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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(3): 731-736, June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1098313

ABSTRACT

Regardless of sex or body size, police tasks may require officers to change direction speed (CODS) under occupational loads. The purpose of this study was to investigate body composition and CODS in female and male police cadets in both unloaded and occupationally loaded conditions. Body composition and CODS of 51 female (FPC) and 70 male police cadets (MPC) were assessed. Six body composition indices were used: Body mass index (BMI), percent body fat (PBF), percent of skeletal muscle mass (PSMM), protein fat index (PFI), index of hypokinesia (IH), and skeletal muscle mass index (SMMI). The CODS was assessed by Illinois Agility Test (IAT) and IAT while carrying a 10-kg load (LIAT). An independent sample t-test was used to identify the differences between the sexes. The regression determined associations between body composition and LIAT. The alpha level was set at p < 0.05 a priori. MPC had significantly higher (p < 0.001) BMI, PSMM, PFI and SMMI and lower PBF and IH than FPC. MPC were also faster in IAT and LIAT, carrying lower relative loads that imparted less of an impact on CODS performance. Body composition was strongly associated with the time to complete LIAT (R2 = 0.671, p < 0.001). Difference in relative load and body composition influenced CODS performance in both unloaded and loaded conditions. Thus, optimizing body composition through increasing skeletal muscle mass and reducing fat mass could positively influence unloaded and loaded CODS performance and improve elements of police task performance.


El trabajo policial puede requerir que los oficiales cambien la velocidad de dirección (CVD) bajo cargas ocupacionales, indistintamente del sexo o tamaño corporal. El propósito de este estudio fue investigar la composición corporal y los CVD en cadetes de policía de ambos sexos, tanto en condiciones de descarga como de trabajo. Se evaluaron la composición corporal y los CVD de 51 mujeres (CPF) y 70 cadetes de policía masculinos (CPM). Se utilizaron seis índices de composición corporal: índice de masa corporal (IMC), porcentaje de grasa corporal (PGC), porcentaje de masa muscular esquelética (PMME), índice de grasa proteica (IGP), índice de hipocinesia (IH) e índice de masa muscular esquelética (IMME). El CVD fue evaluado por Illinois Agility Test (IAT) y IAT mientras transportaba una carga de 10 kg (LIAT). Se usó una prueba t de muestra independiente para identificar las diferencias entre los sexos. La regresión determinó asociaciones entre la composición corporal y LIAT. El nivel alfa se estableció en p <0,05 a priori. CPM registraron un IMC, PMME, PGC y IMME significativamente más altos (p <0,001) y PGC e IH más bajos que las mujeres (CPF). Los CPM también fueron más rápidos en IAT y LIAT, llevando cargas más bajas, las que tuvieron un impacto menor en el rendimiento de CVD. La composición corporal estaba asociada con el tiempo para completar LIAT (R2 = 0,671, p <0,001). La diferencia en la carga relativa y la composición corporal influyeron en el rendimiento de CVD tanto en condiciones descargadas como cargadas. Por lo tanto, la optimización de la composición corporal a través del aumento de la masa del músculo esquelético, y la reducción de la masa grasa podrían influir de manera positiva en el rendimiento de CVD descargados y cargados, mejorando el rendimiento del trabajo policial.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Young Adult , Body Composition , Sex Characteristics , Police , Movement/physiology , Body Mass Index , Logistic Models , Sex Factors , Adipose Tissue , Workload
2.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(3): 787-792, June 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1098320

ABSTRACT

El bazo se localiza en el cuadrante superior izquierdo del abdomen, relacionándose posteriormente con la 9a a 11a costilla, de las que se separa por el diafragma y el receso costodiafragmático, se localiza por detrás del estómago y lateralmente al riñón izquierdo. Por alteraciones en su desarrollo pueden generarse bazos accesorios (BA), considerándose un tejido ectópico del bazo. Se consideran tejido normal, con los mismos procesos fisiológicos que el bazo principal. Con el propósito de localizar y determinar aspectos biométricos de los mismos, se realizó un estudio de corte transversal y de carácter descriptivo, sobre una muestra de 220 exámenes de TC pertenecientes a pacientes mayores de 18 años del Hospital Regional Hernán Henríquez Aravena, Temuco, Chile. Para este estudio se excluyeron toda aquellas TC con antecedentes de esplenectomía y lesiones de Bazo o peri-esplénicas. El análisis de los datos mostró una prevalencia de 32,3 % de BA, pudiendo ser de una única presencia, dos e incluso tres BA por paciente.De un total de 71 personas que tienen al menos un BA, 34 (47,89 %) fueron de sexo femenino y 37 (52,11 %) de sexo masculino. Hubo 56 pacientes (78,9 %) con un BA, 29 (40,85 %) del sexo femenino y 27 (38,03 %) del masculino; 15 (21,1 %) presentaron más de un BA, 5 (7,04 %) de sexo femenino y 10 (14,08 %) de sexo masculino, si bien se puede observar variación en la cantidad de BA según sexo, no existe una relación estadísticamente significativa entre dichas variables. La ubicación más frecuente encontrada en el plano axial fue la zona antero-medial con 59 casos (66,29 %); asimismo, en el plano sagital, la localización más frecuente fue en el polo inferior con 40 casos (44,44 %). Datos biométricos de estos BA son mostrados en Tablas. Esta información será de gran valor morfológico y médico debido a la escasa literatura existente sobre esta materia en individuos chilenos.


The spleen is located in the upper left quadrant of the abdomen, subsequently related to the 9th to 11th rib, from which it is separated by the diaphragm and the cost-diaphragmatic recess, it is located behind the stomach and laterally to the left kidney. Due to alterations in its development, accessory spleens (AS) can be generated, being considered an ectopic tissue of the spleen. The AS are considered normal tissue, with the same physiological processes as the main spleen. With the purpose of locating and determining biometric aspects of them, a cross-sectional and descriptive study was carried out on a sample of 220 CT scans belonging to patients over 18 years of age at the Hernán Henríquez Aravena Regional Hospital, Temuco, Chile. For this study, all CT scans with a history of splenectomy and spleen or peri-splenic lesions were excluded. The analysis of the data showed a prevalence of 32.3 % of AS, being able to be of a single presence, two and even three AS per patient. Of a total of 71 people who have at least one AS, 34 (47.89 %) were female and 37 (52.11 %) male. There were 56 patients (78.9 %) with a one AS, 29 (40.85 %) of the female sex and 27 (38.03 %) of the male; 15 (21.1 %) presented more than one AS, 5 (7.04 %) female and 10 (14.08 %) male, although variation in the amount of AS according to sex can be observed, no there is a statistically significant relationship between these variables. The most frequent location found in the axial plane was the anteromedial zone with 59 cases (66.29 %); also, in the sagittal plane, the most frequent location was in the lower pole with 40 cases (44.44 %). Biometric data of these AS are shown in tables. This information will be of great morphological and medical value due to the limited existing literature on this subject in Chilean individuals.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Spleen/abnormalities , Spleen/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Spleen/anatomy & histology , Chile , Sex Factors , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies
3.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 24(1): 53-61, Jan.-Mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1090553

