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1.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 88: e00402020, 2021. mapas, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1349004

ABSTRACT

The epidemiology of salmonellosis in poultry is complex, which makes it difficult to identify the origin and spread of this disease in poultry farms. The aims of this study were to characterize the spatial distribution of Salmonella enterica in epidemiological units in Paraná, Brazil; and to investigate correlations between this microorganism and associated factors. Among the epidemiological units, 78 of 243 (32.10%) were positive. Spatially, the northwestern and western regions had higher concentrations of positive cases than the other regions. In bivariate analyses, the presence of other animal species in the epidemiological unit (prevalence ratio, PR = 0.64; 95% confidence interval, CI = 0.43­0.95; p = 0.022) and proximity to establishments at risk (PR = 0.51; 95% CI = 0.32­0.81; p = 0.001) did not influence positivity, but the average population per poultry shed (between 30,501 and 32,500; PR = 2.57; 95% CI = 1.72­3.83; p = 0.001) was associated with Salmonella positivity. Multiple logistic regression demonstrated that the average population per poultry shed, presence of surrounding risk-posing establishments and presence of surrounding poultry sheds produced a significant multiple model for S. enterica. The results indicated that the presence of S. enterica may be related to higher density broiler in poultry sheds, presence of surrounding poultry sheds, proximity between positive and negative epidemiological units and altitude of the municipality. The information obtained showed that some factors were related to positivity for this microorganism and emphasizes the importance of serotyping to obtain other epidemiological data.


Subject(s)
Poultry , Salmonella Infections/epidemiology , Salmonella enterica , Birds , Serotyping , Retrospective Studies , Prevalence Ratio , Farms
2.
Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 42(4): 365-372, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142967

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: We evaluated different technological approaches and anti-D clones to propose the most appropriate serologic strategy in detecting the largest numbers of D variants in blood donors. Methods: We selected 101 samples from Brazilian blood donors with different expressions of D in our donor routine. The tests were performed in immediate spin (IS) with eleven commercially available anti-D reagents in a tube and microplate. The D confirmatory tests for the presence of weak D included the indirect antiglobulin test (IAT) in a tube, gel and solid-phase red blood cell adherence (SPRCA). All DNA samples were extracted from peripheral blood and the D variants were classified using different molecular assays. Results: The RHD variants identified by molecular analysis included weak D types (1, 2, 3, 11 and 38) and partial Ds (DAR1.2, DAR1, DAR3.1, DAU0, DAU2, DAU4, DAU5, DAU6, DMH and DVII). The monoclonal-monoclonal blend RUM-1/MS26 was the best anti-D reagent used in detecting the D antigen in the IS phase in a tube, reacting with 83.2% of the D variants, while the anti-D blend D175 + 415 was the best monoclonal antibody (MoAb) used in a microplate to minimize the need for an IAT, reacting with 83.2% of the D variants. The D confirmatory tests using SPRCA showed a reactivity (3 - 4+) with 100% of the D variant samples tested. Conclusion: Our results show that, even using sensitive methods and MoAbs to ensure the accurate assignment of the D antigen, at least 17% of our donor samples need a confirmatory D test in order to avoid alloimmunization in D-negative patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Rh-Hr Blood-Group System/analysis , Blood Donors , Serotyping , Alleles , Hemagglutination
3.
Rev. chil. salud pública ; 24(1): 30-39, 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1121731

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Las infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS) se expresan con mayor frecuencia en poblaciones marginadas, como lo son los ciudadanos que se encuentran en situación de calle y con problemas de drogadicción. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Mediante un estudio de campo descriptivo retrospectivo, se determinó la prevalencia de las ITS que se detallan en los ciudadanos residentes de un Centro de Inclusión Social en Venezuela durante los años 2013 a 2018. Para ello, suero de 280 individuos fue analizado mediante la prueba ELISA de diferentes compañías biotecnológicas. RESULTADOS: 50 casos (17,8%) fueron reactivos a cualquiera de las enfermedades investigadas. El biomarcador de mayor prevalencia durante el lapso estudiado fue el antiHBc con 13,9% y las menores fueron HBsAg con 0,75%, VHC con 0,71% y Treponema pallidum con 2,85%, así como 2,14% para VIH. No se detectó ningun caso de HTLV. Del mismo modo, se observó una tasa de co-infección entre hepatitis B y VIH de 2,32%, entre hepatitis C y VIH de 1,5% y en dos años se consiguió co-infeccion de hepatitis B y Sífilis con 1,5% y 5,8% en el 2014 y 2018 respectivamente. DISCUSIÓN: Se encontró que los sujetos acogidos en el Centro de Inclusión Social son un grupo vulnerable a las ITS y las coinfecciones, por lo que deben llevarse a cabo campañas de preven-ción y pruebas de detección de estas enfermedades en dicha población.


