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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e242086, 2023. graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278530

ABSTRACT

Abstract The work aims were to describe the histological and histochemical structure of the gastroesophageal tube of Iguana iguana and verify the occurrence and distribution of immunoreactive serotonin (5-HT) and somatostatin (SS) cells. Fragments of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of five iguanas were which underwent standard histological and immunohistochemistry technique. Immunoreactive cells for 5-HT and SS were quantified using the STEPanizer. The oesophagus has ciliated columnar pseudostratified epithelium with staining Alcian blue (AB) + and goblet cells highly reactive to periodic acid Schiff (PAS). In the cervical oesophagus, the numerical density of 5-HT cells per unit area (QA [5-HT cells]/µm2) was 4.6x10-2 ± 2.0 and celomatic oesophagus presented QA = 4.0x10-2 ± 1.0. The epithelium of the stomach is simple columnar, PAS and AB +. The cranial and middle regions of the stomach presented (QA [5-HT cells]/µm2) = 6.18x10-2 ± 3.2 and the caudal region, QA = 0.6x10-2 ± 0.2. The SS cells were only observed in the caudal stomach, with numerical density (QA [SS cells]/µm2) = 1.4x10-2 ± 0.9 In I. iguana, variation was observed in terms of the distribution of mucus secretions and the pattern of occurrence of serotonin and somatostatin-secreting enteroendocrine cells in the TGI, which possibly will result in an interspecific adaptive response.


Resumo Os objetivos do trabalho foram descrever a estrutura histológica e histoquímica do tubo gastroesofágico da Iguana iguana e verificar a ocorrência e distribuição de células serotonina (5-HT) e somatostatina (SS) imunorreativas. Fragmentos do trato gastrointestinal (TGI) de cinco iguanas foram submetidos à técnica histológica e imunohistoquímica padrão. As células imunorreativas para 5-HT e SS foram quantificadas usando o STEPanizer. O esôfago apresenta epitélio pseudoestratificado colunar ciliado Alcian blue (AB) positivo, com células caliciformes altamente reativas ao ácido periódico de Schiff (PAS). No esôfago cervical, a densidade numérica de células 5-HT por unidade de área (QA [células 5-HT] / µm2) foi de 4.6x10-2 ± 2.0 e o esôfago celomático apresentou QA = 4.0x10-2 ± 1.0. O epitélio do estômago é colunar simples, PAS e AB positivo. As regiões cranial e média do estômago apresentaram (QA [células 5-HT] / µm2) = 6.18x10-2 ± 3.2 e a região caudal, QA = 0.6x10-2 ± 0.2. As células SS foram observadas apenas no estômago caudal, com densidade numérica (QA [células SS] / µm2) = 1.4x10-2 ± 0.9. Em I. iguana, foi observada variações em termos da distribuição das secreções de muco e padrão de ocorrência das células enteroendócrinas secretoras de serotonina e somatostatina no TGI, o que possivelmente reflete uma resposta adaptativa interespecifica.


Subject(s)
Animals , Serotonin , Iguanas , Stomach , Immunohistochemistry , Gastrointestinal Tract
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880352

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Arsenic is a developmental neurotoxicant. It means that its neurotoxic effect could occur in offspring by maternal arsenic exposure. Our previous study showed that developmental arsenic exposure impaired social behavior and serotonergic system in C3H adult male mice. These effects might affect the next generation with no direct exposure to arsenic. This study aimed to detect the social behavior and related gene expression changes in F2 male mice born to gestationally arsenite-exposed F1 mice.@*METHODS@#Pregnant C3H/HeN mice (F0) were given free access to tap water (control mice) or tap water containing 85 ppm sodium arsenite from days 8 to 18 of gestation. Arsenite was not given to F1 or F2 mice. The F2 mice were generated by mating among control F1 males and females, and arsenite-F1 males and females at the age of 10 weeks. At 41 weeks and 74 weeks of age respectively, F2 males were used for the assessment of social behavior by a three-chamber social behavior apparatus. Histological features of the prefrontal cortex were studied by ordinary light microscope. Social behavior-related gene expressions were determined in the prefrontal cortex by real time RT-PCR method.@*RESULTS@#The arsenite-F2 male mice showed significantly poor sociability and social novelty preference in both 41-week-old group and 74-week-old group. There was no significant histological difference between the control mice and the arsenite-F2 mice. Regarding gene expression, serotonin receptor 5B (5-HT 5B) mRNA expression was significantly decreased (p < 0.05) in the arsenite-F2 male mice compared to the control F2 male mice in both groups. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and dopamine receptor D1a (Drd1a) gene expressions were significantly decreased (p < 0.05) only in the arsenite-F2 male mice of the 74-week-old group. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) gene expression was significantly increased (p < 0.001) in the arsenite-F2 male mice of both groups, but plasma 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) gene expression were not significantly different. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) mRNA expression was significantly increased only in 41-week-old arsenite-F2 mice.@*CONCLUSIONS@#These findings suggest that maternal arsenic exposure affects social behavior in F2 male mice via serotonergic system in the prefrontal cortex. In this study, COX-2 were not increased although oxidative stress marker (HO-1) was increased significantly in arsnite-F2 male mice.


