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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 42(1): 71-81, feb. 2024. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528835

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: This paper's aim is a morphometric evaluation of liver and portal vein morphometry using ultrasonography in healthy Turkish population. This study was carried out with 189 subjects (107 females, 82 males). The demographic data and the body surface area were calculated. The longitudinal axis of the liver for two lobes, diagonal axis or liver span, anteroposterior diameter of the liver and portal vein, portal vein transverse diameter, caudate lobe anteroposterior diameter, and portal vein internal diameters as well as longitudinal liver scans in an aortic plane, sagittal plane, transverse plane, and kidney axis were measured. All measurements were analyzed according to age, sex, body mass index, obesity and alcohol consumption. The mean values of the age, height, weight and body mass index were calculated as 44.39 years, 167.05 cm, 74.23 kg, and 27.06kg/m2 in females, respectively. The same values were 44.13 years, 167.70 cm, 75.93 kg and 26.71 kg/m2 in males, respectively. There was significant difference between demographic characteristics, gender, and alcohol consumption in terms of anteroposterior diameter of the liver, portal vein transverse diameter of the right side and liver transverse scan. Also, some measurements including portal vein transverse diameter, liver transverse scan and at kidney axis longitudinal scan of liver showed significant difference between the age groups. There was significant difference in diagonal axis and anteroposterior diameter of liver, portal vein internal diameter, and longitudinal liver scans of the aortic plane parameters between obesity situation. The findings obtained will provide important and useful reference values as it may determine some abnormalities related liver diseases. Also, age, sex, obesity and body mass index values can be effective in the liver and portal vein morphometry related parameters.


El objetivo de este artículo fue realizar una evaluación de la morfometría del hígado y la vena porta mediante ecografía en una población turca sana. Este estudio se llevó a cabo en 189 sujetos (107 mujeres, 82 hombres). Se calcularon los datos demográficos y la superficie corporal. Se midió eleje longitudinal del de dos lóbulos del hígado, el eje diagonal o la extensión del hígado, los diámetros anteroposterior del hígado y de la vena porta, el diámetro transversal de la vena porta, anteroposterior del lóbulo caudado y los diámetros internos de la vena porta, así como las exploraciones longitudinales del hígado en un plano aórtico. Se midieron el plano sagital, el plano transversal y el eje del riñón. Todas las mediciones se analizaron según edad, sexo, índice de masa corporal, obesidad y consumo de alcohol. Los valores medios de edad, talla, peso e índice de masa corporal se calcularon como 44,39 años, 167,05 cm, 74,23 kg y 27,06 kg/m2 en las mujeres, respectivamente. Las mismas variable fueron 44,13 años, 167,70 cm, 75,93 kg y 26,71 kg/m2. Hubo diferencias significativas entre las características demográficas, el sexo y el consumo de alcohol en términos de diámetro anteroposterior del hígado, diámetro transversal de la vena porta del lado derecho y exploración transversal del hígado. Además, algunas mediciones, incluido el diámetro transversal de la vena porta, la exploración transversal del hígado y la exploración longitudinal del hígado en el eje del riñón, mostraron diferencias significativas entre los grupos de edad. Hubo diferencias significativas en el eje diagonal y el diámetro anteroposterior del hígado, el diámetro interno de la vena porta y los parámetros de las exploraciones hepáticas longitudinales del plano aórtico entre situaciones de obesidad. Los hallazgos obtenidos proporcionarán valores de referencia importantes y útiles ya que pueden determinar algunas anomalías relacionadas con enfermedades hepáticas. Además, los valores de edad, sexo, obesidad e índice de masa corporal pueden ser eficaces en los parámetros relacionados con la morfometría del hígado y la vena porta.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Portal Vein/diagnostic imaging , Liver/diagnostic imaging , Portal Vein/anatomy & histology , Reference Values , Turkey , Body Mass Index , Sex Factors , Ultrasonography , Age Factors , Liver/anatomy & histology , Obesity
2.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528265

ABSTRACT

La investigación tuvo como objetivo analizar la relación entre la Coordinación Motora (CM) con el Índice de Masa Corporal en escolares chilenos de entre 7 y 9 años. El estudio fue observacional de corte transversal, con características descriptivas y correlacionales. Se evaluaron a 180 escolares (90 mujeres de 8.4 ± 0.9 años y 90 hombres de 8.5± 0.9 años). Se midieron variables antropométricas de peso y talla. Se calculó el Índice de Masa Corporal (IMC). La coordinación motora (CM) se evaluó utilizando la batería de Körperkoordinationstest Für Kinder (KTK). Los resultados mostraron que en las mujeres el grupo Normopeso tenía un mejor desempeño en la transposición lateral que los grupos Sobrepeso y Obesidad (p˂0.05). En los hombres, el grupo Normopeso superó al grupo Obesidad en los saltos monopedales (p˂0.05). Además, al analizar las diferencias entre sexos, se determinó que las mujeres registraron mayor puntaje que los hombres en el equilibrio a la retaguardia (p<0.05), por su parte, los hombres registraron mejores rendimientos en saltos laterales, transposición lateral y el puntaje total del KTK (p<0.05). Se concluye que existe menor índice de CM en los escolares con elevado IMC, y que existen diferencias significativas entre hombres y mujeres en el equilibrio, saltos laterales, transposición lateral y el puntaje total del test KTK.


The objective of this research was to analyze the relationship between motor coordination (CM) and Body Mass Index in Chilean schoolchildren between 7 and 9 years of age. The study was observational cross-sectional, correlational and descriptive study. 180 students of both sexes were evaluated (90 women aged 8.4 ± 0.9 years and 90 men aged 8.5 ± 0.9 years). Anthropometric weight and height variables were measured and the Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated. The CM was evaluated using the battery of Körperkoordinationstest Für Kinder (KTK). The results showed that in the lateral transposition, the normal weight group outperforms the overweight and Obesity group (p˂0.05) for women. For men, in monopedal jumps, the normal weight group also outperformed the obesity group (p˂0.05). In addition, when analyzing the differences between the sexes, it was noted that women had a higher score than men in the rear balance (p˂0.05). On the other hand, men had performed better in lateral jumps, lateral transposition and the total KTK score (p˂0.05). In conclusion, the study found that there was a lower CM index in schoolchildren with a high BMI, and that there were significant differences between men and women in terms of balance, lateral jumps, lateral transposition, and the total score of the KTK test.