INTRODUCTION: Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) are most frequently expressed in marginalized populations, such as as homeless individuals or those with substance abuse issues. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Through a retrospective descriptive study, the prevalence of various STDs was determined among residents of a Social Inclusion Center in Venezuela from 2013 to 2018. For this purpose, serum from 280 individuals were analyzed with ELISA tests from different biotech companies. RESULTS: 50 cases (17.86%) were sero-reactive to any of the STIs investigated. The most preva-lent biomarker during the study period studied was antiHBc (13.9%) and the lowest prevalen-ces were HBsAg with 0.75%, HCV with 0.71%, and Treponema pallidum with 2.85%, as well as 2.14% for HIV. No cases of HTLV were detected. Similarly, there was coinfection between hepatitis B and HIV in 2.32% of cases, between hepatitis C and HIV in 1.5%, and between syphillis and hepatitis in 1,5% and 5,8% of cases (in 2014 and 2018 respectively). DISCUSSION: Individuals in Centers for Social Inclusion are at risk of presenting STIs and co-infections; therefore, STI prevention campaigns and screenings should be conducted in this vulnerable group.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/diagnosis , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/epidemiology , Venezuela/epidemiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Biomarkers/analysis , Serotyping , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Vulnerable Populations , Coinfection , Hepatitis B/epidemiology
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-820819

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We investigated the characteristics of Streptococcus mutans in the national culture collection from Korea. Twenty-nine (dental plaque, n=27; endodontic infections, n=1; blood, n=1) isolates were included in this study.METHODS: Antimicrobial susceptibilities were tested using the disk diffusion test. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST), serotyping, and collagen-binding genes were used for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and direct sequencing. A collagen-binding (to assess the adhesion properties) assay was performed. S. mutans demonstrated high susceptibility to antimicrobial agents. Differences in collagen-binding abilities of the cnm-positive and -negative groups were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test (P<0.05).RESULTS: MLST analyses revealed 25 sequence types (STs), 17 of which (ST213-ST229) contained new alleles. The strains were classified into four serotypes with the c type encompassing 79.3% of all strains, while the e, f, and k types representing 6.9% each. Analysis of the cnm and cbm genes, which encode the two surface adhesin components of S. mutans, revealed three cnm-positive strains, each displaying greater adhesion ability than those of the cnm-negative strains.CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the presence of a wide variety of S. mutans genotypes in Korea. These findings may provide useful information regarding the pathogenesis of infectious diseases, such as dental caries.


Subject(s)
Alleles , Anti-Infective Agents , Bacteremia , Communicable Diseases , Dental Caries , Diffusion , Genotype , Inflammation , Korea , Molecular Epidemiology , Multilocus Sequence Typing , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Serogroup , Serotyping , Streptococcus mutans , Streptococcus
5.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 36(5): 585-590, oct. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058084

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Listeria monocytogenes es un patógeno transmitido por alimentos que causa listeriosis, una enfermedad que puede presentarse como gastroenteritis febril o en una forma invasora que tiene altas tasas de mortalidad. Hasta el momento, ha sido poco estudiada la diversidad genética de cepas de L. monocytogenes aisladas desde pacientes, alimentos y fuentes ambientales en Chile. Objetivo: Caracterizar genéticamente cepas de L. monocytogenes de estos tres orígenes recibidas por el Instituto de Salud Pública de Chile (ISP) entre los años 2007 y 2014. Material y Métodos: Se seleccionaron 94 cepas de L. monocytogenes correspondientes a 94 pulsotipos diferentes identificados por electroforesis en gel de campo pulsado (PFGE), se extrajo ADN y se realizó serotipificación mediante reacción de polimerasa en cadena (RPC) y tipificación de secuencias multilocus (MLST). Resultados: El serotipo más común fue 4b (55,3%), seguido de 1/2a (25,5%), 1/2b (17%) y 1/2c (2,2%). Se identificaron 32 secuencias tipo (ST), de las cuales cuatro fueron nuevas, y las predominantes fueron ST1 (28,7%) y ST2 (13,8%). La totalidad de las cepas se agrupó en los Linajes I y II. Conclusiones: Se observó una gran variabilidad genética en las cepas de L. monocytogenes analizadas, siendo predominantes las secuencias tipo ST1 y ST2, ambas pertenecientes al Linaje I. Nuestros resultados contribuyen a conocer la estructura poblacional de este patógeno en Chile y su presencia en muestras clínicas, alimentos y el medio ambiente.


Background: Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that causes listeriosis, a disease that can present as febrile gastroenteritis or as an invasive form that has high mortality rates. So far, the genetic diversity of strains of L. monocytogenes isolated from patients, foods and environmental sources in Chile has been poorly studied. Aim: To characterize genetically L. monocytogenes strains received by the Institute of Public Health of Chile (ISP) between 2007 and 2014. Methods: We selected 94 strains of L. monocytogenes corresponding to 94 different pulsotypes identified by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), DNA was extracted and serotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Results: The most common serotype was 4b (55.3%), followed by serotypes 1/2a (25.5%), 1/2b (17%) and 1/2c (2.2%). 32 sequence-type (ST) were identified, of which 4 were new, and the predominant ones were ST1 (28.7%) and ST2 (13.8%). All the strains of L. monocytogenes were grouped in Lineages I and II. Conclusions: A great genetic variability was observed in the strains of L. monocytogenes analyzed, being predominant the ST1 and ST2, both belonging to Lineage I. Our results contribute to know the population structure of this pathogen in Chile and its presence in clinical samples, food and the environment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Listeria monocytogenes/isolation & purification , Listeria monocytogenes/genetics , Time Factors , Genetic Variation , Serotyping , Chile , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field , Environmental Microbiology , Multilocus Sequence Typing , Food Microbiology , Listeriosis/microbiology
7.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 62: e19180012, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011518

