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1.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1563-1566, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-231734

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Sarpogrelate is a selective 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptor subtype 2A antagonist which blocks 5-HT induced platelet aggregation and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells. We compared the efficacy of sarpogrelate-based dual antiplatelet therapies for the prevention of restenosis and target lesion revascularization (TLR) rates comparing with that of clopidogrel after percutaneous endovascular interventions (EVIs) of femoropopliteal (FP) arterial lesions.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>This prospective, multicenter, randomized clinical trial recruited a total of 120 patients with successful EVI of FP lesions at seven centers across China between January 2011 and June 2012. Patients were randomized to receive either sarpogrelate (100 mg trice daily for 6 months, n = 63) or clopidogrel (75 mg once daily for 6 months, n = 57). All patients also received oral aspirin (100 mg once daily for 12 months). Clinical follow-up was conducted up to 12 months postprocedure.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>There was no significant difference between the two groups in basic demographic data. The restenosis rate was higher in the clopidogrel group (22.80%) than in sarpogrelate group (17.50%), but there was no significant difference between these two groups (P = 0.465). The TLR rate, ipsilateral amputation rate, mortality in all-cause and bleeding rate were also similar in the two groups (P > 0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Aspirin plus sarpogrelate is a comparable antithrombotic regimen to aspirin plus clopidogrel after EVI of FP arterial lesions. Dual antiplatelet therapies might play an important role in preventing restenosis after successful EVI of FP lesions.</p>


Subject(s)
Aged , Arterial Occlusive Diseases , Drug Therapy , Female , Fibrinolytic Agents , Therapeutic Uses , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Middle Aged , Peripheral Vascular Diseases , Drug Therapy , Popliteal Artery , Pathology , Serotonin Antagonists , Therapeutic Uses , Succinates , Therapeutic Uses , Ticlopidine , Therapeutic Uses
2.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 64(3): 169-172, May-Jun/2014.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-715665

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Etomidate causes pain when injected intravenously. In this study we sought to determine if pretreatment by ondansetron reduces the pain on injection of etomidate. Methods: In this randomized, double blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial, 20 patients of both sexes aged between 18 and 50 years of American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status class I or II, whom were candidates for various elective surgical procedures and need more than one intravenous access were enrolled in the study. On arrival to the operating room two 22 gauge cannulas were inserted into veins on the dorsum of both hands. Following the infusion of 100 mL normal saline into both intravenous lines, using an elastic band, venous drainage of hands was occluded at midarm. The patients were administered 8 mg (2 mL) of ondansetron into one hand and 2 mL of 0.9% saline into the other hand at the same time. The elastic band was removed after 1 min and 2 mg (1 mL) of etomidate was administered at the same rate simultaneously into intravenous lines. The patients were asked to give a score of pain based on a verbal analog scale (VAS) to each hand. Results: A total number of 20 patients were studied (male = 55%, female = 45%). The mean age of the participants was 37.5 ± 13.1 years old and the mean weight was 67.7 ± 7.3 kg. The mean VAS for injection pain of etomidate after pre-administration of intravenous ondansetron was 1.5 ± 1.2 which was lower compared to pre-administration of placebo (3.2 ± 2.8, p < 0.05). Conclusion: This study illustrates that pre-treatment with intravenous ondansetron significantly reduces the pain on injection of etomidate. .


Justificativa e objetivo: etomidato causa dor quando administrado por via intravenosa. Neste estudo buscamos determinar se o pré-tratamento com ondansetrona reduz a dor causada pela injeção de etomidato. Métodos: neste estudo clínico randômico, duplo-cego e controlado por placebo, 20 pacientes de ambos os sexos, entre 18 e 50 anos, estado físico ASA I ou II, candidatos a procedimentos cirúrgicos eletivos que exigiam mais de um acesso intravenoso, foram incluídos. Ao darem entrada na sala de cirurgia, duas cânulas de calibre 22 foram inseridas nas veias do dorso de ambas as mãos. Após a infusão de 100 mL de solução salina normal em ambas as linhas de acesso intravenoso, a drenagem venosa das mãos foi ocluída até o meio do braço com o uso de um torniquete elástico. Os pacientes receberam 8 mg (2 mL) de ondansetrona em uma das mãos e 2 mL de solução salina a 0,9% na outra mão ao mesmo tempo. O torniquete foi removido após um minuto e 2 mg (1 mL) de etomidato foram administrados na mesma proporção simultaneamente nas linhas intravenosas. Pediu-se aos pacientes que dessem pontos à dor em cada mão, com base em uma escala verbal analógica (EVA). Resultados: avaliamos 20 pacientes (homens = 55%, mulheres = 45%). A média de idade e de peso foi de 37,5 ± 13,1 anos e 67,7 ±7,3 kg. A média do escore EVA para dor causada pela injeção de etomidato após a pré-administração de ondansetron IV foi de 1,5 ± 1,2, que foi menor em comparação com a pré-administração de placebo (3,2 ± 2,8, p < 0,05). Conclusão: este estudo mostra que o pré-tratamento com ondansetrona IV reduz significativamente a dor causada pela injeção de etomidato. .