O objetivo da pesquisa foi analisar a relação entre a coordenação motora (CM) com o Índice de Massa Corporal corporal em escolares chilenos entre 7 e 9 anos de idade. O estudo foi observacional transversal, com características descritivas e correlacionais. Foram avaliados 180 escolares de ambos os sexos (90 mulheres com idade de 8,4 ± 0,9 anos e 90 homens com idade de 8,5 ± 0,9 anos). Variáveis antropométricas de peso e altura foram medidas. O Índice de Massa Corporal (IMC) foi calculado. Além disso, a coordenação motora (MC) foi avaliada por meio da bateria Körperkoordinationstest Für Kinder (KTK). Os resultados mostraram que, para mulheres em transposição lateral, o grupo Peso Normal supera o grupo Sobrepeso e Obeso (p˂0,05). Para os homens, nos saltos monopedais o grupo Peso Normal supera o grupo Obesidade (p˂0,05). Além disso, ao analisar as diferenças entre os sexos, percebe-se que as mulheres apresentam pontuação maiores que os homens no equilíbrio de retaguarda (p<0,05), enquanto os homens apresentam melhor desempenho nos saltos laterais, transposição lateral e pontuação total KTK (p< 0,05). Conclui-se que há menor índice de CM em alunos com IMC elevado, e que existem diferenças significativas entre homens e mulheres para equilíbrio, saltos laterais, transposição lateral e pontuação total do teste KTK.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Body Mass Index , Motor Skills , Child Development , Chile , Sex Factors , Anthropometry , Adipose Tissue , Cross-Sectional Studies
3.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(6): 1625-1630, dic. 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528781

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The trachea is a tubular organ lying between larynx and lungs containing smooth muscle, membranes, and cartilage. This paper evaluated the dimessions of the trachea and main bronchi morphometry in healthy adults using Computed Tomography. This retrospective observational study was performed with 170 healthy adult subjects (89 females, 52.35 %; 81 males,47.65 %). The length of the trachea, the anteroposterior and transverse diameter of the trachea and the right and left main bronchi were measured. From these measurements, the trachea shape were calculated and four types of trachea were identified as circular, oval, horseshoe-shaped, and rectangular. All measurements were significantly higher in males than females (excluding tracheal bifurcation angle). According to the value obtained by dividing the anteroposterior by the width of the trachea, tracheal shapes are considered; the circular shape was seen 104 subjects (61.2 %), followed by oval type (34 subjects), horseshoe type (24 subjects) and rectangular type. (8 subjects). Also, the most frequently seen was circular type in both females and males. Hovewer, there was no significant difference between sex in terms of trachea shape. Additionally, a striking finding was that trachea morphometry and morphology showed the significance according to age dependent changes. Trachea measurements were affected several reasons such as used methods, age, sex, or race. This study has many clinical importance as it may reduce the risk of accidental damage to these area by clinicians such as cardiothoracic surgeons, anesthetist, or radiologist.


La tráquea es un órgano tubular que se encuentra entre la laringe y los pulmones y que contiene músculo liso, membranas y cartílago. Este trabajo evaluó las dimensiones de la tráquea y la morfometría de los bronquios principales en adultos sanos mediante Tomografía Computarizada. Este estudio observacional retrospectivo se realizó con 170 sujetos adultos sanos (89 mujeres, 52,35 %; 81 hombres, 47,65 %). Se midió la longitud de la tráquea, el diámetro anteroposterior y transversal de la tráquea y los bronquios principales derecho e izquierdo. A partir de estas mediciones, se calculó la forma de la tráquea y se identificaron cuatro tipos de tráquea: circular, ovalada, en forma de herradura y rectangular. Todas las mediciones fueron significativamente mayores en hombres que en mujeres (excluyendo el ángulo de bifurcación traqueal). Según el valor que se obtiene al dividir el anteroposterior por el ancho de la tráquea, se consideran las formas traqueales; la forma circular fue observada en 104 sujetos (61,2 %), seguida del tipo ovalado (34 sujetos), tipo herradura (24 sujetos) y tipo rectangular (8 sujetos). Además, el tipo más frecuente fue el circular tanto en mujeres como en hombres. Sin embargo, no hubo diferencias significativas entre sexos en términos de forma de la tráquea. Además, un hallazgo sorprendente fue que la morfometría y la morfología de la tráquea mostraron importancia según los cambios dependientes de la edad. Las mediciones morfométricas de la tráquea se vieron afectadas por varios motivos, como los métodos utilizados, la edad, el sexo o la raza. Este estudio tiene importancia clínica ya que puede reducir el riesgo de daño accidental por parte de médicos como cirujanos cardiotorácicos, anestesistas o radiólogos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Trachea/anatomy & histology , Trachea/diagnostic imaging , Turkey , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Sex Factors , Retrospective Studies , Age Factors
4.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(6): 1648-1652, dic. 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528790

ABSTRACT

El proceso madurativo tiene una gran influencia sobre los factores antropométricos y las capacidades físicas del atleta, y por tanto, sobre el proceso de selección de talentos deportivos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar el estado madurativo y las características antropométricas junto con la comparación de estos datos por sexo en una muestra de 39 jugadores jóvenes de voleibol dentro de un proceso de selección de talentos (19 damas de 14,88±1,05 años y 13 varones de 15,1 años). Se obtuvieron datos de edad cronológica, altura, peso, altura sentado, altura de la madre y padre, la edad pico de crecimiento, el "timing" o periodo de tiempo por encima o por debajo de la edad pico, altura al final del proceso madurativo, el porcentaje actual de altura máxima, los centímetros restantes y el estado madurativo (pre-púber, púber o pos-púber). Los jugadores mostraron una mayor altura en el momento de las mediciones (179,92±6,87 vs 171,05±4,80; p<0,001), así como una mayor altura final calculada (189,46±3,73 vs 178,52±5,17; p<0,001), en comparación a las jugadoras. El pico en la velocidad de crecimiento también fue superior en los jugadores (14,56±0,44 vs 12,60±0,57; p<0,001), aunque su timing era inferior al de las jugadoras (0,531±1,19 vs 2,27±0,64; p<0,001). Esto se debió a un mayor porcentaje de jugadores masculinos en estados puberales, incluyendo un jugador en estadio pre-puberal, mientras que fue abundante la presencia de jugadoras en estado pospuberal. Estos datos reflejan la gran cantidad de jugadores que tienden a estar en periodos avanzados de maduración en procesos de selección de talentos. Por tanto, entrenadores y seleccionadores deben contemplar estas variables para evitar sesgos en el proceso de identificación del talento deportivo.


SUMMARY: The maturation process has a great influence on the anthropometric factors and physical capabilities of the athlete, and therefore, on the selection process of sporting talents. The objective of this work was to analyze the maturational state and anthropometric characteristics together with the comparison of these data by sex in a sample of 39 young volleyball players within a talent selection process (19 ladies of 14.88±1. 05 years old and 13 males aged 15.1 years). Data were obtained on chronological age, height, weight, sitting height, height of the mother and father, peak age of growth, timing or period of time above or below the peak age, height at the end of the process. maturation, the current percentage of maximum height, the remaining centimeters and the maturation status (pre-pubertal, pubertal or post-pubertal). The players showed a greater height at the time of the measurements (179.92±6.87 vs. 171.05±4.80; p<0.001), as well as a greater final calculated height (189.46±3.73 vs. 178.52±5.17; p<0.001), compared to the female players. The peak in growth speed was also higher in male players (14.56±0.44 vs 12.60±0.57; p<0.001), although their timing was lower than that of female players (0.531±1.19 vs 2.27±0.64; p<0.001). This was due to a higher percentage of male players in pubertal states, including one player in a pre-pubertal stage, while the presence of female players in a post-pubertal stage was abundant. These data reflect the large number of players who tend to be in advanced periods of maturation in talent selection processes. Therefore, coaches and selectors must consider these variables to avoid biases in the process of identifying sporting talent.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Anthropometry , Physical Fitness , Volleyball , Sex Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies
5.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(6): 1679-1686, dic. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528802

