CoV-2 en las unidades de hemodiálisis (HD) es un desafío. OBJETIVO: Describir las características clínicas y la evolución de los pacientes con enfermedad renal crónica (ERC) en HD con COVID-19, entre marzo de 2020 y el 28 de enero de 2021, que acudieron a una unidad de HD en Bogotá, Colombia. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio observacional prospectivo con estimación de incidencia, prevalencia y letalidad, incluyendo los resultados del cribado con RT-PCR y anticuerpos IgG e IgM anti-SARS-CoV-2 en todos los pacientes y personal sanitario de la unidad de HD. RESULTADOS: Se identificaron 55 casos de pacientes en HD y 9 casos de trabajadores de salud con COVID-19. La mediana de edad de los pacientes fue de 63 años y 84% eran hombres. Cincuenta y cinco por ciento de los pacientes eran sintomáticos, con fiebre, tos y/o mialgia. Las comorbilidades más frecuentes fueron hipertensión arterial, diabetes mellitus tipo 2 y enfermedad coronaria. La incidencia acumulada de infección fue del 30,2%, la seroprevalencia poblacional del 24,9% y la letalidad del 9,1%. CONCLUSIONES: La incidencia de infección por SARS-CoV-2 en esta unidad de HD fue alta. Se requieren de protocolos estrictos de bioseguridad para evitar brotes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Renal Dialysis/methods , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Disease Outbreaks , Prospective Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Rev. cient. cienc. salud ; 5(1): 1-5, 26-01-2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-1517625

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La infección por el virus de Epstein-Barr (VEB) es la causa más frecuente de mononucleosis infecciosa, y también está asociada a varios tipos de cáncer. La prevalencia de la infección por este virus varía en diferentes poblaciones y no hay publicaciones sobre la epidemiología de esta infección en Paraguay. Objetivo. Describir la seroprevalencia de la infección por VEB en estudiantes universitarios y las características sociodemográficas asociadas. Materiales y Métodos. Estudio transversal en estudiantes de una universidad pública del departamento Alto Paraná, Paraguay. Se incluyeron 101 participantes, mediante muestreo de casos consecutivos. Se aplicó un cuestionario y se tomó muestras sanguíneas. Se determinó la presencia de anticuerpos por el método ELISA de captura de IgG específicos contra el antígeno de la cápside viral -VCA del VEB, además se evaluaron factores asociados a la seropositividad. Resultados. La seroprevalencia global fue 89,1% (90/101), asociado (p<0,025) a la condición socioeconómica baja (93,4%vs 76%, OR: 4.9 [IC 95%: 1,2 ­16,3]). Conclusión. La seroprevalencia contra el virus de Epstein-Barr es alta en estudiantes universitarios y está asociada a la condición socioeconómica baja. Palabras Clave: estudios seroepidemiológicos; anticuerpos; infecciones por virus de Epstein-Barr; estudiantes; Paraguay


Introduction. Infections by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is the most common cause of infectious mononucleosis and is also linked to multiple cancers. The prevalence of EBV infection varies in different populations and there is no publication about the epidemiology of this infection in Paraguay. Objective.To describethe seroprevalence among university students and associated sociodemographic characteristics. Material and Methods.Cross-sectional study in students from a public university in Alto Paraná, Paraguay.A total of 101 participants were recruited through consecutive sampling.Aquestionnaire was applied and blood samples were obtained. Antibodies were determined by Epstein-Barr Virus IgG anti-VCA capture ELISA method, and factors associated with seropositivity were evaluated. Results. The overall seropositivity was 89,1%(90/101), which was associated(p<0,025) with low socioeconomic status (93,4%vs 76%, OR: 4.9 [95% CI: 1.2 -16.3]). Conclusion. The seroprevalence to EBV is high in collegestudents which is associated to low socioeconomic condition. Key words: seroepidemiologic studies; antibodies; Epstein-Barr virus infections; students; Paraguay


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections , Paraguay , Students , Seroepidemiologic Studies
4.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 47: e53, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1424242

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective. Systematize the experience and identify challenges and lessons learned in the implementation of an initiative for integrated serosurveillance of communicable diseases using a multiplex bead assay in countries of the Americas. Methods. Documents produced in the initiative were compiled and reviewed. These included concept notes, internal working papers, regional meetings reports, and survey protocols from the three participating countries (Mexico, Paraguay, and Brazil) and two additional countries (Guyana and Guatemala) where serology for several communicable diseases was included in neglected tropical diseases surveys. Information was extracted and summarized to describe the experience and the most relevant challenges and lessons learned. Results. Implementing integrated serosurveys requires interprogrammatic and interdisciplinary work teams for the design of survey protocols to respond to key programmatic questions aligned to the needs of the countries. Valid laboratory results are critical and rely on the standardized installment and roll-out of laboratory techniques. Field teams require adequate training and supervision to properly implement survey procedures. The analysis and interpretation of serosurveys results should be antigen-specific, contextualizing the responses for each disease, and triangulated with programmatic and epidemiological data for making decisions tailored to specific population socioeconomic and ecologic contexts. Conclusions. Integrated serosurveillance as a complementary tool for functional epidemiological surveillance systems is feasible to use and key components should be considered: political engagement, technical engagement, and integrated planning. Aspects such as designing the protocol, selecting target populations and diseases, laboratory capacities, anticipating the capacities to analyze and interpret complex data, and how to use it are key.


Resumen Objetivo. Sistematizar la experiencia y determinar los desafíos y las enseñanzas obtenidas durante la aplicación de una iniciativa de serovigilancia integrada de enfermedades transmisibles mediante un ensayo de perlas múltiples en países de la Región de las Américas. Métodos. Se recopilaron y revisaron los documentos generados en el marco de la iniciativa. Estos incluían notas conceptuales, documentos de trabajo internos, informes de reuniones regionales y protocolos de encuesta de los tres países participantes (Brasil, México y Paraguay) y otros dos países (Guatemala y Guyana) donde en las encuestas sobre enfermedades tropicales desatendidas también se incluía la serología para varias enfermedades transmisibles. Se recabó y resumió la información para describir tanto la experiencia como los desafíos y las enseñanzas de mayor relevancia. Resultados. La realización de encuestas serológicas integradas requiere equipos de trabajo interprogramáticos e interdisciplinarios para la elaboración de protocolos de encuesta que permitan responder a cuestiones programáticas fundamentales y ajustadas a las necesidades de los países. Es imprescindible contar con resultados de laboratorio válidos, para lo que es preciso que sus técnicas e instalaciones estén estandarizadas. Para que los equipos de campo puedan ejecutar correctamente los procedimientos de la encuesta, deben contar con una formación y supervisión adecuadas. El análisis y la interpretación de los resultados de las encuestas serológicas deben ser específicos para cada antígeno, situar las respuestas en el contexto de cada enfermedad y triangularse con los datos programáticos y epidemiológicos para tomar decisiones adaptadas a los contextos socioeconómicos y ecológicos específicos de la población. Conclusiones. Es uso de la vigilancia serológica integrada como una herramienta complementaria en los sistemas funcionales de vigilancia epidemiológica es algo posible; para esto deben tenerse en cuenta ciertos elementos fundamentales: el compromiso político, el compromiso técnico y la planificación integrada. A tal efecto, son fundamentales ciertos elementos como el diseño del protocolo, la selección de los grupos poblacionales y las enfermedades objetivo, la capacidad de los laboratorios, y la previsión de las capacidades de análisis e interpretación de datos complejos y la forma de utilizarlos.


