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1.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(6): e8885, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1132519

ABSTRACT

In this study, we aimed to analyze the anti-cancer effects of β-elemene combined with paclitaxel for ovarian cancer. RT-qPCR, MTT assay, western blot, flow cytometry, and immunohistochemistry were used to analyze in vitro and in vivo anti-cancer effects of combined treatment of β-elemene and paclitaxel. The in vitro results showed that β-elemene+paclitaxel treatment markedly inhibited ovarian cancer cell growth, migration, and invasion compared to either paclitaxel or β-elemene treatment alone. Results demonstrated that β-elemene+paclitaxel induced apoptosis of SKOV3 cells, down-regulated anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl gene expression and up-regulated pro-apoptotic P53 and Apaf1 gene expression in SKOV3 cells. Administration of β-elemene+paclitaxel arrested SKOV3 cell cycle at S phase and down-regulated CDK1, cyclin-B1, and P27 gene expression and apoptotic-related resistant gene expression of MDR1, LRP, and TS in SKOV3 cells. In vivo experiments showed that treatment with β-elemene+paclitaxel significantly inhibited ovarian tumor growth and prolonged the overall survival of SKOV3-bearing mice. In addition, the treatment inhibited phosphorylated STAT3 and NF-κB expression in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, it inhibited migration and invasion through down-regulation of the STAT-NF-κB signaling pathway in SKOV3 cells. In conclusion, the data suggested that β-elemene+paclitaxel can inhibit ovarian cancer growth via down-regulation of the STAT3-NF-κB signaling pathway, which may be a potential therapeutic strategy for ovarian cancer therapy.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Rabbits , Ovarian Neoplasms/drug therapy , Sesquiterpenes/administration & dosage , Cell Movement/drug effects , NF-kappa B/adverse effects , Paclitaxel/administration & dosage , Apoptosis/drug effects , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Ovarian Neoplasms/metabolism , Ovarian Neoplasms/pathology , Immunohistochemistry , Transfection , Signal Transduction , Blotting, Western , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Mice, Inbred BALB C
2.
Salud pública Méx ; 57(1): 29-37, ene.-feb. 2015. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-736459

ABSTRACT

Objective. A retrospective evaluation of waiting times for elective procedures was conducted in a sample of Mexican public hospitals from the following institutions: the Mexican Institute for Social Security (IMSS), the Institute for Social Security and Social Services for Civil Servants (ISSSTE) and the Ministry of Health (MoH). Our aim was to describe current waiting times and identify opportunities to redistribute service demand among public institutions. Materials and methods. We examined current waiting times and productivity for seven elective surgical and four diagnostic imaging procedures, selected on the basis of their relative frequency and comparability with other national health systems. Results. Mean waiting time for the seven surgical procedures in the three institutions was 14 weeks. IMSS and ISSSTE hospitals showed better performance (12 and 13 weeks) than the MoH hospitals (15 weeks). Mean waiting time for the four diagnostic procedures was 11 weeks. IMSS hospitals (10 weeks) showed better average waiting times than ISSSTE (12 weeks) and MoH hospitals (11 weeks). Conclusion. Substantial variations were revealed, not only among institutions but also within the same institution. These variations need to be addressed in order to improve patient satisfaction.