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The liver has over 500 physiological and biochemical roles in our organism so checking of liver size and function is a part of every clinical examination. Aim of our research was to estimate liver size on computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen images and to determinate relations between liver dimensions and anthropometric parameters. The research included 99 patients, 49 men and 50 women, who were referred for CT of abdomen. We measured body height (BH) and body mass (BM), and calculated body mass index (BMI) and body surface area (BSA). Also, on CT images we measured anteroposterior (AP), laterolateral (LL) and two craniocaudal liver diameters (one at the level of midclavicular line - CCmcl, and the other was maximal - CCmax). Liver volume (LV) was calculated with formula. Our results showed that AP diameter positively correlated with BSA (r=0.30) in women. LL diameter positively correlated with BH (r=0.43), and BSA (0.31) in men. CCmcl diameter positively correlated with BH (r=0.33), BM (r=0.31), and BSA (r=0.34) in men, while in women it correlated only with BH (r=0.38). CCmax diameter positively correlated with BH (r=0.33) and BSA (r=0.33) in men. LV positively correlated with BH and BSA in both men (r=0.36, r=0.33, respectively) and women (r=0.42, r=0.31, respectively), and in men also with BM (r=0.34). LL, CCmcl, CCmax, and LV negatively correlated with aging in both sexes After the age of 60, there was a decrease in size of LL, CC diameters, as well as in LV. We concluded that liver dimensions decrease with aging, regardless of sex at the expanse of LL and CC diameters which are related to the size of body parameters, so that for a precise evaluation of liver size all three diameters should be measured, LV as well as BH, BM, and BSA.


El hígado desempeña más de 500 funciones fisiológicas y bioquímicas en nuestro organismo, por lo que comprobar el tamaño y la función de este órgano es parte de cada examen clínico. El objetivo de nuestra investigación fue estimar el tamaño del hígado mediante tomografía computarizada (TC) de imágenes del abdomen y determinar las relaciones entre las dimensiones del hígado y los parámetros antropométricos. La investigación incluyó a 99 pacientes, 49 hombres y 50 mujeres, que fueron remitidos para TC de abdomen. Medimos la altura corporal (BH) y la masa corporal (BM), y calculamos el índice de masa corporal (IMC) y el área de superficie corporal (BSA). Además, en las imágenes de TC medimos los diámetros hepáticos anteroposterior (AP), laterolateral (LL) y dos craneocaudales (uno a nivel de la línea medioclavicular - CCmcl, y el diámetro máximo - CCmax). El volumen del hígado (VI) se calculó con una fórmula. Nuestros resultados mostraron que el diámetro AP se correlacionó positivamente con BSA (r = 0,30) en mujeres. El diámetro de LL se correlacionó positivamente con BH (r=0,43) y BSA (0,31) en hombres. El diámetro CCmcl se correlacionó positivamente con BH (r=0,33), BM (r=0,31) y BSA (r=0,34) en hombres, mientras que en mujeres se correlacionó solo con BH (r=0,38). El diámetro CCmax se correlacionó positivamente con BH (r=0,33) y BSA (r=0,33) en hombres. El VI se correlacionó positivamente con BH y BSA tanto en hombres (r=0,36, r=0,33, respectivamente) como en mujeres (r=0,42, r=0,31, respectivamente), y en hombres también con BM (r=0,34). LL, CCmcl, CCmax y LV se correlacionaron negativamente con el envejecimiento en ambos sexos. Después de los 60 años, hubo una disminución en el tamaño de los diámetros LL, CC y LV. Concluimos que las dimensiones del hígado disminuyen con la edad, independientemente del sexo, en la extensión de los diámetros LL y CC que están relacionados con el tamaño de los parámetros corporales, por lo que para una evaluación precisa del tamaño del hígado se debe medir LV como BH, BM y BSA.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Anthropometry , Liver/diagnostic imaging , Body Weight , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Body Mass Index , Sex Factors , Age Factors , Liver/anatomy & histology
6.
Psicol. rev ; 32(2): 418-434, 31/12/2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1552376

ABSTRACT

Este estudo de corte transversal investigou a percepção de desenvolvimento das habilidades para vida de 90 jovens com deficiência praticantes de modalidades individuais e coletivas, com 17.31 ± 1.35 anos e tempo de prática de 8.50± 5.38 meses de ambos os sexos (10 meninos e 78 meninas). Os instrumentos utilizados foram um questionário sociodemográfico a fim de caracterizar a amostra e a Escala de Habilidades para a Vida para o Esporte (P-LSSS) para avaliar as habilidades para a vida. A análise de dados foi conduzida por meio dos testes de Kolmogorov-Smirnov, teste t independente, e correlação de Pearson (p<0,05). Os resultados demonstraram que houve correlação positiva entre a idade e as habilidades de trabalho em equipe (r= 0,25), estabelecimento de metas (r = 0,24) e habilidades sociais (r = 0,22). Os praticantes do sexo masculino apresentaram escore superior nas dimensões trabalho em equipe (p=0,001), estabelecimento de metas (p=0,003), habilidades sociais (p=<0,001), solução de problemas (p<0,001) e habilidades emocionais (p=0,005). Os praticantes mais velhos apresentaram escores superiores na subescala de trabalho em equipe (p=0,039). Não houve diferença (p<0,05) em relação ao tempo de prática. Conclui-se que a idade e o sexo estão associados ao desenvolvimento das habilidades para vida em praticantes de esportes adaptados. (AU)


This cross-sectional study investigated the perception of life skills development among 90 young athletes with disabilities participating in individual and team sports, with an average age of 17.31 ± 1.35 years and an average practice time of 8.50 ± 5.38 months, including both genders (10 boys and 78 girls). The instruments used included a sociodemographic questionnaire in order to characterize the sample and the Life Skills in Sports Scale (P-LSSS) to assess life skills. Data analysis was conducted using Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests, independent t-tests, and Pearson correlation (p <0.05). The results demonstrated a positive correlation between age and teamwork skills (r = 0.25), goal setting (r = 0.24) and social skills (r = 0.22). Male athletes scored higher in teamwork dimensions (p = 0.001), goal setting (p = 0.003), social skills (p =<0.001), problem-solving (p <0.001) and emotional skills (p = 0.005). Older athletes had higher scores in the teamwork subscale (p = 0.039). There was no significant difference (p <0.05) in relation to practice time. In conclusion, age and gender are associated with the development of life skills in participants in adapted sports.


Este estudio transversal investigó la percepción del desarrollo de habilidades para la vida de 90 jóvenes con discapacidad que practican modalidades individuales y colectivas, con edad de 17.31 ± 1.35 años y tiempo de práctica de 8.50 ± 5.38 meses para ambos sexos (10 niños y 78 niñas). Los instrumentos utilizados fueron un cuestionario sociodemográfico con el fin de caracterizar la muestra y evaluar las habilidades para la vida, se utilizó la Escala de Habilidades de Vida para el Deporte (P-LSSS). El análisis de los datos se realizó mediante las pruebas de Kolmogorov-Smirnov, t independiente y correlación de Pearson (p <0,05). Los resultados mostraron que existe una correlación positiva entre la edad y las habilidades de trabajo en equipo (r = 0,25), el establecimiento de metas (r = 0,24) y las habilidades sociales (r = 0,22). Los practicantes masculinos obtuvieron una puntuación más alta en las dimensiones de trabajo en equipo (p = 0,001), establecimiento de metas (p = 0,003), habilidades sociales (p = <0,001), resolución de problemas (p <0,001) y habilidades emocionales (p = 0,005). Los practicantes mayores obtuvieron puntuaciones más altas en la dimensión de trabajo en equipo (p = 0,039). No hubo diferencia (p <0,05) con relación al tiempo de práctica. Se concluye que la edad y el sexo están asociados al desarrollo de habilidades para la vida en los practicantes de deportes adaptados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Young Adult , Athletic Performance , Sports for Persons with Disabilities , Time Factors , Sex Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Age Factors , Qualitative Research
7.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(4): 1066-1070, ago. 2023. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514352