RESUMO Objetivo. Sistematizar a experiência e identificar desafios e lições aprendidas na implementação de uma iniciativa de vigilância sorológica integrada de doenças transmissíveis, usando ensaio de micro-esferas multiplex em países das Américas. Métodos. Os documentos produzidos na iniciativa foram compilados e examinados, e incluíram notas conceituais, documentos internos de trabalho, relatórios de reuniões regionais e protocolos de pesquisa dos três países participantes (México, Paraguai e Brasil) e de dois países adicionais (Guiana e Guatemala), onde a vigilância sorológica de várias doenças transmissíveis foi incluída em pesquisas sobre doenças tropicais negligenciadas. As informações foram extraídas e resumidas para descrever a experiência e os desafios e as lições aprendidas mais relevantes. Resultados. A implementação de inquéritos sorológicos integrados requer equipes de trabalho interprogramáticas e interdisciplinares para o delineamento de protocolos que respondam a questões programáticas chave, alinhadas com as necessidades dos países. Resultados laboratoriais válidos são essenciais, e dependem da instalação e implantação padronizadas de técnicas laboratoriais. As equipes de campo precisam de treinamento e supervisão apropriados para implementar adequadamente os procedimentos de pesquisa. A análise e a interpretação dos resultados dos inquéritos sorológicos devem ser antígeno-específicas, contextualizando as respostas para cada doença, e trianguladas com dados programáticos e epidemiológicos para a tomada de decisões adaptadas aos contextos socioeconômicos e ecológicos específicos de cada população. Conclusões. A vigilância sorológica integrada como ferramenta complementar para sistemas de vigilância epidemiológica funcionais é viável. Os componentes-chave a seguir devem ser considerados: engajamento político, engajamento técnico e planejamento integrado. Aspectos como o delineamento do protocolo, a seleção de populações-alvo e doenças-alvo, a capacidade laboratorial, a previsão das capacidades para análise e interpretação de dados complexos e como usá-los são fundamentais.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Epidemiological Monitoring , Americas/epidemiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Retrospective Studies
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246514, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285640

ABSTRACT

Abstract The poultry sector in Pakistan is contributing mainly in bridging gap between demand and supply for protein. Mycoplasma gallisepticum is an emerging bacterium causing serious problems in poultry industry of Pakistan. A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the M. gallisepticum load in poultry populated regions of Pakistan. Total 600 serum and 600 swab samples were collected, 200 from each broiler, layers and breeders poultry in Rawalpindi and Abbottabad districts. Serum samples were analyzed through ELISA for seroprevalence. Swabs were cultured on Frey's medium followed by PCR and partial mgc2 gene sequencing. Results of seroprevalence of M. gallisepticum showed that layers (75%, n=150) are more positive as compared to breeders (70%, n=140) and broilers (50%, n=100). Typical colonies of the M. gallisepticum were observed in breeder (26.5%), followed by layer (21%) and broilers (9%). A total of 37.1% (n=42) samples were identified positive through PCR out of total 113 cultured based positive samples. A total of six M. gallisepticum isolates of current study showed 98-99 percent similarity with previously reported isolates on the basis of mgc2 gene partial sequencing. The M. gallisepticum was found highly prevalent in different poultry breads. Results of this study would add into basic data and provide a direction for livestock sector to strengthen a control strategy for mycoplasmosis in poultry farms.


Resumo O setor avícola do Paquistão está contribuindo principalmente para preencher a lacuna entre a demanda e a oferta de proteína. Mycoplasma gallisepticum é uma bactéria emergente que causa sérios problemas na indústria avícola do Paquistão. Um estudo transversal foi conduzido para avaliar a carga de M. gallisepticum em regiões de avicultura do Paquistão. Um total de 600 amostras de soro e 600 amostras de esfregaço foi coletado, 200 de cada frango de corte, poedeiras e aves reprodutoras nos distritos de Rawalpindi e Abbottabad. Amostras de soro foram analisadas por ELISA para soroprevalência. As zaragatoas foram cultivadas em meio Frey, seguido de PCR e sequenciação parcial do gene mgc2. Os resultados da soroprevalência de M. gallisepticum mostraram que as poedeiras (75%, n = 150) são mais positivas em comparação com matrizes (70%, n = 140) e frangos de corte (50%, n = 100). Colônias típicas de M. gallisepticum foram observadas em reprodutoras (26,5%), seguidas de poedeiras (21%) e frangos de corte (9%). Um total de 37,1% (n = 42) das amostras foi identificado como positivas por PCR de um total de 113 amostras positivas baseadas em cultura. Um total de seis isolados de M. gallisepticum do estudo atual mostrou 98-99% de similaridade com isolados relatados anteriormente com base no sequenciamento parcial do gene mgc2. O M. gallisepticum foi encontrado com alta prevalência em diferentes pães de aves. Os resultados deste estudo acrescentariam dados básicos e forneceriam orientação para o setor pecuário fortalecer uma estratégia de controle da micoplasmose em granjas avícolas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Poultry Diseases/epidemiology , Mycoplasma gallisepticum/genetics , Pakistan/epidemiology , Poultry , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Chickens , Cross-Sectional Studies
6.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 57(supl.1): 10s, 2023. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1442144

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of exposure to the SARS-CoV-2 virus among individuals living in restricted freedom. METHODS A seroprevalence survey was carried out with the population of the female penitentiary of the Centro de Progressão Penitenciária (CPP) in Butantan (municipality of São Paulo), between June 24 and August 20, 2020. During this period, according to the Secretariat of Penitentiary Administration (SAP), the positivity of rapid tests among inmates ranged from 65% to 78%. The evaluation method used in the study was the "One Step COVID-19" rapid test (chromatography), from the company Wondfo, also using the RT-PCR method in symptomatic participants to confirm the viral condition. The study population consisted of 879 female inmates and 170 employees of the institution. RESULTS The prevalence of total antibodies (IgG/IgM) against the SARS-CoV-2 virus in the total population of 1049 study participants was 6.1%; among the population of 879 inmates,a prevalence of 5.8% was observed, and among the institution's employees, 7.5%. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of covid-19 at the Butantan CPP was low, which is due to the implementation of simple prevention measures at the institution, such as the use of masks (with appropriate changes), emphasis on hygiene, hand washing and social distancing, in addition to other strategies, such as suspending inmates' visits from relatives and friends and cutting back on elective medical appointments and outside work.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Estimar a prevalência da exposição ao vírus SARS-CoV-2 entre indivíduos vivendo em restrição de liberdade. MÉTODOS Foi realizado inquérito de soroprevalência com a população da penitenciária feminina do Centro de Progressão Penitenciária (CPP) do Butantan (município de São Paulo), entre 24 de junho e 20 de agosto de 2020. Nesse período, segundo a Secretaria de Administração Penitenciária (SAP), a positividade dos testes rápidos entre detentos variou de 65 a 78%. O método de avaliação utilizado no estudo foi o teste rápido "One Step COVID-19" (cromatografia), da empresa Wondfo, empregando-se também o método RT-PCR em participantes sintomáticos para confirmação do quadro viral. A população do estudo foi constituída por 879 reeducandas e 170 funcionários da instituição. RESULTADOS A prevalência de anticorpos totais (IgG/IgM) contra o vírus SARS-CoV-2 na população total de 1.049 participantes do estudo foi de 6,1%; entre a população de 879 reeducandas foi observada prevalência de 5,8% e entre os servidores da instituição, 7,5%. CONCLUSÃO Houve baixa prevalência de covid-19 no CPP do Butantan, o que se deve à implementação de medidas de prevenção simples na instituição, como o uso de máscaras (com trocas adequadas), ênfase na higiene, lavagem das mãos e distanciamento social, além de outras estratégias, como suspensão de visitas de familiares e amigos das reeducandas, cortes de consultas médicas eletivas e do trabalho externo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Prisons , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Risk Factors , COVID-19 Testing , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Antibodies, Viral
7.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1442244