Introducción: el etomidato causa dolor cuando es administrado por vía intravenosa. En este estudio buscamos determinar si el pretratamiento con ondansetrón reduce el dolor causado por la inyección de etomidato. Métodos: fueron incluidos en este estudio clínico aleatorizado, doble ciego y controlado por placebo, 20 pacientes de ambos sexos con edades entre 18 y 50 años, estado físico ASA I o II, candidatos a varios procedimientos quirúrgicos electivos, que exigían más de un acceso intravenoso. Al entrar en quirófano, se insertaron dos cánulas de calibre 22 en las venas del dorso de ambas manos. Después de la infusión de 100 mL de solución salina normal en ambas líneas de acceso intravenoso; usando un torniquete elástico, el drenaje venoso de las manos se cerró hasta la mitad del brazo. Los pacientes recibieron 8 mg (2 mL) de ondansetrón en una de las manos y 2 mL de solución salina al 0,9% en la otra mano al mismo tiempo. El torniquete fue retirado después de 1 min y 2 mg (1 mL) de etomidato se administró en la misma proporción simultáneamente en las líneas intravenosas. Se les solicitó a los pacientes que hiciesen una puntuación del dolor en cada mano, basándose en una escala verbal analógica (EVA). Resultados: evaluamos a un total de 20 pacientes (un 55% hombres y un 45% mujeres). La media de edad y del peso de los participantes fue de 37,5 ± 13,1 años y de 67,7 ±7,3/kg, respectivamente. El promedio de la puntuación EVA para el dolor causado por la inyección de etomidato después de la preadministración de ondansetrón iv fue de 1,5 ± 1,2, siendo menor en comparación con la preadministración de placebo (3,2 ± 2,8; p < 0,05). Conclusión: este estudio demuestra que el pretratamiento con ondansetrón iv reduce ...


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Anesthetics, Intravenous/adverse effects , Etomidate/adverse effects , Ondansetron/pharmacology , Pain/prevention & control , Anesthetics, Intravenous/administration & dosage , Double-Blind Method , Etomidate/administration & dosage , Injections, Intravenous , Pain Measurement , Pain/chemically induced , Serotonin Antagonists/pharmacology , Treatment Outcome
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-254376

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To observe the change of postoperative fatigue in rats after the effect of branched chain amino acid(BCAA) and associated antagonists on central neurotransmitter 5-HT metabolic pathway, and to investigate the role of 5-HT in the development of postoperative fatigue syndrome(POFS).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Fifty SD rats were randomly divided into sham operation group(C group, n=10), model group(M group, n=10), L-type amino acid transporter inhibitor group(L group, n=10), 5-HT uptake inhibitor group(F group, n=10) and branched chain amino acids(B group, n=10). The rats in the C group and the M group were injected with normal saline, while other three groups were respectively injected with BCH, fluoxetine, BCAA(val:leucine:isoleucine=5:3:2), on preoperative 1 h, postoperative day 1, 2, 3, 4. The rats, except for those in the C group, underwent resection of 70% of the middle small intestine with end-to-end anastomosis. General status of the rats was observed before and after surgery. Morris water maze test, including the hidden platform test and search space test (detecting the learning ability of rats) and tail suspension test (detecting physical endurance of rats) were used to evaluate the degree of POFS from postoperative day 1 to day 7. Concentration of tryptophan(TRP), 5-HT, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in different position of brain(hippocampus, striatum, hypothalamus) of rats were measured by high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC) at postoperative day 8.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>As compared to the M group, other four groups showed better general condition and less fatigue. In the hidden platform test, M group showed the least time of crossing platform as compared to other four groups(all P<0.05). Meanwhile, M group and B group performed the longer incubation period than C group and L group(all P<0.05). In search space test, M group and B group showed less time of crossing platform, but there were no significant differences among the groups(all P>0.05). In tail suspension test, M group and F group showed lower score of physical strength than L group and B group(all P<0.05). Levels of TRP in the L, F, B groups were lower compared to the M group(all P<0.01) in brain tissue. The least concentration of striatum 5-HT was found in the C group but there were no significant differences among the M, L, F and B groups. Level of 5-HIAA in the M group, only in hypothalamus, was higher than that in the F group(P<0.05), but no significant differences between the M group and the L and B groups were found.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>BCAA and associated antagonists (BCH, fluoxetine) can improve POFS by reducing the absorption of TRP that results in decreased synthesis of central 5-HT.</p>


Subject(s)
Amino Acids, Branched-Chain , Pharmacology , Animals , Fatigue , Drug Therapy , Intestine, Small , General Surgery , Postoperative Period , Rats , Serotonin , Metabolism , Serotonin Antagonists , Pharmacology , Tryptophan
4.
Scientific and Research Journal of Army University of Medical Sciences-JAUMS. 2014; 11 (4): 289-299
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-138222

ABSTRACT

Cocaine by effect on central nervous system inhibits reuptake of monoamines [serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine] to presynaptic terminal and increases their concentration. Monoamines such as serotonin cause analgesia at the spinal level. This study investigates the effects of systemic and spinal administration of cocaine on pain sensation and the relation between these effects and serotonin. Male Wistar rats [200-250g] were set in groups: saline [i.p], saline/DMSO [i.p], cocaine 25mg/kg [i.p], saline [i.t], saline/DMSO [i.t], cocaine 100micro g/10 micro l [i.t], cyproheptadine 33 micro g/10 micro l [i.t.] and cyproheptadine 33 micro g/10 micro l/cocaine 100 micro g/10 micro l [i.t]. Tail flick latency was measured before and after administration. Intraplantar formalin was used for induction of chemical pain. The data was analyzed by T-Test and ANOVA. Pain in both phases of formalin test was reduced in both cocaine 25mg/kg [i.p] [P<0.01] and cocaine 100 micro g/10 micro l [i.t.] [P<0.01]. However, in cyproheptadine 33 micro g/10 micro l [i.t], was increased in the first phase [P<0.01]. In cyproheptadine 33 micro g/10 micro l/cocaine 100 micro g/10 micro l [i.t.], the part of pain reduction induced by cocaine was reversed, in both phases [P<0.01]. In tail flick test the results of cyproheptadine 33 micro g/10 micro l [i.t.] showed reduced tail flick latency [P<0.001]. Inhibition of serotonin reuptake at the spinal level plays role in analgesic effects of cocaine probably, because release of serotonin from the spinal serotonergic terminals causes inhibition of pain neurons and reduction of pain. In addition, inhibition of spinal serotonin receptors by cyproheptadine reduced part of analgesic effects of cocaine probably


