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1.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-22707

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: The monoaminergic systems which exert a modulatory role in memory processing, are disturbed in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Moringa oleifera (MO) has been shown to exert its effect in CNS by altering the brain monoamines. The present study aims to see whether chronic oral treatment of ethanolic extract of MO leaves can alter the brain monoamines (norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin) in distinct areas of brain in rat model of AD caused by intracerebroverticle (ICV) infusion of colchicine and hence can provide protection against monoaminergic deficits associated with AD. METHODS: Rats were given ICV infusion of colchicine (15 microg/5microl) and MO leaf alcoholic extract was given in various doses. The effective dose was standardized by radial arm maze (RAM) training. From the selected dose of 250 mg/kg body weight, the biochemical estimations and EEG studies were performed. RESULTS: Stereotaxic ICV infusion of colchicine significantly impaired the RAM performance together with decrease in norepinephrine (NE) level in cerebral cortex (CC), hippocampus (HC) and caudate nucleus (CN). Dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) levels were decreased in CC, HC and CN. The EEG studies showed a decrease in beta and alpha waves and increase in biphasic spike wave pattern in experimental Alzheimer rat model. Treatment with MO extract markedly increased the number of correct choices in a RAM task with variable alteration of brain monoamines. The EEG studies showed an increase in beta waves and a decrease in spike wave discharges. INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSION: Our results showed that brain monoamines were altered discreetly in different brain areas after colchicine infusion in brain. After treatment with MO, leaf extract the monoamine levels of brain regions were restored to near control levels. Our findings indicated that MO might have a role in providing protection against AD in rat model by altering brain menoamine levels and electrical activity.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease/metabolism , Animals , Biogenic Monoamines/analysis , Brain Chemistry/drug effects , Dopamine/analysis , Electroencephalography/drug effects , Male , Maze Learning/drug effects , Moringa oleifera , Neuroprotective Agents/pharmacology , Norepinephrine/analysis , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Rats , Serotonin/analysis
2.
Arch. venez. farmacol. ter ; 27(2): 114-120, 2008. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-517107

ABSTRACT

El ácido fólico ha sido utilizado como coadyuvante antidepresivo, y se han reportado bajos niveles séricos en deprimidos. Debido al papel del ácido fólico y a la relevancia del sistema serotonérgico linfocitario en la depresión, el objetivo de este estudio es determinar la capacidad de producción de serotonina y la presencia de la hidroxilasa del triptófano en linfocitos de pacientes deprimidos tratados con fluoxetina y ácido fólico. Los pacientes fueron diagnosticados con los criterios del Manual Diagnóstico y Estadístico de la Asociación Psiquiátrica Americana, la intensidad del episodio depresivo se determinó mediante la Escala de Hamilton para Depresión. Veintisiete pacientes (21-58 años) fueron seleccionados, no presentaban otra patología ni riesgo suicida. Se distribuyeron en forma aleatoria en dos grupos experimentales, unos (14) recibieron fluoxetina, 20 mg/d, más ácido fólico, 10 mg/d y otros (13) fluoxetina más placebo. El grupo control fue constituido por 15 sujetos aparentemente sanos (26-49 años). Se tomaron muestras de sangre al principio y después de seis semanas. Diez pacientes de cada grupo experimental culminaron el estudio. La homocisteína plasmática disminuyó con la administración de ácido fólico. Los linfocitos fueron aislados por gradientes de densidades con Ficoll/Hypaque y adhesión diferencial al plástico. Las concentraciones de serotonina en linfocitos se determinaron por cromatografía líquida de alta resolución con detector electroquímico y no difirieron entre los dos grupos ni en relación al control, pero fueron bajas en los que recibieron el tratamiento. La síntesis de serotonina a partir de triptófano fue menor en los pacientes en relación a controles, y disminuyó después de los dos tratamientos. El número de linfocitos con la enzima fue menor en los pacientes y decreció después del ácido fólico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Female , Middle Aged , Folic Acid , Depression/diagnosis , Fluoxetine , Mixed Function Oxygenases/analysis , Serotonin/analysis , Serotonin , Tryptophan/analysis
3.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2007 Aug; 45(8): 726-31
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-57732