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: This study investigates the relationship between the second and fourth finger ratio (2D:4D), physicians' propensity to choose an internal or surgical branch, and sex differences. On a voluntary basis, 177 physicians working in Elazig, 122 men and 55 women were enrolled in the study. Their hands were measured for 2D and 4D lengths, and the 2D:4D ratio was computed. In female doctors, the left hand's 2D:4D ratio is 1.01, compared to the right hand's 1.00. Male doctors' right 2D:4D ratio is 0.99, while their left 2D:4D ratio is 1.00. Male physicians' 2D:4D ratios were different from those of men in the general population, whereas female physicians' 2D:4D ratios were comparable to those of women in the general population. As a result, this study was the first to examine the relationship between the ratio of the second and fourth fingers (2D:4D), physicians' tendency to choose an internal medicine or surgical branch, and sex differences. While the 2D:4D ratio was higher than 0.98 in all physicians, it was low in women who disliked their profession and branch. Since there aren't many studies on this subject, data from in-depth studies that will be conducted in the future will help physicians who choose internal medicine and surgery make more informed decisions.


Este estudio investiga la relación entre la proporción de los dedos segundo y cuarto (2D:4D), la propensión de los médicos a elegir una rama interna o quirúrgica y las diferencias de género. De forma voluntaria, se inscribieron en el estudio 177 médicos que trabajaban en Elazig, 122 hombres y 55 mujeres. Sus manos se midieron en longitudes 2D y 4D, y se calculó la relación 2D:4D. En las médicos mujeres, la relación 2D:4D de la mano izquierda es 1,01, en comparación con 1,00 de la mano derecha. La relación 2D:4D derecha de los médicos hombres fue 0,99, mientras que la relación 2D:4D izquierda fye 1,00. Las proporciones 2D:4D de los médicos hombres fueron diferentes de las de los hombres en la población general, mientras que las proporciones 2D:4D de las mujeres médicas fueron comparables a las de las mujeres en la población general. Como resultado, este estudio fue el primero en examinar la relación entre la proporción del segundo y cuarto dedo (2D:4D), la tendencia de los médicos a elegir una rama de medicina interna o quirúrgica y las diferencias de sexo. Mientras que la relación 2D:4D fue superior a 0,98 en todos los médicos, fue baja en las mujeres que no les gustaba su profesión y rama. Dado que no hay muchos estudios sobre este tema, los datos de estudios en profundidad que se realizarán en el futuro ayudarán a los médicos que eligen medicina interna y cirugía a tomar decisiones más informadas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Physicians/psychology , Choice Behavior , Fingers/anatomy & histology , Digit Ratios , General Surgery , Sex Factors , Anthropometry , Sex Characteristics , Internal Medicine
8.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(4): 1171-1176, ago. 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514356

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Volumetric assessment of brain structures is an important tool in neuroscience research and clinical practice. The volumetric measurement of normally functioning human brain helps detect age-related changes in some regions, which can be observed at varying degrees. This study aims to estimate the insular volume in the normally functioning human brain in both genders, different age groups, and side variations. A cross-sectional retrospective study was conducted on 42 adult Sudanese participants in Al-Amal Hospital, Sudan, between May to August 2022, using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and automatic brain segmentation through a software program (BrainSuite). The statistical difference in total insular volume on both sides of the cerebral hemisphere was small. The insular volume on the right side was greater in males, while the left side showed no difference between both genders. A statistically significant difference between males and females was found (p > 0.05), and no statistical difference in different age groups was found according to the one-way ANOVA test (p>0.05). Adult Sudanese males showed a larger insular volume than females. MRI can be used to morphometrically assess the insula to detect any pathological variations based on volume changes.


La evaluación volumétrica de las estructuras cerebrales es una herramienta importante en la investigación y la práctica clínica de la neurociencia. La medición volumétrica del cerebro humano, que funciona normalmente, ayuda a detectar cambios relacionados con la edad en algunas regiones, las cuales se pueden observar en diversos grados. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo estimar el volumen insular en el cerebro humano que funciona normalmente, en ambos sexos, de diferentes grupos de edad y sus variaciones laterales. Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo transversal en 42 participantes sudaneses adultos en el Hospital Al-Amal, Sudán, entre mayo y agosto de 2022, utilizando imágenes de resonancia magnética y segmentación automática del cerebro a través de un software (BrainSuite). Fue pequeña la diferencia estadística en el volumen insular total, en los hemisferios cerebrales. El volumen insular del lado derecho fue mayor en los hombres, mientras que el lado izquierdo no mostró diferencia entre ambos sexos. Se encontró una diferencia estadísticamente significativa entre hombres y mujeres (p > 0,05), y no se encontró diferencia estadística en los diferentes grupos de edad, según la prueba de ANOVA de una vía (p> 0,05). Los hombres sudaneses adultos mostraron un mayor volumen insular que las mujeres. La resonancia magnética se puede utilizar para evaluar morfométricamente la ínsula y para detectar cualquier variación patológica basada en cambios de volumen.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Software , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Cerebral Cortex/diagnostic imaging , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted , Cerebral Cortex/anatomy & histology , Sex Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies
9.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1513953

ABSTRACT

La inteligencia emocional se define como habilidades para conocer y dominar emociones propias y de otros/as. Los objetivos del presente estudio fueron validar un instrumento de inteligencia emocional en una muestra de estudiantes de Educación Física de Chile y describir las habilidades emocionales de la muestra. Se evaluaron 226 estudiantes de Educación Física de dos universidades de Santiago de Chile. Se aplicó la Escala rasgo de metaconocimiento emocional (TMMS-24). Los resultados revelan que el instrumento, reducido a 19 ítems, presenta tres factores que explican el 56,8% de la varianza total, con un alfa de Cronbach de 0,916. En relación con los niveles de inteligencia emocional, la muestra presenta valores altos, sin que existan diferencias significativas en las dimensiones claridad, atención y reparación del TMMS-24 entre damas y varones. Al comparar por años de carrera, sólo hay diferencias en la dimensión claridad, donde los/as estudiantes de 5º año poseen mayores puntajes que los/as de 2º. Se concluye que los/as estudiantes de Educación Física poseen altos índices de inteligencia emocional, sin diferencias entre damas y varones.


Emotional intelligence is defined as the ability to know and master one's and/or others' emotions. The objectives of this study were to validate an emotional intelligence instrument in a sample of physical education students from Chile, and to describe the emotional skills of the sample. 226 physical education students from two universities in Santiago de Chile were evaluated. The Emotional Metacognition Trait Scale (TMMS-24) was applied. The results reveal that the instrument, reduced to 19 items, presents three factors that explain 56,8% of the total variance, with a Cronbach alpha of 0,916. In relation to the levels of emotional intelligence, the sample presents high values, without there being significant differences in the dimension's clarity, attention, and repair of the TMMS-24 between women and men. When comparing years of career, there are only differences in the clarity dimension, where 5th year students had higher scores than/as 2nd years. It is concluded that physical education students have high rates of emotional intelligence, with no differences between women and men.