Subject(s)
Animals, Laboratory , Cyproheptadine/pharmacology , Cocaine/pharmacology , Cyproheptadine/administration & dosage , Cocaine/administration & dosage , Injections, Spinal , Rats, Wistar , Pain , Serotonin Antagonists
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-146988

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of azasetron compared to ondansetron in the prevention of delayed chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was a multi-center, prospective, randomized, double-dummy, double-blind and parallel-group trial involving 12 institutions in Korea between May 2005 and December 2005. A total of 265 patients with moderately and highly emetogenic chemotherapy were included and randomly assigned to either the azasetron or ondansetron group. All patients received azasetron (10 mg intravenously) and dexamethasone (20 mg intravenously) on day 1 and dexamethasone (4 mg orally every 12 hours) on days 2-4. The azasetron group received azasetron (10 mg orally) with placebo of ondansetron (orally every 12 hours), and the ondansetron group received ondansetron (8 mg orally every 12 hours) with placebo of azasetron (orally) on days 2-6. RESULTS: Over days 2-6, the effective ratio of complete response in the azasetron and ondansetron groups was 45% and 54.5%, respectively (95% confidence interval, -21.4 to 2.5%). Thus, the non-inferiority of azasetron compared with ondansetron in delayed chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting was not proven in the present study. All treatments were well tolerated and no unexpected drug-related adverse events were reported. The most common adverse events related to the treatment were constipation and hiccups, and there were no differences in the overall incidence of adverse events. CONCLUSION: In the present study, azasetron showed inferiority in the control of delayed chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting compared with ondansetron whereas safety profiles were similar between the two groups.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents , Constipation , Dexamethasone , Drug Therapy , Hiccup , Humans , Incidence , Korea , Nausea , Ondansetron , Prospective Studies , Serotonin Antagonists , Vomiting
6.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 61(2): 206-210, mar.-abr. 2011. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-582713

ABSTRACT

JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Há evidências de que a passagem de informações nociceptivas pelo corno posterior da medula espinhal (CPME) seguindo para níveis rostrais do sistema nervoso central sofre profundas influências excitatórias e inibitórias. A presente pesquisa teve como objetivo comparar os efeitos da metissergida, da fentolamina e da fentolamina associada à metissergida, administrados por via subaracnoidea, sobre as fases I, intermediária e II do teste da formalina modificado em ratos. MÉTODO: Foram utilizados 28 ratos Wistar machos, distribuídos aleatoriamente em quatro grupos (n = 7) para receber solução salina (GC), fentolamina (GF), metissergida (GM) ou fentolamina associada à metissergida (GFM) por via subaracnoidea. A dor foi induzida pela administração de formalina na região dorsal da pata posterior direita. O teste foi dividido em três fases; fase I, intermediária e fase II. A análise estatística dos resultados foi realizada utilizando o programa SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences), adotando o nível de significância de 5 por cento. RESULTADOS: Na fase intermediária, o número de elevações da pata foi significativamente maior nos grupos GF, GM e GFM quando comparados com o grupo GC. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados sugerem a existência de efeito noradrenérgico e serotoninérgico no sistema inibitório descendente da dor aguda, com a possibilidade de emprego de agonistas serotoninérgicos e α1-adrenérgicos para controle da dor aguda.


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: There is evidence that the passage of nociceptive information through the posterior horn of the spinal cord (PHSC) on its way to rostral levels of the central nervous system undergoes profound excitatory and inhibitory influences. The objective of the present study was to compare the effects of the subarachnoid administration of methysergide, phentolamine, and phentolamine associated with methysergide on phases I, intermediate, and II of the modified phormaline test in rats. METHODS: Twenty-eight male Wistar rats distributed randomly in four groups (n = 7) to received subarachnoid saline solution (GC), phentolamine (GF), methysergide (GM), or phentolamine associated with methysergide (GFM). Pain was induced by the administration of phormaline in the dorsal region of the right hind paw. The test was divided in three phases: phase I, intermediate, and phase II. Statistical analysis of the results was performed using the software SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences), adopting a level of significance of 5 percent. RESULTS: In the intermediate phase the number of paw elevations was significantly higher in GF, GM, and GFM groups when compared to the GC group. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest the existence of a noradrenergic and serotonergic effect in the inhibitory descending system of acute pain, with the possibility of using serotonergic and α1-adrenergic antagonists to control acute pain.


JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: Existen evidencias de que el paso de informaciones nociceptivas por el cuerno posterior de la médula espinal (CPME), y que continúa hacia niveles rostrales del sistema nervioso central, sufre profundas influencias excitatorias e inhibitorias. La presente investigación quiso comparar los efectos de la metisergida, de la fentolamina y de la fentolamina asociada a la metisergida, administrados por vía subaracnoidea, sobre las fases I, intermedia y II del test de la formalina modificado en ratones. MÉTODO: Fueron utilizados en el experimento, 28 ratones Wistar machos, distribuidos aleatoriamente en cuatro grupos (n = 7), para recibir una solución salina (GC), fentolamina (GF), metisergida (GM) o fentolamina asociada a la metisergida ((GFM). El dolor fue inducido por la administración de formalina en la región dorsal de la pata posterior derecha. El test fue dividido en tres fases: fase I, intermedia y fase II. El análisis estadístico de los resultados fue hecho utilizando el programa SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences), [Paquete Estadístico para las Ciencias Sociales], adoptando el nivel de significancia de un 5 por ciento. RESULTADOS: En la fase intermedia, el número de elevaciones de la pata fue significativamente mayor en los grupos GF, GM y GFM cuando se comparó con el grupo GC. CONCLUSIONES: Los resultados nos sugieren la existencia de un efecto noradrenérgico y serotoninérgico en el sistema inhibitorio descendiente del dolor agudo, con la posibilidad del uso de agonistas serotoninérgicos y α1-adrenérgicos para el control del dolor agudo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Male , Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists/pharmacology , Serotonin Antagonists/pharmacology , Subarachnoid Space/anatomy & histology , Phentolamine/pharmacology , Methysergide , Methysergide/pharmacology , Nociceptors/drug effects , Nociceptors/physiology , Pain Measurement , Pain/physiopathology , Phentolamine/pharmacology , Serotonin Antagonists/pharmacology , Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists/administration & dosage , Methysergide/administration & dosage , Phentolamine/administration & dosage , Rats, Wistar , Subarachnoid Space , Serotonin Antagonists/administration & dosage
7.
Medical Principles and Practice. 2011; 20 (1): 66-70
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-111000

ABSTRACT

The present study was undertaken to evaluate the antinociceptive effects of an ayurvedic polyherbal formulation in rats and mice employing the tail immersion test and acetic acid-induced writhing test, respectively. With the tail immersion method, rats received two different doses [270 and 405 mg/kg BW, p.o.] of a formulation, pethidine [5.4 mg/kg BW, p.o.] as a reference standard and the combination of the higher dose of the formulation with naloxone [2 mg/kg, i.p.], an opioid receptor antagonist, and caffeine [16 mg/kg, i.p.], used as an adenosine receptor antagonist. In the acetic acid-induced writhing test, mice received two different doses [390 and 585 mg/kg, BW, p.o.] of formulation, diclofenac sodium [15 mg/kg, BW, p.o.] as a reference standard and the combination of the higher dose of the polyherbal formulation with ondansetron [0.5 mg/kg, i.p.], a serotonin receptor antagonist. The polyherbal formulation [405 mg/kg] exhibited a significant [p < 0.01] antinociceptive effect using the tail immersion method. In the acetic acid-induced writhing test, the formulation showed significant [p < 0.01] dose-dependent activity. The antinociceptive effect of the polyherbal formulation apparently involved an opiate-like mechanism, since its antinociceptive action was attenuated by naloxone pretreatment. In addition, antinociceptive activity was attenuated by caffeine and reversed by ondansetron pretreatment. Our data suggest that the polyherbal formulation possessed centrally and peripherally mediated antinociceptive properties. The activity could be mediated through opioid, adenosine, and serotonin receptors and via inhibition of cyclo-oxygenase- and/or lipoxygenase-dependent pathways


Subject(s)
Animals, Laboratory , Receptors, Opioid/drug effects , Analgesics, Opioid/pharmacology , Adenosine , Receptors, Serotonin, 5-HT3/drug effects , Serotonin 5-HT3 Receptor Antagonists , Diclofenac , Meperidine/pharmacology , Plant Extracts , Naloxone/pharmacology , Narcotic Antagonists , Caffeine/pharmacology , Ondansetron , Serotonin Antagonists , Pain Measurement , Medicine, Ayurvedic , Rats, Wistar
8.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1016-1021, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-116323

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We investigated what kinds of neurotransmitters are related with electroacupuncture (EA) analgesia in an arthritic pain model of rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred rats were assigned to six groups: control, EA, opioid, adrenergic, serotonin and dopamine group. A standardized model of inflammatory arthritis was produced by injecting 2% carrageenan into the knee joint cavity. EA was applied to an acupoint for 30 min in all groups except fo the control group. In the opioid, adrenergic, serotonin and dopamine groups, each receptor antagonist was injected intraperitoneally to their respective group before initiating EA. RESULTS: In the opioid receptor antagonist group, adrenergic receptor antagonist group, serotonin receptor antagonist group, dopamine receptor antagonist group and the control group weight-bearing force decreased significantly from 30 min to 180 min after EA in comparison with the EA group. CONCLUSION: The analgesic effects of EA are related to opioid, adrenergic, serotonin and dopamine receptors in an arthritic pain model of rats.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Analgesia/methods , Adrenergic Antagonists/therapeutic use , Animals , Arthritis/chemically induced , Carrageenan/toxicity , Dopamine Antagonists/therapeutic use , Electroacupuncture/methods , Male , Neurotransmitter Agents/metabolism , Pain/drug therapy , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptors, Adrenergic/metabolism , Receptors, Dopamine/metabolism , Receptors, Opioid/antagonists & inhibitors , Receptors, Serotonin/metabolism , Serotonin Antagonists/therapeutic use
9.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-11780

