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1.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 20: e210624, jan.-dez. 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1254431

ABSTRACT

Sex is one of the first features to be diagnosed in human identification, composing, with age, ancestry and stature, the so called "big four". Aim: The present study aimed to metrically analyze the sexual dimorphism in skulls of known age and sex from Rio Grande do Sul ­ Brazil. Methods: This was a crosssectional study of metrical analysis, which used a sample comprised of 209 human skulls (106 male and 103 female) older than 22 years old at the time of death, undamaged and without signs of trauma or abnormalities. The point nasion and the most superior points on the zygomaticotemporal sutures from each side were connected forming a triangle. This area was calculated using Heron's formula, and the results were submitted for statistical analysis. Results: All measurements showed significant values for sexual dimorphism. Through the area of the triangle, it was possible to determine sex with an accuracy of 83.97% for males and 83.50% for females. Conclusion: This simple method requires only a caliper, and still can be reliable for forensic human identification. It must be diffused and tested on other samples, and can be used as a good and inexpensive tool for experts in day-to-day practice


Subject(s)
Skull , Sex Characteristics , Forensic Anthropology , Sex Determination by Skeleton
2.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 20: e218796, jan.-dez. 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1254745

ABSTRACT

Forensic physical anthropometry allows the determination of animal species and estimates sex, ancestry, age and height. Aim: To analyze the effectiveness of a cranioscopic/ morphological evaluation for sex estimation with a sample of the Brazilian mixed-race population by conducting a qualitative visual assessment without prior knowledge of sex. Methods: This is a blind cross-sectional study that evaluated 30 cranial characteristics of 192 skulls with mandible, 108 male and 84 female individuals, aged 22 to 97 years, from the Osteological and Tomographic Biobank. The qualitative characteristics were classified and compared to the actual sex information of the Biobank database. The statistical analysis was used to calculate de Cohen's kappa coefficient, total percentage of agreement, sensitivity and specificity of visual sex classification. Results: Of the 30 cranial variables analyzed, 15 presented moderate degree of agreement, achieving value of Kappa test between 0.41­0.60: Glabella (Gl), Angle and lines (At), Mental eminence (Em), Mandible size (Tm), Cranial base (Bc), Mouth depth (Pb), Nasal aperture (Anl), Supraorbital region (Rs), Orbits (Orb), Mastoid processes (Pm), Alveolar arches (Aa), Zygomatic arch (Az), Orbital edge (Bo), Supraorbital protuberances (Pts), and Supramastoid crests and rugosity (Crsm). The Facial physiognomy (Ff) presented substantial reliability (0.61-0.80) with 89.8% sensitivity for male sex and 70.2% specificity. Conclusions: Cranial morphological characteristics present sexual dimorphism; however, in this study only 15 variables showed moderate degree of agreement and can be used in sex estimation. Only one variable (Ff) 81.2% total agreement with substantial reliability. Quantitative methods can be associated for safe sex estimation


Subject(s)
Skull , Sex Characteristics , Forensic Anthropology , Mandible
3.
Rev. latinoam. cienc. soc. niñez juv ; 19(3): 212-234, sep.-dic. 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1357365

ABSTRACT

Resumen (analítico) Essa pesquisa identificou se os jovens e as jovens rurais que residem no Rio Grande do Sul/Brasil estão projetando seu futuro profissional no campo, pretendem ser sucessores nos estabelecimentos agropecuários familiares, além de apontar os fatores condicionantes para a tomada destas decisões. A pesquisa foi realizada a partir de questionário aplicado em 2018 e 2019. A amostra foi composta por 743 jovens, com idades de 13 a 21 anos, filhos de agricultores e estudantes do ensino médio. Constatouse que 47.9% dos e das jovens querem permanecer no campo e 45.2% querem ser sucessores. O processo sucessório tem sido comprometido pela limitação da participação dos e das jovens rurais nos processos gerenciais e na tomada de decisões nas propriedades. Conclui-se que o jovem valoriza significativamente o fato de ser sujeito atuante e autônomo na propriedade.


Abstract (analytical) This research focused on whether rural youths living in Rio Grande do Sul in Brazil are projecting their futures in agriculture and intend to be successors of family farming establishments, in addition to highlighting the conditioning factors that are used to make these decisions. The research involved the application of a questionnaire applied in 2018 and 2019. The sample consisted of 743 young people aged 13 to 21 years who are children of farmers and high school students at the time. It was found that 47.9% of the surveyed young people want to stay in the countryside and 45.2% want to be successors. The succession process has been compromised by limits on the participation of rural youth in management and decision-making processes on their family's properties. The authors conclude that these young people significantly value being active and autonomous subjects on their families' properties.