Subject(s)
Animals , Arsenic/toxicity , Arsenites/toxicity , Behavior, Animal/drug effects , Environmental Pollutants/toxicity , Female , Gene Expression/drug effects , Genetic Markers , Male , Maternal Exposure/adverse effects , Mice , Mice, Inbred C3H , Oxidative Stress/genetics , Prefrontal Cortex/drug effects , Pregnancy , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/psychology , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Serotonin/metabolism , Social Behavior , Sodium Compounds/toxicity
3.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 295-305, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878258

ABSTRACT

Cortical GABAergic inhibitory neurons are composed of three major classes, each expressing parvalbumin (PV), somatostatin (SOM) and 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 3A (Htr3a), respectively. Htr3a


Subject(s)
Animals , Interneurons/metabolism , Mice , Neurons/metabolism , Parvalbumins/metabolism , Receptors, Serotonin, 5-HT3/genetics , Serotonin , Somatostatin/metabolism
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877651

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) preconditioning at heart meridian acupoints on the contents of dopamine (DA) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in lateral hypothalamus area (LHA) and cerebellar fastigial nucleus (FN) in the rats with acute myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (MIRI), and explore the role and mechanism of LHA and FN in the effect of EA at heart meridian acupoints against acute MIRI.@*METHODS@#Sixty SD rats were randomly divided into a sham-operation group, a model group, an EA heart meridian group and an EA lung meridian group, 12 rats in each group, as well as an LHA plus heart meridian group (damage of bilateral LHA) and an FN plus heart meridian group (damage of bilateral FN), 6 rats in each one. Three days after nucleus destruction, EA was applied to "Shenmen" (HT 7) and "Tongli" (HT 5) in the EA heart meridian group, the LHA plus heart meridian group and the FN plus heart meridian group and EA was applied to "Taiyuan" (LU 9) and "Lieque" (LU 7) in the EA lung meridian group, with 1 V in stimulating voltage and 2 Hz in frequency, lasting 20 minutes each time, once a day, for consecutively 7 days before model replication. Except in the sham-operation group, MIRI rat models were duplicated by ligation of the left anterior descending branch of the coronary artery in the rest groups. Using Power lab physiological recorder, ST segment displacement value was recorded before modeling, 30 min after ligation and 120 min after reperfusion separately. The high performance liquid chromatography-electrochemical detection and analysis system was adopted to determine the contents of DA and 5-HT in LHA and FN dialysate after rat modeling in each group.@*RESULTS@#In comparison of ST segment displacement value 30 min after ligation and 120 min after reperfusion among groups, the value in the model group was higher than that in the sham-operation group (@*CONCLUSION@#EA preconditioning at heart meridian acupoints can effectively alleviate myocardial injury in acute MIRI rats, during which, DA and 5-HT in LHA and FN may be the important material basis.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Points , Animals , Cerebellar Nuclei , Dopamine , Electroacupuncture , Hypothalamic Area, Lateral , Myocardial Ischemia , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/therapy , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Serotonin
5.
Chonnam Medical Journal ; : 20-26, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787278

ABSTRACT

We examined the effect of fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressant, on neuronal viability in mouse cortical near-pure neuronal cultures. Addition of fluoxetine to the media for 24 hours induced neuronal death in a concentration-dependent manner. To delineate the mechanisms of fluoxetine-induced neuronal death, we investigated the effects of trolox, cycloheximide (CHX), BDNF, z-VAD-FMK, and various metal-chelators on fluoxetine-induced neuronal death. Neuronal death was assessed by MTT assay. The addition of 20 µM fluoxetine to the media for 24 hours induced 60–70% neuronal death, which was associated with the hallmarks of apoptosis, chromatin condensation and DNA laddering. Fluoxetine-induced death was significantly attenuated by CHX, BDNF, or z-VAD-FMK. Treatment with antioxidants, trolox and ascorbate, also markedly attenuated fluoxetine-induced death. Interestingly, some divalent cation chelators (EGTA, Ca-EDTA, and Zn-EDTA) also markedly attenuated the neurotoxicity. Fluoxetine-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was measured using the fluorescent dye 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescin diacetate. Trolox and bathocuproine disulfonic acid (BCPS), a cell membrane impermeable copper ion chelator, markedly attenuated the ROS production and neuronal death. However, deferoxamine, an iron chelator, did not affect ROS generation or neurotoxicity. We examined the changes in intracellular copper concentration using a copper-selective fluorescent dye, Phen Green FL, which is quenched by free copper ions. Fluoxetine quenched the fluorescence in neuronal cells, and the quenching effect of fluoxetine was reversed by co-treatment with BCPS, however, not by deferoxamine. These findings demonstrate that fluoxetine could induce apoptotic and oxidative neuronal death associated with an influx of copper ions.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antioxidants , Apoptosis , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor , Cell Death , Cell Membrane , Chelating Agents , Chromatin , Copper , Cycloheximide , Deferoxamine , DNA , Fluorescence , Fluoxetine , Ions , Iron , Mice , Neurons , Reactive Oxygen Species , Serotonin
6.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 285-298, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827058