Objetivo. Se llevó a cabo una evaluación retrospectiva de los tiempos de espera para procedimientos electivos en una muestra de hospitales públicos en México de las siguientes instituciones: Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS), Instituto de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales de los Trabajadores del Estado (ISSSTE) y Secretaría de Salud (SS). El propósito era describir la situación actual en materia de tiempos de espera e identificar oportunidades de redistribución de la demanda de servicios entre instituciones públicas. Material y métodos. Se analizaron los tiempos de espera y la productividad para siete procedimientos quirúrgicos y cuatro procedimientos diagnósticos seleccionados sobre la base de su frecuencia relativa y comparabilidad con otros sistemas de salud nacionales. Resultados. El tiempo de espera promedio para los siete procedimientos quirúrgicos en las tres instituciones fue de 14 semanas. Los hospitales del IMSS y el ISSSTE mostraron un mejor desempeño (12 y 13 semanas) frente a los hospitales de la SS (15 semanas). El tiempo de espera promedio para los cuatro procedimientos diagnósticos fue de 11 semanas. Los hospitales del IMSS mostraron un tiempo de espera promedio mejor (10 semanas) que los hospitales del ISSSTE (12 semanas) y la SS (11 semanas). Conclusión. Se identificaron variaciones importantes no sólo entre instituciones sino también al interior de cada una de ellas. Estas variaciones deben atenderse para así mejorar la satisfacción de los usuarios de los servicios.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Humans , Middle Aged , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Deoxycytidine/analogs & derivatives , Fluorouracil/blood , Models, Biological , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Algorithms , Area Under Curve , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/pharmacokinetics , Capecitabine , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Camptothecin/administration & dosage , Camptothecin/analogs & derivatives , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Deoxycytidine/administration & dosage , Deoxycytidine/blood , Deoxycytidine/pharmacokinetics , Floxuridine/blood , Molecular Structure , Neoplasm Metastasis , Neoplasms/metabolism , Neoplasms/pathology , Prodrugs/administration & dosage , Prodrugs/pharmacokinetics , Sesquiterpenes/administration & dosage
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-119836

ABSTRACT

Parthenolide (PT), a sesquiterpene lactone derived from the plant feverfew, has pro-apoptotic activity in a number of cancer cell types. We assessed whether PT induces the apoptosis of hepatic stellate cells (HCSs) and examined its effects on hepatic fibrosis in an in vivo model. The effects of PT on rat HSCs were investigated in relation to cell growth inhibition, apoptosis, NF-kappaB binding activity, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and glutathione (GSH) levels. In addition, the anti-fibrotic effects of PT were investigated in a thioacetamide-treated rat model. PT induced growth inhibition and apoptosis in HSCs, as evidenced by cell growth inhibition and apoptosis assays. PT increased the expression of Bax proteins during apoptosis, but decreased the expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL proteins. PT also induced a reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage, and caspase-3 activation. PT inhibited TNF-alpha-stimulated NF-kappaB binding activity in HSCs. The pro-apoptotic activity of PT in HSCs was associated with increased intracellular oxidative stress as evidenced by increased intracellular ROS levels and depleted intracellular GSH levels. Furthermore, PT ameliorated hepatic fibrosis significantly in a thioacetamide-treated rat model. In conclusion, PT exhibited pro-apoptotic effects in rat HSCs and ameliorated hepatic fibrosis in a thioacetamide-induced rat model.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis/drug effects , Gene Expression/drug effects , Hepatic Stellate Cells/drug effects , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis/chemically induced , Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial/drug effects , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Rats , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Sesquiterpenes/administration & dosage , Thioacetamide/toxicity , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , bcl-2-Associated X Protein/metabolism , bcl-X Protein/metabolism
4.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-33817

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics of mefloquine (MQ) when given as 750 mg at two different times in combination regimens with dihydroartemisinin (DHA) in patients with acute uncomplicated falciparum malaria. A total of 12 Vietnamese patients (6 in each group) were randomized to receive two MQ-DHA regimens as follows: regimen-A: an initial oral dose of 300 mg DHA, followed by 750 mg MQ and 300 DHA 6 and 24 hours later; regimen-B: an initial dose of 300 mg DHA, followed by 300 mg DHA and 750 mg MQ at 24 hours. Both combination regimens were well tolerated. All patients responded well to treatment with no recrudescence during a 42 day follow-up period. The pharmacokinetics of MQ following both regimens were similar but pooled data from both groups suggest that the kinetics of MQ was different from that observed in Vietnamese healthy subjects reported in a previous study. The median (95% CI) time period for maintenance of whole blood MQ concentrations above 500 ng/ml was 16 (0-24) days. It was concluded that since no pharmacokinetic drug interaction was observed, MQ dose given 24 hours after an initial dose of DHA is a preferable combination treatment regimen with regard to patient compliance.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Animals , Antimalarials/administration & dosage , Artemisinins/administration & dosage , Drug Administration Schedule , Drug Therapy, Combination , Humans , Interviews as Topic , Malaria, Falciparum/blood , Male , Mefloquine/administration & dosage , Plasmodium falciparum/drug effects , Sesquiterpenes/administration & dosage , Treatment Outcome
5.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-34172