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction The increase in life expectancy is an incentive to the development of researches with the elderly population aiming at actions that may ensure healthy and active aging. Objective To analyze the profile of laryngeal microsurgery performed in patients > 60 years old. Methods A retrospective observational study, with a cross-sectional design. A retrospective analysis of the medical records of elderly patients submitted to laryngeal microsurgery was performed at a private hospital in Curitiba, state of Paraná, Brazil, between January 2004 and December 2016. Were included all of the patients > 60 years old that underwent laryngeal microsurgery during this period. Results During the studied period, 213 laryngeal microsurgeries were performed in 181 patients > 60 years old. There was a preponderance of male patients. The mean age was 67.6 years old. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) was the most prevalent disorder (26%), followed by Reinke edema (20%), papillomatosis (14%), polyps (11%), leukoplakia (8%), minor structural alterations (8%), associated lesions (9%), and others (4%). Men presented a higher probability of SCC diagnosis, regardless of the age group, while Reinke edema was more frequently observed in women. A directly proportional relation between the frequency of laryngeal cancer and age increase was also observed. No significant differences were observed in professional voice users. Conclusion Further researches are required to properly comprehend the factors associ- ated with laryngeal lesions and determine prevention and treatment approaches.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Laryngeal Diseases/surgery , Laryngeal Diseases/epidemiology , Larynx/surgery , Microsurgery , Papilloma/surgery , Occupational Risks , Aging/physiology , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/surgery , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/radiotherapy , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/epidemiology , Sex Factors , Laryngeal Edema/surgery , Laryngeal Edema/epidemiology , Laryngeal Neoplasms/surgery , Laryngeal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Medical Records , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Age Factors
4.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(1): 17-22, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1056390

ABSTRACT

Thorough knowledge of splenic artery course and morphology may help clinician to provide better practice. This Study aims at finding out if there was a relationship between splenic artery tortuosity index and age, sex, Body Mass Index (BMI) and abdominal cavity diameters. Routine abdominal Computerized Tomography (CT) scan images were retrospectively analyzed for 219 patients. Splenic artery tortuosity index was calculated. Abdominal cavity diameters were measured. Age, sex, and BMI were recorded. Splenic artery straight length (x) mean was 9.41 cm (SD 1.33). Splenic artery tortuous length mean was 15.15 cm (SD 3.31). Splenic artery tortuosity index mean was 1.63 (SD 0.36). Pearson correlation coefficient for Splenic artery tortuosity index vs. age was: 0.02 (P value 0.80). Splenic artery tortuosity index for females vs. males were 1.70 vs. 1.57 (P value 0.01). Pearson correlation coefficient for Splenic artery tortuosity index vs. BMI was 0.02 (P value 0.75). Pearson correlation coefficient for Splenic artery tortuosity index vs. abdominal cavity diameters were: Anterior-Posterior (AP) diameter -0.01 (P value 0.88) and transverse diameter 0.00 (P value 0.98). There may be a relationship between splenic artery tortuosity and female sex, but not with age, BMI and abdominal cavity diameters (AP and Transverse).


El conocimiento del curso y la morfología de la arteria esplénica puede ayudar al médico a proporcionar un diagnóstico y tratamiento oportuno al paciente. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo determinar si existe una relación entre el índice de tortuosidad de la arteria esplénica y la edad, el sexo, el índice de masa corporal (IMC) y los diámetros de la cavidad abdominal. Se tomaron imágenes retrospectivas, de rutina, de 219 pacientes de tomografía computarizada (TC) abdominal. Se calculó el índice de tortuosidad de la arteria esplénica. Se midieron los diámetros de la cavidad abdominal y se registró la edad, sexo y el IMC. La media de la longitud recta de la arteria esplénica (x) fue de 9,41 cm (DE 1,33). La longitud tortuosa de la arteria esplénica fue de 15,15 cm (DE 3,31). La media del índice de tortuosidad de la arteria esplénica fue de 1,63 (DE 0,36). El coeficiente de correlación de Pearson para el índice de tortuosidad de la arteria esplénica vs. edad fue: 0,02 (valor de P 0,80). El índice de tortuosidad de la arteria esplénica para las mujeres frente a los hombres fue de 1,70 frente a 1,57 (valor de P 0,01). El coeficiente de correlación de Pearson para el índice de tortuosidad de la arteria esplénica versus el IMC fue de 0,02 (valor de P 0,75). El coeficiente de correlación de Pearson para el índice de tortuosidad de la arteria esplénica frente a los diámetros de la cavidad abdominal fue: diámetro anterior-posterior (AP) -0,01 (valor P 0,88) y diámetro transversal 0,00 (valor P 0,98). Puede existir una relación entre la tortuosidad de la arteria esplénica y el sexo femenino, sin embargo no se encontró relación con la edad, el IMC y los diámetros de la cavidad abdominal (AP y transversal).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Splenic Artery/anatomy & histology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Abdomen/diagnostic imaging , Splenic Artery/abnormalities , Splenic Artery/diagnostic imaging , Body Mass Index , Sex Factors , Analysis of Variance , Age Factors , Correlation of Data , Abdomen/anatomy & histology
5.
Rev. bras. cancerol ; 66(1)20200129.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1087670

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O carcinoma de células escamosas é o tumor de maior importância na região de cabeça e pescoço, em razão da sua incidência e mortalidade. Sabe-se que fatores como consumo de álcool estão relacionados à diminuição da sobrevida de tumores tanto estimulando a progressão tumoral como causando comorbidades importantes, sendo um fator relevante para estudo. Objetivo: Avaliar a influência do histórico de álcool em características clinicoprognósticas de pacientes com carcinoma de células escamosas de boca e orofaringe (CCEBO). Método: Estudo de coorte, retrospectivo, no qual 156 prontuários de pacientes etilistas e 78 prontuários de pacientes não etilistas com CCEBO diagnosticados no Hospital Haroldo Juaçaba, em Fortaleza, Ceará, foram avaliados, entre 2000 e 2014, para análise de dados como idade, sexo, raça, localização do tumor, estadiamento TNM, tratamentos realizados e sobrevida em 15 anos por meio dos testes X², Long-Rank e modelos de regressão multinomial e de Cox (SPSS 20,0; p<0,05). Resultados: Houve maior prevalência de homens entre os pacientes etilistas (p<0,001), com tumores T3-T4 (p=0,003), linfonodos positivos (p=0,006) que realizaram tratamentos paliativos (p<0,001) e menor prevalência abaixo de 65 anos (p<0,001), quando havia histórico familiar de câncer (p=0,043). A sobrevida dos pacientes etilistas foi menor (p=0,040) e os fatores que diminuíram a sobrevida de maneira independente foram sexo masculino (p=0,042), estadiamento T3-T4 (p=0,004), metástase linfonodal (p=0,012), idade >65 anos (p=0,035) e localização na língua (p=0,042). O sexo masculino foi independentemente associado ao etilismo (p<0,001). Conclusão: O álcool é um fator de prognóstico em pacientes com CCEBO, mostrando maior prevalência em pacientes T3-T4 e, assim, influenciando negativamente no prognóstico.