A inteligência emocional é definida como habilidades para conhecer e dominar emoções próprias e de outros/as. Os objetivos do presente estudo foram validar um instrumento de inteligência emocional em uma mostra de estudantes de Educação Física do Chile e descrever as habilidades emocionais da mostra. Foram avaliados 226 estudantes de Educação Física de duas universidades de Santiago do Chile. Foi aplicada a Escala característica de meta-conhecimento emocional (TMMS-24). Os resultados revelam que o instrumento, reduzido a 19 itens, apresenta três fatores que explicam 56,8% da variância total, com um alfa de Cronbach de 0,916. Em relação aos níveis de inteligência emocional, a amostra apresenta valores altos, sem que existam diferenças significativas nas dimensões clareza, atenção e reparação do TMMS-24 entre mulheres e homens. Ao comparar por anos de carreira, só há diferenças na dimensão clareza, onde os/as estudantes de 5º ano possuem maiores pontuações que os/as de 2º. Conclui-se que os/as estudantes de Educação Física possuem altos índices de inteligência emocional, sem diferenças entre mulheres e homens.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Physical Education and Training , Students/psychology , Psychometrics , Universities , Sex Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Sociodemographic Factors
10.
Ter. psicol ; 41(1): 63-85, abr. 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1515603

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La infancia temprana es una etapa crítica para la salud mental, por lo que es fundamental contar con herramientas eficaces para detectar tempranamente conductas infantiles relacionadas con psicopatología. Objetivo: Investigar las propiedades psicométricas de la Escala de Evaluación Socioemocional Breve de Infantes y Niños (BITSEA) en una muestra de infantes chilenos. Método: 289 padres de niños y niñas de entre 12 y 36 meses de edad completaron la BITSEA y el CBCL 1½-5. Resultados: Se encontró una confiabilidad aceptable para las puntuaciones de la subescala "problema socioemocional" (ω=0.84), y una confiabilidad baja para las puntuaciones de la subescala "competencia socioemocional" (ω=0.59). La estructura factorial fue adecuada y se observó una alta validez concurrente con otras escalas. El modelo confirmatorio mostró índices aceptables (CFI= 0.94; TLI= 0.94; SRMR= 0.07; RMSEA= 0.027). Conclusión: La BITSEA en esta muestra arrojó resultados similares a otros estudios, su aplicabilidad es prometedora para la detección temprana de problema socioemocional en la infancia temprana. Se sugiere continuar su estudio en muestra nacional representativa.


Introduction: Early childhood is a critical stage for mental health, and it is necessary to have effective tools for early detection of child behaviours related to psychopathology. Objective: to assess the psychometric properties of the Brief Infant and Toddler Social-Emotional Evaluation Scale (BITSEA) in a sample of Chilean children. Methods: 289 parents of infants and toddlers aged 12-36 months completed the BITSEA and the CBCL 1½-5. Results: Acceptable reliability was found for the "socioemotional problems" dimension (ω=0.84), and low reliability for the "socioemotional competence" subscale scores (ω=0.59). The factor structure was adequate and high concurrent validity with other scales was observed. The confirmatory model showed acceptable fit indices (CFI= 0.94; TLI= 0.94; SRMR= 0.07; RMSEA= 0.027). Conclusion: The BITSEA in this sample showed similar results to other studies, its applicability is promising for the early detection of socioemotional problems in early childhood. It is suggested to continue its study in a nationally representative sample.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Social Behavior , Child Behavior Disorders/psychology , Mental Health , Emotions , Parents/psychology , Psychometrics , Chile , Sex Factors , Reproducibility of Results
11.
Ter. psicol ; 41(1): 39-62, abr. 2023. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1515602

ABSTRACT

El cuestionario de Experiencias en Relaciones Cercanas (ECR) es un instrumento de auto-reporte ampliamente utilizado para evaluar el apego en la adultez, a partir de dos dimensiones: la ansiedad y la evitación asociadas al apego. Este instrumento ha sido adaptado en múltiples contextos, incluyendo el chileno, del cual existe una versión abreviada (ECR-12), objeto de análisis del presente estudio. Si bien existe consenso en que la seguridad en el apego es mejor descrita en términos dimensionales, hay ámbitos, como en la práctica clínica donde contar con valores de referencia podría ser de utilidad. El objetivo de este estudio es proveer valores de referencia para la interpretación de los valores del ECR-12 en el contexto chileno. Para ello, una muestra de 6779 participantes respondió el ECR-12. Se utilizó el método de puntuación z con normalización para obtener los valores de referencia. Los análisis realizados evidenciaron la necesidad de construir baremos diferenciados por edad. Así, para el grupo de 29 años o menos, el punto de corte en la dimensión de ansiedad es de un promedio igual o superior a 4.4 puntos, y para la evitación, el punto de corte es de un promedio igual o superior a 2.5. En cambio, para el grupo de 30 años o más, el punto de corte en la dimensión de ansiedad es de un promedio igual o superior a 4.2, y para la evitación, es de un promedio igual o superior a 2.9. Estos hallazgos pueden ser relevantes no sólo para identificar a personas que puedan presentar niveles sustancialmente altos de ansiedad y/o evitación en el apego, sino, también puede constituirse como una herramienta clínica complementaria en contextos terapéuticos.


The Experiences in Close Relationships (ECR) questionnaire is a widely used self-report measure to assess adult attachment, based on two dimensions: attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance. This instrument has been adapted in multiple contexts, including the Chilean, for which there is an abbreviated version (ECR-12), that is the object of analysis in the present study. Although there is consensus that attachment security is best described in dimensional terms, there are areas, such as clinical practice, where having reference values could be useful. The aim of this study is to provide reference values for the interpretation of ECR-12 scores in the Chilean context. To do this, a sample of 6779 participants was evaluated using the ECR-12. The z-score normalization method was used to obtain the reference values. The analyzes carried out showed the need to build scales differentiated by age. Thus, for the group of 29 years or less, the cut-off point in the anxiety dimension is an average equal to or greater than 4.4 points, and for avoidance, the cut-off point is an average equal to or greater than 2.5. On the other hand, for the group aged 30 or older, the cut-off point in the anxiety dimension is an average equal to or greater than 4.2, and for avoidance, it is an average equal to or greater than 2.9. These findings can be relevant not only for identifying people who may present substantially high levels of anxiety and/or avoidance in attachment, but also as a complementary clinical tool in therapeutic contexts.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Anxiety/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires/standards , Object Attachment , Reference Values , Chile , Sex Factors , Analysis of Variance , Self Report , Interpersonal Relations
12.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(2): 401-409, abr. 2023. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1440294

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Hyoid bone measurements have been proposed to vary between different genders and age groups. The aim of the study is to study hyoid morphometrics among Jordanian patients. 3D-CT scans of 637 patients were analyzed. Ten parameters of hyoid bone were measures, including the anteroposterior length, length of greater horns (right and left), height of greater horns (right and left), width of hyoid body, height of hyoid body, the distance between the midpoints of the posterior ends of the greater horns of the hyoid bone, the angle between right and left greater horns, and the distance of the hyoid bone to the vertebral column. Also, vertebral level, fusion rank, morphology of hyoid body lingula, and shape of hyoid bone were documented. All hyoid dimensions were longer in males, but greater horns angle was wider in females. In patients younger than 30 years, the parameters are the smallest with the widest angle. The distance from hyoid to vertebral column is higher in males (30-49) years of age. No fusion between hyoid body and greater horns was observed in patients younger than 10 years, but fusion (unilateral or bilateral) was found in only 73.2 % of patients ≥ 70 years. The hyoid was mostly at vertebra C3 level and "U" shaped. The lingula shape was mostly "Scar" in males (especially ≥ 50 years) and "Nothing" in females (especially < 50 years). The maximum growth of hyoid dimensions is before age of 30 years. Fusion between hyoid body and greater horns was not seen in patients younger than 10 years. Otherwise, the hyoid features failed to predict age or gender in our sample. Furthermore, 3D-CT scan is an excellent tool to assess the anatomy of head and neck region.