ABSTRACT

The current study was aimed to investigate the potential effects of perinatal exposure to therapeutic dose of penicillin and cefixime on the cognitive behaviors, gastrointestinal (GI) motility and serum 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) level in the offspring. Pregnant rats were continuously treated with cefixime or penicillin in the period between 1 week before and 1 week after labor. Behavior tests, including social preference, self-grooming and elevated plus maze tests, and intestinal motility tests were carried out on the offspring at age of 4 to 10 weeks. Serum 5-HT levels were detected with ELISA, and potassium/sodium hyperpolarization activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channel 2 (HCN2) and tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1) expression levels in colon epithelium of offspring were detected by Western blot and RT-qPCR. The results showed that, compared with the naive group, cefixime increased social behavior in the female offspring, but did not affect the male offspring. Compared with the naive group, cefixime significantly decreased colonic and intestinal transits, and increased cecum net weight and standardized cecum net weight in the male offspring, but did not affect the female offspring. The serum 5-HT levels in the male offspring, rather than the female offspring, in cefixime and penicillin groups were significantly increased compared with that in the naive group. The protein expression level of HCN2 in colon epithelium of the offspring in cefixime group was significantly down-regulated, and the TPH1 expression level was not significantly changed, compared with that in the naive group. These results suggest that perinatal antibiotics exposure may affect neural development and GI functions of the offspring, and the mechanism may involve peripheral 5-HT and gender-dependent factor.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Pharmacology , Colon , Female , Gastrointestinal Motility , Male , Mice , Pregnancy , Rats , Serotonin , Tryptophan Hydroxylase
7.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 56(4): 405-411, Oct.-Dec. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055165

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Serotonin (5-HT) is present in the epithelial enterochromaffin cells (EC), mast cells of the lamina propria and enteric neurons. The 5-HT is involved in regulating motility, secretion, gut sensation, immune system and inflammation. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the effects of diabetes and quercetin supplementation on serotoninergic cells and its cell loss by apoptosis in jejunal mucosa of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ-rats). METHODS: Twenty-four male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: normoglycemic (C), normoglycemic supplemented with 40 mg/day quercetin (Q), diabetic (D) and diabetic supplemented with 40 mg/day quercetin (DQ). After 120 days, the jejunum was collected and fixated in Zamboni's solution for 18 h. After obtaining cryosections, immunohistochemistry was performed to label 5-HT and caspase-3. Quantification of 5-HT and caspase-3 immunoreactive (IR) cells in the lamina propria, villi and crypts were performed. RESULTS: The diabetic condition displayed an increase of the number of 5-HT-IR cells in villi and crypts, while decreased number of these cells was observed in lamina propria in the jejunum of STZ-rats. In the diabetic animals, an increased density of apoptotic cells in epithelial villi and crypts of the jejunum was observed, whereas a decreased number of caspase-3-IR cells was observed in lamina propria. Possibly, quercetin supplementation slightly suppressed the apoptosis phenomena in the epithelial villi and crypts of the STZ-rats, however the opposite effect was observed on the 5-HT-IR cells of the lamina propria. Quercetin supplementation on healthy animals promoted few changes of serotoninergic function and apoptotic stimuli. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that quercetin supplementation mostly improved the serotonergic function affected by diabetes maybe due to antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of quercetin.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: A serotonina (5-HT) está presente nas células epiteliais enterocromafins (CE), nos mastócitos da lâmina própria e nos neurônios entéricos. A 5-HT está envolvida na regulação da motilidade, secreção, nocepção intestinal, sistema imunológico e inflamação. Objetivo: Avaliar os efeitos do diabetes e da suplementação de quercetina sobre a função serotoninérgica e a perda celular por apoptose na mucosa jejunal de ratos diabéticos induzidos por estreptozotocina (ratos STZ). MÉTODOS: Vinte e quatro ratos Wistar machos foram divididos em quatro grupos: normoglicêmico (C), normoglicêmico suplementado com quercetina 40 mg/dia (Q), diabético (D) e diabético suplementado com quercetina 40 mg/dia (DQ). Após 120 dias, o jejuno foi coletado e fixado na solução de Zamboni por 18 horas. Após a obtenção de cortes em criostato, a imuno-histoquímica foi realizada para marcar 5-HT e caspase-3. A quantificação de células imunorreativas (IR) à 5-HT e caspase-3 foram realizadas na lâmina própria, vilosidades e criptas. RESULTADOS: A condição diabética ocasionou um aumento do número de células 5-HT-IR nas vilosidades e criptas, enquanto que na lâmina própria houve uma redução dessas células, no jejuno de ratos STZ. Nos animais diabéticos, foi observada uma densidade aumentada de células apoptóticas no epitélio do jejuno, tanto nas vilosidades quanto nas criptas, por outro lado um número reduzido de células caspase-3-IR foi observado na lâmina própria. Possivelmente, a suplementação de quercetina suprimiu ligeiramente os fenômenos de apoptose no epitélio de vilosidades e criptas do jejuno de ratos STZ, no entanto, o efeito oposto foi observado nas células 5-HT-IR da lâmina própria. A suplementação com quercetina em animais saudáveis promoveu poucas alterações na função serotoninérgica e nos estímulos apoptóticos. CONCLUSÃO: Estes resultados sugerem que a suplementação de quercetina melhorou principalmente a função serotoninérgica afetada pelo diabetes, talvez devido às propriedades antioxidantes e anti-inflamatórias da quercetina.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Quercetin/administration & dosage , Serotonin/metabolism , Apoptosis/drug effects , Dietary Supplements , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/drug therapy , Caspase 3/metabolism , Jejunum/pathology , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Immunohistochemistry , Rats, Wistar , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/pathology , Interstitial Cells of Cajal/drug effects , Interstitial Cells of Cajal/pathology , Intestinal Mucosa/drug effects , Jejunum/drug effects
8.
Rev. colomb. psiquiatr ; 48(1): 58-65, ene.-mar. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1013961