Introduction: Squamous cell carcinoma is the most important tumor in the head and neck region, due to its incidence and mortality. It is known that factors as alcohol consumption are related to the decrease of the survival of tumors, either stimulating tumor progression or causing considerable comorbidities, being an important study factor. Objective: Evaluate the influence of alcohol history on clinical and prognostic characteristics of patients with mouth oropharynx squamous cell carcinoma (MOSCC). Method: A retrospective cohort study in which 156 charts of alcoholic patients and 78 medical charts of non-alcoholic patients with MOSCC diagnosed at Haroldo Juaçaba Hospital in Fortaleza, state of Ceará were evaluated between 2000 and 2014 for data analysis such as age, gender and race, tumor location, TNM staging, treatments performed and 15-year survival through X², Long-Rank and Cox and multinomial regression models (SPSS 20.0; p <0.05). Results: Men were more prevalent among alcoholic patients (p <0.001), with T3/4 tumors (p = 0.003), positive lymph nodes (p = 0.006) who submitted to palliative treatments (p<0.001) and lower prevalence under 65 years (p <0.001), when there was a family history of cancer (p = 0.043). The survival of alcoholic patients was lower (p = 0.040) and the factors that independently reduced survival were male sex (p = 0.042), T3-T4 staging (p = 0.004), lymph node metastasis (p = 0.012), age> 65 years (p = 0.035) and tumor in the tongue (p = 0.042). Male sex was independently associated with alcohol consumption (p<0.001). Conclusion: Alcohol is a prognostic factor in patients with MOSCC, showing a higher prevalence in T3-T4 patients and, thus, negatively influencing the prognosis.


Introducción: El carcinoma de células escamosas es el tumor de mayor importancia en la región de cabeza y cuello, debido a su incidencia y mortalidad. Se sabe que factores como el consumo de alcohol están relacionado con la disminución de la supervivencia de tumores tanto estimulando la progresión tumoral, como provocando comorbilidades considerables, siendo un factor de estudio importante. Objetivo: Evaluar la influencia del historial del consumo de alcohol en las características clínicas-pronósticas de pacientes con carcinoma de células escamosas oral y orofaringe (CCEOO). Método: Estudio retrospectivo en el que se evaluaron 156 registros médicos de pacientes consumidores de alcohol y 78 de pacientes no alcohólicos con CCEOO diagnosticados en el Hospital Haroldo Juaçaba, en Fortaleza, Ceará, entre 2000 y 2014, para el análisis de datos como edad, sexo raza, escolaridad, los antecedentes familiares, vínculo matrimonial, registro en el servicio, ubicación del tumor, clasificación de TNM, los tratamientos realizados y la supervivencia durante 15 años a través de las pruebas X² Long-Rank y modelos de regresión multinomial y de Cox (SPSS 20.0; p<0,05). Resultados: Hubo una mayor prevalencia de hombres entre pacientes alcohólicos (p<0,001), con tumores T3-T4 (p=0,003), ganglios linfáticos positivos (p=0,006), y realizó tratamientos paliativos (p<0,001) y menor prevalencia en paciente menores de 65 años (p <0,001); cuando se presentaron antecedentes familiares de cáncer (p=0,043). La supervivencia de los pacientes alcohólicos fue menor (p=0,040); y los factores que disminuyeron la supervivencia de forma independiente fueron hombres (p=0,042); estadificación t3-t4 (p=0,004); metástasis a ganglios linfáticos (p=0,012); edad > 65 años (p=0,035); localización de la lengua (p=0,042). El sexo masculino se asoció independientemente con el consumo de alcohol (p<0,001). Conclusión: El alcohol define el pronóstico en pacientes con CCEOO, muestra una mayor prevalencia en pacientes con T3-T4, por lo tanto, influye negativamente en el pronóstico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Alcohol Drinking/adverse effects , Mouth Neoplasms/epidemiology , Oropharyngeal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck/epidemiology , Prognosis , Survival , Tobacco Use Disorder , Sex Factors , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Follow-Up Studies , Age Factors
6.
Psicol. reflex. crit ; 33: 1, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas), INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1091855

ABSTRACT

Background: The study of emotional intelligence (EI), demographics, and family factors of adolescent high school students allows us to appraise adolescents' skills for their academic and vocational training. The objectives of the study focus on whether there is any relationship between context variables such as gender, age of parents, or work activity, and self-perception of emotional intelligence. Methodology: This study sampled 11.370 participants, aged between 12 and 17 years, in the 7th and 9th years of fundamental education, and the 3rd year of upper secondary education. Data from this study comes from students enrolled in the SESI schools of the City of Sao Paulo. To examine the data, we applied the TMMS-24 test to statistical analysis where gender relates to the three dimensions of perceived emotional intelligence (PEI): attention, clarity, and emotional repair. Results: The results obtained allow us to show how teenagers are perceived with respect to three dimensions: attention, clarity and emotional repair, and thereby extrapolating the need to continue the promotion of emotional education in schools. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the application of the Brazilian version of the TMMS-24 in training programs in PEI must consider a whole series of sociocultural aspects. These aspects should start with a series of initial measures that allow for the perceptions of participants to be observed, and to extend onward to influence the willingness of the beneficiaries to participate in this type of intervention. Provided the intervention is anchored in a solid theoretical base, and executed under a rigorous study, its efficacy can be verified. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Self Concept , Emotional Intelligence , Socioeconomic Factors , Students , Brazil , Sex Factors , Education, Primary and Secondary , Educational Status
7.
ABC., imagem cardiovasc ; 33(1): [e000AO32], 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1052460