ABSTRACT

La concentración de los anticuerpos contra el polisacárido capsular polirribosilribitol fosfato del Haemophilus influenzae tipo b se considera un buen indicador serológico para evaluar protección contra la enfermedad invasiva. Existen pocos reportes que estudien la inmunidad serológica en Cuba. El objetivo general de este estudio fue determinar los niveles de protección séricos contra Haemophilus influenzae tipo b en niños, adolescentes y adultos cubanos, en una muestra de 575 individuos. Se cuantificó la concentración de IgG anti-polirribosilribitol fosfato de Haemophilus influenzae tipo b mediante un inmunoensayo enzimático estandarizado y validado en el laboratorio de inmunología del Centro Nacional de Genética Médica, La Habana, Cuba. Se determinaron las concentraciones medias geométricas de anticuerpos y los niveles de protección frente a la enfermedad invasiva por Haemophilus influenzae tipo b. La concentración media geométrica de IgG anti-polirribosilribitol fosfato fue de 1,94 μg/mL (IC95 por ciento 1,80; 2,08) y fue mayor en el grupo de 16 a 22 años. El porcentaje con protección de larga duración fue mayor para el sexo femenino que para el masculino (82,2 por ciento vs 71,4 por ciento; p=0,0339) entre los que poseían inmunidad natural. El grupo de sujetos nacidos en el periodo en que se vacunó con la vacuna conjugada cubana QUIMI-HIB® presentó concentraciones medias geométricas superiores (2,75 μg/mL, IC95 por ciento 2,00; 3,79). El 99,1 por ciento de los participantes presentó protección frente a la enfermedad invasiva por Haemophilus influenzae tipo b, el 19,8 por ciento a corto plazo y el 79,3 por ciento protección de larga duración. El inmunoensayo validado para la cuantificación de IgG anti-polirribosilribitol fosfato podría emplearse en estudios de seroprevalencia. En los sujetos estudiados, se encontró un predominio de elevadas concentraciones de IgG anti- polirribosilribitol fosfato del Haemophilus influenzae tipo b que confieren protección de larga duración(AU)


The levels of antibodies directed against the capsular polysaccharide polyribosylribitol phosphate of Haemophilus influenzae type b are considered a good serological indicator to assess the immunity against invasive disease. In Cuba, there are few reports that study serological immunity. The general objective was to determine serum protection levels against Haemophilus influenzae type b in Cuban children, adolescents and adults, in a sample of 575 Cuban individuals. The concentration of IgG against Haemophilus influenzae type b was quantified by means of an indirect ELISA standardized and validated in the immunology laboratory of the National Center of Medical Genetics, Havana, Cuba. The geometric mean concentration of IgG anti- polyribosylribitol phosphate and the levels of protection against invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b disease were determined. The geometric mean concentration of IgG anti- polyribosylribitol phosphate was 1.94 μg/mL (95percentCI 1.80;2.08) and the group from 16 to 22 years old presented the highest. Among those with natural immunity, the percentage with long-term protection was higher for females vs. males (82.2percent vs. 71.4percent; p=0.0339). The group of subjects born in the period in which they were vaccinated with the Cuban conjugate vaccine QUIMI-HIB® presented higher geometric mean concentration (2.75 μg/mL, CI95percent 2.00; 3.79). The 99.1percent of the participants had protection against invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b disease, 19.8percent short-term and 79.3percent long-term protection. The ELISA for the quantification of anti- Haemophilus influenzae type b IgG antibodies, developed and validated, could be used in seroprevalence studies. In the subjects studied, there was a predominance of high IgG anti- Haemophilus influenzae type b polyribosylribitol phosphate concentration values that confer long-term protection(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Haemophilus influenzae type b , Validation Study , Cuba
8.
Rev. baiana enferm ; 37: e49859, 2023. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1514948

ABSTRACT

Objetivos: estimar a soroprevalência e analisar fatores associados a Toxoplasmose na gestação. Método: investigação epidemiológica, analítica e transversal com mulheres no pré-natal em Ribeirão Preto-SP. Os dados foram obtidos por meio de exames sorológicos e questionário. Modelo de regressão logística foi utilizado, com a seleção das variáveis independentes realizada por meio dos testes Exato de Fisher, ou Qui-quadrado, e t de Student, calculadas razões de chances brutas e ajustadas, com nível de significância de 5%. Resultados: amostra foi composta de 165 mulheres, com soroprevalência total, 34,5% [27,3; 41,8], reagentes para IgG. A chance de ser reagente ao anticorpo antitoxoplasma IgG é 1,09 vezes maior para cada ano a mais de idade; 19,48 para aquelas com Ensino Fundamental I incompleto; 4,41 para o contato direto com a terra. Conclusão: saneamento básico e a rede de serviços de saúde no município estudado favorecem a prevenção da Toxoplasmose na gestação.


Objetivos: estimar la seroprevalencia y analizar factores asociados a Toxoplasmosis en la gestación. Método: investigación epidemiológica, analítica y transversal con mujeres en el prenatal en Ribeirão Preto-SP. Los datos fueron obtenidos por medio de exámenes serológicos y cuestionario. Modelo de regresión logística fue utilizado, con la selección de las variables independientes realizada por medio de las pruebas Exacto de Fisher, o Chi-cuadrado, y t de Student, calculadas razones de probabilidades brutas y ajustadas, con nivel de significación del 5%. Resultados: muestra compuesta de 165 mujeres, con seroprevalencia total, 34,5% [27,3; 41,8], reactivos para IgG. La probabilidad de ser reactivo al anticuerpo antitoxoplasma IgG es 1,09 veces mayor para cada año a más de edad; 19,48 para aquellas con Enseñanza Fundamental I incompleto; 4,41 para el contacto directo con la tierra. Conclusión: saneamiento básico y la red de servicios de salud en el municipio estudiado favorecen la prevención de la Toxoplasmosis en la gestación.


Objectives: to estimate seroprevalence and analyze factors associated with Toxoplasmosis in pregnancy. Method: epidemiological, analytical and cross-sectional investigation with women in prenatal care in Ribeirão Preto-SP. Data were obtained through serological tests and questionnaire. Logistic regression model was used, with the selection of independent variables performed using the Fisher's exact test, or Chi-square test, and Student's t, calculated crude and adjusted odds ratios, with significance level of 5%. Results: sample was composed of 165 women, with total seroprevalence, 34.5% [27.3; 41.8], reagents for IgG. The chance of being reactant to the IgG antitoxoplasm antibody is 1.09 times higher for each year of age; 19.48 for those with incomplete Elementary School I; 4.41 for direct contact with the earth. Conclusion: basic sanitation and the network of health services in the municipality studied favor the prevention of Toxoplasmosis in pregnancy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors
9.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 57(supl.1): 6s, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1442136