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: La depresión es la morbilidad psiquiátrica más común en el embarazo, y llega a afectar a más del 13% de las gestantes. Su diagnóstico se basa en los criterios establecidos por el DSM-V y la aplicación de escalas validadas como la Escala de Depresión Posnatal de Edimburgo; sin embargo, entre los profesionales de la salud aún existen errores y falencias en el reconocimiento, el diagnóstico y el tratamiento de la depresión durante el embarazo, lo que propicia las diferentes consecuencias y repercusiones para la gestación misma o el feto. Objetivo: Presentar una revisión de tema acerca de la depresión en el embarazo, sus factores de riesgo, las características clínicas, las complicaciones y el tratamiento. Métodos: Se utilizaron las bases de datos PubMed y LILACS para la búsqueda de manuscritos; de 223 artículos, 55 cumplían los criterios de inclusión. Resultados: En Sudamérica se registra una prevalencia de aproximadamente el 29%. Los factores de riesgo con mayor significación son el abuso sexual, la edad temprana al embarazo y la violencia intrafamiliar. Por ello, el diagnóstico temprano favorece la disminución en las conductas de riesgo, los trastornos del neurodesarrollo fetal y los resultados obstétricos. Conclusiones: La depresión en el embarazo es una afección frecuente; no obstante, se presenta subregistro por la atribución de los síntomas a la gestación misma. Se recomienda el uso de antidepresivos como los inhibidores de la recaptación de serotonina, especialmente la fluoxetina, que no sea ha relacionado con teratogenicidad, además de la implementación de tratamiento no farmacológico como psicoterapia, mindfulness y ejercicio aeróbico. La sensibilización del personal de salud permitirá el diagnóstico y el tratamiento adecuados de esta enfermedad.


ABSTRACT Introduction: Depression is the most common psychiatric morbidity in pregnancy, affecting more than 13% of pregnant women. Its diagnosis is based on the criteria established by the DSM-5 and the application of validated scales such as the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. However, there are still errors and shortcomings among healthcare professionals in the recognition, diagnosis and treatment of depression during pregnancy, with the resulting consequences and repercussions on the gestation itself or the foetus. Objective: To present a review of depression in pregnancy, its risk factors, clinical characteristics, complications and treatment. Methods: The PubMed and LILACS databases were used to search for manuscripts. Of the 223 articles found, 55 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Results: The prevalence of depression in pregnancy in South America is approximately 29% and the most significant risk factors are sexual abuse, pregnancy at an early age and intrafamily violence. Therefore, early diagnosis favours a reduction in risk behaviour, foetal neurodevelopmental disorders and obstetric outcomes. Conclusions: Depression in pregnancy is common condition but is underreported as its symptoms are often attributed to the pregnancy itself. The use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants, particularly fluoxetine, which has not been associated with teratogenicity, is recommended, in addition to the implementation of non-pharmacological treatment such as psychotherapy, mindfulness and aerobic exercise. Educating healthcare professionals will facilitate the correct diagnosis and treatment of this condition.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women , Depression , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Psychotherapy , Sex Offenses , Exercise , Serotonin , Fluoxetine , Risk Factors , Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors , Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , Neurodevelopmental Disorders , Antidepressive Agents
9.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 948-953, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786547