ABSTRACT

Abstract Ground bovine meat is commonly consumed by the population of Brazil. However, it constitutes an excellent medium for the multiplication of microorganisms due to available nutrients and handling practices prior to consumption. Here, we examined 100 samples of ground beef for the presence of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) pathotypes by PCR, and characterized isolates by analyzing their adherence to HEp-2 cells, serotype, antimicrobial susceptibility, and phylogeny. Enteroaggregative E. coli was detected in five (5%) meat samples, Shiga toxin-producing E. coli in three (3%), and atypical enteropathogenic E. coli in two (2%). According to the phylogeny, six isolates (60%) were classified in group A, two (20%) in group B1, and two (20%) in group E. The detected serotypes were O3:H2, O93:H9, O93:H46, O105ab:H7, O152:H8, O156:H10, and O175:H7. The antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed that one sample (10%) was resistant to ampicillin, two (20%) to sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, and two (20%) to cephalothin. Based on these results, bovine ground meat for human consumption can serve as a reservoir of DEC, which emphasizes the importance of appropriate hygienic-sanitary conditions during handling at every stage from slaughter to table.


Subject(s)
Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Red Meat/microbiology , Serotyping/instrumentation , Gastroenteritis/pathology
8.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20190060, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041555

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: In this study, we aimed to identify DENV-2 subtypes in Aedes aegypti pools collected between 2011 and 2017 in a rural area of Northern Cordoba, Colombia ("La Balsa"). METHODS: RT-PCR was performed to analyze the capsid/pre-membrane region (C-PrM). Sequencing and phylogenetic bayesian inference using reference DENV-2 sequences were performed. RESULTS: Twelve pools that tested positive for DENV-2 were characterized based on the C-PrM region and grouped under the Asian/American clade. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to report the DENV-2 Asian-American subtype in a rural area of Cordoba region, which is associated with severe dengue and local epidemics.


Subject(s)
Animals , Phylogeny , Aedes/virology , Dengue/virology , Dengue Virus/classification , Dengue Virus/genetics , Mosquito Vectors/virology , Serotyping , Bayes Theorem , Colombia/epidemiology , Severe Dengue , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Dengue/epidemiology , Dengue Virus/isolation & purification , Serogroup
9.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762289

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Salmonella is an important pathogen that causes gastroenteritis and sepsis in humans. Recently, changes in serotype prevalence and an increase in antimicrobial resistance have been reported. This study investigated the distribution of Salmonella serotypes and determined the antimicrobial susceptibility of various strains. METHODS: We collected 113 Salmonella isolates other than Salmonella serotype Typhi from 18 university hospitals in 2015. The serotypes were identified by Salmonella antisera O and H according to the Kauffman White scheme. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests for 12 antibiotics were performed using the disk diffusion method or E-test. RESULTS: We identified 22 serotypes. Serotype group B (44.2%) was the most common, followed by groups C (34.5%) and D (21.2%). Salmonella I 4,[5],12:i:- (23.0%), S. Enteritidis (16.8%), and S. Typhimurium (12.4%) were the most common species. Resistance rates for ampicillin, chloramphenicol, ceftriaxone, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole were 46.9%, 18.5%, 8.8%, and 5.3%, respectively. The intermediate resistance rate to ciprofloxacin was 29.2%. Six isolates were extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producers, including 5 bla(CTX-M-15) and 1 bla(CTX-M-55). CONCLUSION: There have been changes in the serotype prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella in Korea, with a high prevalence of CTX-M 15-positive strains. Continuous monitoring of Salmonella serotypes and antimicrobial resistance is warranted.


Subject(s)
Ampicillin , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Ceftriaxone , Chloramphenicol , Ciprofloxacin , Diffusion , Gastroenteritis , Hospitals, University , Humans , Immune Sera , Korea , Methods , Prevalence , Salmonella , Sepsis , Serogroup , Serotyping
10.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 22(5): 424-432, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974235