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A avaliação sistemática das dimensões e da função das câmaras direitas, de acordo com sexo, idade, superfície corporal e índice de massa corporal, não é uniformemente realizada. Objetivo: Avaliar, ao ecocardiograma transtorácico, as dimensões e a função das câmaras direitas de acordo com o sexo, superfície corporal e índice de massa corporal em uma população ambulatorial. Métodos: Estudo observacional, transversal. Foram selecionados 81 pacientes, 60,4 ± 13,5 anos, de ambos os sexos (57 mulheres, 70%). Foram avaliados: diâmetro proximal do ventrículo direito, basal do ventrículo direito, médio e longitudinal; área do átrio direito e volume do átrio direito; espessura da parede livre do ventrículo direito; excursão sistólica do anel valvar tricúspide; e Doppler tecidual do anel tricúspide, onda S'. Resultados: O sexo feminino apresentou menores diâmetros em relação ao sexo masculino (teste t de Student) de diâmetro proximal do ventrículo direito (20,6 mm ± 2,4 vs. 22,7 mm ± 2,2; p = 0,001), basal do ventrículo direito (34,4 mm ± 3,5 vs. 38,2 mm ± 4,8; p < 0,001), diâmetro médio do ventrículo direito (27 mm ± 3,3 vs. 32,4 mm ± 4,9; p < 0,001), área do átrio direito (13,7 cm² ± 2,7 vs. 16,6 cm² ± 3,9; p = 0,002) e volume do átrio direito (37 mL ± 10,6 vs. 50,7 mL ± 15,6 ; p = 0,002). O índice de massa corporal e a superfície corporal se correlacionaram positivamente com o diâmetro proximal do ventrículo direito (coeficiente de correlação - CC 0,24; p = 0,03), diâmetro basal do ventrículo direito (CC 0,22; p = 0,04), diâmetro médio do ventrículo direito (CC 0,23; p = 0,04), diâmetro longitudinal do ventrículo direito (CC 0,28; p = 0,01), área do átrio direito (CC 0,40; p = 0,001) e volume do átrio direito (CC 0,24; p = 0,0006). Conclusão: As médias dos diâmetros ventriculares, área e volume atriais direitos foram menores no sexo feminino. Foi encontrada correlação positiva destes parâmetros com o índice de massa corporal e a superfície corporal. Os valores da excursão sistólica do anel valvar tricúspide e S' não foram influenciados por sexo, índice de massa corporal e superfície corporal.


Introduction: Assessment of right chambers dimensions and function according to gender, age, body surface area and body mass index is not uniformly performed. Objective: To evaluate, by transthoracic echocardiography dimensions and function of right chambers, according to gender, body surface area and body mass index in an outpatient population. Method: Cross-sectional study. Eighty-one patients were selected, 60.4 ± 13.5 years (57 women, 70%). Parameters assessed were the following: proximal, basal, medium and longitudinal, right ventricle diameter; right atrium area and right atrium volume; right ventricle wall thickness; tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion; and tricuspid annulus tissue Doppler and S' wave. Results: Female sex presented lower diameters (Student's t-test) of proximal right ventricle diameter (20.6 mm ± 2.4 vs. 22.7 mm ± 2.2; p = 0.001), basal right ventricle diameter (34,4 mm ± 3,5 vs. 38,2 mm ± 4,8; p <0.001), medium right ventricle diameter (27 mm ± 3.3 vs. 32.4 mm ± 4.9; p <0.001), right atrium area (13.7 cm² ± 2.7 vs. 16.6 cm² ± 3.9; p = 0.002) and right atrium volume (37 mL ± 10.6 vs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Tricuspid Valve/anatomy & histology , Heart Atria/anatomy & histology , Heart Ventricles/anatomy & histology , Body Surface Area , Echocardiography , Body Mass Index , Sex Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies
8.
Estud. interdiscip. envelhec ; 24(3): 101-114, dez. 2019. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas), INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1104162

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Delinear o perfil sociodemográfico da população idosa de um município de pequeno porte do estado do Rio Grande do Sul e identificar a prevalência de fragilidade em idosos residentes na comunidade. Método: Trata-se de um estudo transversal, analítico e de base populacional. Foram incluídas pessoas com 60 anos ou mais, de ambos os sexos, que residiam na zona urbana e estavam adstritos às Estratégias de Saúde Família. Foram avaliados dados sociodemográficos e de saúde e o Fenótipo da Fragilidade, o qual inclui perda de peso, velocidade da marcha, força de preensão palmar, nível de atividade física e fadiga. Para análise dos dados utilizou-se medidas de tendência central, de dispersão e variabilidade, teste do qui-quadrado de Pearson e o teste Mann-Whitney, considerando valores de p menores ou igual a 0,05 significativos. Resultados: A prevalência de fragilidade foi de 14,3% e de pré- -fragilidade foi de 46,9%. As mulheres apresentaram maior fadiga, menor força de preensão palmar, menor velocidade de marcha e maior taxa de gasto metabólico, e houve diferença entre homens e mulheres quanto ao estado civil e número de condições crônicas. Conclusão: Enfatiza-se a importância de políticas públicas voltadas a população idosa, com ênfase nas diferenças entre os sexos e salienta-se a importância do rastreio da condição de fragilidade em idosos residentes na comunidade.


Objective: To outline the sociodemographic profile of older adults population of a small municipality in the state of Rio Grande do Sul and to identify the prevalence of frailty in elderly residents of the community. Method: This is a cross-sectional, analytical and population-based study. We included people aged 60 and over, both sexes, who lived in the urban area and were attached to the Family Health Strategies. Sociodemographic and health data and the Frailty Phenotype were evaluated, which included weight loss, walking speed, grip strength, physical activity level and fatigue. For the analysis of the data we used measures of central tendency, dispersion and variability, Pearson's chi-square test and the Mann-Whitney test, considering values of p less than or equal to 0.05 significant. Results: The prevalence of frailty was 14.3% and pre-frailty was 46.9%. The women presented greater fatigue, lower grip strength, lower gait velocity and higher rate of metabolic expenditure, and there were differences between males and females regarding marital status and number of chronic conditions. Conclusion: Emphasis is given to the importance of public policies aimed at older adults population, with emphasis on the differences between the sexes and the importance of the screening of the condition of frailty in elderly residents in the community.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Socioeconomic Factors , Aging , Frail Elderly , Brazil/epidemiology , Sex Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies
9.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 39(4): 108-114, dic. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1099618