ABSTRACT

The present study has been undertaken to observe the effect of aqueous extract of M. oleifera (MO) leaf (300mg/kg body weight) on mean ulcer index, enterochromaffin (EC) cells and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) content of ulcerated gastric tissue. Ulceration was induced by using aspirin (500 mg/kg, po), cerebellar nodular lesion and applying cold stress. In all cases increased mean ulcer index in gastric tissue along with decreased EC cell count was observed with concomitant decrease of 5-HT content. Pretreatment with MO for 14 days decreased mean ulcer index, increased both EC cell count and 5-HT content in all ulcerated group, but treatment with ondansetron, a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, along with MO pretreatment increased mean ulcer index, decreased 5-HT content without any alteration in EC cell count. The results suggest that the protective effect of MO on ulceration is mediated by increased EC cell count and 5-HT levels which may act via 5-HT3 receptors on gastric tissue.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Count , Disease Models, Animal , Enterochromaffin Cells/chemistry , Moringa oleifera/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Rats , Rats, Inbred Strains , Serotonin/analysis , Stomach Ulcer/chemically induced , Water/chemistry
4.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2007 Feb; 45(2): 175-9
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-60424

ABSTRACT

An important goal of current neuroleptic research is to develop antipsychotic compounds with the low incidence of extrapyramidal side effects. The therapeutic success and less side-effect of atypical anti-psychotics such as clozapine and risperidone has focused the attention on the role of receptor systems other than dopaminergic system in the pathophysiology of neuroleptics-associated extrapyramidal side effects. The present study compares the effect of chronic administration of typical and atypical antipsychotics on neurochemical profile in rat forebrain. The study was planned to study changes in extracellular levels of norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin in forebrain region of brain and tried to correlate them with hyperkinetic motor activities (vacuous chewing movements (VCM's), tongue protrusions and facial jerking) in rats, hall mark of chronic extrapyramidal side-effect of neuroleptic therapy tardive dyskinesia. Chronic administration of haloperidol (1 mg/kg) and chlorpromazine (5 mg/kg) resulted in significant increase in orofacial hyperkinetic movements where as clozapine and risperidone showed less significant increase in orofacial hyperkinetic movements as compared to control. There were also significant decrease in the extracellular levels of neurotransmitters dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin in fore-brain as measured by HPLC/ED after chronic administration of haloperidol and chlorpromazine. Chronic administration of atypical neuroleptics clozapine and risperidone resulted in the decrease in extracellular concentration of dopamine and norepinephrine but the effect was less significant as compared to typical drugs. However, treatment with atypical neuroleptics resulted in 3 fold increase in serotonin levels as compared to forebrain of control rats. Typical and atypical neuroleptics showed varying effects on neurotransmitters, especially serotonin which may account for the difference in their profile of side effects (Tardive dyskinesia).


Subject(s)
Animals , Antipsychotic Agents/administration & dosage , Body Weight/drug effects , Chlorpromazine/administration & dosage , Clozapine/administration & dosage , Dopamine/analysis , Dyskinesia, Drug-Induced/pathology , Haloperidol/administration & dosage , Male , Norepinephrine/analysis , Prosencephalon/chemistry , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Risperidone/administration & dosage , Serotonin/analysis
5.
Alexandria Medical Journal [The]. 2006; 48 (1): 45-57
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-128767