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in schoolchildren aged 4 to 14 years living in the city of São Paulo, according to clinical, demographic, epidemiological, and social variables, during the school closure period as a measure against covid-19 spread. METHODS A serological survey was made in September 2020 with a random sample stratified by school system (municipal public, state public and private) type. A venous blood sample was collected using the Wondfo SARS-CoV-2 Antibody Test (lateral flow method) for detection of total SARS-CoV-2 virus antibodies. Semi-structured questionnaires were applied to collect clinical, demographic, social, and epidemiological data. RESULTS Seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in schoolchildren was of 16.6% (95%CI 15.4-17.8). The study found higher seroprevalence in the municipal (18.5%; 95%CI 16.6-20.6) and state (16.2%; 95%CI 14.4-18.2) public school systems compared to the private school system (11.7; 95%CI 10.0-13.7), among black and brown students (18.4%; 95%CI 16.8-20.2) and in the most vulnerable social stratum (18.5 %;95%CI 16.9-20.2). Lower seroprevalence was identified in schoolchildren who reported following the recommended protective measures against covid-19. CONCLUSION Seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies is found mainly in the most socially vulnerable schoolchildren. This study can contribute to support public policies that reinforce the importance of suspending face-to-face classes and developing strategies aimed at protective measures and monitoring of the serological status of those who have not yet been included in the vaccination schedule.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Estimar a soroprevalência de anticorpos do vírus SARS-CoV-2 em escolares de quatro a 14 anos de idade residentes no município de São Paulo, segundo variáveis clínicas, demográficas, epidemiológicas e sociais, durante o período de fechamento das escolas como medida de controle da covid-19. MÉTODOS Realizou-se um inquérito sorológico em setembro de 2020 com amostra aleatória estratificada por tipo de rede de ensino (pública municipal, pública estadual e privada). Foi coletada amostra de sangue venoso utilizando-se o teste de imunoensaio de fluxo lateral da fabricante Wondfo para detecção de anticorpos totais contra o vírus SARS-CoV-2. Aplicaram-se questionários semiestruturados para o levantamento de dados clínicos, demográficos, sociais e epidemiológicos. RESULTADOS A soroprevalência de anticorpos do vírus SARS-CoV-2 em escolares foi de 16,6% (IC95% 15,4-17,8). O estudo encontrou soroprevalências mais elevadas na rede pública municipal (18,5%; IC95% 16,6-20,6) e estadual (16,2%; IC95% 14,4-18,2) em relação à rede privada (11,7; IC95% 10,0-13,7) e entre escolares da raça/cor preta e parda (18,4%; IC95% 16,8-20,2) e no estrato social mais vulnerável (18,5%; IC95% 16,9-20,2). A pesquisa identificou menores soroprevalências nos escolares que relataram seguir as medidas recomendadas de proteção contra a covid-19. CONCLUSÃO A soroprevalência de anticorpos contra o vírus SARS-CoV-2 atinge principalmente os escolares socialmente mais vulneráveis. Este estudo pode contribuir para embasar políticas públicas que reforcem a importância da suspensão das aulas presenciais e da necessidade de estratégias de medidas de proteção e acompanhamento do status sorológico daqueles que ainda não foram contemplados no calendário vacinal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Child , Adolescent , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology
10.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 16(4): 114-120, 2023. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1512147

ABSTRACT

La infección previa por el adenovirus-36 (Ad-36) se ha asociado con el proceso adipogénico y el control glicémico en modelos experimentales de cultivos celulares y animales. En humanos, la presencia de anticuerpos contra Ad-36 ha mostrado aumentar el riesgo de obesidad y, paradójicamente, mejorar el control glicémico en diferentes poblaciones. Se evaluó la influencia de la seropositividad contra Ad-36 sobre riesgo de obesidad, el perfil lipídico y glicémico en una población de niños en edad escolar. Métodos: Doscientos ocho individuos de entre 9 y 13 años se agruparon según estado nutricional como normopeso (IMC z-score de -1 a +1), con sobrepeso (IMC z-score de +1 a +2) y con obesidad (IMC z-score > +3). Se evaluaron medidas antropométricas, desarrollo puberal según Tanner y parámetros bioquímicos (perfil lipídico, glucemia e insulina) y la seropositividad contra Ad-36. Se determinó la resistencia a la insulina (RI) según criterio para la población infantil chilena. La seropositividad contra Ad-36 se determinó mediante ELISA. Resultados: Hubo una alta prevalencia de sobrepeso/obesidad en la población de estudio. La seropositividad contra Ad-36 fue del 5,4% en el grupo total, pero no se observó una asociación con el estado nutricional. No se encontró correlación entre la seropositividad contra Ad-36 y los parámetros del perfil lipídico. La insulina y la HOMA-RI fueron significativamente más bajas en el grupo Ad-36 (+) (p<0,001), no habiendo sido reportados casos de RI en el grupo Ad-36 (+) en nuestra población. Conclusiones: Nuestros resultados sugieren que la infección previa por el adenovirus-36 afecta la secreción de insulina y la resistencia a la insulina, como se ha descrito anteriormente, sin embargo, no se observa correlación con el desarrollo de la obesidad infantil en la población pediátrica del sur de Chile.


Previous infection with Adenovirus-36 (Ad-36) has been associated with adipogenic process and glycemic control in experimental models of cell culture and animals. In humans, the presence of antibodies against Ad-36 has been shown to increase the risk of obesity and, paradoxically, improve glycemic control in different populations. The influence of Ad-36 seropositivity on obesity risk, lipid and glycemic profile was evaluated in a population of school-age children. Methods: Two hundred eight individuals aged 9 to 13 years were grouped according to their nutritional status as normal weight (BMI z-score from -1 to +1), overweight (BMI z-score from +1 to +2) or obese (BMI z-score from -1 to +1). z-score > +3). Anthropometric measurements, pubertal development according to Tanner stage, biochemical parameters (lipid profile, glycemia and insulin) and seropositivity against Ad-36 were evaluated. Insulin resistance (IR) was determined according to criteria for the Chilean child population. Seropositivity against Ad-36 was determined by ELISA. Results: There was a high prevalence of overweight/obesity in the study population. Seropositivity against Ad-36 was 5.4% in the total group, but no association with nutritional status was observed. No correlation was found between Ad-36 seropositivity and lipid profile parameters. Insulin and HOMA-RI were significantly lower in the Ad-36 (+) group (p<0.001), and no cases of RI were reported in the Ad-36 (+) group in our population. Conclusions: Our results suggest that previous adenovirus-36 infection affects insulin secretion and insulin resistance, as previously described, however, no correlation is observed with the development of childhood obesity in the pediatric population. from southern Chile.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adenoviridae/isolation & purification , Adenoviridae Infections/complications , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Pediatric Obesity/virology , Blood Glucose/analysis , Insulin Resistance , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Chile , Anthropometry , Nutritional Status , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Assessment , Overweight/epidemiology , Overweight/virology , Lipids/analysis
11.
Rwanda Journal of Medicine and Health Sciences ; 6(2): 199-207, 2023. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1509421

ABSTRACT

Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection among pregnant women has a high rate of vertical transmission and consequential effects on fetal and neonatal outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of infection among pregnant women attending antenatal care services in Osogbo, Nigeria. Methodology This hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted among pregnant women attending routine antenatal care clinic between April and June 2021. Systematic random sampling technique was used to recruit 240 pregnant women, their data were collected by face to face interview using a pretested questionnaire, while blood sample was collected aseptically to determine hepatitis B surface antigen by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay test kit. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were used to examine the association between explanatory variables and outcome variable. Results The mean age and seroprevalence of the study population were 27.50 ± 4.4 years and 5.8% respectively. The significant risk factors for HBV infection were tattooing (aOR = 5.22; 95% CI = 0.52­8.01; p = 0.0000), history of multiple sexual partners (aOR = 2.88; 95% CI = 1.92­12.42; p = 0.0044); and past history of contact with HBV patient (aOR = 2.17; 95% CI = 1.21­15.32; p = 0.0310) were significant predictors of HBV infection. Conclusion The seroprevalence of HBV from this study was of intermediate endemicity. We therefore, advocate for continuous health education programs on the mode of HBV transmission, high-risk behaviors and methods of preventions at antenatal care clinics to raise the awareness of mothers and limit the spread of infection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Hepatitis B virus , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens
12.
Revue Africaine de Médecine et de Santé publique ; 6(1): 126-137, 2023. figures, tables
Article in French | AIM | ID: biblio-1417204

ABSTRACT

La séroprévalence des anticorps anti hépatite A (correspondant au taux d'immunisation) était de 100% à Sétif (Algérie), chez les personnes âgées entre 10 et 14 ans en 1986. Elle est passée à 70,4% en 2011. Partant de ce fait, les auteurs se proposent de prévoir cette séroprévalence, dans la même wilaya en 2024, à travers le modèle 'Logit binaire multiple', sur la base des données d'une enquête réalisée en 2011. La séroprévalence globale chez les sujets âgés entre 5 et 19 ans serait, selon les résultats de ce modèle, de 67% en 2024; les principaux facteurs associés à cette séroprévalence seraient l'âge, l'habitat, la taille des ménageset l'antécédent d'ictère. En conséquence, un programme de vaccination pourrait s'imposer comme une nouvelle stratégie de lutte contre la maladie dans la wilaya de Sétif.