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Nontyphoidal Salmonella serotypes are the main cause of human food-borne infection, including several hospitalization cases in the developing countries. Aim: To detect the main serotypes and to characterize the antibiotic resistance of human non-enteric and enteric nontyphoidal Salmonella from clinical isolates in Brazil. Methods: Salmonella serotypes were identified by microbiological and molecular methods. Susceptibility testing to antibiotics was performed by agar disk diffusion. Real-time PCRs were carried out for the detection of the genus Salmonella as well as serotypes Typhimurium and Enteritidis. Results: A total of 307 nontyphoidal Salmonella were isolated from 289 different patients in a reference laboratory (LACEN-RS) from Southern Brazil in a six-year period (2010-2015). There were 45 isolates from emerging cases and 244 from sporadic cases in hospitalized patients. Non-enteric isolates were detected in 42.6% of the patients from sources such as urine, blood and other clinical fluids. Serological and PCR-specific tests demonstrated that Typhimurium (48.4%) and Enteritidis (18.3%) were the most frequent serotypes. Typhimurium isolates were generally resistant to three or more antibiotic classes, while Enteritidis isolates to one or two classes. Typhimurium was the most frequent serotype in all samples (48.4%), mainly among the hospitalized patients (55.6%), and presented the highest rates of multidrug resistance (59.3% of the isolates of this serotype). Further, the prevalence of this serotype increased along the years of the study in comparison to other nontyphoidal Salmonella serotypes. Conclusion: Greater public health attention should be given to prevent salmonellosis in the community and in hospital settings to reduce the rates of Typhimurium strains with multidrug resistance.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Salmonella Infections/microbiology , Salmonella Infections/epidemiology , Salmonella typhimurium/drug effects , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Salmonella enteritidis/isolation & purification , Salmonella enteritidis/drug effects , Salmonella typhimurium/isolation & purification , Time Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Serotyping , Cross Infection/microbiology , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Prevalence , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Serogroup , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
12.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(2): 244-246, Mar.-Apr. 2018.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-897060

ABSTRACT

Abstract Salmonella infections usually occur as gastroenteritis that is generally self-limited. However, some serotypes of Salmonella can cause severe extra-intestinal infections, such as bacteremia and meningitis. Here, we report the first Salmonella Panama case of meningitis in 4-month-old male newborn in Brazil. The invasive strain isolated was susceptible to all antimicrobial agents tested. The genes agfA, fimA, invA, sfbA, phoP, and slyA were detected using polymerase chain reactions. These findings are relevant and physicians should be alert to the possibility of meningitis in newborns due to S. Panama, which can present a high rate of mortality or recurrence of infection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Meningitis, Bacterial/microbiology , Salmonella enterica/genetics , Brazil/epidemiology , Serotyping , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Meningitis, Bacterial/diagnosis , Meningitis, Bacterial/epidemiology , Salmonella enterica/isolation & purification
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775177

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#International Health Regulations controls international travel including human movement, disease vector, and imported items to prevent the spread of dengue, especially in seaports, airports, and border crossing posts. This study aimed to determine dengue Transovarial Transmission Index (TTI) and distribution of dengue virus in the areas around Adisucipto Airport of Yogyakarta, Indonesia.@*METHODS@#The study was a descriptive analytic study with cross sectional design, conducted by mapping the spread of the dengue virus and identifying TTI in Adisucipto Airport. A total of 145 ovitraps were installed in both perimeter and buffer areas of the airport. Positive Ovitrap Index (OI), TTI, and serotype of dengue virus were examined. The TTI was identified using immunocytochemistry immunoperoxidase streptavidin biotin complex (IISBC) method in mosquito head squash preparations.@*RESULTS@#OI in the buffer area was 32 (45.1%), whereas OI in the perimeter area was 24 (32.4%). The TTI in the buffer and perimeter areas were 21 (18.3%) and 11 (18.9%), respectively. The TTI was found greater in the Aedes aegypti population compared to the Aedes albopictus population, both in the perimeter area (20% versus 16.7%) and the buffer area (20.3% versus 16.1%). Dengue virus serotype-2 (DENV-2) and dengue virus serotype-3 (DENV-3) were predominantly found in Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Buffer areas of Adisucipto Airport of Yogyakarta have higher risk as breeding sites for Aedes spp., predominantly DENV-2 and DENV-3 serotypes. High OI shows that the areas are likely to have higher risk of developing dengue outbreak.


Subject(s)
Aedes , Virology , Air Travel , Airports , Animals , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dengue , Virology , Dengue Virus , Classification , Female , Indonesia , Mosquito Vectors , Virology , Ovum , Virology , Serotyping
14.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 328-339, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-722313