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Depression is a prevalent condition that is costly to individuals and society. In view of a role of tryptophan (TRP), selenium (Se), vitamin D (Vit D), magnesium (Mg) and serotonin in depression, the present study concerns to evaluate the circulating levels of TRP, Se, Vit D, Mg and serotonin in depression as well as the correlation between TRP and other serum analytes is also established.METHODS: Healthy (n=48) and depressed (n=48) subjects were recruited and their blood samples were obtained after an overnight fast of 12 h, serum was stored for the determination of levels of TRP, Se, Vit D, Mg, and serotonin.RESULTS: show that levels of TRP, Se, Vit D, Mg, and serotonin were decreased in the depressed patient when compared to normal subjects. There is a direct correlation between TRP and Vit D, and TRP and Se while the inverse correlation between TRP and Mg, and TRP and serotonin in depressed subjects. The association among TRP and other biomarkers is non-significant.CONCLUSION: In conclusion, depression is associated with deficiency of TRP, Se, Vit D, Mg, and serotonin displays the characteristics of biomarkers. The correlation between TRP and other biomarkers/trace elements is also important in depression.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers , Depression , Humans , Magnesium , Selenium , Serotonin , Trace Elements , Tryptophan , Vitamin D
10.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766566

ABSTRACT

Suicide is a complex phenomenon resulting from interactions between individual vulnerabilities and socio-environmental factors. The current review primarily focuses on research into the serotonin system, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, neurotrophic factors, lipid metabolism, and functional neuroimaging studies. It has been found that dysfunctions in the serotonin system, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis abnormalities, and low brain-derived neurotrophic factor and cholesterol levels may be linked to suicide. Additionally, recent neuroimaging studies have suggested that structural and functional abnormalities in brain areas related to cognitive and emotional regulation may be associated with suicide. More research incorporating advanced methodological approaches may shed further light on the neurobiological basis of suicide.


Subject(s)
Brain , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor , Cholesterol , Functional Neuroimaging , Lipid Metabolism , Nerve Growth Factors , Neurobiology , Neuroimaging , Pituitary-Adrenal System , Serotonin , Suicide
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739534

ABSTRACT

5-HT₆ receptor (5-HT₆R) is implicated in cognitive dysfunction, mood disorder, psychosis, and eating disorders. However, despite its significant role in regulating the brain functions, regulation of 5-HT₆R at the molecular level is poorly understood. Here, using yeast two-hybrid assay, we found that human 5-HT₆R directly binds to neuro-oncological ventral antigen 1 (Nova-1), a brain-enriched splicing regulator. The interaction between 5-HT₆R and Nova-1 was confirmed using GST pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays in cell lines and rat brain. The splicing activity of Nova-1 was decreased upon overexpression of 5-HT₆R, which was examined by detecting the spliced intermediates of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), a known pre-mRNA target of Nova-1, using RT-PCR. In addition, overexpression of 5-HT₆R induced the translocation of Nova-1 from the nucleus to cytoplasm, resulting in the reduced splicing activity of Nova-1. In contrast, overexpression of Nova-1 reduced the activity and the total protein levels of 5-HT₆R. Taken together, these results indicate that when the expression levels of 5-HT₆R or Nova-1 protein are not properly regulated, it may also deteriorate the function of the other.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain , Cell Line , Cytoplasm , Eating , Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone , Humans , Immunoprecipitation , Mood Disorders , Psychotic Disorders , Rats , RNA Precursors , RNA-Binding Proteins , Serotonin , Two-Hybrid System Techniques
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742212

ABSTRACT

Going back to basics prior to mentioning the use of antipsychotics in patients with pain, the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) definition of pain can be summarized as an unpleasant experience, composed of sensory experience caused by actual tissue damage and/or emotional experience caused by potential tissue damage. Less used than antidepressants, antipsychotics have also been used for treating this unpleasant experience as adjuvant analgesics without sufficient evidence from research. Because recently developed atypical antipsychotics reduce the adverse reactions of extrapyramidal symptoms, such as acute dystonia, pseudo-parkinsonism, akathisia, and tardive dyskinesia caused by typical antipsychotics, they are expected to be used more frequently in various painful conditions, while increasing the risk of metabolic syndromes (weight gain, diabetes, and dyslipidemia). Various antipsychotics have different neurotransmitter receptor affinities for dopamine (D), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), adrenergic (α), histamine (H), and muscarinic (M) receptors. Atypical antipsychotics antagonize transient, weak D₂ receptor bindings with strong binding to the 5-HT(2A) receptor, while typical antipsychotics block long-lasting, tight D₂ receptor binding. On the contrary, antidepressants in the field of pain management also block the reuptake of similar receptors, mainly on the 5-HT and, next, on the norepinephrine, but rarely on the D receptors. Antipsychotics have been used for treating positive symptoms, such as delusion, hallucination, disorganized thought and behavior, perception disturbance, and inappropriate emotion, rather than the negative, cognitive, and affective symptoms of psychosis. Therefore, an antipsychotic may be prescribed in pain patients with positive symptoms of psychosis during or after controlling all sensory components.