The seroprevalence of anti-hepatitis A antibodies (corresponding to the immunization rate) was 100% in Sétif, in people aged between 10 and 14 years in 1986. It has declined to 70.4% in 2011. Starting from this fact, the authors propose to predict this seroprevalence, in the same wilaya (district) in 2024, through the 'multiple binary logit' model, based on data from a survey carried out in 2011. The overall seroprevalence in subjects aged between 5 and 19 years would be, according to the results of this model, 67% in 2024; the main factors associated with this seroprevalence would be age, habitat, household size and a history of jaundice. As a result, a vaccination program could establish itself as a new disease control strategy in Sétif.


Subject(s)
Seroepidemiologic Studies , Immunization , Vaccination , Hepatitis A Antibodies , Hepatitis A
13.
rev.cuid. (Bucaramanga. 2010) ; 14(1): 1-16, 20221221.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1428600

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Toxoplasmosis is a zoonosis prevalent in one-third of the world's population, adversely affecting maternal-fetal health by causing varying degrees of damage to the fetus. Objective: To assess the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii IgG and IgM antibodies and associated risk factors in first-trimester pregnant women in Cúcuta, Colombia, in 2018. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional and correlational study in 111 women who voluntarily participated. Specific IgM and IgG antibodies were detected by luminescence immunoassay (LIA). Results: Total seropositivity for IgM and IgG was 19.8% and 35.1%, respectively, 11.7% was for IgM only, and 53.2% corresponded to the overall seronegativity rate for T. gondii. Risk factors (CI = 95%) such as undercooked meat consumption (54.1% of cases, OR = 1.8, p = 0.120), tap water consumption (48.6%, OR = 1.4, p = 0.421), and goat or cow raw milk consumption (39.6%, OR = 0.78, p = 0.553) were identified; in addition, living with cats (23.4%) was identified as a risk factor significantly associated with parasite seropositivity (OR = 2.8, p = 0.025). Discussion and Conclusions: Our findings showed a possible risk of primary infection in more than half of the pregnant population, given the seronegativity against the parasite. A considerable frequency of suspected cases of very recent infection was also found. In addition to being associated with a previously recognized risk factor, this fact suggests the presence of other dietary risks that should be addressed through prevention strategies during prenatal care and the need to strengthen event surveillance.


Introdução: A toxoplasmose é uma zoonose prevalente em um terço da população mundial, que afeta negativamente a saúde materno-fetal, causando diversos graus de danos ao feto. Objetivo: Propôs-se avaliar o estado sorológico IgG e IgM anti - Toxoplasma gondii e fatores de risco relacionados, em gestantes no primeiro trimestre em Cúcuta, Colômbia, no ano de 2018. Material e Métodos: Estudo transversal e correlacional em Participaram 111 mulheres voluntariamente, que foram testadas para IgM e IgG específicos pelo imunoensaio LIA. Resultados: 19,8% e 35,1% do total de soropositividade foram encontrados para IgM e IgG, respectivamente, 11,7% foi apenas para IgM e 53,2% corresponde à frequência de soronegatividade geral para T.gondii; Foram identificados fatores de risco (IC=95%) , como consumo de carne mal cozida (54,1% dos casos, OR= 1,8, p=0,120 ), água da torneira (48,6%, OR=1,4, p=0,421), cru leite de cabra ou vaca (39,6%, OR=0,78, p=0,553 ), além de conviver com gatos (23,4%), sendo este último significativamente associado à soropositividade ao parasita ( OR=2,8 , p =0,025 ). Discussão e conclusões: Nossos achados revelam um possível risco de infecção primária em mais da metade da população gestante dada a sua soronegatividade contra o parasita, mas também uma frequência considerável de casos com suspeita de infecção muito recente, que, além de estar associada a um fator de risco previamente reconhecido , sugere outros aspectos de risco em torno da alimentação que devem ser impactados por meio de estratégias de prevenção durante o pré-natal, sugerindo a necessidade de fortalecer a vigilância em torno do evento.


Subject(s)
Seroepidemiologic Studies , Toxoplasmosis , Risk Factors , Pregnant Women , Immunity
14.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 42(4): 198-208, dic. 2022. graf, ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1418128

ABSTRACT

Introducción: el personal de salud (PdS) es esencial en la lucha contra el COVID-19. Al inicio de la pandemia, el riesgo de adquirir la enfermedad en este grupo era desconocido. Buscamos estimar incidencia y prevalencia de anticuerpos anti-SARS-CoV-2, y prevalencia de burnout en una cohorte de PdS durante la pandemia COVID-19, así como valorar la prevalencia de burnout y depresión en la cohorte. Materiales y métodos: cohorte prospectiva conformada por médicos que atendían pacientes COVID-19 desde marzo de 2020 hasta enero de 2021, en un hospital de alta complejidad de la ciudad de Buenos Aires. Se evaluó IgM e IgG anti-SARS-CoV-2 quincenalmente durante 3 meses, así como la presencia de síntomas compatibles y factores asociados a la exposición. Se remitió a participantes con alteraciones de la esfera psíquica a contacto con el equipo de salud mental del hospital. Resultados: se incluyeron 52 participantes; de ellos, 31 eran mujeres; mediana de edad 32 años (rango 25-58). La mediana de horas semanales de trabajo autoinformadas fue 48 (IIC [intervalo intercuartil] 40-69,5). Inicialmente todos fueron PCR SARS-CoV-2 negativos en hisopado nasal; 11 (21,50% IC 95%; 9,62-32,53%) tuvieron COVID-19 sintomático con anticuerpos positivos. Los factores con mayor asociación a riesgo de COVID-19 fueron anosmia/disgeusia OR 403,33 (IC 95%; 47,60-3417,02), fiebre OR 172,53 (IC 95%; 28,82-1032,65), mialgias OR 41,97 (IC 95%; 8,08-217,84), conviviente con COVID-19 OR 28,17 (IC 95%; 5,67-179,97). Cerca del 40% presentaba alteraciones en las escalas de medición de burnout o depresión. Discusión: la incidencia hallada coincide con las cifras informadas acerca de personal de salud en la etapa inicial de la pandemia en la Argentina. Otro aspecto similar fue una mayoría de infecciones de curso leve, sin ningún paciente hospitalizado. No obstante, se halló una elevada incidencia de alteraciones de la esfera psíquica, tanto al comienzo como al final del seguimiento. Conclusiones: la incidencia de positivización de anticuerpos anti-SARS-CoV-2 fue cercana al 20%. No evidenciamos infecciones presintomáticas o asintomáticas. En cambio, la prevalencia de burnout y depresión fue elevada. La salud mental es un componente del personal de salud que debe ser priorizado en situaciones futuras de impacto similar. (AU)