Se ha propuesto que las medidas del hueso hioides varían entre los diferentes sexos y grupos de edad. El objetivo del estudio fur estudiar la morfometría del hueso hioides en pacientes jordanos. Se analizaron tomografías computarizadas en 3D de 637 pacientes. Se midieron diez parámetros del hueso hioides, incluyendo la longitud anteroposterior, la longitud de los cuernos mayores (derecho e izquierdo), la altura de los cuernos mayores (derecho e izquierdo), el ancho del cuerpo hioides, la altura del cuerpo hioides, la distancia entre los puntos medios de los extremos posteriores de los cuernos mayores del hueso hioides, el ángulo entre los cuernos mayores derecho e izquierdo, y la distancia del hueso hioides a la columna vertebral. Además, se documentaron el nivel vertebral, el rango de fusión, la morfología de la língula del cuerpo hioides y la forma del hueso hioides. Todas las dimensiones del hioides fueron más largas en los hombres, pero el mayor ángulo de los cuernos fue más ancho en las mujeres. En pacientes menores de 30 años, los parámetros son los más pequeños con el ángulo más amplio. La distancia del hioides a la columna vertebral es mayor en el sexo masculino (30-49) años. No se observó fusión entre el cuerpo hioides y los cuernos mayores en pacientes menores de 10 años, pero se encontró fusión (unilateral o bilateral) en solo el 73,2 % de los pacientes ≥ 70 años. El hioides estaba mayormente al nivel de la vértebra C3 y en forma de "U". La forma de la língula era mayoritariamente "Cicatriz" en los hombres (especialmente ≥ 50 años) y "Nada" en las mujeres (especialmente < 50 años). El máximo crecimiento de las dimensiones del hioides es antes de los 30 años. La fusión entre el cuerpo hioides y los cuernos mayores no se observó en pacientes menores de 10 años. No obstante, las características del hueso hioides no pudieron predecir la edad o el sexo en nuestra muestra. Además, la tomografía computarizada 3D es una herramienta excelente para evaluar la anatomía de la región de la cabeza y el cuello.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Imaging, Three-Dimensional/methods , Hyoid Bone/diagnostic imaging , Sex Factors , Age Factors , Hyoid Bone/anatomy & histology
13.
Rev. bras. ativ. fís. saúde ; 28: 1-8, mar. 2023. tab, fig
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1437626

ABSTRACT

This study investigates the relationship between social support and moderate to vigorous physical activity, as well as the possible relationships between social support and socioeconomic status, gender and body mass index. Cross-sectional study with a non-randomized sample of 71 students (boys and girls) aged 7 to 12 and their parents or legal guardians. Social support and socioeconomic status were assessed using validated questionnaires. Height and body mass measurements were used for the body mass index equation. Moderate to vigorous physical activity was measured by accelerometers. The associations between all variables were tested by a network analysis. Moderate to vigorous physical activity is negatively correlated with socioeconomic status, body mass index and a question from the social support questionnaire: "How many times in the last week have you watched your child be physically active?". We observed a positive correlation between moderate to vigorous physical activity with gender and a question from the social support questionnaire: "How many times in the last week did you provide transport for your child's physical activity?". Thus, moderate to vigorous physical ac-tivity has a negative correlation with socioeconomic status, body mass index and the variable "parents sometimes observe their child to be physically active", and parents who provide transportation for the child to practice physical activity. In future, it is import to consider the network analysis in the intervention studies to promote adolescents' physical activity


Este estudo investiga a relação entre suporte social e atividade física moderada-vigorosa, bem como as possíveis relações entre suporte social e nível socioeconômico, gênero e índice de massa corporal. Estudo transversal com amostra não randomizada de 71 escolares (meninos e meninas) de 7 a 12 anos e seus pais ou responsáveis. Apoio social e nível socioeconômico foram avaliados por meio de questionários validados. Medidas de altura e massa corporal foram usadas para a equação do índice de massa corporal. Atividade física moderada-vigorosa foi medida por acelerômetros. As associações entre todas as variáveis foram testadas por uma análise de rede. A atividade física moderada a vigorosa está negativamente correlacionada com o nível socioeconômico, índice de massa corporal e uma questão do questionário de apoio social: "Quantas vezes na última semana você observou seu filho ser fisicamente ativo?". Observou-se correlação positiva entre atividade física moderada-vigorosa com o gênero e uma questão do questionário de apoio social: "Quantas vezes na última semana você forneceu transporte para a atividade física de seu filho?". Assim, a atividade física moderada-vigorosa tem correlação negativa com o nível socioeconômico, índice de massa corporal e a variável "os pais às vezes observam que seu filho é fisicamente ativo, e pais que fornecem transporte para a criança praticar atividade física. No futuro, é importante considerar a análise de rede nos estudos de intervenção para promover a atividade física em adolescentes


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Social Support , Students/statistics & numerical data , Exercise , Health Promotion , Socioeconomic Factors , Body Mass Index , Sex Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires
14.
São Paulo; s.n; 20230301. 67 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1416917

ABSTRACT

A estimativa de aparência da face de uma pessoa, partindo de um crânio seco, é chamada de Reconstrução Facial Forense (RFF). Pode ser realizada de maneira digital ou manual, a partir da marcação de pontos cranianos, que possuem diferentes médias de espessura de tecido mole sobreposto. Nas reconstruções digitais o uso de tomografias computadorizadas de feixe cônico (TCFC), que nos permite obter o volume de pacientes sentados, possibilitou um avanço significativo na mensuração das médias de volume dos tecidos moles faciais. Foi desenvolvido um protocolo para medições de tecidos moles a partir de 32 pontos craniométricos (10 sagitais e 11 bilaterais). Este trabalho propõe a inserção de cinco novos pontos cranianos ao protocolo, com medidas a partir dos pontos Mentual (Ml), Supra Canino (sC), Fronto-zigomático (Fz), Ptério (Pt) e Posterior do Ramo Mandibular (prM), com o intuito de aumentar a acurácia das reconstruções. As TCFC foram manipuladas no software Horus® (LGPL 3.0) e mensuradas conforme protocolo adaptado de Beaini et al. (1), obtidas as espessuras de tecido mole a partir dos pontos craniométricos propostos. Foram estudadas 100 TCFC de brasileiros adultos (maiores de 18 anos) que disponibilizaram seus exames para utilização em pesquisas de maneira anônima e que compõe um banco de dados já estruturado e utilizado em pesquisas anteriores. Esse banco de dados contém exames de 50 indivíduos do sexo feminino e 50 do sexo masculino, separados em grupos por sexo e idade. Estatisticamente, foram aplicados testes de normalidade e a diferença entre cada grupo foi testada para obtenção das espessuras médias referentes a cada ponto craniano. Para o ponto Fz, as médias de espessura de tecidos moles foram de 4.56mm para mulheres e 5.14mm para homens. Para o ponto Ml, as médias de ETMF foram de 12.88mm para mulheres e 14.74mm para homens. No ponto prM, as médias de ETMF foram de 18.30mm para homens e 19.69mm para mulheres. No ponto Pt, as médias de ETMF foram de 11.01mm para mulheres e 13.09mm para homens. No ponto sC, as médias de ETMF foram de 10.99mm para mulheres e 12.71mm para homens. A divisão de ETMFs por sexo é justificada, concordando com parcela significativa da literatura, uma vez que quatro 10 dos cinco pontos estudados apresentaram diferenças estatísticas significativas, com as espessuras de indivíduos do sexo masculino sendo maiores que de indivíduos do sexo feminino.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Skull/anatomy & histology , Forensic Anthropology , Face/anatomy & histology , Dimensional Measurement Accuracy , Forensic Dentistry , Sex Factors , Age Factors , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography , Facial Recognition
15.
Rev. bras. ativ. fís. saúde ; 28: 1-8, mar. 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1437624