Resumo (analítico) Esta investigación identificó si los jóvenes rurales residentes en Rio Grande do Sul/Brasil están proyectando su futuro profesional en el campo, pretenden ser sucesores en los establecimientos de agricultura familiar, además de señalar los condicionantes para la toma de estas decisiones. La encuesta se realizó con base en un cuestionario aplicado en 2018 y 2019. La muestra estuvo conformada por 743 jóvenes, de 13 a 21 años, hijos de agricultores y estudiantes de secundaria. Se encontró que el 47.9 % de los jóvenes quiere quedarse en el campo y el 45.2 % quiere ser sucesor. El proceso de sucesión se ha visto comprometido al limitar la participación de la juventud rural en los procesos de gestión y en la toma de decisiones sobre las propiedades. Se concluye que el joven valora significativamente el hecho de ser un sujeto activo y autónomo en la propiedad.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Sex Characteristics
4.
Revagog ; 3(3): 76-77, Jul-Sept. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIGCSA | ID: biblio-1343785

ABSTRACT

Antecedentes: A nivel mundial, la tasa de letalidad es mayor en hombres que en mujeres. Algunos estudios lo han sugerido. Se plantea la hipótesis de que la hormona estrogénica, puede disminuir la susceptibilidad al síndrome respiratorio agudo severo coronavirus 2. Objetivo: El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar las diferencias de género en los resultados del SARS CoV-2 y analizar si existen diferencias en los resultados en mujeres premenopáusicas en comparación con posmenopáusicas. Materiales y métodos: Se incluyeron en el estudio 720 pacientes que dieron positivo (+) para SARS CoV-2 a través de la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR) con transcripción inversa en tiempo real, mediante el ensayo Thermo Fischer Taqpath, aprobado por el Consejo Indio de Investigación Médica. Los datos obtenidos fueron analizados por las características epidemiológicas, clínicas y de laboratorio de sus historias clínicas. Resultados: La tasa de mortalidad en las mujeres fue del 12,6%, mientras que la mortalidad en los hombres fue del 19,4%. En el análisis entre grupos, el 8,6% (16/185) de las mujeres murieron en el grupo de edad premenopáusica frente al 12,8% (27/211) en el grupo posmenopáusico. La proporción de mujeres que fallecieron debido a COVID difiere significativamente según la edad y el estado posmenopáusico X2 (1, n = 293) = 7,2, el valor de p es 0,007. La diferencia es estadísticamente significativa a P<0,05. Las mujeres posmenopáusicas tenían más probabilidades de fallecer debido a la infección por COVID-19 en comparación con las mujeres premenopáusicas


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Postmenopause , Estrogens/therapeutic use , COVID-19/mortality , Sex Characteristics , Perimenopause , COVID-19/complications
5.
Aval. psicol ; 20(3): 341-351, jul.-set. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1345369

ABSTRACT

(AU)A Psicologia tem buscado compreender como ocorrem os processos de interesse e percepção sexual, contudo essa área ainda carece de estudos. Buscando compreender o estado da arte da área dos erros de percepção sexual, esta pesquisa realizou uma revisão integrativa da literatura utilizando o termo "sexual misperception" obtido do APA Thesaurus. Foram pesquisadas as bases PsycNet, Pubmed, Web of Science™, Lilacs, Wiley e Sage Journals. Foram obtidos, ao final dos processos de inclusão e exclusão, 19 artigos. Foi observada uma concentração das pesquisas nos Estados Unidos, com foco nas diferenças de gênero na percepção sexual. Outras variáveis investigadas estavam relacionadas ao consumo de álcool e comportamentos violentos. Os resultados apontam para poucas pesquisas realizadas nos contextos concretos e com elevada utilização de amostras WEIRD (ocidentais, com alto grau de alto escolaridade, de sociedades industrializadas, ricas e democráticas), as quais devem inspirar estudos em outras realidades. (AU)


Psychology tries to understand how the processes of sexual interest and perception occur however this area still needs further investigation. Focusing on understanding the state of the art in the field of ​​sexual perception errors, we carried out a systematic review of the literature using the term sexual misperception obtained from the APA Thesaurus. We reviewed the following databases; PsycNET, PubMed, Web of Science, Lilacs, Wiley, and Sage Journals. After the inclusion and exclusion processes, we obtained 19 articles. Most studies were performed in the United States, with a focus on gender differences in sexual perception. Other variables investigated were alcohol consumption and violent behavior. We identified a small number of studies carried out in real contexts, using exclusively WEIRD (white, educated, industrialized, rich, and democratic) samples, which should inspire studies in other realities. (AU)


La psicología ha buscado comprender cómo ocurren los procesos de interés y percepción sexual, sin embargo, esta área aún carece de estudios. Buscando comprender el estado del arte en el campo de los errores de percepción sexual, esta investigación llevó a cabo una revisión integradora de la literatura, utilizando el término sexual misperception obtenido del APA Thesauros. Se realizaron búsquedas en las siguientes bases de datos: PsycNet, Pubmed, Web of Science ™, Lilacs, Wiley y Sage Journals. Al finalizar los procesos de inclusión y exclusión, se obtuvieron 19 artículos. Se observó una concentración de investigación en los Estados Unidos con enfoque en las diferencias de género en la percepción sexual. Otras variables investigadas fueron el consumo de alcohol y el comportamiento violento. Se identificó un pequeño número de investigaciones realizadas en contextos reales y con alto uso de muestras WEIRD (occidentales, con alto grado de educación, sociedades industrializadas, ricas y democráticas), que deberían inspirar estudios en otras realidades. (AU)


Subject(s)
Perceptual Distortion , Sexual Behavior/psychology , Sex Offenses/psychology , Alcohol Drinking/psychology , Sex Characteristics , Periodicals as Topic , Sex Factors , Databases, Bibliographic , Individuality
6.
J. psicanal ; 54(100): 175-188, jan.-jun. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1279345