Introduction: healthcare personnel are essential in the response against COVID-19. At the beginning of the pandemic the risk of acquiring the disease in this group was unknown. We sought to estimate incidence and prevalence of anti SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, as well as burnout prevalence in a cohort of healthcare staff during the pandemic, as well as assessing the prevalence of burnout and depression in this group. Materials and methods: prospective cohort formed by physicians tending to COVID-19 patients from march 2020 to january 2021 in a high-complexity hospital in the city of Buenos Aires. We evaluated anti SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG each 15 days for 3 months as well as the presence of compatible symptoms and factors associated to exposition to the virus. Patients showing signs of burnout and/or depression were referred to proper care by the mental health team in the hospital. Results: we included 52 patients, 31 women, median age was 32 years (range 25 - 58). Median amount of self-reported hours worked each week was 48 (IQR 40 - 69.5). Initially all participants had a negative COVID-19 PCR nasopharyngeal swab; 11 (21.50% CI95% 9.62 - 32.53%) had symptomatic COVID-19 with positive antibodies. Factors showing stronger association with testing positive were anosmia/dysgeusia OR 403.33 (CI95% 47.60-3417.02), fever OR 172.53 (CI95% 28.82 - 1032.65), myalgia OR 41.97 (CI95% 8.08 - 217.84), cohabitation with confirmed COVID-19 case OR 28.17 (CI95% 5.67 - 179.97). Near 40% showed alterations in burnout or depression scales. Discussion: the incidence rate we found was like reported values in the initial stages of the pandemic in Argentina. Another similarity was that all cases were mild; no hospitalization was required for any participant. We found an elevated incidence of alterations in the psychic sphere, both at the beginning and end of the follow up period. Conclusions:the incidence of positive SARS-CoV-2 antibodies was around 20%. No pre or asymptomatic cases were identified. Burnout and depression incidence was high. Mental health is a component that should never be overlooked in similar situations to come. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Hospitalists/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Burnout, Psychological/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Argentina/epidemiology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Incidence , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , COVID-19 Serological Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis
15.
Rev. bras. ciênc. vet ; 29(4): 185-188, out./dez. 2022. il.
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1427126

ABSTRACT

We conducted aseroepidemiological study on the occurrence of anti-Sarcocystisspp. and anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in dogs from family farming properties in the municipality of Ji-Paraná, Rondônia.Blood samples were collected from apparently healthy dogs between September 2012 and November 2013. In total, 181 blood serum samples were analyzed using an indirect immunofluorescence assay, among which 57 (31.49%) and 20 (11.04%) were positive for anti-T. gondii and anti-Sarcocystis spp., respectively. Statistical analyses showed that the type of food fed to the dogs was associated with the occurrence of anti-Sarcocystisspp. antibodies. In contrast, age and access to bovine carcasses were the risk factors for anti-T. gondii.The high occurrence of seropositive dogs for Sarcocystis spp. and T. gondii evidences the wide distribution of these agents in the studied area, possibly due to human and animal exposure to these protozoan species. In addition, anti-T. gondii antibodies were directly proportional to dog age. The increase in the number of positive animals with age was statistically significant. Furthermore, high antibody titers (up to 800) against Sarcocystis spp. in dogs suggest the possibility of recent exposure, in addition to environmental contamination by oocysts/sporocysts eliminated by the feces of these animals.


Conduzimos um estudo soroepidemiológico sobre a ocorrência de anticorpos anti- Sarcocystis spp. e anti-Toxoplasma gondiiem cães de propriedades de agricultura familiar no município de Ji-Paraná, Rondônia. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas de cães aparentemente saudáveis, entre setembro de 2012 e novembro de 2013. Ao todo, foram analisados 181 soros sanguíneos por meio do ensaio de imunofluorescência indireta, sendo positivas 57 (31,49%) e 20 (11,04%) amostras para anticorpos anti-T. gondii e anti-Sarcocystis spp., respectivamente. As análises estatísticas demonstraram que o tipo de alimentação fornecida aos cães esteve associado à ocorrência de anticorpos anti-Sarcocystis spp. Em contraste a idade e o acesso à carcaça bovina foram fatores de risco para a presença de anticorpos anti-T. gondii. A alta ocorrência de cães soropositivos para Sarcocystis spp. e T. gondii evidencia a ampla distribuição desses agentes na área estudada, possivelmente devido à exposição humana e animal a essas espécies de protozoários. Além disso, o resultado dos anticorpos anti-T. gondii relacionados a idade do cão mostraram diferença estatística, com aumento significativo no número de animais positivos com a idade. Além disso, altos títulos de anticorpos (até 800) contra Sarcocystis spp. em cães sugerem a possibilidade de exposição recente, além da contaminação ambiental por oocistos/esporocistos eliminados pelas fezes desses animais.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Toxoplasma , Zoonoses/transmission , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Toxoplasmosis, Animal/transmission , Sarcocystis , Sarcocystosis/veterinary , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect/veterinary , Oocysts , Dogs/parasitology , Antibodies/analysis
16.
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 82(3): 303-310, sept. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1409938

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: El personal de otorrinolaringología presenta una elevada exposición al virus SARS-CoV-2, debido a los procedimientos que lleva a cabo. Es fundamental tomar las medidas de protección adecuadas. Determinar la seroprevalencia nos dará un mejor panorama sobre la exposición, contagios y efectividad de medidas de protección adoptadas. Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia de resultados serológicos positivos en personal médico que presta servicio en la Cátedra de Otorrinolaringología de marzo del 2020 a marzo de 2021. Material y Método: Estudio observacional, descriptivo, corte transversal, retrospectivo con asociación cruzada. Muestreo no probabilístico de casos consecutivos. La población total fue de 38 médicos del Servicio de Otorrinolaringología del Hospital de Clínicas. Resultados: La media de edades fue 37,4 años, 63,5% refirió haber atendido a paciente conocido portador de COVID-19. Un 42% refirió no haber cumplido con todas las medidas de protección personal, mientras que un 23,7% de los sujetos de estudio dio positivo para IgG, interpretándose como infección previa por COVID-19. Conclusión: Más de las dos terceras partes de los médicos refirió dar consulta a paciente COVID-19 positivo. Casi la cuarta parte de los médicos resultó ser positivo para COVID-19 según la prueba de serología anti-N. No se halló asociación entre consulta ni cirugía a pacientes portadores de COVID-19 y el contagio al personal médico.


Abstract Introduction: Otolaryngology personnel have a high exposure to SARS-CoV-2 virus due to the procedures they perform. It is essential to take appropriate protective measures. Determining seroprevalence will give us a better picture of exposure, contagion and effectiveness of protective measures adopted. Aim: To determine the prevalence of positive serological results in medical staff serving in the otolaryngology department from March 2020 to March 2021. Material and Method: Observational, descriptive, cross-sectional, retrospective, retrospective study with cross-association. Non-probability sampling of consecutive cases. The total population was 38 physicians of the Otolaryngology Service of the Hospital de Clinicas. Results: The mean age was 37.4. 63.5% reported having seen a patient known to be a COVID-19 carrier, while 42% reported not having complied with all personal protection measures. A 23.68% of the study subjects tested positive for IgG, interpreting previous COVID-19 infection. Conclusion: More than two-thirds of the physicians referred to giving consultation to COVID-19 positive patients. Almost a quarter of the physicians were positive for COVID-19 according to the Anti-N serology test. No association was found between consultation or surgery of patients with COVID-19 and infection of medical personnel.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Immunoglobulin G/analysis , Immunoglobulin M/analysis , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Otolaryngologists/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/immunology , Paraguay/epidemiology , Security Measures , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Personal Protection , COVID-19 Serological Testing , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
17.
rev.cuid. (Bucaramanga. 2010) ; 13(3): 1-13, 20220831.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1402540