ABSTRACT

En la Argentina no existen datos epidemiológicos sobre displasia fibromuscular. La realización de un registro nacional puede aportar información que conduzca a una actualización de los consensos y recomendaciones para un correcto diagnóstico, evaluación y tratamiento. El Registro Argentino de Displasia Fibromuscular (SAHARA-DF) inició su actividad de recopilación de datos en octubre de 2015. Al año 2019 se confirmaron 49 pacientes (44 mujeres, 38 hipertensos, edad 45,3 ± 17,2 años, 12 con presentación neurológica). Veintidós pacientes tuvieron lesiones vasculares en más de un sitio, a pesar del sesgo diagnóstico por falta de estudios complementarios en casi la mitad de los casos. El sitio afectado más frecuente fue el renovascular, seguido por el carotídeo y el ilíaco, y las lesiones multifocales fueron más frecuentes que las unifocales (35 versus 14, respectivamente). Se constató la presencia de aneurismas asociados en 13 casos y disección arterial en 4 casos. De las 22 angioplastias renales realizadas, 14 fueron con colocación de stent (endoprótesis). En este estudio preliminar de una población argentina se evidencia el carácter sistémico de la enfermedad y se plantea un llamado a actuar en cuanto a la necesidad de debatir el algoritmo diagnóstico y el método de tratamiento. (AU)


In Argentina there are no epidemiological data regarding fibromuscular dysplasia. Building a National Registry may provide information leading to updated consensus and recommendations for a correct diagnosis, assessment and treatment. Data gathering for the Argentine Registry of Fibromuscular Dysplasia (SAHARA-DF) was initiated in October 2015. By 2019, 49 patients were confirmed (44 women, 38 hypertensives, age 45.3 ± 17.2 years, 12 with a neurological presentation). Twenty-two patients had multi-site vascular lesions, in spite of a diagnosis bias due to lack of supporting studies in almost half of the cases. The renovascular site was the most affected, followed by the carotid and iliac sites, and multifocal lesions were more frequent than unifocal (35 versus 14, respectively). Associated aneurysms were found in 13 cases, and arterial dissection in 4. Twenty-two renal angioplasties were performed, 14 with stent placement. In this preliminary study of an Argentinian population, the systemic nature of the disease is evidenced, and a call for action arises regarding the need for discussing the diagnostic algorithm and treatment method. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Records/statistics & numerical data , Fibromuscular Dysplasia/diagnosis , Argentina/epidemiology , Algorithms , Bias , Sex Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Age Factors , Angioplasty/methods , Anthropological Factors , Vascular System Injuries/diagnostic imaging , Fibromuscular Dysplasia/classification , Fibromuscular Dysplasia/etiology , Fibromuscular Dysplasia/therapy , Fibromuscular Dysplasia/epidemiology , Hypertension/epidemiology , Aneurysm, Dissecting/diagnostic imaging
10.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 95(6): 682-688, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1056659

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To assess spontaneous reports of suspected adverse drug reactions in children aged 0-12 years from the Brazilian Health Regulatory Agency between 2008 and 2013. Methods: A cross-sectional study on suspected adverse drug reactions reports related to medicines and health products in children was carried out for a six-year period (2008-2013). Year of report, origin of report by Brazilian state, gender, age, suspected drug, adverse reaction description and seriousness were included in the analysis. The data obtained was compared to the number of pediatric beds in health services and to global data from the VigiBase (World Health Organization). Results: A total of 3330 adverse drug reactions were reported in children in Brazil in the investigated period (54% were in boys). About 28% of suspected adverse drug reactions reports involved 0 to 1-year-old children. Almost 40% of reports came from the Southeast region. Approximately 60% were classified as serious events. There was death in 75 cases. Nearly 30% of deaths involved off-label use; 3875 medicines (465 active substances) were considered suspected drugs. Anti-infective (vancomycin, ceftriaxone, oxacillin, and amphotericin), nervous system (metamizole) and alimentary tract and metabolism medicines were more frequent in reports. Conclusions: The distribution of suspected adverse drug reactions reports by sex and age group corresponded to the profile of children hospitalized in Brazil. Data about seriousness and medicines reported may be useful to encourage regulatory actions and improve the safe use of medicines in children.


RESUMO Objetivo: Analisar relatos espontâneos de suspeitas de Reação Adversa a Medicamento (RAM) em crianças de 0 a 12 anos notificadas pela Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária entre 2008 e 2013. Métodos: Um estudo transversal a partir de notificações de suspeitas de RAM relacionadas a medicamentos e produtos para a saúde em crianças foi realizado por um período de seis anos (2008-2013). O ano da notificação, a origem do relato por estado brasileiro, sexo, idade, o medicamento suspeito, a descrição da reação adversa e a gravidade foram incluídos na análise, bem como o número de leitos nos serviços de saúde e dados global da VigiBase. Resultados: Um total de 3330 reações adversas foram relatadas em crianças no Brasil no período investigado (54% em meninos). Cerca de 28% dos relatos de suspeitas de RAM envolveram crianças de 0 a 1 ano de idade. Quase 40% dos relatos vieram da região Sudeste. Aproximadamente 60% foram classificados como eventos graves. Houve ocorrência de morte em 75 casos. Quase 30% das mortes envolveram o uso off-label dos medicamentos. Um total de 3875 medicamentos (465 substâncias ativas) foram considerados fármacos suspeitos. Medicamentos anti-infecciosos (vancomicina, ceftriaxona, oxacilina e anfotericina), com ação no sistema nervoso (dipirona) e no trato digestivo foram os mais frequentemente notificados. Conclusões: As notificações de suspeitas de RAM por sexo e faixa etária corresponderam ao perfil de crianças hospitalizadas no Brasil. Os dados sobre gravidade e medicamentos relatados podem ser úteis para encorajar ações reguladoras e melhorar o uso seguro de medicamentos em crianças.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Databases, Factual/statistics & numerical data , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems/statistics & numerical data , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage , Pharmaceutical Preparations/classification , Sex Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Age Factors , Age Distribution
11.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(4): 1272-1279, Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1040124

ABSTRACT

La morfología y dimensiones de ciertas estructuras anatómicas varían de población a población, así como de individuo a individuo; el canal nasopalatino (CNP) es una de estas estructuras, este se encuentra ubicado en la línea media del paladar y aloja el nervio nasopalatino y la rama terminal de la arteria nasopalatina. El propósito de este estudio es determinar la morfología y dimensiones promedio del CNP en la población mexicana mediante tomografía computarizada de haz cónico (CBCT). Se analizaron 120 CBCT de manera coronal, transversal y sagital; y se clasificaron siguiendo los parámetros de Bornstein. Para el análisis estadístico se determinó la normalidad de las variables empleando la prueba de Shapiro Wilk y la significancia estadística mediante la prueba de UMann Whitney. Los resultados mostraron diferencias estadísticas significativas en las variables analizadas del canal nasopalatino entre hombres y mujeres. De acuerdo con los datos obtenidos se puede establecer que la morfología del CNP es muy variable y se recomienda realizar un estudio morfológico y dimensional antes de cualquier intervención quirúrgica relacionada con esta zona.