ABSTRACT

Artemisinin derivatives are potent antimalarial compounds that may have immunomodulatory properties. Artesunate (range 0.01-2 mirog/ml) or dihydroartemisinin (range 0.01-8 microg/ml; DHART) were added to peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) or whole blood (WB) cultures before or simultaneously upon stimulation with phytohemagglutinin (PHA), a T cell mitogen. Lymphoproliferation was then measured by 3[H]-thymidine incorporation, and CD4+ and CD8+ T cell activation was assessed by expression of CD69 or CD25 using flow cytometry. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction depicted PBMC mRNA production for interleukins 2, 4, 12, and 15, interferon-gamma, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Artesunate concentrations between 0.1-1.5 microg/ml reduced lymphoproliferation in PHA-stimulated PBMC and WB cultures in a generally dose-dependent manner; inhibition by DHART was similar. Removing artesunate from PBMC before PHA was added abolished the reduction. PBMCs cultured with artesunate or DHART simultaneously with PHA showed modestly reduced proportions of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells expressing CD69 and CD25. Artesunate had little effect on qualitative cytokine mRNA levels in PHA-stimulated PBMC cultures. Artesunate and DHART may diminish some PBMC responses to immunologic stimuli. Further work is warranted to define the mechanisms involved, and whether this affects malaria treatment.


Subject(s)
Adult , Antigens, CD/biosynthesis , Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte/biosynthesis , Antimalarials/administration & dosage , Artemisinins/administration & dosage , Cells, Cultured , Cytokines/biosynthesis , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Humans , Interleukin-2 Receptor alpha Subunit/biosynthesis , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/drug effects , Lymphocyte Activation/drug effects , Mitogens/pharmacology , Phytohemagglutinins/pharmacology , RNA, Messenger/biosynthesis , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sesquiterpenes/administration & dosage
7.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-33368

ABSTRACT

The effect of artesunate (ART) on the pathology and mortality rate of in Schistosoma mansoni infected mice was comparatively studied with the current drugs of choice for the treatment of schistosomiasis mansoni: praziquantel (PZQ) and oxamniquine (OX). S. mansoni experimentally infected mice were treated at 9th week of infection with ART, PZQ or OX at an oral dosage of 300 mg kg(-1), 600 mg kg(-1) and 100 mg kg(-1), respectively. Untreated, infected mice and non-infected mice were added as controls. Samples of mice were sacrificed and examined for the pathological findings at 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months after treatment. At 1 week after treatment, both gross and microscopic lesions were observed. No significant differences were noted among the infected groups. Differences were observed at 1 month after treatment. The lesions decreased more rapidly in groups treated with PZQ and OX. At 3 months after treatment, there were significant differences in the pathological findings among groups. In the groups treated with PZQ and OX, the lesions were markedly reduced and rarely found, but they were clearly observed in the group treated with ART and in the untreated, infected group. High mortality was also recorded in the group treated with ART and in the untreated, infected group. Therefore, the treatment of S. mansoni infected mice at 9 weeks of infection with ART did not reduce the pathological findings or the mortality rate compared to treatment with the current recommended schistosomicides, PZQ and OX.


Subject(s)
Animals , Artemisinins/administration & dosage , Female , Mice , Mice, Inbred ICR , Schistosomiasis mansoni/drug therapy , Schistosomicides/administration & dosage , Sesquiterpenes/administration & dosage , Thailand/epidemiology
8.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-31837

ABSTRACT

Malaria remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in tropical countries and subtropical regions in the world. Southeast Asia has the most resistant malaria parasites in the world, which has limited treatment options in this region. In response to this situation, short-course artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) have been developed. The combination of dihydroartemisinin (DHA) and piperaquine (PQP) in the form of Artekin has been developed as an alternative to established combinations, such as artesunate-mefloquine, primarily to reduce treatment costs and toxicity. We conducted a study comparing a standard treatment for acute uncomplicated falciparum malaria (artesunate 4 mg/kg/day together with mefloquine 8 mg/kg/day oral route once a day for 3 days) (Group A) and a combination of dihydroartemisinin 40 mg and piperaquine 320 mg in the form of Artekin given once a day for 3 days (Group B) to determine safety, efficacy, and tolerability. One hundred and eighty patients were randomly enrolled at the ratio of 1:2 into groups A:B. All patients had rapid initial clinical and parasitological responses. There were no significant differences in fever clearance time or parasite clearance time between both groups. The 28-day cure rates were high, at 100% and 99%, in groups A and B, respectively. We conclude that Artekin was as effective and well-tolerated as artesunate-mefloquine, and can be used alternatively as the current treatment for multidrug-resistant P. falciparum malaria.