ABSTRACT

A autora propõe considerar a categoria "corpo" como um tema de fronteira. Aborda problemáticas referidas aos corpos virtuais, biotecnológicos e da diferença sexual. Defende que a heterogeneidade anatômica adota, na maioria das culturas, uma forma dualística que se enfrenta com os desafios apresentados pelas sexualidades e identidades plurais das sociedades contemporâneas. Enfatiza que o sexo biológico se organiza através de ficções filosóficas e médicas, e propõe pensar em uma anatomia interpretada em relação com os outros e com os discursos vigentes. Ressalta que o corpo sempre tem um núcleo de heterogeneidade radical a respeito da subjetividade. Aponta o fato de que o corpo da mulher encarna a diferença em um deslizamento que demanda ser desconstruído. Propõe pensar os corpos como categorias de intersecção com disjunções e concordâncias entre a heterogeneidade dos corpos sexuados, o campo desejante e os discursos vigentes sobre a diferença sexual.


The author proposes to consider the category "body" as a frontier theme. She addresses issues related to virtual bodies, biotechnology and sexual difference. She argues that anatomical heterogeneity adopts, in most cultures, a dualistic form that faces the challenges presented by the sexualities and plural identities of contemporary societies. Emphasizes that biological sex is organized through philosophical and medical fictions, and proposes to think of an anatomy interpreted in relation to others and to current discourses. Points out that the body always has a nucleus of radical heterogeneity regarding subjectivity. Points out that the woman's body embodies the difference in a slide that demands to be deconstructed. She proposes to think of bodies as categories of intersection with disjunctions and concordances between the heterogeneity of sexualized bodies, the desiring field and the current discourses on sexual difference.


La autora propone considerar la categoría "cuerpo" como una temática de borde. Aborda problemáticas referidas a los cuerpos virtuales, biotecnológicos y de la diferencia sexual. Sostiene que la heterogeneidad anatómica adopta en la mayoría de las culturas una forma dualística que en la actualidad se enfrenta con los desafíos que presentan las sexualidades e identidades cambiantes de las sociedades contemporáneas. Enfatiza que el sexo biológico está organizado a través de ficciones filosóficas y médicas y propone pensar en una anatomía siempre interpretada, en relación con los otros, con los discursos vigentes. Remarca que el cuerpo siempre tiene un núcleo de heterogeneidad radical con respecto a la subjetividad. Señala que, tradicionalmente, el cuerpo de mujer aparece como encarnación de la diferencia en un desplazamiento que demanda ser deconstruído. Propone pensar los cuerpos como categorías de intersección con disyunciones y concordancias entre la heterogeneidad de los cuerpos sexuados, el campo deseante y los discursos vigentes sobre la diferencia sexual.


L'auteur propose de considérer la catégorie « corps ¼ comme un thème frontière. Elle aborde des questions liées aux corps virtuels, à la biotechnologie et à la différence sexuelle. Elle soutient que l'hétérogénéité anatomique adopte, dans la plupart des cultures, une forme dualiste qui fait face aux défis posés par les sexualités et les identités plurielles des sociétés contemporaines. Souligne que le sexe biologique s'organise à travers des fictions philosophiques et médicales, et propose de penser une anatomie interprétée en relation avec les autres et avec les discours actuels. Elle fait remarquer que le corps a toujours un noyau d'hétérogénéité radicale en matière de subjectivité. Elle mettre en évidence que le corps de la femme incarne la différence dans une diapositive qui demande à être déconstruite. Propose de penser les corps comme des catégories d'intersection avec disjonctions et concordances entre l'hétérogénéité des corps sexués, le champ désirant et les discours actuels sur la différence sexuelle.


Subject(s)
Psychoanalysis , Sexuality , Sex Characteristics
7.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(5): e473-e479, oct. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1292124

ABSTRACT

Ante una enfermedad o carencia nutricional, la curva de crecimiento puede desviarse del percentil que recorría, y cuando el daño es neutralizado, hay una fuerza regulatoria que tiende a restaurar su trayectoria. Este fenómeno, llamado crecimiento compensatorio o catch-up, es un ejemplo de canalización del crecimiento. Las niñas se ven favorecidas respecto de los niños porque, ante un mismo daño, su crecimiento (y también su desarrollo psicomotor) se desvía menos que el de los niños. Esta diferencia también se expresa en una mayor prevalencia masculina de retraso del desarrollo en general y de algunos trastornos del desarrollo, como trastorno del espectro autista y parálisis cerebral, entre otros. La mortalidad infantil es menor en niñas a todas las edades y la esperanza de vida es varios años mayor en mujeres en todos los países. La causa de estas diferencias a favor de las niñas tiene un fuerte componente genético y enriquece la interpretación de estudios clínicos y epidemiológico


In case of a disease or nutritional deficit, the growth curve may show deviations from the percentile it was depicting, and once damage is removed, a strong regulatory force tends to restore its path. Such phenomenon is known as catch-up growth and is an example of canalization of growth. Girls are more favored than boys because, when faced with the same damage, their growth (and also their psychomotor development) shows less deviation than that of boys. Such difference is also shown in a higher prevalence among boys of growth retardation in general and some developmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorder and cerebral palsy. Infant mortality is lower in girls at all ages and life expectancy is several years longer in women from all countries. The cause of such differences in favor of girls has a strong genetic component and is enriching for the interpretation of clinical and epidemiological studies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Sex Characteristics , Autism Spectrum Disorder , Family , Sex Factors , Infant Mortality
8.
Rev. Bras. Odontol. Leg. RBOL ; 8(1): [55-65], 20210427.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1281476