ABSTRACT

Hyperglycemia is a key factor in diabetic complications. However, the mechanism of hyperglycemia-induced brain changes remains poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of diabetes on serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT] levels and protein kinase C-alpha [PKC-alpha] expression in brain. The potential protective effect of quercetin [QE]; as phytochemical on diabetic brain was additionally studied. This study was carried out on 60 adult male albino rats divided into three main groups; group I [control] included 20 vehicle-treated rats, group II [diabetic] consisted of 20 rats injected once intraperitonially with streptozotocin [STZ; 50mg/kb body weight] amid group III [insulin-treated diabetic] comprised 20 diabetic rats injected subcutaneously with insulin [SIU/kg/day]. Each group was subdivided into 2 subgroups; subgroup I [non-QE treated] and subgroup 2[QE-treated]. QE was administered orally [10mg/kg/day]. At the end of the implemental period, all rats were sacrificed, blood samples were withdrawn and their brains were rapidly removed and dissected. 5-HT was extracted from brain samlples and their concentrations were estimated fluorophotometrically. PKC-alpha expression was quantitated by immunoblot from extracted brain samples. The STZ-induced diabetic rats showed significant marked hyperglycemia and higher brain PKC-alpha expression as compared to both control and insulin-treated diabetic groups. However, brain 5-HT concentrations did not differ significantly between the three studied groups. Only in diabetic rats, QE administration produced a significant increase in 5-HT concentrations and a decrease in PKC-alpha expression but with no effect on blood glucose levels. A highly significant direct correlation was found between blood glucose and PKC-alpha expression levels. However, 5-HT did not correlate with either blood glucose or PKC-alpha expression. it could be concluded that STZ-induced chronically hyperglycemic rats were associated with enhanced PKC-alpha expression as well as unaltered neurotransmitter; 5-HT in brain. QE seems to act perfectly in diabetic rats by mechanisms other than antihyperglycemic action. The neuroprotective effect of QE in diabetics was suggested to be through both elevating 5-HT and lowering PKC-alpha expression. Consequently, controlling hyperglycemia is still the most essential approach for primary prevention of diabetic complications


Subject(s)
Animals, Laboratory , Protein Kinase C-alpha/analysis , Serotonin/analysis , Brain/enzymology , Rats , Quercetin
6.
Rev. psiquiatr. clín. (São Paulo) ; 32(1): 27-36, 2005. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-415217

ABSTRACT

Nos últimos anos, tem havido um interesse crescente a respeito de uma melhor compreensão sobre o comportamento anti-social. O aumento da criminalidade e violência urbanas pode ter contribuído para esse maior interesse. Além de fatores psicossociais, outros biológicos têm sido implicados na fisiopatogenia do transtorno de personalidade anti-social (TPAS). Estudos de neuroimagem apontam o envolvimento de estruturas cerebrais frontais, especialmente o córtex orbitofrontal, e a amígdala. Também tem sido sugerido que prejuízos na função serotonérgica estariam associados à ocorrência de comportamento anti-social, já que pacientes com diagnóstico de TPAS apresentam respostas hormonais atenuadas a desafios farmacológicos com drogas que aumentam a função serotonérgica cerebral e redução da concentração de receptores serotonérgicos. Uma abordagem ampla dos diferentes fatores possivelmente envolvidos na fisiopatogenia do TPAS poderia contribuir para o desenvolvimento de novas técnicas de prevenção e intervenção.


Subject(s)
Antisocial Personality Disorder , Neurobiology , Serotonin/analysis , Diagnostic Imaging , Psychopathology
7.
Biol. Res ; 38(2/3): 259-266, 2005. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-424729

ABSTRACT

A serotonergic pathway is apparently involved in parasite-host interactions. Previous studies conducted in our laboratory showed increased rates in oxygen consumption and alterations in body posture in the crab Hemigrapsus crenulatus parasitized by the acanthocephalan, Profilicollis antarcticus. Such changes may be related to the functions described for biogenic amines in crustaceans. During the infective stage the acanthocephalans live freely in the hemocelomic cavity, suggesting that the possible alteration induced by biogenic amines may be related to their neurohormonal function in crustaceans. To test whether the presence of P. antarcticus produced neurohormonal changes in its intermediate host, H. crenulatus, we analyzed serotonin and dopamine levels in the host using HPLC with electrochemical detection. Two groups of 11 female crabs were studied; one group was artificially inoculated with two cystacanths while the other was used as the control. Our results show a dramatic increase in hemolymph dopamine, but not serotonin in H. crenulatus parasitized by the acanthocephalan P. antarcticus. Our results, along with those reported by Maynard (1996), suggest a parasite-specific strategy involved in the behavior alteration caused by the acanthocephalans on their intermediate host. The use of a biogenic amine as a mechanism of interaction by the parasites gives them an endless number of alternative potential actions on their intermediate hosts.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , /enzymology , /parasitology , /chemistry , Chile , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Dopamine/analysis , Dopamine/blood , Serotonin/analysis , Serotonin/blood
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-128647