Certain human structures present different dimensions and morphologies in each population and individual, the nasopalatine canal being one of these. It is located in the midline of the palate, and it contains the nasopalatine nerve and the terminal branch of the nasopalatine artery. The purpose of this study was to analyze and record measurements of the nasopalatine duct in Mexican population by Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT). A total of 120 CBCT coronal, transversal and sagittal views were analyzed. The data were classified according to Bornstein´s parameters. The normality of the variables was determined with the Shapiro Wilk test and the statistical significance was determinate by U-Mann Whitney test. A statistically significant difference was found in the evaluated variables of the nasopalatal canal between men and women. The data obtained determined that the morphology of the nasopalatine canal is variable and a morphological and dimensional analysis before any surgical intervention related with the area is recommended.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Palate/anatomy & histology , Nose/anatomy & histology , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography , Palate/diagnostic imaging , Sex Factors , Nose/diagnostic imaging , Mexico
12.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(4): 1534-1540, Dec. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1040166

ABSTRACT

Las diferencias de sexo es un aspecto muy presente en el mundo laboral y deportivo. Esto se traduce en la diferenciación de actividades deportivas, determinadas como masculinas o femeninas. De ahí que el objetivo del estudio fue analizar el nivel de participación y características morfológicas en gimnastas de acrobática y ver las diferencias en relación al sexo y rol: portor y ágil. Se analizó la participación en los Campeonatos de España entre 2011 y 2018, y se comparó medidas antropométricas, composición corporal y de proporcionalidad, en función del rol de actuación y sexo. El Comité Autonómico de Ética de Investigación de la Xunta de Galicia (España) aprobó la metodología de trabajo. Los resultados mostraron un porcentaje mucho mayor de participación en función del sexo a favor del sexo femenino en todos los campeonatos analizados. Sin embargo, el peso, índice de masa corporal y el porcentaje muscular no fueron diferentes entre sexos en ninguno de los dos roles. De las 62 variables morfológicas evaluadas, existe un mayor predominio de las diferencias en los portores que en los ágiles en relación al sexo, destacando el porcentaje de grasa.


Sex differences are a very present aspect in the world of work and sports. This translates into the differentiation of sports activities, determined as masculine or feminine. Hence, the aim of the study was to analyze the level of participation and morphological characteristics in acrobatic gymnasts and to see the differences in relation to sex and role: Base and top. Participation in the Spanish Championships between 2011 and 2018 was analyzed, and anthropometric measures, body composition and proportionality were compared, depending on the role of performance and sex. The Autonomous Committee of Research Ethics of the Xunta de Galicia (Spain) approved the work methodology. The results showed a much higher percentage of participation according to sex in favor of the female sex in all the analyzed championships. However, the weight, body mass index and muscle percentage were not different between sexes in either of the two roles. Of the 62 morphological variables evaluated, there is a greater predominance of differences in the bases than in the tops ones in relation to sex, highlighting the percentage of fat.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Body Composition , Sex Factors , Gymnastics/physiology , Skinfold Thickness , Somatotypes , Spain , Anthropometry
13.
An. bras. dermatol ; 94(6): 691-697, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1054897

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Different strategies have been proposed for the cardiovascular risk management of patients with psoriasis. Objective: To estimate the cardiovascular risk and evaluate two cardiovascular prevention strategies in patients with psoriasis, analyzing which proportion of patients would be candidates to receive statin therapy. Methods: A retrospective cohort was selected from a secondary database. All patients >18 years with psoriasis without cardiovascular disease or lipid-lowering treatment were included. The atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease calculator (2018 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines) and the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation risk calculator (2016 European Society of Cardiology/European Society of Atherosclerosis guidelines) were calculated. The SCORE risk value was adjusted by a multiplication factor of 1.5. The recommendations for the indication of statins suggested by both guidelines were analyzed. Results: A total of 892 patients (mean age 59.9 ± 16.5 years, 54.5% women) were included. The median atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease calculator and Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation values were 13.4% (IQR 6.1-27.0%) and 1.9% (IQR 0.4-5.2), respectively. According to the atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease calculator, 20.1%, 11.0%, 32.9%, and 36.4% of the population was classified at low, borderline, moderate, or high risk. Applying the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation, 26.5%, 42.9%, 20.8%, and 9.8% of patients were stratified as having low, moderate, high, or very high risk, respectively. The proportion of subjects with statin indication was similar using both strategies: 60.1% and 60.9% for the 2018 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association and 2016 European Society of Cardiology/European Society of Atherosclerosis guidelines, respectively. Study limitations: This was a secondary database study. Data on the severity of psoriasis and pharmacological treatments were not included in the analysis. Conclusion: This population with psoriasis was mostly classified at moderate-high risk and the statin therapy indication was similar when applying the two strategies evaluated.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Psoriasis/prevention & control , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Anticholesteremic Agents/therapeutic use , Psoriasis/complications , Triglycerides/blood , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Sex Factors , Cholesterol/blood , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Risk Assessment , Diabetes Complications
14.
An. bras. dermatol ; 94(6): 684-690, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1054895

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Acne vulgaris is recognized as the third most prevalent skin disease worldwide, with highest prevalence among adolescents. Beliefs and perceptions of adolescents about acne are incoherent in the literature. Objectives: To assess the most frequently reported acne-related beliefs in adolescents in order to focus on misconceptions and develop proper recommendations. Methods: A cross-sectional community-based study on representative sample of 2516 schoolchildren was conducted in six randomly selected secondary schools in Belgrade, Serbia. Only schoolchildren with present or past acne history participated. Factors believed to aggravate or ameliorate acne were recorded and analyzed, and the comparisons between girls and boys were evaluated using Pearson's chi-squared test. Results: A total of 1452 schoolchildren with acne participated, aged 14-18 years, among them 801 (55.2%) girls and 651 (44.8%) boys. Boys significantly more frequently believed that sweating, exercise, and dairy foods aggravate acne, whereas girls significantly more frequently blamed emotional stress, sweets, fatty foods, sun, and lack of sleep. The top four amelioration factors were as follows: comedone extraction, healthy diet, sun exposure, and increased water consumption. Acne regression was more frequently perceived to be linked with cigarettes in boys, but with sun exposure and weight loss in girls. Study limitations: The narrow age span of adolescents (14-18 years) and exclusion of acne-free adolescents are limitations due to study design. Conclusion: This survey is part of the first epidemiological study on a representative sample in the Western Balkan region. The significance of the most frequent acne-related beliefs is discussed and myths about acne are highlighted.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Self Concept , Acne Vulgaris/etiology , Culture , Quality of Life , Sex Factors , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Risk Factors , Acne Vulgaris/psychology , Serbia
15.
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 29(4 (Supl)): 400-407, out.-dez. 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1047333