ABSTRACT

Traditional symptom-based therapies of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are directed at the relief of individual IBS symptoms, but they are often of limited efficacy in addressing the entire symptom complex. Combinations of drugs to target bothersome symptoms are suggested as the first-line pharmacologic treatment. Increasing knowledge of the pathophysiology and molecular mechanisms of IBS has resulted in the development of several new therapeutic approaches. Thirteen consensus statements for the treatment of IBS were developed using the modified Delphi approach. Exclusion diets have modest efficacy in improving symptoms in some IBS patients. Symptom-based therapies with dietary fiber, bulking agents, laxatives, antispasmodics and laxatives are effective in the improvement of some individual symptoms, e.g. dietary fiber and bulking agents for constipation, laxatives for constipation, antispasmodics for abdominal pain and discomfort, antidiarrheals for diarrhea. 5HT3 receptor antagonists and 5HT4 receptor agonists are effective in the relief of global IBS symptoms and individual symptoms such as abdominal pain and abnormal bowel habits. A short term course of nonabsorbable antibiotics may improve global IBS symptoms, particularly in patients with diarrhea- predominant IBS. Some probiotics appear to have the potential benefit in improving global IBS symptoms. Selective C-2 chloride channel activator is more effective than placebo at relieving global IBS symptoms in patients with constipation-predominant IBS. Both tricyclic antidepressants and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are equally effective in relieving global IBS symptoms, and have some benefits in treating abdominal pain. Certain types of psychologic therapy may be effective in improving global symptoms in some IBS patients. Further studies are strongly needed to develop better treatment strategies for Korean patients with IBS.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , Antidiarrheals/therapeutic use , Dietary Fiber/therapeutic use , Humans , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/therapy , Laxatives/therapeutic use , Parasympatholytics/therapeutic use , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Serotonin 5-HT4 Receptor Agonists/therapeutic use , Serotonin Antagonists/therapeutic use
10.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 88-92, 2010.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-39505

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We compared the prophylactic effects of intravenously administered azasetron (10 mg) and ondansetron (8 mg) on postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in patients undergoing gynecological laparoscopic surgery under general anesthesia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied 98 ASA physical status I or II 20-65 years old, female patients, in this prospective, randomized, double blind study. Patients were randomly divided into two groups and received ondansetron 8 mg (group O) or azasetron 10 mg (group A) 5 min before the end of surgery. The incidence of PONV, Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for pain, need for rescue antiemetic and analgesics, and adverse effects were checked at 1, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h postoperatively. RESULTS: The overall incidence of PONV was 65% in group O and 49% in group A. The incidence of PONV was significantly higher in group O than in group A at 12-24 h postoperatively (nausea; 24% vs. 45%, p = 0.035, vomiting; 2% vs. 18%, p = 0.008), but there were no significant differences at 0-1, 1-6, 6-12 or 24-48 h. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, azasetron (10 mg) produced same incidence of PONV as ondansetron (8 mg) in patients undergoing general anesthesia for gynecological laparoscopic surgery. Azasetron was more effective, in the intermediate post-operative period, between 12 and 24 h.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Bridged Bicyclo Compounds, Heterocyclic/therapeutic use , Female , Gynecologic Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Humans , Middle Aged , Ondansetron/therapeutic use , Oxazines/therapeutic use , Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting/prevention & control , Serotonin Antagonists/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
12.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2584-2591, 2008.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-265892

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Ketanserin (KT), a selective serotonin (5-HT) 2-receptor antagonist, reduces peripheral blood pressure by blocking the activation of peripheral 5-HT receptors. In this study electrophysiological method was used to investigate the effect of KT and potassium ion on Kv1.3 potassium channels and explore the role of blocker KT in the alteration of channel kinetics contributing to the potassium ion imbalances.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Kv1.3 channels were expressed in xenopus oocytes, and currents were measured using the two-microelectrode voltage-clamp technique.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>KCl made a left shift of activation and an inactivation curve of Kv1.3 current and accelerated the activation and inactivation time constant. High extracellular [K(+)] attenuated the blockade effect of KT on Kv1.3 channels. In the presence of KT and KCl the activation and inactivation time constants were not influenced significantly no matter what was administered first. KT did not significantly inhibit Kv1.3 current induced by tetraethylammonium (TEA).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>KT is a weak blocker of Kv1.3 channels at different concentrations of extracellular potassium and binds to the intracellular side of the channel pore. The inhibitor KT of ion channels is not fully effective in clinical use because of high [K(+)](o) and other electrolyte disorders.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Electrophysiology , Female , Ketanserin , Pharmacology , Metabolism , Oocytes , Patch-Clamp Techniques , Potassium , Pharmacology , Serotonin Antagonists , Pharmacology , Xenopus laevis
13.
Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol ; 2007 Jul-Aug; 73(4): 231-4
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-51920

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Renal itch is a relatively common and distressing problem for patients with chronic renal failure. Granisetron, is a potent and selective inhibitor of 5-HT3 receptors. There have been some studies about the effect of ondansetron in uremic pruritus and one case report has recently described relief of renal itch with granisetron. AIMS: To evaluate the effect of Granisetron on uremic pruritus in Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis (CAPD) and Hemodialysis (HD) patients. METHODS: To study the prevalence of uremic pruritus, patients on CAPD and HD were asked to complete a pruritus questionnaire. Their replies were scored based on numerical scales. Pruritus was graded, according to the total points for each patient, as mild, moderate or severe. Fourteen patients with moderate to severe pruritus were enrolled in the trial. During treatment, patients received granisetron (1 mg tablet twice a day P.O), for a period of 1 month. They were asked to score the severity of pruritus twice a day. RESULTS: Seventy seven percent of the patients responded to the treatment and at 1 st, 2 nd and 4 th week the mean values of the pruritus scores were 23, 16 and 8 points respectively. Before starting treatment the score was 31 points (P =0.03). Weekly clinical and laboratory examination showed no important side effects. CONCLUSION: Granisetron might be an effective, safe and well tolerated drug for the treatment of uremic pruritus.