ABSTRACT

The distributions and frequencies of some endocrine cells in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of ddY mice were studied with immunohistochemical method using 7 types of antisera against bovine chromogranin (BCG), serotonin, gastrin, cholecystokinin (CCK)-8, somatostatin, glucagon and human pancreatic polypeptide (HPP). All of 7 types of immunoreactive (IR) cells were identified. Most of IR cells in the intestinal portion were generally spherical or spindle in shape (open typed cell) while cells showing round in shape (close typed cell) were found in the intestinal gland and stomach regions occasionally. Their relative frequencies were varied according to each portion of GI tract. BCG-IR cells were demonstrated throughout whole GI tract except for the cecum and they were most predominant in the fundus and pylorus. Serotonin-IR cells were detected throughout whole GI tract and they were most predominant cell types in this species of mice. Gastrin-IR cells were restricted to the pylorus and CCK-8-IR cells were demonstrated in the pylorus, duodenum and jejunum with numerous frequencies in the pylorus. Somatostatin-IR cells were detected throughout whole GI tract except for the cecum and rectum and they showed more numerous frequencies in the stomach regions. In addition, glucagon-IR cells were restricted to the fundus, duodenum and jejunum with rare frequencies, and HPP-IR cells were restricted to the rectum only with rare frequency. In conclusion, some strain-dependent unique distributional patterns of gastrointestinal endocrine cells were found in GI tract of ddY mice.


Subject(s)
Animals , Biomarkers/analysis , Cholecystokinin/analysis , Chromogranins/analysis , Enteroendocrine Cells/cytology , Female , Gastrins/analysis , Glucagon/analysis , Immunoenzyme Techniques , Mice , Pancreatic Polypeptide/analysis , Protein Precursors/analysis , Serotonin/analysis
9.
Rev. psiquiatr. clín. (São Paulo) ; 30(3): 76-79, 2003. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-354261

ABSTRACT

O objetivo desse estudo foi verificar os níveis dos neurotransmissores estriatais de ratas adultas durante o estado epiléptico induzido pela pilocarpina. Ratas wistar foram tratadas com uma única dose de pilocarpina (400 mg/kg por via subcutânea (S.C.); P400) e os controles receberam salina. A concentração dos neurotransmissores foi determinada através do HPLC eletroquímico, no corpo estriado de ratas que no período de observação de 1 hora desencadearam estado epiléptico e que sobreviveram à fase aguda do quadro convulsivo. Foi observada redução nos níveis de dopamina, serotonina, ácido diidroxifenilacético e aumento na concentração do ácido 5-hidroxiindolacético. Nenhuma alteração foi observada no 4-hidroxi-3-metoxi-fenilacético. Os resultados sugerem que a ativação do sistema colinérgico pode interagir com os sistemas dopaminérgico e serotonérgico nos mecanismos referentes à fase aguda do processo convulsivo no corpo estriado de ratos desenvolvidos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Corpus Striatum , Status Epilepticus/chemically induced , Neurotransmitter Agents/analysis , Dopamine/analysis , Pilocarpine/therapeutic use , Rats, Wistar , Serotonin/analysis
10.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2000 Jan; 38(1): 98-100
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-62295

ABSTRACT

Salt loading on pigeons (C. livia) had stimulatory effects on brain amines (dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine), corticosterone, norepinephrine and epinephrine contents of adrenal gland. Conjoint administration of dopamine with hypertonic saline restored the brain amines and corticosterone of adrenal gland, but had no effect on catecholamine (CAM) contents of adrenal medulla. The excessive release of CAM in the plasma indicates sympathetic stimulation after both the treatments.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Glands/metabolism , Animals , Brain Chemistry/drug effects , Columbidae , Corticosterone/metabolism , Dopamine/analysis , Epinephrine/metabolism , Male , Norepinephrine/metabolism , Organ Size , Osmotic Pressure , Pituitary Gland, Anterior/metabolism , Pituitary-Adrenal System/physiopathology , Prolactin/metabolism , Saline Solution, Hypertonic/toxicity , Serotonin/analysis , Water-Electrolyte Imbalance/physiopathology
11.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-64643