ABSTRACT

O coração é um órgão que se adapta frente aos diferentes estímulos ou desafios a que é exposto. No entanto, o tipo de adaptação e a magnitude da mesma dependem do tipo, da magnitude e do tempo de duração do estímulo. Logo, a adaptação cardíaca observada após um período de treinamento físico é diferente da adaptação cardíaca observada nas doenças cardiovasculares. Além disso, as variáveis inerentes ao exercício físico como tipo, intensidade, volume e frequência semanal também apresentam uma relação direta quanto ao tipo de adaptação cardíaca. No presente artigo revisaremos os efeitos dos diferentes tipos treinamento físico na estrutura e função cardíaca, abordando os diferentes tipos de hipertrofia cardíaca (excêntrica e concêntrica), bem como as principais vias de sinalização intracelular responsáveis por essa hipertrofia. Além disso, abordaremos como alguns dos principais fatores (massa corporal, sexo, etnia e fatores genéticos) influenciam na magnitude da hipertrofia cardíaca e discutiremos se o treinamento físico praticado em grandes volumes pode ser prejudicial à saúde cardíaca


The heart is an organ that adapts to the different stimuli or challenges to which it is exposed. However, the type of adaptation and its magnitude depend on the stimulus type, magnitude and duration. Therefore, the cardiac adaptation observed after a period of exercise training is different from the cardiac adaptation observed in cardiovascular diseases. In addition, the variables inherent in exercise training such as type, intensity, volume and weekly frequency also have a direct relation to the type of cardiac adaptation. In this article we will review the effects of different types of exercise training on cardiac structure and function, addressing the different types of cardiac hypertrophy (eccentric and concentric), as well as the main intracellular signaling pathways responsible for this hypertrophy. In addition, we will discuss how some of the major factors (body mass, gender, ethnicity, and genetic factors) influence the magnitude of cardiac hypertrophy and will discuss whether high-volume of exercise training can be detrimental to heart health


Subject(s)
Exercise , Heart , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cardiovascular System , Signal Transduction , Sex Factors , Risk Factors , Age Factors , MicroRNAs , Hypertension , Hypertrophy
16.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 32(5): 438-446, Sept-Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1040107

ABSTRACT

Distress has a potentiating effect on complications of heart disease. Early identification of distress and psychosocial management could help patients to deal with the disease and improve their quality of life. However, in Brazil, there is no specific instrument for evaluation of distress in cardiac patients. Objectives: To describe the validation process of the Screening Tool for Psychosocial Distress (STOP-D) for the Brazilian population. Methods: Cross-sectional, observational study with a quantitative approach. A total of 144 patients (including outpatients and inpatients) were interviewed at the waiting room of the outpatient cardiology clinic or in cardiology wards. Sociodemographic and clinical data were collected, and distress was assessed using two instruments - the Brazilian version of the STOP-D and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). First, we performed an exploratory factor analysis and analysis of the accuracy of the STOP-D score by the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curvet. Results: The factorability analysis of the correlation matrix did not detect any factor that made the factorial solution unfeasible. The instrument showed a single-factor nature, confirmed by the criterion of eigenvalues, with an 85% accuracy in predicting distress. A cut-off point of 15.5 was chosen for distress using the ROC curve. Conclusions: The Brazilian version of the STOP-D is an adequate instrument for the screening of heart disease patient for distress. It can be easily used by any health professional and would contribute to the promotion of a comprehensive support to cardiac patients


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Stress, Psychological , Cardiovascular Diseases , Validation Study , Anxiety , Social Conditions , Sex Factors , Statistical Analysis , Surveys and Questionnaires , ROC Curve , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Triage/methods , Depression , Observational Study
17.
Rev. chil. ortop. traumatol ; 60(2): 39-46, oct. 2019. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1095953

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: la lesión de los vasos subclavios durante la cirugía de clavícula es una situación rara, de suceder podría resultar incluso mortal; conocer su ubicación es indispensable para minimizar ese riesgo.OBJETIVO: determinar la ubicación y la distancia de la AS y VS respecto a la clavícula. Secundariamente, identificar las características particulares que influencien la ubicación y la distancia. MATERIALES Y MÉTODO: estudio retrospectivo, AngioTAC de tórax y cuello entre 2012 y 2017; se midió la longitud de la clavícula, distancia y dirección de los vasos subclavios en cada tercio de la clavícula, como también la angulación entre una horizontal y el centro de los vasos subclavios. Resultados: 39 AngioTC, 78 hombros. Distancia AS/clavícula tercio proximal, medio y distal 32,8mm (20,3-46,3), 15,4mm (6,8-28,0) y 62,7mm (37,0-115,4) respectivamente. La distancia VS/clavícula tercio proximal, medio y distal fue: 7,4mm (1,0-19,2), 16,2mm (6,7-34,7) y 67,1mm (29,7-117,0) respectivamente. La ubicación de AS y VS con respecto a la clavícula es posterosuperior en el tercio proximal, posteroinferior en el tercio medio e inferior en el tercio distal. CONCLUSIÓN: En el tercio proximal la vena puede estar solo a 1mm de la clavícula y la arteria a 6mm en dirección antero-posterior, resultando esa zona la más peligrosa. En el tercio medio la distancia es mayor, pudiendo estar arteria y vena a solo 6mm, la dirección de brocado más peligrosa es antero-inferior con una inclinación promedio de 45° caudal. El tercio distal es el más seguro, los vasos están al menos a 30mm de distancia hacia caudal. Nivel de evidencia III.