Subject(s)
Acute Disease , Adolescent , Adult , Antimalarials/administration & dosage , Artemisinins/administration & dosage , Drug Combinations , Female , Humans , Malaria, Falciparum/drug therapy , Male , Mefloquine/administration & dosage , Quinolines/administration & dosage , Sesquiterpenes/administration & dosage , Thailand , Treatment Outcome
9.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-30799

ABSTRACT

We report the effectiveness of two regimens of rectal artesunate formulation in treating 13 Thai children with cerebral/complicated falciparum malaria. The drug was given at an initial dose of 40 mg/kg bodyweight, in 3 or 4 divided doses in the first 24 hours, followed by 10 mg/kg bodyweight once daily for three consecutive days. Mefloquine, at a dose of 15 mg/kg bodyweight was given orally at 72 hours after the initial dose of artesunate, followed by 10 mg/kg bodyweight 6 hours later. Three cases with cerebral malaria gained consciousness within 20 hours of artesunate administration. The median time required for reduction of parasitemia by 90% of the initial value (P90) in 13 children was 11.2 hours. No recrudescence was observed in any of the patients during the 28-day follow-up period. Plasma concentrations of artesunate and dihydroartemisinin (active plasma metabolite of artesunate) measured in two patients who received the high initial dose regimen (20 mg/ kg bodyweight) suggested rapid absorption and adequate plasma concentrations of both compounds following the administration of artesunate via the rectal route. Further studies for the optimized regimen of rectal artesunate in the treatment of cerebral/complicated childhood falciparum malaria in areas of multidrug resistance are warranted.


Subject(s)
Administration, Rectal , Animals , Antimalarials/administration & dosage , Artemisinins/administration & dosage , Child , Child Welfare , Child, Preschool , Drug Resistance, Multiple , Drug Therapy, Combination , Humans , Malaria, Cerebral/drug therapy , Malaria, Falciparum/drug therapy , Mefloquine/administration & dosage , Plasmodium falciparum/drug effects , Sesquiterpenes/administration & dosage , Suppositories , Thailand , Treatment Outcome
10.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-36212

ABSTRACT

The combination of artesunate and mefloquine is currently one of the most effective treatments for multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Simultaneous, rather than sequential treatment with the two drugs, would allow better patient compliance. We therefore evaluated three-day treatment with artesunate combined with either 2 or 3 days of mefloquine co-administered once a day with artesunate. The study was an open, randomized trial for acute, uncomplicated falciparum malaria and was conducted at the Bangkok Hospital for Tropical Diseases. One hundred and twenty adult patients were randomized to two treatment groups. Group 1 patients received 4 mg/kg/day of artesunate for 3 days and 3 daily doses of 8.0 mg/kg/day mefloquine given with artesunate. Group 2 patients received the same dose of artesunate and the same total dose of mefloquine (25 mg/kg). However, the mefloquine was given as 15 mg/kg on the first day and 10 mg/kg/ on the second day, again with artesunate. The baseline demographic and clinical characteristics of the patients in the two groups were similar. The cure rates for the 3-day and 2-day mefloquine regimens were 100% and 99%, respectively. There were no significant differences in either median fever clearance times (group 1=32 hours; group 2=33 hours) or mean parasite clearance times (group 1=42.3 hours; group 2=43.3 hours). Both regimens were well tolerated and there were no significant differences in the incidence of adverse effects. Nausea or vomiting occurred in 3.8% of patients in both groups and transient dizziness occurred in 4% of group 1 and 9% of group 2 patients. These results suggest that a 3-day regimen of mefloquine administered with artesunate is effective and well tolerated. This practical regimen could improve patient compliance.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Animals , Antimalarials/administration & dosage , Artemisinins/administration & dosage , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Humans , Malaria, Falciparum/drug therapy , Male , Mefloquine/administration & dosage , Middle Aged , Plasmodium falciparum/drug effects , Sesquiterpenes/administration & dosage , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
11.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-35388