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Due to lack of reliable biochemical/radiological markers, the diagnosis of acute appendicitis is based only on clinical features. METHODS: We estimated plasma serotonin levels in 48 patients with acute appendicitis (histologically proven), 27 patients with abdominal pain of other etiologies, and 20 healthy controls. RESULTS: The plasma serotonin levels were (mean +/- SD) 36.6 +/- 12.5 nmol/L, 12.5 +/- 3.6 nmol/L and 10.4 +/- 3.5 nmol/L in the three groups, respectively. The levels in patients with acute appendicitis were significantly higher (p < 0.001) than in the other groups, giving 93.8% sensitivity and 95.7% specificity to the test. CONCLUSION: Plasma serotonin level is a reliable marker of acute appendicitis, especially in the first 48 hours.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Pain/diagnosis , Acute Disease , Appendicitis/diagnosis , Biomarkers/blood , Diagnosis, Differential , Humans , Predictive Value of Tests , Sensitivity and Specificity , Serotonin/analysis
12.
Indian J Physiol Pharmacol ; 1996 Jul; 40(3): 213-9
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-107788

ABSTRACT

Competition for a limited resource appears to be an important factor in natural selection. Such competition when elicited experimentally, leads to the establishment of dominant-subordinate (D-S) relationship between the competitors. The present study was carried out to analyse the effect of D-S relationship on the levels of monoamines, namely, dopamine (DA), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE) in various brain regions. The model of D-S relationship selected for this work was a modified worker-parasite paradigm in adult male Wistar rats. The levels of monoamines were estimated in the frontal cortex, the entorhinal cortex, the hippocampus and the septum of the two competitors and a non-competitor control, using high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Levels of DA and 5-HT, but not NE, were found to be lower (P < 0.05) only in the frontal cortex of the subordinate as compared to that of the dominant or the control. These findings are comparable with similar neurochemical changes reported to be caused by some of the known stressors.


Subject(s)
Animals , Conditioning, Operant , Dominance-Subordination , Dopamine/analysis , Frontal Lobe/chemistry , Gastrointestinal Contents/chemistry , Male , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Serotonin/analysis
13.
Bol. méd. Hosp. Infant. Méx ; 52(2): 69-76, feb. 1995. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-149540

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Se ha demostrado que la desnutrición gestacional produce desde la etapa fetal una aceleración de la síntesis de 5-hidroxitriptamina cerebral (5-HT), secundaria a un aumento de la afinidad de la triptófano-5-hidroxilasa (T5-H) por el L-triptófano (L-Trp) y una mayor capacidad de fosforilación. Estos hallazgos han sugerido un cambio conformacional de la enzima durante el desarrollo cerebral como mecanismo principal que explique la aceleración de la síntesis de 5-HT. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar los diferentes cambios que se producen en el cerebro de las ratas desnutridas durante la gestación y que al nacer son sometidas a un esquema de rehabilitación nutricia, con el propósito de obtener información que nos permita apoyar la hipótesis de que el mecanismo de activación de la síntesis de 5-HT cerebral es debida a un cambio estructural de la T5-H. Material y Métodos. Se seleccionaron ratas cepa Wistar, adaptadas a condiciones ambientales estándar. Al término de este período se formaron dos grupos: uno con desnutrición proteínico-calórico (D) y el otro control (C). Las hembras fueron pareadas con machos normales. Al nacimiento las crías de ambos grupos fueron mezcladas y redistribuidas al azar a madres del mimsmo grupo; ademas se realizó un entrecruzamiento de las crías de estos grupos para formar dos subgrupos; el desnutrido recuperado (DR) y el desnutrido en la lactancia (DL). A las edades de 1, 10, 15 y 21 días, se obtuvo el encéfalo para los ensayos bioquímicos. Además se realizaron curvas de peso corporal, cerebral y de la longitud céfalo-sacra. Resultados. Los grupos D y DL mostraron un retraso significativo del crecimiento corporal, cerebral y de la longitud céfalo desde el primer día hasta los 21 días de edad en comparación a los controles. El mismo patrón se observó en las proteínas tisulares. El grupo DR alcanzó una recuperación física a los 15 días de edad. La actividad de la enzima en los desnutridos mostró un aumento significativo en todas las edades estudiadas; la misma elevación significativa persistió en el grupo DR hasta los 21 días en comparación al grupo control y una elevación significativa en la concentración de 5-HT. Conclusiones: Los resultados confirman que la desnutrición gestacional y posnatal producen una deficiencia en la composición corporal, cerebral y una aceleración en la síntesis de 5-hidroxitriptamina. Además apoyan el hecho de que la rebilitación nutricional neonatal produce una recuperación en la composición corporal. Sin embargo los hallazgos de que el L-Trp cerebral se normalice en el animal rehabilitado, de que la actividad de la T5-H permanezca elevada y persista un aumento en la síntesis de neurotransmisor, 5-HT, apoya indirectamente la hipótesis de que el mecanismo de activación de esta importante vía biosintética cerebral, es posiblemente debiido a un cambio relacionado a la estructura de la triptófano-5-hidroxilasa inducido por la desnutrición ontogénica. Desnutrición gestacional; 5-hidroxitriptamina; cerebro; rehabilitación nutricional; triptófano-5-hidroxilasa