Subject(s)
Administration, Oral , Granisetron/adverse effects , Humans , Kidney Failure, Chronic/complications , Peritoneal Dialysis, Continuous Ambulatory/statistics & numerical data , Prevalence , Pruritus/blood , Surveys and Questionnaires , Renal Dialysis/statistics & numerical data , Risk Factors , Serotonin Antagonists/adverse effects , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome , Uremia/complications
14.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 79(2): 261-283, June 2007. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-454597

ABSTRACT

The present article reviews the role of the serotoninergic system in the regulation of the sodium appetite. Data from the peripheral and icv administration of serotoninergic (5-HTergic) agents showed the participation of 5-HT2/3 receptors in the modulation of sodium appetite. These observations were extended with the studies carried out after brain serotonin depletion, lesions of DRN and during blockade of 5-HT2A/2C receptors in lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPBN). Brain serotonin depletion and lesions of DRN increased the sodium appetite response, in basal conditions, after sodium depletion and hypovolemia or after beta-adrenergic stimulation as well. These observations raised the hypothesis that the suppression of ascending pathways from the DRN, possibly, 5-HTergic fibers, modifies the angiotensinergic or sodium sensing mechanisms of the subfornical organ involved in the control of the sodium appetite. 5-HTergic blockade in LPBN induced to similar results, particularly those regarded to the natriorexigenic response evoked by volume depletion or increase of the hypertonic saline ingestion induced by brain angiotensinergic stimulation. In conclusion, many evidences lead to acceptation of an integrated participation resulting of an interaction, between DRN and LPBN, for the sodium appetite control.


Este artigo revisa o papel do sistema serotoninérgico no controle do apetite ao sódio. Dados derivados da administração periférica e icv de agentes serotoninérgicos demonstraram a participação de receptores 5-HT2/3 na modulação do apetite ao sódio. Estas observações foram estendidas com os estudos realizados após a depleção cerebral de serotonina, lesões do NDR e durante o bloqueio 5-HT2A/2C no núcleo parabraquial lateral (NPBL). A depleção cerebral de serotonina e as lesões do NDR aumentaram o apetite ao sódio, em condições basais, após depleção de sódio, durante a hipovolemia ou após a estimulação beta-adrenérgica. Estas evidências suscitaram a hipótese de que a supressão de vias ascendentes do NDR, possivelmente 5-HT, alteram os mecanismos angiotensinérgicos e a atividade dos sensores de sódio do órgão subfornicial envolvidos no controle do apetite ao sódio. O bloqueio serotoninérgico no NPBL induziu a resultados similares, particularmente aqueles relacionados com a resposta natriorexigênica provocada pela depleção de volume ou o aumento da ingestão de salina hipertônica induzida pela estimulação angiotensinérgica cerebral. Em resumo, as evidências convergem para a admissão de uma participação integrada resultante da interação recíproca entre NDR e NPBL objetivando controlar o apetite ao sódio.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Appetite/physiology , Pons/metabolism , /drug effects , Sodium , Serotonin Antagonists/pharmacology , Sodium Chloride, Dietary/administration & dosage , Appetite/drug effects , Pons/drug effects , /metabolism
15.
Braz. j. biol ; 67(1): 167-171, Feb. 2007. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-449642

ABSTRACT

This study was carried out aiming to reach behavioral and neuropharmacological evidence of the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) to serotonin systemically administered in quails. Serotonin injected by a parenteral route (250-1000 æg.kg-1, sc) elicited a sequence of behavioral events concerned with a sleeping-like state. Sleeping-like behaviors began with feather bristling, rapid oral movements, blinking and finally crouching and closure of the eyes. Previous administration of 5-HT2C antagonist, LY53857 (3 mg.kg-1, sc) reduced the episodes of feather bristling and rapid oral movements significantly but without altering the frequency of blinking and closure of the eyes. Treatment with the 5-HT2A/2C antagonist, ketanserin (3 mg.kg-1, sc) did not affect any of the responses evoked by the serotonin. Quipazine (5 mg.kg-1, sc) a 5-HT2A/2C/3 agonist induced intense hypomotility, long periods of yawning-like and sleeping-like states. Previous ketanserin suppressed gaping responses and reduced hypomotility, rapid oral movements and bristling but was ineffective for remaining responses induced by quipazine. Results showed that unlike mammals, serotonin permeates the BBB and activates hypnogenic mechanisms in quails. Studies using serotoninergic agonist and antagonists have disclosed that among the actions of the serotonin, feather bristling, rapid oral movements and yawning-like state originated from activation of 5-HT2 receptors while blinking and closure of the eyes possibly require other subtypes of receptors.