ABSTRACT

O objetivo do presente estudo foi investigar a associação entre níveis de atividade física e sintomas de ansiedade e depressão. Foi elaborado um questionário online no Google Forms® com questões objetivas e abertas para avaliar as questões relacionadas à prática de atividade física e saúde mental durante o período da pandemia da COVID-19. O formulário incluiu perguntas relacionadas a aspectos sociodemográficos, nível de atividade física (IPAQ ­versão curta) e análise da saúde mental dos participantes com as escalas de Ansiedade e Depressão de Beck. A associação entre atividade física e saúde mental foi estimada por meio de modelos de regressão. Cento e noventa e três pessoas responderam ao questionário (59% do sexo feminino). As mulheres apresentaram maiores níveis de ansiedade e depressão quando comparadas aos homens (p < 0,001 para todos os domínios). O risco de ter sintomas graves de ansiedade e depressivos aumentou respectivamente (OR = 4,20; IC95%: 1,25 - 14,11), e (OR = 3,16; IC95%: 1,12 - 8,91) nos participantes classificados com nível baixo de atividade física quando comparados aos quem mantêm o nível mais alto. Os homens têm menos chances de terem sintomas de ansiedade (OR= 0,23; IC95%: 0,10 - 0,55 p < 0,001) e depressão (OR = 0,33 IC95%: 0,12 - 0,88). Em suma, pode-se concluir que, durante a pandemia de COVID-19, os participantes que obtiveram alto nível de atividade física têm menos chances de apresentar sintomas graves de ansiedade e moderado de depressão


he aim of the present study was to investigate the cross-sectional association between levels of physical activity and symptoms of anxiety and depression. An online questionnaire was prepared on Google Forms® with objective and open questions to evaluate the issues related to physical activity and mental health during the period of the COVID-19 pandemic. The form included questions related to sociodemographic aspects, physical activity level (IPAQ ­ short version) and analysis of the participants' mental health using the Beck Anxiety and Depression scales. The association between physical activity and mental health was estimated using regression models. One hundred and ninety-three people responded to the questionnaire (59% female). Women had higher levels of anxiety and depression when compared to men (p < 0.001 for all domains). The risk of having severe anxiety and depressive symptoms increased respectively (OR = 4.20; 95%CI: 1.25 - 14.11), and (OR = 3.16; 95%CI: 1.12 - 8.91) in participants classified as having a low level of physical ac-tivity when compared to those who maintain the highest level. Men are less likely to have anxiety symptoms (OR = 0.23; 95%CI: 0.10 - 0.55) and depression (OR = 0.33; 95%CI: 0.12 - 0.88). In summary, it can be concluded that participants who achieved a high level of physical activity are less likely to have symptoms of severe anxiety and moderate symptoms of depression


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Anxiety/psychology , Exercise/physiology , Depression/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Sex Factors , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies
16.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5326-5336, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008730

ABSTRACT

For the first time, this study evaluated the gender differences and mechanisms of the antidepressant effects of raw Rehmanniae Radix(RRR) based on the classic depression model with traditional Chinese medicine syndrome of Yin deficiency and internal heat. The depression model with Yin deficiency and internal heat was established by the widely recognized and applied method of thyroxine induction of the classic depression model with Yin deficiency and internal heat(chronic unpredictable mild stress). Male and female mice were simultaneously treated with RRR. The study analyzed indicators of nourishing Yin and clearing heat, conventional antidepressant efficacy test indicators, and important biomolecules reflecting the pathogenesis and prevention and treatment mechanisms of depression, and conducted a correlation analysis of antidepressant efficacy, Yin-nourishing and heat-clearing efficacy, and biological mechanism in different genders, thereby comprehensively assessing the antidepressant effects of RRR on depression of Yin deficiency and internal heat, as well as its gender differences and mechanisms. RRR exhibited antidepressant effects in both male and female mouse models, and its antidepressant efficacy showed gender differences, with a superior effect observed in females. Moreover, the effects of RRR on enhancing or improving hippocampal neuronal pathology, nucleus-positive areas, postsynaptic dense area protein 95, and synaptophysin protein expression were more significant in females than in males. In addition, RRR significantly reversed the abnormal upregulation of nuclear factor(NF)-κB/cyclooxygenase 2(COX2)/NOD-like receptor thermal protein domain associated protein 3(NLRP3) pathway proteins in the hippocampus of both male and female mouse models. The antidepressant effects of RRR were more pronounced in depression female mice with Yin deficiency and internal heat syndrome, possibly due to the improvement of neuronal damage and enhancement of neuroplasticity. The antidepressant mechanisms of RRR for depression with Yin deficiency and internal heat syndrome may be associated with the downregulation of the NF-κB/COX2/NLRP3 pathway to reduce neuronal damage and enhance neuroplasticity.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Mice , Animals , Yin Deficiency , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein , Sex Factors , Cyclooxygenase 2 , NF-kappa B , Antidepressive Agents/pharmacology
17.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 22: e239237, Jan.-Dec. 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1399762

ABSTRACT

Aim: To estimate the prevalence and associated factors of self-reported depressive symptoms in undergraduate and graduate dental students. Methods: The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) was applied, and only the depression domain was verified. A structured questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic, behavioral, and COVID-19 pandemic-related fear variables. Academic performance was assessed based on academic records, ranging from 0 (worst possible grade) to 10 (best possible grade). Respondents included 408 regularly enrolled dental students. Bi- and multivariate analyses were performed using Poisson regression with robust variance to verify the association between at least moderate depressive symptoms and independent variables. Results: The prevalence of at least moderate depression was 40.5% among undergraduate students and 26% among graduate students. The prevalence of fear and anxiety due to the COVID-19 pandemic was 96.1% among undergraduate students and 93.5% among graduate students. In the final multivariate analysis, being female (prevalence ratio [PR]:2.01; 95% confidence interval [95%CI]:1.36­2.96) was associated with a higher PR for depression. Conversely, no exposure to smoking (PR:0.54; 95%CI:0.36­0.82) and a final academic performance average ≥7.0 (PR:0.56; 95%CI:0.41­0.76) was associated with a lower PR for depression. Finally, among graduate students, a non-heterosexual orientation was associated with a higher PR for depression (PR:6.70; 95%CI:2.21­20.29). Conclusion: Higher rates of depression symptoms were observed in female undergraduates, students with lower academic performance and smoking exposure, and graduate dental students with a non-heterosexual orientation


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Students, Dental/psychology , Tobacco Use Disorder , Depression/epidemiology , Academic Performance/psychology , Sexual Behavior , Sex Factors , Prevalence , Risk Factors
18.
Psicol. reflex. crit ; 36: 16, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1507181