Subject(s)
Affective Symptoms , Analgesics , Antidepressive Agents , Antipsychotic Agents , Delusions , Dopamine , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Dystonia , Hallucinations , Histamine , Humans , Movement Disorders , Norepinephrine , Pain Management , Prolactin , Psychomotor Agitation , Psychotic Disorders , Receptor, Serotonin, 5-HT2A , Receptors, Neurotransmitter , Serotonin , Weight Gain
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741923

ABSTRACT

To conceptualize a novel bio-psychosocial-behavioral treatment model of panic disorder (PD), it is necessary to completely integrate behavioral, psychophysiological, neurobiological, and genetic data. Molecular genetic research on PD is specifically focused on neurotransmitters, including serotonin, neuropeptides, glucocorticoids, and neurotrophins. Although pharmacological interventions for PD are currently available, the need for more effective, faster-acting, and more tolerable pharmacological interventions is unmet. Thus, glutamatergic receptor modulators, orexin receptor antagonists, corticotrophin-releasing factor 1 receptor antagonists, and other novel mechanism-based anti-panic therapeutics have been proposed. Research on the neural correlates of PD is focused on the dysfunctional “cross-talk” between emotional drive (limbic structure) and cognitive inhibition (prefrontal cortex) and the fear circuit, which includes the amygdala-hippocampus-prefrontal axis. The neural perspective regarding PD supports the idea that cognitive-behavioral therapy normalizes alterations in top-down cognitive processing, including increased threat expectancy and attention to threat. Consistent with the concept of “personalized medicine,” it is speculated that Research Domain Criteria can enlighten further treatments targeting dysfunctions underlying PD more precisely and provide us with better definitions of moderators used to identify subgroups according to different responses to treatment. Structuring of the “negative valence systems” domain, which includes fear/anxiety, is required to define PD. Therefore, targeting glutamate- and orexin-related molecular mechanisms associated with the fear circuit, which includes the amygdala-hippocampus-prefrontal cortex axis, is required to define a novel bio-psychosocial-behavioral treatment model of PD.


Subject(s)
Glucocorticoids , Molecular Biology , Nerve Growth Factors , Neuropeptides , Neurotransmitter Agents , Orexin Receptor Antagonists , Panic Disorder , Panic , Serotonin
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741921

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Classifying mental disorders on the basis of objective makers might clarify their aetiology, help in making the diagnosis, identify “at risk” individuals, determine the severity of mental illness, and predict the course of the disorder. This study aims to review biological and clinical markers of panic disorder (PD). METHODS: A computerized search was carried out in PubMed and Science Direct using the key words: “marker/biomarker/clinical marker/neurobiology/staging” combined using Boolean AND operator with “panic.” In addition, the reference lists from existing reviews and from the articles retrieved were inspected. Only English language papers published in peer-reviewed journals were included. RESULTS: Structural changes in the amygdala, hippocampus, cerebral blood level in the left occipital cortex, serotonin 5-TH and noradrenergic systems activation, aberrant respiratory regulation, hearth rate variability, blood cells and peripheral blood stem cells, hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis dysregulation were identified as potential candidate biomarkers of PD. Staging was identified as clinical marker of PD. According to the staging model, PD is described as follows: prodromal phase (stage 1); acute phase (stage 2); panic attacks (stage 3); chronic phase (stage 4). CONCLUSION: The clinical utility, sensitivity, specificity, and the predictive value of biomarkers for PD is still questionable. The staging model of PD might be a valid susceptibility, diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive marker of PD. A possible longitudinal model of biological and clinical markers of PD is proposed.


Subject(s)
Amygdala , Biomarkers , Blood Cells , Diagnosis , Hippocampus , Mental Disorders , Occipital Lobe , Panic Disorder , Panic , Prodromal Symptoms , Sensitivity and Specificity , Serotonin , Stem Cells
15.
Epidemiology and Health ; : 2019026-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785761