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pneumococcal disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in patients with comorbidities and advanced age. This study evaluated trends in epidemiology of adult pneumococcal disease in Crete, Greece, by identifying serotype distribution and antimicrobial resistance of consecutive Streptococcus pneumoniae strains isolated from adults during an 8-year time period (2009–2016) and the indirect effect of the infant pneumococcal higher-valent conjugate vaccines 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Antimicrobial susceptibility was performed by E-test and serotyping by Quellung reaction. Multidrug resistance (MDR) was defined as non-susceptibility to penicillin (PNSP) combined with resistance to ≥2 non-β-lactam antimicrobials. RESULTS: A total of 135 S. pneumoniae strains were isolated from adults during the study period. Twenty-one serotypes were identified with 17F, 15A, 3, 19A, and 11A, being the most common. The coverage rates of PCV10, and PCV13 were 17.8% and 37.8%, respectively. PCV13 serotypes decreased significantly from 68.4% in 2009 to 8.3% in 2016 (P = 0.002). The most important emerging non-PCV13 serotypes were 17F, 15A, and 11A, with 15A being strongly associated with antimicrobial resistance and MDR. Among all study isolates, penicillin-resistant and MDR strains represented 7.4% and 14.1%, respectively. Predominant PNSP serotypes were 19A (21.7%), 11A (17.4%), and 15A (17.4%). Erythromycin, clindamycin, tetracycline, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and levofloxacin resistant rates were 30.4%, 15.6%, 16.3%, 16.3%, and 1.5%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Although pneumococcal disease continues to be a health burden in adults in Crete, our study reveals a herd protection effect of the infant pneumococcal higher-valent conjugate vaccination. Surveillance of changes in serotype distribution and antimicrobial resistance among pneumococcal isolates are necessary to guide optimal prevention and treatment strategies.


Subject(s)
Adult , Clindamycin , Comorbidity , Drug Resistance, Multiple , Epidemiology , Erythromycin , Greece , Humans , Infant , Levofloxacin , Mortality , Penicillins , Pneumonia , Serogroup , Serotyping , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Streptococcus , Tetracycline , Trimethoprim, Sulfamethoxazole Drug Combination , Vaccination , Vaccines, Conjugate
15.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 328-339, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-721808

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pneumococcal disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in patients with comorbidities and advanced age. This study evaluated trends in epidemiology of adult pneumococcal disease in Crete, Greece, by identifying serotype distribution and antimicrobial resistance of consecutive Streptococcus pneumoniae strains isolated from adults during an 8-year time period (2009–2016) and the indirect effect of the infant pneumococcal higher-valent conjugate vaccines 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Antimicrobial susceptibility was performed by E-test and serotyping by Quellung reaction. Multidrug resistance (MDR) was defined as non-susceptibility to penicillin (PNSP) combined with resistance to ≥2 non-β-lactam antimicrobials. RESULTS: A total of 135 S. pneumoniae strains were isolated from adults during the study period. Twenty-one serotypes were identified with 17F, 15A, 3, 19A, and 11A, being the most common. The coverage rates of PCV10, and PCV13 were 17.8% and 37.8%, respectively. PCV13 serotypes decreased significantly from 68.4% in 2009 to 8.3% in 2016 (P = 0.002). The most important emerging non-PCV13 serotypes were 17F, 15A, and 11A, with 15A being strongly associated with antimicrobial resistance and MDR. Among all study isolates, penicillin-resistant and MDR strains represented 7.4% and 14.1%, respectively. Predominant PNSP serotypes were 19A (21.7%), 11A (17.4%), and 15A (17.4%). Erythromycin, clindamycin, tetracycline, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and levofloxacin resistant rates were 30.4%, 15.6%, 16.3%, 16.3%, and 1.5%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Although pneumococcal disease continues to be a health burden in adults in Crete, our study reveals a herd protection effect of the infant pneumococcal higher-valent conjugate vaccination. Surveillance of changes in serotype distribution and antimicrobial resistance among pneumococcal isolates are necessary to guide optimal prevention and treatment strategies.


Subject(s)
Adult , Clindamycin , Comorbidity , Drug Resistance, Multiple , Epidemiology , Erythromycin , Greece , Humans , Infant , Levofloxacin , Mortality , Penicillins , Pneumonia , Serogroup , Serotyping , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Streptococcus , Tetracycline , Trimethoprim, Sulfamethoxazole Drug Combination , Vaccination , Vaccines, Conjugate
16.
São Paulo; s.n; 2018. 118 p. ilus, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP, SESSP-CTDPROD, SES-SP, SESSP-ACVSES | ID: biblio-1005436