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Female , Cerebrum/enzymology , Cerebrum/metabolism , Protein-Energy Malnutrition/enzymology , Protein-Energy Malnutrition/rehabilitation , Serotonin/analysis , Serotonin/chemical synthesis , Rats, Wistar/metabolism
14.
Acta cient. venez ; 46(3): 161-5, 1995. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-216746

ABSTRACT

The paraplegic syndrome of bovines is a condition characterized by impairment of locomotion, hypoalgesia and finally death within 72 h. The pathogenesis of the syndrome has not been established. In the present work we determined the levels of monoamines and their metabolites in cerebro-spinal fluid and spinal cord of affected animals in order to investigate the functional state of these neurotransmitters. The content of the main metabolite of serotonin, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, was elevated in the cerebro-spinal fluid and in the gray matter of the spinal cord of paraplegic bovines. Serotonin content in the spinal cord did not differ with respect to control animals, but was decreased in the cerebro-spinal fluid of affected animals. Modifications in the noradrenergic system were also observed, but were less consistent, for which reason further studies are needed. These observations indicate an increase in the turnover rate of serotonin in the paraplegic syndrome. The meaning of the described alterations is unknown at the moment


Subject(s)
Cattle , Animals , Female , Cattle Diseases/cerebrospinal fluid , Hydroxyindoleacetic Acid/analysis , Paraplegia/veterinary , Serotonin/analysis , Spinal Cord/chemistry , Homovanillic Acid/analysis , Methoxyhydroxyphenylglycol/analysis , Methoxyhydroxyphenylglycol/cerebrospinal fluid , Norepinephrine/analysis , Paraplegia/cerebrospinal fluid , Syndrome
15.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-18242

ABSTRACT

Isatin (10 microM) strongly inhibited the activity of rat brain monoamine oxidase-B (MAO-B) in vitro. At millimolar concentrations (1-10 mM) it inhibited brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and sodium, potassium-adenosine triphosphatase (Na+, K(+)-ATPase) activity also. However, isatin did not affect these enzymes after both acute and chronic treatments in vivo. Administration of isatin to rats at 300 mg/kg body weight for 2 and 6 h significantly raised brain serotonin levels. Chronic treatment for 20 days resulted in enhanced brain glycolipids and plasmalogen levels. There was no change in the levels of 5-hydroxy indole acetic acid (5 HIAA), phospholipids, cholesterol and gangliosides under these conditions.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain Chemistry/drug effects , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Isatin/pharmacology , Lipids/analysis , Male , Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Rats , Serotonin/analysis , Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase/antagonists & inhibitors
16.
Mansoura Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 1993; 9 (2): 234-43
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-28969

ABSTRACT

Seeds of Carthamus lanatus afforded, in addition to apigenin and quercitrin, a new serotonin derivative, N-Cp-methoxycinnamoyl]-serotonin mono-beta-D-glucopyranoside, whose structure was elucidated by chemical and spectroscopic means


Subject(s)
Serotonin/analogs & derivatives , Serotonin/analysis
17.
Pakistan Journal of Pharmacology. 1992; 9 (1): 75-83
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-26000

ABSTRACT

Adrenaline [A] and noradrenaline [NA] are the hormones secretated during stress. Synthesis of the neurotransmitter 5 - hydroxytryptamine [5 - HT, Serotonin] in brain is increased during stress. Present paper concerns the effect of adrenaline and noradrenaline on brain serotonin metabolism so that the effect of stress hormones on brain 5 - HT metabolism can be evaluated in the absence of other non specific effect of stress. Adrenaline and noradrenaline given in doses of 1. 0, 2. 0 and 3. 0 mg/kg [i. p.] inhibited liver tryptophan pyrrolase activity in apo tryptophan pyrrolase lacking species, rabbit in one hour. Serum level of total tryptophan decreased but those of free tryptophan increased. Brain level of tryptophan and serotonin were also increased. The results suggest, that the increase of serum free tryptophan may have a role in the enhancement of 5 - HT metabolism observed in adrenaline and noradrenaline injected rabbits