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Severe complications of tramadol overdose have been reported; however, few large-scale studies have investigated this issue. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the presentation and complications of tramadol overdose in patients admitted to an intoxication referral center in northwestern Iran.METHODS: Patients with tramadol overdose admitted to Sina Teaching Hospital in Tabriz, Iran during 2013-2017 were included. For each patient, the following data were collected: demographics, previous drug or medication overdose, whether the patient was in the process of quitting drug use, ingested dose of tramadol and co-ingestants, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, clinical symptoms at the time of admission, and admission characteristics. Serotonin toxicity was diagnosed in patients who fit the Hunter criteria. Multiple logistic regression was performed to identify variables associated with the incidence of severe complications of tramadol overdose.RESULTS: In total, 512 cases of tramadol overdose were evaluated, of which 359 patients were included, with a median age of 41 years (range, 16-69) and a median tramadol dose of 1,500 mg (range, 500-4,000). The most frequent complications associated with tramadol overdose were hypertension (38.4%), tachycardia (24.8%), and seizure (14.5%). No serotonin toxicity was detected in patients. Having a GCS score <15, having taken a tramadol dose of >1,000 mg, being in the process of quitting drug use, being 30-49 years old, and male sex were significantly related to the incidence of severe complications of tramadol overdose.CONCLUSIONS: Although seizure was prevalent among Iranian patients with tramadol poisoning, serotonin toxicity and cardiogenic shock were rare findings.


Subject(s)
Demography , Glasgow Coma Scale , Hospitals, Teaching , Humans , Hypertension , Incidence , Iran , Logistic Models , Male , Poisoning , Referral and Consultation , Seizures , Serotonin , Serotonin Syndrome , Shock, Cardiogenic , Tachycardia , Tramadol
16.
Asian Spine Journal ; : 1036-1046, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785481

ABSTRACT

Antidepressant drugs can be advantageous in treating psychiatric and non-psychiatric illnesses, including spinal disorders. However, spine surgeons remain unfamiliar with the advantages and disadvantages of the use of antidepressant drugs as a part of the medical management of diseases of the spine. Our review article describes a systematic method using the PubMed/Medline database with a specific set of keywords to identify such benefits and drawbacks based on 17 original relevant articles published between January 2000 and February 2018; this provides the community of spine surgeons with available cumulative evidence contained within two tables illustrating both observational (10 studies; three cross-sectional, three case-control, and four cohort studies) and interventional (seven randomized clinical trials) studies. While tricyclic antidepressants (e.g., amitriptyline) and duloxetine can be effective in the treatment of neuropathic pain caused by root compression, venlafaxine may be more appropriate for patients with spinal cord injury presenting with depression and/or nociceptive pain. Despite the potential associated consequences of a prolonged hospital stay, higher cost, and controversial reports regarding the lowering of bone mineral density in the elderly, antidepressants may improve patient satisfaction and quality of life following surgery, and reduce postoperative pain and risk of delirium. The preoperative treatment of preexisting psychiatric diseases, such as anxiety and depression, can improve outcomes for patients with spinal cord injury-related disabilities; however, a preoperative platelet function assay is advocated prior to major spine surgical procedures to protect against significant intraoperative blood loss, as serotonergic antidepressants (e.g., selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors) and bupropion can increase the likelihood of bleeding intraoperatively due to drug-induced platelet dysfunction. This comprehensive review of this evolving topic can assist spine surgeons in better understanding the benefits and risks of antidepressant drugs to optimize outcomes and avoid potential hazards in a spine surgical setting.


Subject(s)
Aged , Antidepressive Agents , Antidepressive Agents, Tricyclic , Anxiety , Blood Platelets , Bone Density , Bupropion , Case-Control Studies , Cohort Studies , Delirium , Depression , Duloxetine Hydrochloride , Hemorrhage , Humans , Length of Stay , Methods , Neuralgia , Nociceptive Pain , Pain, Postoperative , Patient Satisfaction , Quality of Life , Risk Assessment , Serotonin , Spinal Cord , Spinal Cord Injuries , Spine , Surgeons , Venlafaxine Hydrochloride
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785324

ABSTRACT

There is considerable overlap in the clinical presentations of apathy and depression. However, differential diagnosis between apathy and other psychiatric conditions, including depression and dementia, is important. In this report, we present the case of a 67-year-old woman with a history of receiving selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment for depression. Differential diagnosis between treatment-resistant depression and SSRI-induced apathy syndrome was required. The symptoms of her apathy syndrome were relieved after the discontinuation of SSRIs and the addition of olanzapine, methylphenidate, and modafinil. Furthermore, we briefly review related literature in this article.