ABSTRACT

A doença pneumocócica invasiva (DPI) é uma das principais causas de morbidade e letalidade afetando especialmente crianças e idosos, resultando em um problema de saúde pública. O Brasil introduziu a vacina pneumocócica conjugada 10-valente (PCV10) no programa nacional de imunização infantil em 2010. Os estudos de efetividade e de impacto da PCV10 no Brasil foram realizados 3 a 5 anos após a introdução da vacina e mostraram redução nos casos de DPI causada pelos sorotipos vacinais e aumento de sorotipos não incluídos na vacina. Portanto, estudos realizados em um período de tempo mais longo após vacinação são fundamentais para se observar a sustentabilidade do aumento dos sorotipos não vacinais ao longo dos anos. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar as características de S.pneumoniae (distribuição de sorotipos, perfil de suscetibilidade aos antimicrobianos e identificação das linhagens genéticas dos sorotipos prevalentes) nos períodos pré-PCV10 (2005-2009), pós-PCV10-imediato (2010-2013) e pós-PCV10-tardio (2014-2017), sendo o período pósPCV10 composto de 7 anos de avaliação. Isolados de DPI foram obtidos através da vigilância laboratorial nacional para S. pneumoniae. Os isolados foram encaminhados ao Instituto Adolfo Lutz pelos LACENs e por outras instituições públicas e privadas. Os isolados foram sorotipados por Quellung, o perfil de suscetibilidade antimicrobiana foi determinado pelos testes de disco-difusão e concentração inibitória mínima por microdiluição e a caracterização molecular foi realizada por MLST. A %change foi utilizada para calcular as diferenças na prevalência dos sorotipos e da resistência antimicrobiana por período de estudo. As sequências-tipo foram determinadas na página da web MLST e os complexos clonais pelo programa eBURST. Um total de 11.136 isolados invasivos foi estudado fenotipicamente. Uma amostragem de 688 isolados foi selecionada para a identificação das linhagens genéticas. No período pós-PCV10-tardio foi observada uma redução de 69,6% de DPI pelos sorotipos vacinais e, em paralelo, um aumento de 105,8% dos sorotipos não incluídos na PCV10. O aumento dos sorotipos não-PCV10 foi relacionado principalmente aos sorotipos 3, 6C, 8, 12F e 19A. Detectamos uma elevação de 304,6% na resistência à eritromicina no período pósPCV10-tardio. O estudo molecular identificou 33 CC e 182 STs. No período pós-PCV10, clones internacionalmente disseminados foram identificados ST180 (Clone Holanda3 -31), ST53-12574 (Clone Holanda8 - 33) e ST218 (Clone Dinamarca12F-34)], e duas principais STs foram relacionadas à resistência aos antimicrobianos, a citar a ST320/19A, presente desde o pré-PCV10 e a ST386/6C detectada no pós-PCV10. O monitoramento das características de S. pneumoniae em um período de tempo longo após a introdução da PCV10 confirmou a proteção da vacina contra a DPI pelos sorotipos vacinais e detectou a alta prevalência de sorotipos não incluídos na PCV10. O estudo molecular identificou uma disseminação de clones internacionais no Brasil


Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and lethality affecting especially children and the elderly, resulting in a public health problem. Brazil introduced the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) in the national program of childhood immunization in 2010. The effectiveness and impact studies of PCV10 in Brazil were carried out 3 to 5 years after the introduction of the vaccine and showed a reduction in cases of IPD caused by vaccine serotypes and increase in non-vaccine serotypes. Therefore, studies conducted over a longer period of time after vaccination is essential to observe the sustainability of the increase in non-vaccine serotypes over the years. The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of S. pneumoniae (distribution of serotypes, antimicrobial susceptibility profile and genetic lineages identification of prevalent serotypes) in the pre-PCV10 (2005-2009), immediate-postPCV10 (2010-2013) and late-post-PCV10 (2014-2017) periods, the postPCV10 period being composed of 7 years of evaluation. Isolated of DPI were obtained through national laboratory surveillance for S. pneumoniae. The isolates were sent to the Institute Adolfo Lutz by LACENs and other public and private institutions. The isolates were serotype by Quellung, the antimicrobial susceptibility profile was determined by disc-diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration microdilution assays and the molecular characterization were performed by MLST. %change was used to calculate differences in the prevalence of serotypes and antimicrobial resistance per study period. The sequences-type were determined at MLST website and clonal complexes were defined by the program eBURST. A total of 11,136 invasive isolates were phenotipically studied. A sample of 688 isolates was selected for the identification of the genetic lineages. In the latepost-PCV10 period, a 69.6% reduction in IPD was observed by vaccine serotypes and, in parallel, a 105.8% increase in non-PCV10 serotypes. The increase in non-PCV10 serotypes was mainly related to serotypes 3, 6C, 8, 12F and 19A. We detected a 304.6% increase in resistance to erythromycin in the late-post-PCV10 period. The molecular study identified 33 CC and 182 STs. In the post-PCV10 period, internationally disseminated clones were identified [ST180 (Clone Netherlands3-31), ST53-12574 (Clone Netherlands8-33) and ST218 (Clone Denmark12F34)], and two major STs were related to antimicrobial resistance, to be cited the ST320/19A, present since the pre-PCV10 and the ST386/6C detected post-PCV10. Monitoring the characteristics of S. pneumoniae a long-term period after the introduction of PCV10 confirmed the protection of the vaccine against IPD by the vaccine serotypes and detected the high prevalence of non-PCV10 serotypes. The molecular study identified the great spread of international clones in Brazil


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Aged , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Serotyping
17.
Bol. Hosp. Viña del Mar ; 73(3): 97-98, sept. 2017.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-948376

ABSTRACT

La enfermedad neumocócica invasiva (ENI) es causa de morbimortalidad prevenible en pediatría. Con la introducción de vacunas antineumocócicas conjugadas disminuyó la prevalencia de ENI en 61,9% en los menores de 2 años, y se produjo un cambio en la distribución de serotipos y un aumento de ENI por serotipos no vaccinales. En este contexto, es relevante la vigilancia epidemiológica de los serotipos emergentes causantes de ENI en la población. Se presentará el caso de una lactante de 11 meses con diagnóstico de meningitis causada por neumococo serotipo 38, su evolución y consecuencias clínicas, y se realiza un análisis de la situación epidemiológica actual.