ABSTRACT

The pharmacokinetics of oral dihydroartemisinin and mefloquine were investigated in 40 patients (aged 16-30 y, weighing 45-60 kg) with acute uncomplicated falciparum malaria following the four combination regimens of dihydroartemisinin/ mefloquine [regimen-I: 300 mg dihydroartemisinin (h-0) plus 750 mg mefloquine (h-0); regimen-II: 300 mg dihydroartemisinin (h-0) plus 750 mg mefloquine (h-24); regimen-III: 300 mg dihydroartemisinin (h-0) plus 750 and 500 mg mefloquine (h-24 and 30); regimen-IV: 300 mg dihydroartemisinin (h-0) plus 750 and 500 mg mefloquine (h-0, 24)]. The four combination regimens were well tolerated. Patients in all treatment groups had a rapid initial response. However, 9 patients (4, 4, and 1 cases in regimens-I, II, and IV) had reappearance of parasitemia during the follow-up period. Significant changes in the pharmacokinetic parameters of both mefloquine and dihydroartemisinin were observed in patients with malaria compared with healthy subjects reported in a paralleled study. For mefloquine, Cmax (mg per dose), AUC0-day1 (mg per dose), and AUC0-day7 (mg per dose) were significantly higher in patients. Furthermore, tmax, was prolonged while V/F contracted and tl/2,z, MRT shortened in patients with malaria. For dihydroartemisinin, Cmax AUC, tmax and Vz/F were changed in the same direction as mefloquine, whereas t1/2z and MRT were prolonged. CL/F was also significantly reduced in patients with malaria. Absorption/disposition kinetics of oral dihydroartemisinin were similar among the various regimens. On the other hand, AUC0-day1 (mg per dose) of mefloquine after regimen-III was significantly higher than the other three regimens. Combination regimens with two divided doses of mefloquine (regimens-III and IV) resulted in a significantly delayed tmax (especially regimens-IV) compared with those with single dose regimens (regimens-I and II).


Subject(s)
Acute Disease , Administration, Oral , Adolescent , Adult , Animals , Antimalarials/administration & dosage , Artemisinins/administration & dosage , Drug Therapy, Combination , Humans , Malaria, Falciparum/drug therapy , Mefloquine/administration & dosage , Sesquiterpenes/administration & dosage
12.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-34407

ABSTRACT

The bioavailability/pharmacokinetics of dihydroartemisinin and mefloquine following the oral doses of 4 mg/kg body weight artesunate (Cambodian Pharmaceutical Enterprise) given concurrently with 10 mg/kg body weight oral mefloquine artesunate (Cambodian Pharmaceutical Enterprise) were investigated in 15 healthy Cambodian male volunteers. Both formulations were generally well tolerated. Both produced satisfactory plasma/blood concentration-time profiles. Oral artesunate and mefloquine were rapidly absorbed from gastrointestinal tract with marked inter-individual variation. For the dihydroartemisinin, the median (95% Cl) Cmax of 748 (304-1,470) ng/ml was observed at 1.5 (0.3-3.0) hours (tmax) after drug administration. The median (95% CI) values for AUC0-infinity, lambda(z) and tl/2z were 1.673 (1.08-2.88) microg.h/ml, 0.54(0.24-1.1)/hour and 1.3 (0.6-2.9) hours, respectively. For mefloquine, a median (95% Cl) Cmax of 1,000 (591-1,500) ng/ml was observed at 4 (2-6) hours (tmax) after drug administration. The median (95% CI) value for AUC0-168h was 3.92 (2.88-7.02) microg.h/ml.