ABSTRACT

Abstract To promote prosocial behaviour, in the present study, we observed the human values that may predict it within the realms of the transcendental views of life, society's shared culture and the world of personal and interpersonal affections. To do this, we started with two hypotheses: (1) prosocial behaviour differs according to gender and participation in volunteering; and (2) the variables of transcendental values, cultural development, affective development, gender and participation in volunteering predict prosocial behaviour. To do so, we conducted a quantitative study based on the cross-sectional, social analytical-empirical research method. We used a validated instrument with a large sample of 1,712 individuals living in the multicultural context of the Spanish city of Melilla, located in North Africa and one of only two land borders between Europe and Morocco. Values that could promote prosocial behaviour were grouped into four dimensions to locate relevant factors that helped identify which values are linked to specific actions, both formal and informal, through an inferential analysis focusing on regression and multivariate analysis of variance. Our findings highlighted the linkage of the transcendent dimension of the individual in relation to his or her level of prosocial behaviour and the role of women as socialising agents.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Social Behavior , Social Values , Volunteers , Sex Factors , Altruism , Religion , Spain , Cultural Factors
19.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1443404

ABSTRACT

Objetivos: apresentar resultados do eixo 2 do projeto Diagnóstico da Violência Fatal e Não Fatal no Estado de Alagoas (DVEAL). Neste artigo é comparado o padrão epidemiológico do estupro de crianças e adolescentes em relação aos adultos. Métodos: delineou-se uma investigação observacional e retrospectiva incluindo 380 registros de violência sexual no Instituto Médico Legal, entre 2016 e 2018. Por meio de regressão logística binária e múltipla calculou-se a chance de violência por faixa etária, associando os possíveis fatores relacionados. Resultados: metade das vítimas estupradas possuíam até 13 anos de idade, com média de 14 anos, e 9 em cada 10 casos eram de mulheres/meninas vitimadas. O padrão do estupro identificado foi de vítimas: em situação conjugal solteira; estudantes, abusadas por conhecidos; que realizaram exame pericial entre 1-7 dias; abusadas durante a madrugada; e em região genital. Cerca de 8 em cada 10 casos foram estupros confirmados pela perícia, o restante foi via relato oral. O modelo final identificou dois fatores mais associados à violência sexual em crianças/adolescentes. Conclusão: o padrão de vitimização sexual no estado impacta significativamente crianças e adolescentes e, principalmente, o gênero feminino


Aims: to present the results of axis 2 of the Diagnosis of Fatal and Non-Fatal Violence in the State of Alagoas (DVEAL) project. This article compares the epidemiological pattern of rape involving children/adolescents in relation to adults. Methods: an observational and retrospective investigation was designed, including 380 records of sexual violence at the Instituto Médico Legal, between 2016 and 2018. Through binary and multiple logistic regression, the chance of violence by age group was calculated, associating the possible related factors. Results: half of the raped victims were up to 13 years old, with an average of 14 years old, and 9 out of 10 cases were victimized women/girls. The pattern of rape identified was of victims: single marital status; students, abused by acquaintances; who underwent an expert examination between 1-7 days; abused during the dawn; and in the genital region. About 8 out of 10 cases were rapes confirmed by forensics, the rest were via oral report. The final model identified two factors most associated with sexual violence in children/adolescents. Conclusions: the pattern of sexual victimization in the state significantly impacts children and adolescents, especially the female gender


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Rape/statistics & numerical data , Child Abuse, Sexual/statistics & numerical data , Violence Against Women , Brazil , Logistic Models , Sex Factors , Retrospective Studies , Age Factors , Sociodemographic Factors
20.
ABCD (São Paulo, Online) ; 36: e1748, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1447014

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Obesity has reached epidemic proportions among adolescents. Methods, such as bariatric surgery, have become the most effective treatment for patients with classes III and IV obesity. AIM: To evaluate weight loss, comorbidity remission, and long-term results of bariatric surgery in adolescents. METHODS: Study with adolescent patients undergoing bariatric surgery, evaluating laboratory tests, comorbidities, and the percentage of excess weight loss in the preoperative period and at one, two, and five years postoperatively. RESULTS: A total of 65 patients who met the inclusion criteria, with a mean age of 18.6 years, were included in the analysis. In the preoperative period, 30.8% of hypercholesterolemia, 23.1% of systemic arterial hypertension, and 18.4% of type 2 diabetes were recorded, with remission of these percentages occurring in 60, 66.7 and 83.4%, respectively. The mean percentage of excess weight loss was 63.48% after one year of surgery, 64.75% after two years, and 57.28% after five years. The mean preoperative total cholesterol level was 180.26 mg/dL, and after one, two, and five years, it was 156.89 mg/dL, 161.39 mg/dL, and 150.97 mg/dL, respectively. The initial mean of low-density lipoprotein was 102.19mg/dL and after five years the mean value reduced to 81.81 mg/dL. The mean preoperative glycemia was 85.08 mg/dL and reduced to 79.13 mg/dL after one year, and to 76.19 mg/dL after five years. CONCLUSIONS: Bariatric surgery is safe and effective in adolescents, with low morbidity, resulting in a loss of excess weight and long-term stability, improving laboratory tests, and leading to remission of comorbidities, such as diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, and systemic arterial hypertension.


RESUMO RACIONAL: A obesidade tomou proporções epidêmicas entre adolescentes, e procedimentos como a cirurgia bariátrica tornou-se o tratamento mais efetivo em pacientes com obesidade grau III e IV. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a perda peso, a remissão de comorbidades, e resultados a longo prazo da cirurgia bariátrica em adolescentes. MÉTODOS: Estudo com pacientes adolescentes submetidos à cirurgia bariátrica, avaliando exames laboratoriais, comorbidades e o percentual de perda de excesso de peso, nos períodos pré-operatório e com 1, 2 e 5 anos de pós-operatório. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos no estudo 65 pacientes que preencheram os critérios de inclusão, com a média de idade de 18,6 anos. No pré-operatório foram registrados: 30,8% hipercolesterolemia, 23,1% hipertensão arterial sistêmica e 18,4% diabetes tipo 2, ocorrendo remissão destes porcentuais em 60, 66,7 e 83,4%, respectivamente. O percentual médio de perda de excesso de peso após 1 ano foi de 63,48%, após 2 anos foi de 64,75% e após 5 anos foi 57,28%. O valor médio do colesterol total no pré-operatório era de 180,26mg/dL, e após 1 ano, 2 anos e 5 anos foram de 156,89mg/dL,161,39mg/dL e de 150,97mg/dL, respectivamente. A média inicial de lipoproteína de baixa densidade era 102,19mg/dL e após 5 anos o valor médio reduziu para 81,81 mg/dL. O valor médio da glicose pré-operatório era 85,08 mg/dL, após um ano uma média 79,13mg/dL, e com 5 anos 76,19 mg/dL. CONCLUSÕES: A cirurgia bariátrica é segura e eficaz em adolescentes, com baixa morbidade, resultando em uma perda do excesso de peso e estabilidade a longo prazo, melhorando exames laboratoriais e levando a remissão de comorbidades como diabetes mellitus, hipercolesterolemia e hipertensão arterial sistêmica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Obesity, Morbid/surgery , Laparoscopy/methods , Bariatric Surgery/methods , Pediatric Obesity/surgery , Obesity, Morbid/diagnosis , Weight Loss , Comorbidity , Sex Factors , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Pediatric Obesity/diagnosis
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