Este estudo foi desenvolvido objetivando ampliar as evidências comportamentais e neurofarmacológicas da permeabilidade da barreira hematoencefálica (BHE) à serotonina administrada sistemicamente em codornas. A serotonina injetada por via parenteral (250-1000 æg.kg-1, sc) produziu uma seqüência de eventos relacionados com um estado semelhante ao sono. Comportamentos semelhantes ao sono começaram com o eriçamento das penas, movimentos orais rápidos, piscadelas e finalmente agachamento e fechamento dos olhos. A administração prévia do antagonista do receptor 5-HT2C, LY53857 (3 mg.kg-1, sc) reduziu significativamente os episódios de eriçamento das penas e movimentos orais rápidos, mas não alterou a freqüência de piscadelas e fechamento dos olhos. Tratamento com o antagonista do receptor 5-HT2A/2C, quetanserina (3 mg.kg-1, sc) não afetou nenhuma das respostas evocadas pela serotonina. A quipazina (5 mg.kg-1, sc), um agonista dos receptores 5-HT2A/2C/3, induziu intensa hipomotilidade e longos períodos de comportamentos semelhantes ao bocejo e ao sono. O tratamento prévio com quetanserina suprimiu as reações de bocejo e reduziu a hipomotilidade, os movimentos orais rápidos e as piscadelas, mas foi sem efeito para as demais respostas induzidas pela quipazina. Os resultados mostraram que, diferentemente dos mamíferos, a serotonina atravessa a BHE e ativa mecanismos hipnogênicos em codornas. Estudos com agonistas serotoninérgicos e antagonistas revelaram que, entre as ações da serotonina, o eriçamento das penas, os movimentos orais rápidos e o comportamento semelhante ao bocejo foram originados pela ativação de receptores 5-HT2, enquanto o piscar e o fechamento dos olhos possivelmente requereu outros subtipos de receptores.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Behavior, Animal/drug effects , Blood-Brain Barrier/metabolism , Serotonin/pharmacokinetics , Sleep/drug effects , Yawning/drug effects , Blood-Brain Barrier/drug effects , Coturnix , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Ketanserin/pharmacology , Quipazine/pharmacology , Serotonin Receptor Agonists/pharmacology , Serotonin Antagonists/pharmacology
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-245601

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To observe the effects of Biannaitong Medicinal Tea (BNT) combined with Azasetron in preventing and treating the gastrointestinal reaction induced by chemotherapy.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Sixty-four patients underwent chemotherapy with DP regimen (docetaxol + DDP) were randomly assigned to two groups, the treated group and the control group. All patients were given 10 mg Azasetron intravenously 30 min before starting chemotherapy once a day for two successive days, but to patients in the treated group, 300 mL BNT was given orally additionally in the evenings before chemotherapy. The occurrence of adverse reactions, such as antiemetic efficacy constipation, abdominal distention, etc. was observed.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The vomiting control rates in the two groups were insignificantly different (87.5% vs 84.4%, P > 0.05), but difference in the complete control rates between them were significant (53.1% vs 43.8% , P < 0.05). And the occurrences of constipation (3.1% vs 59.4%) and abdominal distention (15.6% vs 59.4%) in the two groups were also significantly different (both P <0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>BNT used in coordination with Azasetron for alleviating vomiting could enhance the antiemetic effect, reduce the adverse effects of chemotherapy, such as constipation, abdominal distension and anorexia, and thus to increase the compliance of patients.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Anorexia , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols , Therapeutic Uses , Bridged Bicyclo Compounds, Heterocyclic , Therapeutic Uses , Constipation , Drug Therapy, Combination , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Therapeutic Uses , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms , Drug Therapy , Oxazines , Therapeutic Uses , Phytotherapy , Serotonin Antagonists , Therapeutic Uses , Treatment Outcome
17.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 183-189, 2007.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-258672

ABSTRACT

In the present study, changes in the neuronal activity of serotonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) and the effect of the selective 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist WAY-100635 in a rat model of Parkinson's disease (PD) were investigated by using extracellular single unit recording. Rat model of PD was produced by microinjection of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) into the substantia nigra pars compacta on the right side of the brain. The results showed that the mean spontaneous firing rate of DRN serotonergic neurons in the control and 6-OHDA-lesioned rats were (1.76+/-0.11) spikes/s (n=24) and (2.43+/-0.17) spikes/s (n=21), respectively. The firing rate of serotonergic neurons in 6-OHDA-lesioned rats was significantly higher than that in the control rats (P<0.001). In the control rats, 92% (22/24) of the neurons fired regularly and 8% (2/24) fired in bursts. In rats with 6-OHDA lesions, 9% (2/21) of neurons fired regularly, 43% (9/21) exhibited irregular pattern and 48% (10/21) fired in bursts. The percentage of DRN serotonergic neurons firing in bursts was obviously higher in 6-OHDA-lesioned rats than that in the control rats (P<0.001). Local injection of WAY-100635 (3 microg in 200 nL) into the DRN significantly increased the firing rate of serotonergic neurons with no change in firing pattern in the control rats (n=19, P<0.002), but did not change the firing rate and firing pattern of serotonergic neurons in 6-OHDA-lesioned rats (n=17, P>0.05). These results suggest the dysfunction of 5-HT(1A) receptor in 6-OHDA-lesioned rats and the involvement of the DRN in the pathophysiological mechanism of PD.