Subject(s)
Administration, Oral , Adolescent , Adult , Antimalarials/administration & dosage , Artemisinins/administration & dosage , Biological Availability , Drug Therapy, Combination , Humans , Malaria/drug therapy , Male , Mefloquine/administration & dosage , Pediatrics , Sesquiterpenes/administration & dosage
13.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-40471

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: To determine the efficacy of lubrication of the endotracheal tube cuff with Chamomile extract (Kamillosan M) before intubation on postoperative sore throat and hoarseness. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The authors randomly assigned 161 patients ASA (American Society of Anesthesiologists) physical status I, II elective surgical, orthopedic, gynecological or urological into 2 groups. The study group received 10 puffs of total 370 mg of Chamomile extract (Kamillosan M spray) lubricated at cuff of endotracheal tube while the control group did not receive any lubrication before intubation. Standard general anesthesia with tracheal intubation was given in both groups. Sore throat and hoarseness were recorded in post anesthetic care unit and at 24 h after operation. RESULTS: One hundred and sixty-one ASA physical status I, II elective surgical patients were recruited. Forty one out of 81 patients (50.6%) in the Chamomile group, scored no postoperative sore throat in the post-anesthesia care unit compared with 45 out of 80 patients (56.3%) in the control group p=0.386. Postoperative sore throat and hoarseness both in the postanesthesia care unit and at 24 h postoperation were not statistically different. There was no statistically significant relationship between sore throat or hoarseness and postoperative nausea or vomiting, ASA physical status, gender, history of smoking, grade of laryngoscopic view, number of intubation attempts, condition during intubation, use of oral airway and couching during extubation. CONCLUSION: Lubrication of endotracheal tube cuff with Chamomile extract spray before intubation can not prevent post operative sore throat and hoarseness.


Subject(s)
Adult , Double-Blind Method , Drug Combinations , Female , Hoarseness/prevention & control , Humans , Intubation, Intratracheal , Lubrication , Male , Middle Aged , Oils, Volatile/administration & dosage , Pain, Postoperative/prevention & control , Pharyngitis/prevention & control , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Sesquiterpenes/administration & dosage
14.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-30745

ABSTRACT

Our previous study showed that in vitro susceptibility of Plasmodium vivax to chloroquine has significantly decreased in Thailand within the past two decades. Thus, the evaluation of alternative antimalarials for treatment of vivax malaria is needed. The aim of this study was to examine parasitological and clinical efficacy of an artemisinin derivative (artesunate) for the treatment of vivax malaria in patients who were admitted to the Bangkok Hospital for Tropical Diseases. We randomly allocated patients aged 12-56 years to receive 3.3mg/kg (adult dose 200 mg) on the first day, and for the next four days each patient was given 1.65 mg/kg orally (adult dose 100 mg), total dose = 600 mg. After the five-day course of artesunate, primaquine was given: a single oral dose of 15mg for 14 days. A total number of 42 patients received treatment. All participants were followed up for 28 days. In all the cases, both parasitemia and fever were resolved rapidly; the mean fever clearance time and parasite clearance time, 14.6 and 36.7 hours, respectively, showed that therapeutic response to artesunate was better than that of chloroquine. The 14-day cure rate was 100%, but reappearance of parasitemia was seen in two patients on days 21 and 25 following treatment, respectively. These two cases of failure rate should be considered as true relapse rather than recrudescence, since the relapse interval in Southeast Asian vivax malaria according to recent findings seems to be 3 weeks after start of treatment, if primaquine is not given or an inadequate amount is given. In conclusion, artesunate might be useful in treatment of vivax malaria, causing a good blood schizontocidal effect. However, to prevent emerging resistance it should never be used alone.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Animals , Antimalarials/administration & dosage , Artemisinins/administration & dosage , Child , Chloroquine/pharmacology , Drug Resistance , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Humans , Malaria, Vivax/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Plasmodium vivax/drug effects , Primaquine/therapeutic use , Sesquiterpenes/administration & dosage , Thailand , Treatment Outcome
15.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-35666