In pediatrics,invasive pneumococcal disease is a preventable cause ofmorbidity andmortality.The introduction of conjugated pneumococcal vaccines has reduced the prevalence of invasive pneumococcal disease by 61.9% in the under two's and has brought about a change in the distribution of serotypes and a rise in invasive pneumococcal disease caused by non-vaccine serotypes.This being the case,itis very importanttomonitorthe epidemiology ofthe emerging serotypes causing the disease in the population.We presentthe case of an 11 month old infant diagnosed with meningitis caused by serotype 38, describing his clinical course andclinical consequences; andweperforman analysis ofthepresent epidemiologica lsituation


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Infant , Pneumococcal Infections/diagnosis , Pneumococcal Infections/microbiology , Pneumococcal Infections/therapy , Streptococcus pneumoniae/isolation & purification , Serotyping , Serogroup
18.
MedicalExpress (São Paulo, Online) ; 4(4)July-Aug. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-894355

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Group B Streptococcus (GBS) serotypes (Ia, Ib and II to IX) are classified based on variations in their capsular polysaccharide; their prevalence differs between different geographic areas. We examined the prevalence of all GBS serotypes in rectal and vaginal swab samples obtained from 363 pregnant women followed at a Brazilian referral center (Hospital da Mulher Professor Doutor José Aristodemo Pinotti); bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics was further determined. METHOD: Prevalence of positive GBS was evaluated by latex agglutination and by multiplex PCR analysis; bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics, such as clindamycin, erythromycin, levofloxacin, linezolid, penicillin and tetracycline was determined by the disk diffusion method. RESULTS: (a) standard GBS culture and the multiplex PCR analysis tested positive for 83 swabs, collected from 72 women (prevalence of GBS colonization: 72/363; 20%); the most prevalent Serotype was Ia (n=43/83; 52%), followed by serotype V (n=14/83; 17%); according to anatomical origin, serotype Ia accounted for 27/59 (46%) and 16/24 (67%) of the vaginal and rectal samples, respectively; PCR also identified serotypes Ib, II, III and VI. Serotype VI is rarely described and had not been previously reported in Brazil or in Latin America. (b) The latex agglutination test only identified 44 positive samples, all of which were serotyped: 34 of these samples (77%) had serotypes matching those identified by multiplex PCR. (c) Only one sample (serotype Ia) showed resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin. CONCLUSION: Regional studies on GBS serotypes prevalence are essential to guide immunoprophylactic interventions (vaccines) and the implementation of adequate antibiotic prophylaxis or treatment. In this study, the incidence of the serotype VI, a new and rare serotype of GBS was described for the first time in a Brazilian population.


OBJETIVO: Os sorotipos (Ia, Ib e II ao IX) do estreptococo do grupo B (GBS) são classificados baseado nas variações em seus polissacarídeos capsulares; sua prevalência difere entre diferentes áreas geográficas. Nós examinamos a prevalência de todos os sorotipos do estreptococo do grupo B em amostras de swabs vaginal e retal obtidas de 363 mulheres seguidas em um centro de referência brasileiro, o Hospital da Mulher Professor Doutor José Aristodemo Pinotti; a susceptibilidade bacteriana a antibióticos foi também determinada. MÉTODO A prevalência de estreptococo do grupo B positivo foi avaliada por aglutinação em látex e através de análise por multiplex PCR; susceptibilidade bacteriana a antibióticos, tais como clindamicina, eritromicina, levofloxacin, linezolide, penicilina e tetraciclina foi determinada pelo método de disco difusão. RESULTADOS: (a) Tanto a cultura padrão para estreptococo do grupo B quanto a análise por multiplex PCR testaram positivos para 83 swabs. A prevalência para colonização por GBS foi 20%. O sorotipo Ia foi o mais prevalente (n= 43/83; 52%), seguido pelo sorotipo V (n= 14/83; 17%); De acordo com a origem anatômica, o sorotipo Ia positivou 27/59 (46%) e 16/24 (67%) das amostras vaginais e retais, respectivamente; o teste de PCR também identificou os sorotipos Ib, II, III, VI. O sorotipo VI é raramente descrito e não reportado no Brasil ou na América Latina até esta data. (b) O teste de aglutinação em látex somente identificou 44 amostras positivas, todas das quais foram sorotipadas: 34 destas amostras (77%) tiveram os sorotipos coincidindo com aqueles identificados pela multiplex PCR. (c) Somente uma amostra (sorotipo Ia) mostrou resistência a eritromicina e clindamicina. CONCLUSÃO: Estudos regionais sobre a prevalência dos sorotipos do estreptococo do grupo B são essenciais para guiar medidas imunoprofiláticas (vacinas) e a implementação de adequada antibiótico profilaxia. Neste estudo, a incidência do sorotipo VI foi descrita pela primeira vez na população Brasileira, um novo e raro sorotipo do estreptococo do grupo B.