Subject(s)
Serotonin/analysis , Epinephrine/pharmacology , Norepinephrine/pharmacology , Rabbits
18.
Acta gastroenterol. latinoam ; 21(4): 231-6, oct.-dec. 1991. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-105627

ABSTRACT

Se estudiaron las concentraciones (pg/mg de tejido de los neurotransmisores (NT) 5-Hidroxitriptamina (5HT), Noradrenalina (NA) y Dopamina (DA) en mucosa del fundus gástrico (F), antro (A) y bulbo duodenal (D) de 21 paciente con mucosa normal y con diversos grados de inflamación crónica. Se correlacionaron las concentraciones de los NT entre sí, en conjuntos en cada región y con parámetros clínicos, de motilidad indirectos e histológicos. Los valores promedios hallados en cada región fueron para 5HT: F=940+/-457, en A=787+/-407 y en D=601+/-272; para NA en F=217+/-138, en A=228+/-126 y en D=245+/-118; y para DA en F=50+/-32, en A=46+/-31 y en D=53+/-45. Se observó que a mayores infiltrados inflamatorios en bulbo duodenal se encontraron mayores concentraciones de DA (r=0,94). Ningún otro parámetro tuvo relación significativa con las variaciones de los NT. Se pudo establecer que las variaciones de las concentraciones de los NT de la mucosa del antro gástrico están más asociadas a las del bulbo duodenal que a las del fundus gástrico


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Dopamine/analysis , Gastric Mucosa/chemistry , Norepinephrine/analysis , Serotonin/analysis , Aged, 80 and over , Duodenum/chemistry , Gastric Fundus/chemistry , Intestinal Mucosa/chemistry , Pyloric Antrum/chemistry
19.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-19424

ABSTRACT

Factors involved in the pathophysiological changes such as severe pain, burning sensation, redness, swelling and edema in case of the scorpion L. laevifrons were investigated. The presence of pain-producing autacoids histamine 2.1 +/- 0.18 micrograms/mg and 5-HT 0.23 +/- 0.1 micrograms/ml was confirmed by thin layer chromatography and bioassay. Histamine releasing substance was detected in vitro in the chopped guineapig lung. Venom also contained hyaluronidase 5 x 10(-4) N-acetyl-D-glucosamine released/h/mg, which facilitates spread of the toxic principles in the tissues. It is concluded that histamine, 5-HT, histamine-releasing factor and hyaluronidase are partly involved in the pathophysiological changes induced by the venom. It is suggested that mepyramine and cyproheptadine may prove useful in the management of scorpion envenomation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Guinea Pigs , Histamine/analysis , Histamine Release , Hyaluronoglucosaminidase/analysis , Lung/drug effects , Scorpion Venoms/analysis , Serotonin/analysis
20.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 1990 Aug; 28(8): 792-3
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-63419

ABSTRACT

Regional brain monoamine concentrations were investigated following footshock induced fighting behaviour in paired rats, by a spectrophotofluorometric method. The dopamine (DA) levels of the diencephalon-midbrain (DM), and that of the caudate nucleus (CN), were significantly augmented as compared to unshocked but paired rats, the increase being substantially more in DM. Noradrenaline (NA) concentrations of both DM and pons-medulla (PM) increased to almost similar extents, though the data remained statistically insignificant in comparison to controls. The 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT) of both DM and PM, however, recorded a decrease, which was statistically significant in the latter brain area. The biochemical data are consonant with the reported facilitatory effect of central DA, and the inhibitory role of central 5HT, in experimental aggression. The observed changes in NA levels, for which a role in experimental aggression remains equivocal, may be due to the stress of footshock kept minimal due to the coping factor of fighting in response to the shock.


Subject(s)
Aggression/physiology , Animals , Brain Chemistry , Dopamine/analysis , Female , Male , Neurotransmitter Agents/analysis , Norepinephrine/analysis , Pain , Rats , Rats, Inbred Strains , Serotonin/analysis
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