ABSTRACT

Buscou-se estimar o sexo por meio de medidas lineares obtidas em 200 tomografias computadorizadas (TCs) de crânios e mandíbulas do Biobanco Osteológico e Tomográfico da Faculdade de Odontologia de Piracicaba. Foram realizadas sete medidas lineares (parede posterior da sela turca à espinha nasal anterior; parede posterior da sela turca ao zígio direito; parede posterior da sela turca ao zígio esquerdo; zígio direito ao zígio esquerdo; forame infra-orbitário direito ao forame infra-orbitário esquerdo; forame infra-orbitário esquerdo à espinha nasal anterior e; forame infra-orbitário direito à espinha nasal anterior) utilizando o software OnDemand3D™. Para calibração foi usado o Teste estatístico ICC (coeficiente de correlação intraclasse), segundo Szklo e Nieto (2000) e a análise dos dados utilizou o teste de Kolmogorov-Smirnov, teste t, o teste de Pearson e uma regressão logística pelo método de Stepwise-Forward (Wald) e teste de Shapiro-Wilke e Levene para analisar a distribuição e a igualdade de variâncias das variáveis, respectivamente. Os resultados mostraram que as medidas realizadas apresentaram dimorfismo, exceto a medida forame infra-orbitário direito ao forame infra-orbitário esquerdo. Foi possível criar um modelo de regressão logística [Logito Almeida=36.560+(-0.088*PPST-ENA)+(-0.233*ZD-ZE)+0.140*FIO E-FIO D+(-0.194*FIOE-ENA)], este resulta em 79.1% de sensibilidade, 84.4% de especificidade e 82.0% de acurácia. Concluiu-se que o modelo de regressão logística obtido permite a estimativa do sexo em TCs de brasileiros, podendo ser utilizado como metodologia auxiliar no processo de identificação humana.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Skull , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Sex Characteristics , Forensic Anthropology
9.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(2): 126-136, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248811

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: There are discrepancies about the relationship of IL-6, clusterin and irisin with obesity and obesity associated insulin resistance and also about their sexual dimorphism. This study aimed at evaluating the circulating levels of IL-6, clusterin and irisin in obese subjects of both sexes who had different grades of obesity and examining their sexual dimorphism and their association with insulin resistance. Subjects and methods: This study included 176 non-diabetic subjects of both sexes who were classified according to their sex into two groups; the male and the female groups. The male group (88 men) was classified according to BMI into; group 1 (22 lean men), group 2 (22 class I obese men), group 3 (22 class II obese men) and group 4 (22 class III obese men). The female group (88 women) was classified according to BMI exactly as the male group. Metabolic parameters, IL-6, clusterin, and irisin levels were measured. Data were analyzed by ANOVA test, post hoc Tukey's test and independent t-test. Pearson correlation was used to assess the association between variables. Results: In obese subjects of both sexes, circulating IL-6, clusterin and irisin levels were significantly elevated and positively correlated with HOMA-IR. Obese males showed significantly higher HOMA-IR, IL-6, clusterin and irisin levels than obese females. Conclusion: Obesity in both sexes, especially in males was associated with high levels of IL-6, clusterin and irisin and worsened the metabolic pattern. Circulating IL-6, clusterin and irisin may represent possible therapeutic targets for insulin resistance in obese subjects.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Insulin Resistance , Fibronectins/blood , Interleukin-6/blood , Sex Characteristics , Clusterin/blood , Obesity/blood , Body Mass Index , Obesity/classification
10.
Rev. bioét. (Impr.) ; 29(1): 66-75, enero-mar. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251061

ABSTRACT

Resumen El presente trabajo expone una interpretación sexual dimórfica de las diferencias biológicas en la especie humana, que resulta de la lectura androcéntrica de los cuerpos que caracterizó la ciencia moderna. En contraste con esta lectura, se muestra cómo las prácticas sociales asociadas con los roles de género pueden traducirse en diferencias biológicas que "se ajustan" a una lectura dimórfica. Sobre la base de estos hechos, se propone que, si existen ciertos correlatos entre genitalidad y diferencias biológicas, los mismos no necesariamente son causados por los procesos de diferenciación sexual, sino por vínculos estadísticos dados por los estereotipos normativos de género. Las conductas implicadas en tales estereotipos se expresan biológicamente, y los roles de género crean muchas de las diferencias biológicas que hoy se asumen como naturalmente dimórficas.


Abstract This text argues that the dimorphic interpretation of biological differences in the human species results from an androcentric reading of bodies that have characterized modern science. In contrast to this perspective, the article shows how social practices associated with gender roles can produce biological differences that "adjust" themselves to a dimorphic reading. Based on these facts, we propose that if correlations between genitality and biological differences exists, they are not caused by the processes of sexual differentiation, but by statistical links given by normative gender stereotypes. The behaviors implied in such stereotypes are expressed biologically, and gender roles create many of the biological differences currently assumed as innate and sexually dimorphic.