ABSTRACT

Mefloquine sensitivity of Plasmodium falciparum along the Thai-Myanmar border, both in vitro and in vivo, following different first-line treatments for uncomplicated falciparum malaria patients in these areas during the period 1997--2003 were studied. Standard in vitro micro tests and in vivo efficacy according to World Health Organization methodologies were performed. P. falciparum isolates along the Thai-Myanmar border with in vitro sensitivity to mefloquine have had up to a ten-fold decrease in sensitivity compared to a baseline done in 1986, conducted one year after the drug was first introduced to Thailand. The reduction in the mefloquine sensitivity of P. falciparum isolates in Tak Province developed rapidly, with the highest IC50 of 1,254 nM in 1997. The IC50 declined to 1,067 and 737 nM in 1999 and 2001, respectively, but there was no statistically significant difference in the sensitivity. The sensitivity of P. falciparum isolates from Mae Hong Son, Kanchanaburi, and Ranong, where the first line treatment was mefloquine 15 mg/kg single dose, continued to decline, where in 2001 the IC50 were 1,087, 941, and 1,116 nM, respectively, in these provinces. The difference in sensitivities of P. falciparum isolates in Mae Hong Son and Ranong in 2001, compared to 1997, was statistically significant (p<0.05). Good therapeutic efficacy of the artesunate-mefloquine combination in Tak Province was observed. Adequate clinical responses (ACR) were 89.5% and 92.3% in 1997 and 2002, respectively. The efficacy of mefloquine alone in Mae Hong Son, Kanchanaburi, and Ranong has significantly dropped. ACR in 1997 and 2001 in Mae Hong Son were 87.8% and 73.2%, respectively, in Kanchanaburi were 82% and 59.6%, respectively, and in Ranong were 96% and 31.6%, respectively.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antimalarials/pharmacology , Artemisinins/administration & dosage , Drug Combinations , Drug Resistance , Humans , Malaria, Falciparum/blood , Mefloquine/pharmacology , Myanmar , Parasitic Sensitivity Tests , Plasmodium falciparum/drug effects , Primaquine/administration & dosage , Regression Analysis , Sesquiterpenes/administration & dosage , Thailand , Treatment Outcome
16.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-32309

ABSTRACT

The pharmacokinetics of oral dihydroartemisinin (DHA) following the dose of 2 and 4 mg/ kg body weight dihydroartemisinin (Twisinin, T-2 Program, Thailand) and 4 mg/kg body weight oral artesunate (AS; Guilin Pharmaceutical Works, Guangxi, China) were investigated in 20 healthy Thai volunteers (10 males, 10 females). All formulations were generally well tolerated. Oral DHA was rapidly absorbed from gastrointestinal tract with marked inter-individual variation. The pharmacokinetics of DHA following the two dose levels were similar and linearity in its kinetics was observed. Based on the model-independent pharmacokinetic analysis, median (95% CI) values for Cmax of 181 (120-306) and 360 (181-658) ng/ml were achieved at 1.5 hours following 2 and 4 mg/kg body weight dose, respectively. The corresponding values for AUC0-infinity, t1/2z, CL/f and Vz/f were 377 (199-1,128) vs 907 (324-2,289) ng.h/ml, 0.96 (0.70-1.81) vs 1.2 (0.75-1.44) hours, 7.7 (4.3-12.3) vs 6.6 (3.1-10.1) l/kg, and 90.5 (28.6-178.2) vs 6.6 (3.1-10.1) ml/min/kg, respectively (2 vs 4 mg/kg dose). Oral AS was rapidly biotransformed to DHA, which was detectable in plasma as early as 15 minutes of AS dosing. Following 4 mg/kg dose, median (95% CI) value for Cmax of 519 (236-284) ng/ml was achieved at 0.7 (0.25-1.5) hours. AUC0-infinity, and t1/2z were 657 (362-2,079) ng.h/ml, 0.74 (0.34-1.42) hours, respectively. Cmax of DHA following oral AS were significantly higher, but total systemic exposure was greater following oral DHA at the same dose level (4 mg/kg body weight). There was no significant sex difference in pharmacokinetics of DHA.