BACKGROUND: injury to the subclavian vessels during clavicle surgery is a rare situation, if it happens it could even be fatal; knowing their location is essential to minimize that risk. OBJECTIVE: determine location and distance of the AS and VS with respect to the clavicle. Secondarily identify particular characteristics that influence location and distance. MATERIAL AND METHODS: retrospective study, AngioTAC of thorax and neck between 2012 and 2017; it was measured the length of the clavicle, distance and direction of the subclavian vessels in each third of the clavicle and angulation between a horizontal and the center of the subclavian vessels were measured. Results: 39 AngioTC, 78 shoulders. AS / clavicle third proximal, middle and distal distance 32.8mm (20.3-46.3), 15.4mm (6.8-28.0) and 62.7mm (37.0-115.4) respectively. Distance VS / clavicle third proximal, middle and distal was: 7.4mm (1.0-19.2), 16.2mm (6.7-34.7) and 67.1mm (29.7-117.0) respectively. The location of AS and VS with respect to the clavicle is posterosuperior in the proximal third, posteroinferior in the middle third and inferior in the distal third. CONCLUSION: In the proximal third the vein can be only 1mm from the clavicle and the artery to 6mm in the anterior-posterior direction, this zone is the most dangerous. In the middle third the distance is greater, artery and vein can be only to 6mm, the most dangerous drilling direction is antero-inferior with an average inclination of 45° caudal. The distal third is the safest, the vessels are at least 30mm away from the vessels. Level of evidence III.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Subclavian Artery/diagnostic imaging , Subclavian Vein/diagnostic imaging , Clavicle/blood supply , Subclavian Artery/anatomy & histology , Subclavian Vein/anatomy & histology , Sex Factors , Retrospective Studies , Computed Tomography Angiography
18.
Rev. ADM ; 76(5): 272-277, sept.-oct. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1053115

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El nervio dentario inferior es una estructura anatómica de la mandíbula, la cual presenta variaciones como el asa mandibular, ambas estructuras están relacionadas con iatrogenias con tratamientos como cirugías orales, regeneraciones óseas e implantes. El objetivo del presente estudio es evaluar las características del asa mandibular y el agujero mentoniano utilizando tomografía axial computarizada de haz cónico (CBCT) en pacientes del Postgrado de Periodoncia de la Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León. Material y métodos: Se analizaron un total de 110 CBCT, de los cuales 61 entraron al estudio cumpliendo con los criterios de inclusión, se realizaron cortes transversales utilizando el software On Demand® para identifi car y medir el asa mandibular y localizar la posición del agujero mentoniano de ambos lados separando los grupos por género. Resultados: La prevalencia del asa mandibular fue de 32.8% de 61 CBCT que se analizaron, se observó más comúnmente en hombres y de manera bilateral, y cuando fue unilateral sólo se encontró en el lado derecho, la longitud promedio fue de 6 ± 1 mm. El agujero mentoniano se detectó en mayor porcentaje apical al segundo premolar inferior con un diámetro promedio de 3.5 ± 0.5 mm, alejándose de la raíz del diente adyacente en un promedio de 6 ± 1 mm y del borde de la mandíbula 12.5 mm ± 0.5 mm. Conclusión: Es de suma importancia identifi car las características anatómicas del asa mandibular y localizar la posición del agujero mentoniano durante la planifi cación del tratamiento para evitar complicaciones durante y después del acto quirúrgico (AU)


Introduction: The inferior dental nerve is an anatomical structure of the mandible which presents variations such as the anterior loop, both structures are related to iatrogenies with treatments such as oral surgeries, bone regenerations and implants. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the characteristics of the anterior loop and the mental foramen using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in patients of the Graduate Periodontics Program, School of Dentistry, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León. Material and methods: 110 CBCT were analyzed of which 61 entered the study fulfi lling the inclusion criteria, cross sections were made using the On Demand® software to identify and measure the anterior loop and locate the position of the mental foramen both sides separating our groups by gender. Results: The prevalence of the anterior loop was 32.8% of 61 CBCT that were analyzed, it was found more commonly in men and bilaterally, and when it was unilateral only found on the right side, the average length was 6 ± 1 mm. The mental hole was found in greater percentage apical to the second lower premolar with an average diameter of 3.5 ± 0.5 mm, moving away from the root of the adjacent tooth by an average of 6 ± 1 mm and from the edge of the mandible 12.5 ± 0.5 mm. Conclusion: It is very important to locate these anatomical structures during treatment planning and avoid complications during and after the surgical act (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography , Mandible/anatomy & histology , Mandible/diagnostic imaging , Sex Factors , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Statistical Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Mandibular Nerve/anatomy & histology , Mexico
19.
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 41(5): 389-395, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1039101

ABSTRACT

Objective: To examine suicide rates among adolescents from six large cities in Brazil and to analyze the relationship between adolescent suicide rates and socioeconomic indicators between 2006 and 2015. Methods: Generalized estimating equation models were used to assess the impact of socioeconomic factors - including social inequality and unemployment rates - on adolescent suicide rates. Results: The rate of adolescent suicide increased by 24% over the course of the study period. Social inequality (assessed using the Gini index), was positively associated with overall adolescent suicide rates (β = 10.68; 95%CI = 2.32-19.05; p ≤ 0.012). After disaggregating the findings by age (10-14 and 15-19 years), social inequality was associated with suicide rate only for adolescents aged 15-19 years (β = 9.63; 95%CI = 2.31-16.96; p ≤ 0.005). Disaggregating these findings by sex, the association with economic variables became significant only among females. Males had a higher overall suicide rate than females, and the highest rate was observed in male adolescents aged 15-19 years. Higher levels of unemployment were associated with higher suicide rates. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that socioeconomic indicators, particularly unemployment and social inequality, are relevant social determinants of suicide in adolescence.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Suicide/trends , Suicide/statistics & numerical data , Socioeconomic Factors , Time Factors , Unemployment/statistics & numerical data , Brazil/epidemiology , Sex Factors , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sex Distribution , Statistics, Nonparametric
20.
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 41(5): 380-388, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1039103

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To analyze time trends of suicide rates in Brazil overall and in Brazilian states and compare the estimated suicide rates projected for 2020 with the World Health Organization (WHO) Mental Health Action Plan target. Methods: This was an ecological time-series study from 1997 to 2015, stratified by Brazilian states, specific age groups, and sex. Data were obtained from the Mortality Information System (Sistema de Informações sobre Mortalidade [SIM]) of the Brazilian Ministry of Health. Polynomial regression models were used to analyze the trends in suicide rates and to project suicide rates for 2020. Results: Considering 224 units of analysis, 21 (9.4%) showed a decreasing trend, 108 (48.2%) were stable, and 95 (42.4%) showed an increasing trend. Thus, 67% of units of analysis will not meet the WHO target in 2020. Mean suicide rates were higher in males than in females. People aged 60 years and older presented the highest suicide rates, while 84.7% of total deaths by suicide occurred among 15-to-59-year-olds. Conclusion: Overall, 90.6% of units of analysis had a stable or increasing trend in suicide rates from 1997 to 2015. If these trends remain, most of Brazil will fail to achieve the WHO-recommended reduction in suicide rates by 2020.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Suicide/trends , Suicide/statistics & numerical data , Time Factors , World Health Organization , Brazil/epidemiology , Sex Factors , Sex Distribution , Age Distribution , Spatial Analysis , Geography , Middle Aged
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