Resumo O presente trabalho expõe a interpretação sexual dimórfica das diferenças biológicas na espécie humana resultante da leitura androcêntrica dos corpos que caracterizou a ciência moderna. Em contraste com esta leitura, mostra-se como práticas sociais associadas aos papéis de gênero podem se traduzir em diferenças biológicas que se encaixam na leitura dimórfica. Com base nisso, propõe-se que, se existem certos correlatos entre genitalidade e diferenças biológicas, estes não são causados necessariamente por processos de diferenciação sexual, mas por vínculos estatísticos dados por estereótipos normativos de gênero. Os comportamentos envolvidos em tais estereótipos são biologicamente expressos, e os papéis de gênero criam muitas das diferenças biológicas hoje assumidas como naturalmente dimórficas.


Subject(s)
Sex Characteristics , Gender Identity , Sex
11.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 19(2): e210059, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1279483

ABSTRACT

Rioraja agassizii belongs to the monotypic genus Rioraja and differs from the other Riorajini species of the genus Atlantoraja by the shape of anterior nasal flap, squamation, clasper skeleton, body measurements and color pattern. Although R. agassizii is a well-known species, commonly captured in inshore waters of the southwestern Atlantic, its external morphology and internal anatomy have never been fully described and little is known on intraspecific variation within the species. Juvenile and adult, male and female specimens were examined, measured and dissected. Herein, we redescribe the species and present detailed descriptions and illustrations of external morphology, neurocranium, jaws, hyoid and gill arches, and pelvic fin and girdle. Additionally, notes on sexual dimorphism and ontogenetic differences in coloration, body and cranial measurements, and dermal denticles are provided.(AU)


Rioraja agassizii pertence ao gênero monotípico Rioraja e difere das demais espécies da tribo Riorajini classificadas no gênero Atlantoraja pelo formato da aba nasal anterior, escamas, esqueleto do clásper, medidas corpóreas e padrão de coloração. Embora R. agassizii seja uma espécie bem conhecida, comumente capturada em águas costeiras do Atlântico Sul Ocidental, sua morfologia externa e anatomia interna não foram totalmente descritas e pouco se sabe sobre a variação intraespecífica nesta espécie. Espécimes juvenis, adultos, machos e fêmeas foram examinados, medidos e dissecados. Neste estudo, a espécie é redescrita e descrições detalhadas e ilustrações da morfologia externa, neurocrânio, maxilas, arcos hioide e branquiais, nadadeira e cintura pélvicas são apresentadas. Adicionalmente, notas sobre dimorfismo sexual e variação ontogenética na coloração, medidas corpóreas e craniais, e dentículos dérmicos são fornecidas.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Skates, Fish/anatomy & histology , Skates, Fish/genetics , Sex Characteristics , Jaw
12.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 19(2): e200151, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1279477

ABSTRACT

The deep-sea anglerfishes of the suborder Ceratioidei (Lophiiformes) are represented by about 170 valid species with some of the most extraordinary morphological and reproductive adaptations among vertebrates, including extreme sexual dimorphism and male parasitism. Here we report on the diversity and distribution of rare ceratioids collected during the ABRACOS (Acoustics along the BRAzilian COaSt) expeditions off northeastern Brazil and the Fernando de Noronha Ridge (Rocas Atoll, Fernando de Noronha Archipelago, and associated seamounts). Chaenophryne ramifera, Oneirodes anisacanthus, O. carlsbergi, Gigantactis watermani, and unidentified specimens of Caulophryne, Dolopichthys, and Rhynchactis are recorded for the first time in the Brazilian Exclusive Economic Zone. Ceratias uranoscopus, Melanocetus johnsonii, and Chaenophryne draco have their distributions extended in Brazilian waters. Caulophryne, O. anisacanthus, and G. watermani are also recorded for the first time in the western South Atlantic. The specimen of G. watermani reported here represents the third known specimen of the species, and variations of its escal anatomy in relation to the holotype are described. Based on specimens examined and a review of records in the literature, 20 species of the Ceratioidei, in addition to unidentified species of Caulophryne, Dolopichthys, and Rhynchactis, are confirmed in the Brazilian Exclusive Economic Zone.(AU)


Os peixes-pescadores de profundidade da subordem Ceratioidei (Lophiiformes) são representados por cerca de 170 espécies válidas que apresentam algumas das adaptações anatômicas e reprodutivas mais extraordinárias entre os vertebrados, incluindo extremo dimorfismo sexual e parasitismo masculino. No presente estudo reportamos sobre a diversidade e distribuição de espécies raras de Ceratioidei coletadas durante as expedições ABRACOS (Acoustics along the BRAzilian COaSt) realizadas ao largo do nordeste do Brasil e na Cadeia de Fernando de Noronha (Atol das Rocas, Arquipélago de Fernando de Noronha e montes submarinos associados). Chaenophryne ramifera, Oneirodes anisacanthus, O. carlsbergi, Gigantactis watermani e espécimes não identificados de Caulophryne, Dolopichthys e Rhynchactis são registrados pela primeira vez na Zona Econômica Exclusiva brasileira. Ceratias uranoscopus, Melanocetus johnsonii e Chaenophryne draco tiveram suas distribuições estendidas em águas brasileiras. Caulophryne, O. anisacanthus e G. watermani também são registrados pela primeira vez no Atlântico Sul ocidental. O espécime de G. watermani reportado aqui representa o terceiro espécime conhecido da espécie, e variações anatômicas de sua esca em relação à do holótipo são descritas. Com base nos espécimes examinados e na revisão de registros na literatura, 20 espécies de Ceratioidei, além de espécies não identificadas de Caulophryne, Dolopichthys, and Rhynchactis, são confirmadas na Zona Econômica Exclusiva brasileira.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Perciformes/genetics , Sex Characteristics , Fishes , Parasitic Diseases
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888370