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Existen pocos reportes que evalúen la seroprevalencia contra SARS-CoV-2 en población migrante en el mundo. Estos estudios ayudan a conocer la exposición al virus en las poblaciones para implementar acciones que reduzcan el impacto de la infección por SARS-CoV-2. Objetivo: Determinar la seroprevalencia contra SARS CoV-2 en migrantes con vocación de permanencia en Bucaramanga, e identificar factores asociados a la infección previa por SARS-CoV-2. Materiales y métodos: Estudio de corte transversal analítico con muestreo consecutivo. Se incluyeron migrantes adultos en Bucaramanga durante febrero/2021. Se realizaron encuestas e inmunoensayos de quimioluminiscencia para IgM e IgG contra SARS-CoV-2 en suero. Se calcularon razones de prevalencia (RP) con regresión log-binomial. Resultados:Se incluyeron 462 participantes. La seroprevalencia de IgM fue 11,7% (IC95% 9,1­14,9), de IgG fue 32,9% (IC95% 28,8­37,3) y de IgM o IgG fue 36,1% (IC95% 31,9-40,6). Exposición a un caso confirmado (RP:1,54; IC95%1,04-2,29) o sospechoso (RP:1,56; IC95%1,13-2,16) de COVID-19, seis o más convivientes (RP:1,52; IC95%1,05-2,20), estancia en Colombia ≥2 años (RP:1,43; IC95%1,11-1,92) y presencia de síntomas (RP:1,62; IC95%1,26 - 2,10) se asociaron con mayor seroprevalencia de IgG. Discusión:En Bucaramanga, la seroprevalencia en migrantes fue similar a la de migrantes en Kuwait, pero menor que en Paris y Singapur. Conclusión: En migrantes con vocación de permanencia la seroprevalencia contra SARS-CoV-2 fue similar a la reportada en residentes de Bucaramanga. El contacto con casos sospechosos/confirmados de COVID-19 y las condiciones de hacinamiento fueron algunos de los factores asociados a la seroprevalencia.


Introduction:There are few reports assessing anti-SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence in the migrant population in the world. These studies help to understand the exposure of populations to the virus to take actions to reduce the impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Objetive: To determine the anti-SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence in migrants with a vocation for permanence in Bucaramanga and to identify factors associated with previous SARS-CoV-2 infection. Materials and Methods:Analytical cross-sectional study using consecutive sampling, which included adult migrants in Bucaramanga in February 2021. Surveys were conducted, and chemiluminescent immunoassays were performed to detect IgM and IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 in serum samples. Prevalence ratios (PR) were estimated using a log-binomial regression model. Results:The study enrolled 462 participants. IgM seroprevalence was 11.7% (95% CI 9.1­14.9), IgG seroprevalence was 32.9% (95% CI 28.8­37.3), and IgM or IgG seroprevalence was 36.1% (95% CI 31.9­40.6). Contact with a confirmed case of COVID-19 (PR:1.54; 95% CI 1.04-2.29) or suspected case (PR:1.56; 95% CI 1.13­2.16); living with six or more people (PR: 1.52; 95% CI 1.05­2.20); stay in Colombia ≥ 2 years (PR:1.43; 95% CI 1.11­1.92), and presence of symptoms (PR:1.62; 95%CI 1.26­2.10) were some factors associated with higher IgG seroprevalence. Discussion: In Bucaramanga, SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence among migrants was similar to the seroprevalences of migrants in Kuwait but lower than migrants in Paris and Singapore. Conclusions: The anti-SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence among migrants with a vocation for permanence was similar to that reported among residents of Bucaramanga. Contact with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 cases and crowded conditions were some of the factors associated with seroprevalence.


Introdução: Existem poucos relatos que avaliam a soroprevalência contra SARS-CoV-2 na população migrante no mundo. Esses estudos ajudam a conhecer a exposição ao vírus nas populações para implementar ações que reduzam o impacto da infecção por SARS-CoV-2. Objetivo: Determinar a soroprevalência contra SARS CoV-2 em migrantes que pretendem permanecer em Bucaramanga e identificar fatores associados à infecção anterior por SARS-CoV-2. Materiais e Métodos: Estudo analítico transversal com amostragem consecutiva. Foram incluídos migrantes adultos em Bucaramanga durante fevereiro/2021. Foram realizados levantamentos e imunoensaios de quimioluminescência para IgM e IgG contra SARS-CoV-2 no soro. As razões de prevalência (RP) foram calculadas com regressão log-binomial. Resultados: foram incluídos 462 participantes. A soroprevalência de IgM foi de 11,7% (IC 95% 9,1-14,9), de IgG foi de 32,9% (IC 95% 28,8-37,3) e de IgM ou IgG foi de 36,1% (IC95% 31,9-40,6). Exposição a um caso confirmado (RP: 1,54; IC 95% 1,04-2,29) ou caso suspeito (RP: 1,56; IC 95% 1,13-2,16) de COVID-19, seis ou mais coabitantes (RP: 1,52; IC 95% 1,05 -2,20), permanência na Colômbia ≥2 anos (RP: 1,43; IC 95% 1,11-1,92) e presença de sintomas (RP: 1,62; IC95%1,26 - 2,10) foram associados a maior soroprevalência de IgG. Discussão: Em Bucaramanga, a soroprevalência em migrantes foi semelhante à de migrantes no Kuwait, mas menor do que em Paris e Cingapura. Conclusão: Em migrantes com vocação de permanência, a soroprevalência contra SARS-CoV-2 foi semelhante à relatada em residentes de Bucaramanga. O contato com casos suspeitos/confirmados de COVID-19 e as condições de superlotação foram alguns dos fatores associados à soroprevalência.


Subject(s)
Transients and Migrants , Seroepidemiologic Studies , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 39(3): 238-247, jun. 2022. ilus, tab, mapas
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1407783

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La COVID-19, causada por el virus del síndrome respiratorio agudo severo tipo-2 (SARS-CoV-2), fue declarada pandémica en marzo de 2020. Los estudios de seroprevalencia son útiles para efectuar diversas estimaciones: la proporción de la población previamente infectada, cuantificar la magnitud de la transmisión, la tasa de letalidad, evaluar el efecto de intervenciones, y el grado de inmunidad de una población. OBJETIVOS: Determinar la extensión de la infección y la incidencia acumulada de infección mediante el estudio de seropositividad en pobladores de las regiones sanitarias de Asunción y Departamento Central de Paraguay. METODOLOGÍA: Estudio de cohorte poblacional. Se encuestaron 126 hogares en Asunción y 609 en el Departamento Central entre diciembre 2020 y marzo 2021. Se realizaron tres visitas a los hogares seleccionados. RESULTADOS: La tasa de testeo fue 66,6%, 1.699 personas (324 en Asunción y 1.375 en Central) de las 2.553 personas censadas. En la primera, segunda y tercera rondas, las seroprevalencias fueron en Asunción 15,5%, 15,4% y 14,3%, respectivamente; en Central 23,1%, 27,8% y 26,9%, respectivamente. Hubo una seroconversión entre la primera y segunda ronda de 5,9% y en la tercera ronda 6,5%. La seroprevalencia global acumulada fue de 26,9% (IC95%: 24,8-19,1); en Asunción 23,1% (IC95%: 18,9-28,0) y en Central 27,8% (IC95%: 25,5-30,2). El 8,5% de los participantes reportó síntomas; de estos, el 54,2% presentó serología positiva. CONCLUSIÓN: La sero-prevalencia fue alta con una baja proporción de encuestados sintomáticos.