Subject(s)
Streptococcus agalactiae , Viridans Streptococci/classification , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Polysaccharides , Serotyping/classification
19.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(3): 499-508, July-Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889148

ABSTRACT

Abstract Salmonella is recognized as a common foodborne pathogen, causing major health problems in Saudi Arabia. Herein, we report epidemiology, antimicrobial susceptibility and the genetic basis of resistance among S. enterica strains isolated in Saudi Arabia. Isolation of Salmonella spp. from clinical and environmental samples resulted in isolation of 33 strains identified as S. enterica based on their biochemical characteristics and 16S-rDNA sequences. S. enterica serovar Enteritidis showed highest prevalence (39.4%), followed by S. Paratyphi (21.2%), S. Typhimurium (15.2%), S. Typhi and S. Arizona (12.1%), respectively. Most isolates were resistant to 1st and 2nd generation cephalosporin; and aminoglycosides. Moreover, several S. enterica isolates exhibited resistance to the first-line antibiotics used for Salmonellosis treatment including ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and chloramphenicol. In addition, the results revealed the emergence of two S. enterica isolates showing resistance to third-generation cephalosporin. Analysis of resistance determinants in S. enterica strains (n = 33) revealed that the resistance to β-lactam antibiotics, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, chloramphenicol, and tetracycline, was attributed to the presence of carb-like, dfrA1, floR, tetA gene, respectively. On the other hand, fluoroquinolone resistance was related to the presence of mutations in gyrA and parC genes. These findings improve the information about foodborne Salmonella in Saudi Arabia, alarming the emergence of multi-drug resistant S. enterica strains, and provide useful data about the resistance mechanisms.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Salmonella enterica/drug effects , Salmonella enterica/isolation & purification , Salmonella Infections/microbiology , Environmental Microbiology , Integrons , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Salmonella enterica/classification , Salmonella enterica/genetics , Saudi Arabia , Serotyping , Tetracycline/pharmacology
20.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 77(3): 185-190, jun. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-894455

ABSTRACT

Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infections are implicated in the development of the life-threatening hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS). Despite the magnitude of the social and economic problems caused by HUS, no licensed vaccine or effective therapy is currently available for human use. Prevention of STEC infections continues being the most important measure to reduce HUS incidence. This is especially true for Argentina where HUS incidence among children is extremely high and shows an endemic pattern. The aim of this work was to investigate serologically adult staff of kindergartens in Buenos Aires city and suburban areas in order to detect possible carriers, and to educate personnel about good practices to reduce HUS transmission. We also assessed the microbiological quality of water and meal samples from the same kindergartens. We tested 67 healthy adults, 13 water supplies and 6 meals belonging to 6 public kindergartens. We analysed hand swabs for isolation of STEC and serum samples for the presence of antibodies against Stx and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of O157 serogroup. We identified 46 Stx2-positive individuals, but only 7 for O157 LPS. No presence of STEC pathogens was detected in hands of staff, water or meal samples.


Las infecciones bacterianas con Escherichia coli productor de toxina Shiga (Stx) (STEC) están implicadas en el desarrollo del síndrome urémico hemolítico (SUH). A pesar de la magnitud del problema social y económico causado por el SUH, actualmente no existe un tratamiento específico o una vacuna eficaz para uso humano. Por lo tanto, la prevención de las infecciones por STEC es la tarea central para reducir la incidencia del SUH. Esto es especialmente cierto para Argentina en donde el SUH muestra un comportamiento endémico y presenta una incidencia extremadamente alta entre los niños. En efecto, la mediana de casos notificados en menores de 5 años para el periodo 2010-2015 fue 306, mientras que la tasa de notificación fue 8.5 casos cada 100 000 menores/año (http://www.msal.gob.ar/images/stories/boletines/boletin_integrado_vigilancia_N335-SE45.pdf). El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar serológicamente al personal adulto de jardines de infantes de la ciudad de Buenos Aires y el área suburbana con el fin de detectar portadores, y brindarles formación sobre las buenas prácticas para reducir la transmisión de infecciones con STEC y así evitar el SUH. También se evaluó la calidad microbiológica de las muestras de agua y de la comida elaborada en los mismos jardines. Hemos estudiado 67 adultos, a través del hisopado de manos para la búsqueda de STEC y suero para la presencia de anticuerpos contra Stx y el lipopolisacárido (LPS) de serogrupo O157. También se analizaron 13 suministros de agua y 6 muestras de comida pertenecientes a 6 jardines de infantes públicos. Se identificaron 46 individuos positivos para Stx2, pero solo 7 para LPS-O157. No se detectó presencia de patógenos STEC en las muestras de las manos del personal, ni en los reservorios de agua o muestras de comida.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adult , Escherichia coli O157/isolation & purification , Escherichia coli Infections/prevention & control , Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome/microbiology , Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome/prevention & control , Argentina/epidemiology , Urban Population , Serotyping , Disease Outbreaks , Risk Factors , Electrophoresis , Escherichia coli Infections/microbiology , Escherichia coli Infections/transmission , Escherichia coli Infections/epidemiology , Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome/blood
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