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore gender difference in the clinical manifestations of two children with Keishi-Bukuryo-Gan syndrome (KBGS).@*METHODS@#Clinical manifestations of the two children were reviewed. Genetic testing was carried out through next generation sequencing (NGS). Treatment was summarized, and the prognosis was followed up.@*RESULTS@#Both children showed particular appearance including megatooth, abnormal hair distribution, hands' abnormality and language development delay. NGS revealed that both children have carried pathogenic variants of the ANKRD11 gene (c.1903_1907del and c.4911delT), which resulted in shifting of amino acid sequences starting from the Lysine and Proline at positions 635 and 1638, respectively. The female patient exhibited central precocious puberty. Her height has increased by 13 cm, and sex characteristics has retracted after treatment with leuprorelin for 23 months and recombinant human growth hormone for 1 month.@*CONCLUSION@#Comparison of the two cases with different genders and summary of previously reported cases found that male KBGS patients have more obvious dysmorphisms such as triangular face, synophrys, ocular hypertelorism and vertebral body abnormality, with higher morbidity of epilepsy, mental retardation, autism, congenital heart disease, immune thrombocytopenia and other complications. KBGS is an autosomal dominant disease featuring more evident peculiar appearance and global development delay. Male patients often have multi-system involvement, and multidisciplinary cooperation is required for early recognition of particular features in order to improve the prognosis.


Subject(s)
Abnormalities, Multiple , Bone Diseases, Developmental , Child , Facies , Female , Humans , Intellectual Disability , Male , Phenotype , Repressor Proteins/genetics , Sex Characteristics , Tooth Abnormalities
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887738

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study aims to assess the dose-response relationship between serum ferritin (SF) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the two sexes.@*Methods@#We searched for articles on PubMed, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and the Web of Science databases that were published from 1950 to 2020. The summary odds ratio ( @*Results@#This study included 14 studies and 74,710 samples. The results of the classical meta-analysis showed that SF was positively associated with MetS ( @*Conclusions@#Our study shows that SF is significantly and positively associated with MetS, and the risk in the male population is higher than that in the female population. This finding also supports the recommendation of using SF as an early warning marker of MetS.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/blood , Female , Ferritins/blood , Humans , Male , Metabolic Syndrome/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Sex Characteristics
15.
Physis (Rio J.) ; 31(2): e310220, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287536

ABSTRACT

Abstract Researches that describe the anatomy and physiology of human movement have aimed to produce knowledge comparing women's and men's physical capacities, concerned with specifying and describing "sex differences." One of the consequences of this kind of research is that it influences teaching processes in human motion disciplines for physical educators, producing gender-marked bodies. This article uses Foucauldian discourse analysis to question how the production of sex differences is present in scientific studies dedicated to studying athletic performance that propose comparisons between sexes in strength performance. Through this analysis, we aim to describe and analyse how the epistemologies of sex and gender involved in these productions reinforce naturalised ideas of what it means to be a man and a woman, as well as question the social intelligibility of body/gender/sexuality that regulates sex/gender in our culture and in science.


Resumo Pesquisas que descrevem a anatomia e fisiologia do movimento humano têm objetivado produzir comparações entre capacidades físicas de homens e mulheres, para especificar e descrever "diferenças sexuais". Uma das consequências desse tipo de pesquisa é sua influência em pedagogias de ensino utilizadas por profissionais da educação física, produzindo a materialidade do gênero nos corpos. Esse artigo utiliza análise do discurso Foucaultiana para interrogar como a produção de diferenças sexuais ocorre em artigos científicos dedicados ao estudo de desempenho físico que comparam os sexos em relação à força. Através dessa análise, objetivamos descrever e analisar como epistemologias de sexo/gênero estão envolvidas nessa produção de forma a reiterar ideias naturalizadas do que significa ser homem e ser mulher, assim como também questionar a inteligibilidade de corpo/gênero/sexualidade que regula a materialização do sexo/gênero na cultura e na ciência.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Physical Education and Training , Physical Fitness , Gender Stereotyping , Physical Functional Performance , Gender Identity , Sex Characteristics , Muscle Strength , Sexism , Gender Norms
16.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1155002

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objctive: To assess the soft tissue characteristics of Bangladeshi adults to formulate soft tissue 3D CT standards using Holdaway's (HA) and lip morphology (LM) analyses. Another aim of this study was to assess the gender dimorphism of Bangladeshi population. Material and Methods: One hundred and seventeen (Eighty-five men and Thirty-two women) Bangladeshi adults have obtained their computed tomography (CT) scan at the Radiology Department for normal diagnosis. Craniofacial deformities were undetected in all cases. The CT images were prepared by a 3D imaging programming software (Mimics 11.02 Materialise). Parameters from the identified landmark points were measured in 3D through this software. Results: Upper lip thickness (ULT) (vermillion UL-A point) measurement was significant in HA and in LM analyses, upper lip protrusion (ULP) (Ls to Sn-SPog) measurement has demonstrated significant difference among both genders, where p-value was less than 0.05. Mean measurements of Bangladeshi adults were relatively comparable except the face convexity (FC) when compared with the HA cephalometric soft tissue values. Conclusion: By using HA and LM analyses, 3D CT soft tissue standards were established for Bangladeshi adults. Measurements for all parameters have remained equivalent with the HA standard data apart from the FC measurement. This consequently may demonstrate that the Bangladeshi population retains a convex shape with a slight protrusive lip or retruded chin.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Orthodontics, Corrective , Skull/diagnostic imaging , Diagnostic Imaging/instrumentation , Craniofacial Abnormalities/diagnostic imaging , Face/diagnostic imaging , Therapy, Soft Tissue , Bangladesh/epidemiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/instrumentation , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Retrospective Studies , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Sex Characteristics
17.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 41: e228578, 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1346780