Subject(s)
Aged , Apathy , Dementia , Depression , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Humans , Methylphenidate , Serotonin , Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787404

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to compare aripiprazole versus bupropion augmentation therapy in older adult patients with major depressive disorder unresponsive to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors(SSRIs).METHODS: This is a post-hoc analysis of a 6-week, randomized prospective open-label multi-center study in thirty older adult patients with major depressive disorder. Participants were randomized to receive aripiprazole(N=16, 2.5–10mg/day) or bupropion(N=14, 150–300mg/day) for 6 weeks. Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating scale(HAM-D17), Iowa Fatigue Scale, Drug-Induced Extrapyramidal Symptoms Scale, Psychotropic-Related Sexual Dysfunction Questionnaire scores, and Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S) were obtained at baseline and after one, two, four, and six weeks. Changes on individual items of HAM-D17 were assessed as well as on composite scales(anxiety, insomnia and drive), and on four core subscales that capture core depression symptoms.RESULTS: There was a significantly greater decrease in MADRS scores in aripiprazole group compared to bupropion group at 4(p<0.05) and 6(p<0.05) weeks. There were significantly higher response rate at week 4(p<0.05) and 6(p<0.05) and remission rate at week 6 in aripiprazole group compared to bupropion group. Individual HAM-D17 items showing significantly greater change with adjunctive aripiprazole than bupropion: insomnia, late(ES=0.81 vs. −0.24, p=0.043), psychomotor retardation(ES=1.30 vs. 0.66, p=0.024), general somatic symptoms(ES=1.24 vs. 0.00, p=0.01). On three composite scales, adjunctive aripiprazole was significantly more effective than bupropion with respect to mean change for drive(p=0.005).CONCLUSION: Results of this study suggested that aripiprazole augmentation have superior efficacy in treating general and core symptoms of depression in older adult patients. Aripiprazole augmentation is associated with greater improvement in specific symptoms of depression such as psychomotor retardation, general somatic symptoms and drive.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aripiprazole , Bupropion , Depression , Depressive Disorder, Major , Fatigue , Humans , Iowa , Prospective Studies , Serotonin , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Weights and Measures
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787403

ABSTRACT

Depression is almost twice as prevalent in women than men. Atypical symptoms, somatic complaints, and comorbid anxiety disorders are more common in women, whereas suicide and comorbid substance use disorders are more common in men. Previous studies have also reported gender differences in the efficacy of and tolerability to specific classes of antidepressants. Various psychosocial and biological factors have been proposed to explain the gender differences in clinical characteristics of depression. The predominant theory of depression pathogenesis is the monoamine hypothesis, and consequently, monoamine neurotransmitters have been the primary target of antidepressants. In the first section of this review, study findings of clinical differences in depression by gender are summarized. Then, we provide an overview of the findings from human and rodent studies of gender differences in serotonin, norepinephrine, dopamine, and glutamate neurotransmitter systems. Total level, rate of synthesis, and receptor profiles of neurotransmitters seem to differ by gender in the euthymic state, depressed state, and in responses to stress or antidepressants. Furthermore, these neurotransmitters interact with gonadal hormones and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, systems that innately exhibit gender differences. Although most of the studies conducted so far are limited to animal models and results of the studies are heterogeneous, growing evidence suggests that gender differences exist in neurotransmitter systems, which possibly leads to gender differences in depression. More intensive studies in this field are needed to build gender-specific treatment strategies.


Subject(s)
Antidepressive Agents , Anxiety Disorders , Biological Factors , Depression , Dopamine , Female , Glutamic Acid , Gonadal Hormones , Humans , Male , Models, Animal , Neurotransmitter Agents , Norepinephrine , Rodentia , Serotonin , Substance-Related Disorders , Suicide
20.
Epidemiology and Health ; : e2019026-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763737

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Severe complications of tramadol overdose have been reported; however, few large-scale studies have investigated this issue. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the presentation and complications of tramadol overdose in patients admitted to an intoxication referral center in northwestern Iran. METHODS: Patients with tramadol overdose admitted to Sina Teaching Hospital in Tabriz, Iran during 2013-2017 were included. For each patient, the following data were collected: demographics, previous drug or medication overdose, whether the patient was in the process of quitting drug use, ingested dose of tramadol and co-ingestants, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, clinical symptoms at the time of admission, and admission characteristics. Serotonin toxicity was diagnosed in patients who fit the Hunter criteria. Multiple logistic regression was performed to identify variables associated with the incidence of severe complications of tramadol overdose. RESULTS: In total, 512 cases of tramadol overdose were evaluated, of which 359 patients were included, with a median age of 41 years (range, 16-69) and a median tramadol dose of 1,500 mg (range, 500-4,000). The most frequent complications associated with tramadol overdose were hypertension (38.4%), tachycardia (24.8%), and seizure (14.5%). No serotonin toxicity was detected in patients. Having a GCS score 1,000 mg, being in the process of quitting drug use, being 30-49 years old, and male sex were significantly related to the incidence of severe complications of tramadol overdose. CONCLUSIONS: Although seizure was prevalent among Iranian patients with tramadol poisoning, serotonin toxicity and cardiogenic shock were rare findings.


Subject(s)
Demography , Glasgow Coma Scale , Hospitals, Teaching , Humans , Hypertension , Incidence , Iran , Logistic Models , Male , Poisoning , Referral and Consultation , Seizures , Serotonin , Serotonin Syndrome , Shock, Cardiogenic , Tachycardia , Tramadol
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