Subject(s)
Administration, Oral , Adult , Antimalarials/administration & dosage , Area Under Curve , Artemisinins/administration & dosage , Biological Availability , Cross-Over Studies , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Sesquiterpenes/administration & dosage , Thailand
18.
J Postgrad Med ; 2004 Jan-Mar; 50(1): 35-9
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-116078

ABSTRACT

In most countries where malaria is endemic, P. falciparum malaria is on the rise. This is primarily due to the spread of drug-resistant strains. Drug resistance is mediated by spontaneous changes in the parasite genome that allow resistant parasites to escape the action of the drugs. The spread of drug resistance increases the transmission of malaria parasites. The consequences for the populations at risk are profound both in terms of consequences for health and economy. In order to halt the progression of drug resistance, we need to change the way antimalarials are used. As in tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS, we must use a combination of drugs for the treatment of malaria. Taking into account the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of the various anti-malarial agents, artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) seems to be the best option. This strategy should be used in conjunction with early diagnosis and appropriate vector control measures to achieve reduction in the emergence and spread of drug resistance.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Infective Agents/administration & dosage , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Artemisinins/administration & dosage , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Drug Therapy, Combination , Humans , Malaria, Falciparum/diagnosis , Plasmodium falciparum/genetics , Sesquiterpenes/administration & dosage
19.
J Postgrad Med ; 2004 Jan-Mar; 50(1): 40-4
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-116036

ABSTRACT

The emergence and spread of drug resistant malaria represents a considerable challenge to controlling malaria. To date, malaria control has relied heavily on a comparatively small number of chemically related drugs, belonging to either the quinoline or the antifolate groups. Only recently have the artemisinin derivatives been used but mostly in south east Asia. Experience has shown that resistance eventually curtails the life-span of antimalarial drugs. Controlling resistance is key to ensuring that the investment put into developing new antimalarial drugs is not wasted. Current efforts focus on research into new compounds with novel mechanisms of action, and on measures to prevent or delay resistance when drugs are introduced. Drug discovery and development are long, risky and costly ventures. Antimalarial drug development has traditionally been slow but now various private and public institutions are at work to discover and develop new compounds. Today, the antimalarial development pipeline is looking reasonably healthy. Most development relies on the quinoline, antifolate and artemisinin compounds. There is a pressing need to have effective, easy to use, affordable drugs that will last a long time. Drug combinations that have independent modes of action are seen as a way of enhancing efficacy while ensuring mutual protection against resistance. Most research work has focused on the use of artesunate combined with currently used standard drugs, namely, mefloquine, amodiaquine, sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine, and chloroquine. There is clear evidence that combinations improve efficacy without increasing toxicity. However, the absolute cure rates that are achieved by combinations vary widely and depend on the level of resistance of the standard drug. From these studies, further work is underway to produce fixed dose combinations that will be packaged in blister packs. This review will summarise current antimalarial drug developments and outline recent clinical research that aims to bring artemisinin based combinations to those that need them most.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antimalarials/administration & dosage , Artemisinins/administration & dosage , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Drug Therapy, Combination , Humans , Malaria, Falciparum/drug therapy , Plasmodium falciparum/drug effects , Sesquiterpenes/administration & dosage
20.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-33359

ABSTRACT

Increasing antimalarial drug-resistance is an important problem in Thailand. The results of monitoring the antimalarial efficacy are used in decision-making about using antimalarials to treat uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Thailand. In 2002, 552 patients with uncomplicated malaria were treated according to the Thai National Drug Policy, with mefloquine 25 mg/kg plus artesunate 12 mg/kg and primaquine 30 mg in divided doses for 2 days in high-mefloquine-resistant areas; mefloquine 15 mg/kg plus primaquine 30 mg in non- or low-mefloquine-resistant areas; mefloquine 15 mg/kg plus artesunate 12 mg/kg and primaquine 30 mg in divided doses for 2 days or Coartem (6-dose regimen for adult contains 480 mg artemether and 2880 mg lumefantrine) plus primaquine 30 mg given over 3 days in moderate-mefloquine-resistant areas. The study shows that mefloquine, artesunate plus mefloquine, and artemether plus lumefantrine are effective in the treatment of uncomplicated malaria in most areas of Thailand except for Ranong and Kanchanaburi, where the first-line treatment regimen should be revised.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antimalarials/administration & dosage , Artemisinins/administration & dosage , Child , Drug Resistance , Drug Therapy, Combination , Ethanolamines/administration & dosage , Fluorenes/administration & dosage , Health Policy , Humans , Malaria, Falciparum/drug therapy , Mefloquine/administration & dosage , Middle Aged , Primaquine/administration & dosage , Sesquiterpenes/administration & dosage , Statistics, Nonparametric , Thailand , Treatment Outcome
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