ABSTRACT

A intersexualidade ainda é considerada uma deformidade patológica, bem como é alvo de intervenções cirúrgicas corretivas que visam enquadrar pessoas intersexos nos padrões binários de sexo, gênero e orientação sexual socialmente aceitos. Desse modo, o objetivo deste estudo foi analisar os sentidos produzidos por intersexos às intervenções cirúrgicas de designação sexual e suas consequências, ainda que não tenham realizado procedimentos cirúrgicos. Trata-se de uma pesquisa qualitativa de corte transversal cujos dados foram coletados por meio de um questionário online para intersexos e interessados de uma rede social-virtual. Oito intersexos participaram da pesquisa e as informações obtidas foram organizadas a partir de uma análise de conteúdo temática em quatro categorias: a) violação de direitos sobre a autodeterminação de sexo-gênero; b) tentativas de invisibilização da experiência de intersexos; c) despreparo da equipe de saúde de referência; e d) centralidade dos ativismos intersexos. Os resultados destacam que: as cirurgias são realizadas sem o consentimento dos intersexos e impactam sua subjetividade e relações sociais; há a reprodução de expectativas pelo intersexo, sua família e pelos profissionais da saúde em torno dos binarismos de sexo-gênero; há a necessidade dos ativismos políticos responderem às demandas dessa população. As constituições de sexo e de gênero ilustradas pelas cirurgias de designação sexual são produtos culturais pautados num sistema normativo binário e cisheterossexual que reproduz e perpetua discriminações, estigmas e violências. Assim, é papel da Psicologia contribuir para a compreensão dessa temática e para a incrementação de políticas públicas na saúde, educação e em assistência social para essa população.(AU)


Intersexuality is still considered a pathological deformity, requiring corrective surgical interventions to fit intersex persons into socially determined binary patterns of sex, gender, and sexual orientation. Thus, this study aimed to analyze the meanings attributed to surgical interventions for sex reassignment and their consequences according to intersex persons who underwent or not the procedure. This qualitative cross-sectional survey was conducted with data collected by means of an online questionnaire for intersex and interested people, made available in a social network. Eight intersexes participated in the survey. The collected data underwent thematic content analysis and were organized into four categories: a) violations to sex/gender self-determination rights; b) attempts to invisibilize the experiences of intersex persons; c) unpreparedness of healthcare team; and d) intersexes activism. The results highlight the performance of these surgeries without intersex persons' consent, as well as their impacts on subjectivity and social relations; the reproduction of expectations around sex/gender binarism on the part of these individuals themselves, their families, and health professionals; and the need for political activism to respond to their demands. The constitutions of sex and gender illustrated by sexual designation surgeries are cultural products based on a binary and cishetero-normative system that reproduces discrimination, stigma, and violence. In this scenario, Psychology plays a key role in contributing to the understanding of this issue, advancing public policies aimed at promoting health, education, and social assistance to this population.(AU)


La intersexualidad todavía se considera como una deformación patológica, así como está sujeta a intervenciones quirúrgicas correctivas que tienen por objeto encajar a los individuos intersexuales en los patrones binarios de sexo, género y orientación sexual. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar los significados que tienen para los intersexuales las intervenciones quirúrgicas de reasignación sexual y sus consecuencias, incluso para aquellos que no las habían realizado. Se trata de una investigación cualitativa, transversal, realizada por medio de un cuestionario destinado a un grupo de intersexuales e interesados en una red social en internet. Ocho intersexuales participaron, y los dados se organizaron a partir del análisis de contenido temático en categorías: a) violación de los derechos sobre la autodeterminación de sexo-género; b) intentos de hacer invisible la experiencia intersexual; c) falta de preparación del equipo sanitario; y d) centralidad del activismo intersexual. Los principales resultados apuntaron la realización de estas cirugías sin el consentimiento de los intersexuales y que estas tienen repercusiones negativas en la subjetividad y las relaciones sociales de ellos; la reproducción de las expectativas personales, familiares y de los profesionales de la salud en torno a los binarismos de género; la necesidad de un activismo colectivo para responder a las demandas de esta población. Las constituciones de sexo y género ilustradas por las cirugías de reasignación sexual de intersexuales son productos culturales con base en un sistema normativo binario y cisheterosexual que reproduce discriminación, estigmas y violencia. Es el papel de la Psicología contribuir a la comprensión de esta cuestión para animar las políticas públicas de salud, educación y asistencia social a esta población.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Sexuality , Sex Reassignment Surgery , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Gender Identity , Intersex Persons , Social Support , Surgical Procedures, Operative , Congenital Abnormalities , Sex Characteristics , Gender Binarism , Genitalia , Health Policy
18.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(6): 1566-1570, Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134479