Subject(s)
Action Potentials , Physiology , Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Male , Neurons , Physiology , Oxidopamine , Parkinsonian Disorders , Piperazines , Pharmacology , Pyridines , Pharmacology , Raphe Nuclei , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Serotonin , Metabolism , Serotonin Antagonists , Pharmacology
18.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 315-322, 2007.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-264707

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>The ventral part of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) plays an important role in initiation and control of voluntary movement, mood and cognition. However, after the degeneration of the nigrostriatal pathway, the neuronal activity of the ventral mPFC and the role of serotonin(1A) (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT(1A)) receptors in the firing of the neurons are still unknown. The present study is to investigate the change of neuronal activity in the ventral mPFC and the effect of systemic administration of the selective 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist WAY-100635 on the activity of the neurons in normal and 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned rats.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Single unit responses were recorded extracellularly with glass microelectrodes from ventral mPFC neurons in normal rats and 6-OHDA unilaterally lesioned rats in vivo.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>6-OHDA lesion of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) significantly increased the firing rate with no change in the firing pattern of neurons of the ventral mPFC in rats. Systemic administration of WAY-100635 (0.1 mg/kg, i.v.) did not change the mean firing rate and firing pattern of ventral mPFC neurons in normal rats. In contrast, WAY-100635 significantly decreased the mean firing rate of the neurons in rats with 6-OHDA lesion of the SNc.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>These data suggest that the degeneration of the nigrostriatal pathway results in an increase of neuronal activity of ventral mPFC and dysfunction of 5-HT(1A) receptor.</p>


Subject(s)
Action Potentials , Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Male , Neostriatum , Physiology , Neural Pathways , Physiology , Neurons , Physiology , Parkinson Disease , Piperazines , Pharmacology , Prefrontal Cortex , Cell Biology , Physiology , Pyridines , Pharmacology , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptor, Serotonin, 5-HT1A , Metabolism , Serotonin 5-HT1 Receptor Antagonists , Serotonin Antagonists , Pharmacology , Substantia Nigra , Physiology
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-201421

ABSTRACT

Serotonin receptor subtype 6 (5-HT(6)) is a neurotransmitter receptor, which is involved in various brain functions such as memory and mood. It mediates signaling via the interaction with a stimulatory G-protein. Especially, the third intracellular loop (iL3) of 5-HT(6) and the alpha subunit of stimulatory G protein (Galpha(s)) are responsible for the signaling process of 5-HT(6). Chemical compounds that could inhibit the interaction between the iL3 region of 5-HT(6) and Galpha(s) were screened from a chemical library consisted of 5,600 synthetic compounds. One of the identified compounds bound to Galpha(s) and effectively blocked the interaction between Galpha(s) and the iL3 region of 5-HT(6). The identified compound was further shown to reduce the serotonin-induced accumulation of cAMP in 293T cells transformed with 5-HT(6) cDNA. It also lowered the Ca2+ efflux induced by serotonin in cells expressing 5-HT(6) and chimeric Galpha(s5/q). These results indicate that the interaction between the iL3 of 5-HT(6) and Galpha(s) can be exploited for screening of regulatory compounds against the signaling pathway of 5-HT(6).


Subject(s)
Animals , Calcium/metabolism , Cell Line , Cephalosporins/pharmacology , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Cyclic AMP/biosynthesis , GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gs/antagonists & inhibitors , Humans , Receptors, Serotonin/drug effects , Serotonin/pharmacology , Serotonin Antagonists/pharmacology , Signal Transduction
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-201419

ABSTRACT

Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) was recently suggested to be a potential target of psychotropics used in psychiatric illnesses such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Relevant studies have found that antipsychotic drugs regulate GSK3 activity via an increase in either inhibitory serine phosphorylation or amount of GSK3 after acute or subchronic treatment. Recent evidence shows that GSK3 is regulated by dopaminergic or serotonergic systems implicated in the pathophysiology and treatment mechanisms of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Therefore, antipsychotics may regulate GSK3 via antagonizing dopaminergic or serotonergic activity. However, the signaling pathway that is involved in GSK3 regulation by dopaminergic or serotonergic systems has not been well established. Haloperidol is a typical antipsychotic with potent dopamine D(2) receptor antagonism. Clozapine is an atypical antipsychotic with potent serotonin 5HT(2) receptor antagonism. We injected rats with haloperidol or clozapine and examined the phosphorylation and amount of GSK3alpha/beta and its well-known upstream regulators Akt and Dvl in the rat frontal cortex by Western blotting. Both haloperidol and clozapine induced Ser21/9 phosphorylation of GSK3GSK3alpha/beta. Haloperidol increased the Ser473 phosphorylation of Akt transiently, whereas clozapine maintained the increase for 1 h. Haloperidol did not affect the phosphorylation and amount of Dvl, whereas clozapine increased both phosphorylation and the amount of Dvl. Our results suggest that GSK3 activity may be regulated by both typical and atypical antipsychotics and that Akt or Dvl, depending on the D(2)- or 5HT(2)- receptor antagonism properties of typical and atypical antipsychotics, mediate the regulation differently.


Subject(s)
Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/metabolism , Animals , Antipsychotic Agents/pharmacology , Clozapine/pharmacology , Dopamine Antagonists/pharmacology , Frontal Lobe/drug effects , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3/metabolism , Haloperidol/pharmacology , Male , Phosphoproteins/metabolism , Phosphorylation , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Serotonin Antagonists/pharmacology , Signal Transduction
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