BACKGROUND: COVID-19, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome virus type-2 (SARS-CoV-2), was declared a pandemic in March 2020. Seroprevalence studies are useful to estimate the proportion of the population previously infected, quantify the magnitude of transmission, estimate the fatality rate, evaluate the effect of interventions, and estimate the degree of immunity of the population. AIM: To determine the extension of the infection and the cumulative incidence of age-specific infection, determined by seropositivity in the population of the sanitary regions of Asunción and the Central Department of Paraguay. METHODS: Population-based cohort study. In Asunción 126 households and in the Central Department 609 were surveyed between December 2020 to March 2021. Three visits were made to the selected households. RESULTS: The testing rate was 66.6%, 1,699 people (324 in Asunción and 1,375 in Central) of the 2,553 people registered. In the first, second and third rounds, seroprevalences were 15.5%, 15.4% and 14.3% in Asunción, respectively; in Central 23.1%, 27.8% and 26.9%, respectively. There was a seroconversion between the first and second rounds of 5.9%, and in the third round 6.5%; the accumulated global seroprevalence was 26.9% (95% CI: 24.8-19.1); in Asunción 23.1% (95% CI: 18.9-28.0) and in Central 27.8% (95% CI: 25.5-30.2). 8.5% of the participants reported symptoms; of them, 54.2% had positive serology. CONCLUSION: The sero-prevalence was high with a low proportion of people with symptoms.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , COVID-19/epidemiology , Paraguay/epidemiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Incidence , Cohort Studies , Age Distribution , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral
19.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 39(3): 260-264, jun. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1407791

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La toxoplasmosis es una enfermedad zoonótica cuyo contagio se produce por vía oral por ingestión de quistes al consumir carne contaminada o al tener contacto con heces de felinos contaminadas con ooquistes. Con menor frecuencia, se adquiere por transmisión vertical o por trasplante de órganos infectados. En Chile, existen estudios serológicos en personas sanas e inmunodeprimidas, pero no en grupos de riesgo ocupacional, como son los estudiantes de Medicina Veterinaria. OBJETIVO: Determinar la seroprevalencia para T. gondii en estudiantes de Medicina Veterinaria de una universidad ubicada en el centro-sur del país, y ver su asociación con variable intrínsecas. MÉTODOS. Se tomaron muestras de sangre a 74 estudiantes de una universidad del centro-sur de Chile. Se determinó la presencia de anticuerpos específicos clase IgG contra Toxoplasma gondii mediante la técnica de inmunoanálisis por quimioluminiscencia en fase solida secuencial. RESULTADOS. Del total de alumnos, 16 fueron seropositivos lo que equivale a 21,6%, el mayor número de estudiantes seropositivos fue de sexo femenino (75%), se encontraban en el rango etario entre 24 y 26 años de edad (43,7%), todos consumían carne y verduras (100%) y realizaban la recolección de heces de gatos sin protección 50 (68,7%). CONCLUSIONES. Los resultados obtenidos demuestran la presencia de anticuerpos contra T. gondii en alumnos de Medicina Veterinaria. Según el conocimiento de los autores, es el primer estudio serológico para toxoplasmosis realizado en estudiantes universitarios de Medicina Veterinaria en Chile.


BACKGROUND: Toxoplasmosis is a disease that results from infection with the Toxoplasma gondii parasite, one of the world's most common parasites. The zoonotic infection usually occurs by eating undercooked contaminated meat or by contact with contaminated cat feces. A few studies of toxoplasmosis in healthy and immuno-compromised persons were done in Chile, but investigations related to occupational risk groups, such as Veterinary Medicine students were not studied. AIM: Determine the seroprevalence for T. gondii in Veterinary Medicine students at a university located in the center-south of the country, and evaluated to association with intrinsic variables. METHODS: Peripheral blood samples were taken from 74 veterinary students from a university in south-central Chile. Immunoassay with sequential chemiluminescent was used as diagnostic technique. RESULTS. Of the total number of students, 16 were seropositive, which is equivalent to 21.6%, the largest number of seropositive students was female (75%), they were in the age range between 24 and 26 years of age (43.7%), all consumed meat and vegetables (100%) and collected pet cat feces without protection 50 (68,7%). CONCLUSIONS: The results obtained show the presence of antibodies against T. gondii in Veterinary Medicine students. To the authors' knowledge, it is the first serological study for toxoplasmosis performed in university students of Veterinary Medicine in Chile.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmosis/epidemiology , Students , Occupational Risks , Antibodies, Protozoan , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Risk Factors
20.
Rev. epidemiol. controle infecç ; 12(2): 75-79, abr.-jun. 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1417365

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: Toxoplasmosis is a cosmopolitan zoonosis caused by the Toxoplasma gondii protozoan, transmitted mainly through contaminated water or food, beyond vertical transmission. In the State of Goiás, there is a lack of data on the prevalence of the disease, hence the relevance of this cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women in the municipality of Jataí. Methods: Data were collected from pregnant women attended by the public health network in the municipality from January 2005 to December 2015. Results: During the analyzed period, 11,350 pregnant women were attended; 75% with IgG antibodies and 0,60% IgM antibodies reactive for T. gondii, with a reduction in the number of cases since 2010. Conclusion: The high seroprevalence found shows that pregnant women are in close contact with factors that trigger the infection and a reduction in the number of cases indicates the efficacy of epidemiological surveillance actions developed for this population group.(AU)


Justificativa e Objetivos: Toxoplasmose é uma zoonose cosmopolita causada pelo protozoário Toxoplasma gondii, transmitido principalmente através de água e alimentos contaminados e pela transmissão vertical. No estado de Goiás existe uma escassez de dados referentes à prevalência da toxoplasmose. Diante dessa realidade, tornou-se relevante esse estudo transversal que determinasse a prevalência da toxoplasmose nas gestantes no município de Jataí. Métodos: Foram coletados dados de grávidas atendidas pela rede pública de saúde no município no período de janeiro de 2005 a dezembro de 2015. Resultados: No período analisado, foram atendidas 11.350 gestantes, sendo 75% delas com anticorpos IgG e 0,60% anticorpos IgM reagentes para T. gondii, com redução no número de casos a partir de 2010. Conclusão: A alta soroprevalência encontrada demonstra que as grávidas estão em íntimo contato com os fatores que desencadeiam a infecção. É necessário investigar os fatores que contribuem para a elevada taxa de infecção.(AU)


Justificacíon y Objetivos: La toxoplasmosis es uma zoonosis cosmopolita causada por el protozoo Toxoplasma gondii, que se transmite principalmente através del agua o alimentos contaminados, además de la transmisión vertical. Em el estado de Goiás, se carece de dados sobre la prevalência de la enfermedad y ante esta realidade, es relevante este estudio transversal para determinar la prevalência de toxoplasmosis em gestantes del município de Jataí. Métodos: Se recolectaron dados de gestantes atendidas por la red de salud pública del município de Enero de 2005 a Diciembre de 2015. Resultados: Entre el período analizado se trató a 11.350 gestantes, 75% de ellas com anticuerpos IgG y 0,60% anticuerpos IgM reactivos para T. gondii, com uma reducción em el número de casos a partir de 2010. Conclusión: La alta soroprevalência encontrada muestra que las mujeres embarazadas están em estrecho contacto com los fatores desencadenantes de la infección y uma reducción em el número de casos apunta a uma eficácia em las acciones de vigilância epidemiológica desarrolladas para este grupo de problación.(AU)


Subject(s)
Female , Pregnancy , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmosis, Congenital/epidemiology , Pregnant Women , Seroepidemiologic Studies
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