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Since the asymmetry is generally accepted entity which can be detected on human skulls, the goal of this study was to evaluate the presence and degree of skull base asymmetry and analyze it in relation to sex. The study included 60 skulls. Gender identification was estimated according to the external occipital protuberance, mastoid process, supraorbital margin and glabella. The asymmetry was assessed by analyzing the distance from the bilateral foramina (foramen ovale, foramen spinosum, carotid canal, foramen stylomastoideum) to the pharyngeal tubercle. Digital data were processed in the ImageJ software. The skull base asymmetry was found in all samples. Significant difference between the sides was found for the foramen ovale (p=.01). There was no significant difference in the skull base asymmetry with respect to sex. The highest index of asymmetry (7.38 %) was found in carotid canal and the lowest (5.22%) was detected in relation to the foramen stylomastoideum. By comparing the index of asymmetry between the genders significant difference occurs for the carotid canal (p=.02). Skull base asymmetry was confirmed in our study. Oval foramen showed a significant degree of asymmetry. Knowledge of the variability of the skull base is the basis for an clinical and radiological evaluation of its changes.


RESUMEN: Debido a que la asimetría detectada en cráneos humanos es aceptada generalmente, el objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la presencia y el grado de asimetría de la base del cráneo y analizarla en relación con el sexo. En este estudio fueron incluidos 60 cráneos. El sexo fue determinado de acuerdo con la protuberancia occipital externa, el proceso mastoideo, el margen supraorbital y la glabela. La asimetría se evaluó analizando la distancia desde los forámenes bilaterales (foramen oval, foramen espinoso, canal carotídeo, foramen estilomastoideo) hasta el tubérculo faríngeo. Los datos digitales fueron procesados en software ImageJ. La asimetría de la base de cráneo se observó en todas las muestras. Se encontró una diferencia significativa entre los lados para el foramen oval (p = ,01). No hubo diferencias significativas en la asimetría de la base de cráneo con respecto al sexo. El índice más alto de asimetría (7,38%) se encontró en el canal carotídeo y el más bajo (5,22 %) se detectó en relación con el foramen estilomastoideo. Al comparar el índice de asimetría entre los sexos, se produce una diferencia significativa en el canal carotídeo (p = 0,02). La asimetría de la base de cráneo se confirmó en nuestro estudio. El foramen oval mostró un grado significativo de asimetría. El conocimiento de la variabilidad de la base del cráneo es importante durante la evaluación clínica y radiológica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Skull Base/anatomy & histology , Facial Asymmetry , Cadaver , Sex Factors , Sex Characteristics , Foramen Ovale
19.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(6): 2186-2192, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1142325

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to compare the body indexes and hematological characteristics between Astyanax bimaculatus males and females. Four hundred fish were randomly distributed into four polyethylene tanks (100 fish/unit) in a recirculation system and fed four times a day (3% of biomass). After 90 days, ten fish (five ♀ and five ♂) were removed to perform blood tests and to measure weight, height, total length, height/length ratio, condition factor and index determination: vicerosomatic (VSI), hepatosomatic (HSI), and gonadosomatic (GSI). The results showed a higher average weight (g) in females (12.32±0.71) compared to males (6.98±0.75), the same happened to height (cm) = (3.01±0.07) and (2.40±0.05), total length (cm) = (3.01±0.07) and (2.40±0.05), VSI (%) = (11.43±0.81) and (3.55±1.05), HSI (%) = (0.72±0.08) and (0.30±0.04), respectively. Mean corpuscular hemoglobin (pg) was higher in females (3.72±1.20) than in males (2.99±1.51). Regarding the number of thrombocytes (103.µL-1), there was an increase in males (25.71±3.91) compared to females (17.40±6.40).(AU)


O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar os índices corporais e as características hematológicas entre machos e fêmeas de Astyanax bimaculatus. Quatrocentos peixes foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em quatro caixas de polietileno (100 peixes/unidade), em sistema de recirculação, e alimentados quatro vezes ao dia (3% da biomassa). Após 90 dias, 10 peixes (cinco ♀ e cinco ♂) foram retirados para realização das análises sanguíneas e para mensuração do peso, da altura, do comprimento total, da relação altura/comprimento, do fator de condição e da determinação dos índices: viscerossomático (IVS), hepatossomático (IHS) e gonadossomático (IGS). Os resultados mostraram um maior peso médio (g) nas fêmeas (12,32±0,71) em relação aos machos (6,98±0,75); o mesmo aconteceu para altura (cm) = (3,01± 0,07) e (2,40± 0,05), comprimento total (cm) = (3,01±0,07) e (2,40±0,05), IVS (%) = (11,43±0,81) e (3,55±1,05), IHS (%) = (0,72±0,08) e (0,30±0,04), respectivamente. Hemoglobina corpuscular média (pg) foi maior nas fêmeas (3,72±1,20) que nos machos (2,99±1,51). Em relação ao número de trombócitos (103/µL), houve um aumento nos machos (25,71± 3,91) em relação às fêmeas (17,40±6,40).(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Blood Platelets , Sex Characteristics , Erythrocyte Indices , Characidae/anatomy & histology , Characidae/blood , Body Weights and Measures/veterinary
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