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1.
Infectio ; 25(4): 276-283, oct.-dic. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1286722

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: Describir la supervivencia a siete años y los principales factores asociados a esta, en las personas con VIH que fueron atendidas en el sistema de salud colombiano entre 2011 a 2018. Métodos: Análisis de supervivencia de una cohorte de 64 039 personas diagnosticadas con VIH en Colombia. Se aplicó el método de Kaplan-Meier para estimar la probabilidad de supervivencia a partir de la fecha del diagnóstico. Se ajustó un modelo de supervivencia paramétrico flexible de Royston Parmar. Resultados: La estimación de la supervivencia global a 7 años fue de 94,8% (IC 95%: 94,5-95,2). El mayor riesgo de muerte se presentó en los hombres (HR: 1,2; IC 95%: 1,1-1,4; p: 0,010); en personas ≥50 años de edad (HR: 3,1; IC 95%: 1,6-6,3; p: 0,002); en el régimen subsidiado (HR: 2,2; IC 95%: 1,9-2,5; p: <0,001); en la etapa sida (HR: 2,8; IC 95%: 2,1-3,7; p: <0,001); en quienes presentaron la última carga viral detectable (HR: 7,1; IC 95%: 6,0-8,3; p: <0,001); y en quienes mostraron conteo de linfocitos T CD4+ <350 células/μL (HR: 1,9; IC 95%: 1,4-2,4; p: <0,001). Conclusión: La probabilidad de la supervivencia de las personas que viven con VIH aumenta al ser diagnosticados en edades jóvenes, en quienes presenten un recuento de linfocitos T CD4+ ≥350 células/μL, una carga viral indetectable (< 50 copias/mL) y no se encuentren en etapa sida.


Summary Objective: to describe the seven-year survival and predictors of mortality among people with HIV who were treated in the Colombian health system between 2011 and 2018. Methods: 64 039 people diagnosed with HIV in Colombia were included. Kaplan-Meier analysis estimated the probability of survival from the date of diagnosis. A Royston Parmar flexible parametric survival model was fitted. Results: The overall survival at 7 years was 94.8% (95% CI: 94.5-95.2). Survival was related to sex (men, HR: 1.2; 95% CI: 1.1-1.4; p: 0.010); people ≥50 years of age (HR: 3.1; 95% CI: 1.6-6.3; p: 0.002); subsidized regime (HR: 2.2; 95% CI: 1.9-2.5; p: <0.001); AIDS stage (HR: 2.8; 95% CI: 2.1-3.7; p: <0.001); a detectable viral load (HR: 7.1; 95% CI: 6.0-8.3; p: <0.001); and a CD4+ Lymphocyte count <350 cells/μL (HR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.4-2.4; p: <0.001). Conclusion: The probability of survival of people living with HIV increases when they are diagnosed at a young age, in those with a CD4+ T Lymphocyte count ≥350 cells/μL, an undetectable viral load (<50 copies/mL) and are not in the AIDS stage.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Survival Analysis , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Sex , T-Lymphocytes , Probability , HIV , Colombia , Lymphocyte Count , Viral Load , Survivorship
2.
Aquichan ; 21(1): e2116, Abr. 8, 2021.
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1283776

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: determinar los efectos de la rehabilitación pulmonar en hombres y mujeres con diagnóstico de EPOC en una clínica de Colombia. Método: estudio descriptivo longitudinal en 75 pacientes con EPOC que ingresaron a un programa de rehabilitación pulmonar durante el año 2018 y 2019. La población se dividió en grupos según el sexo y se evaluaron algunas características sociodemográficas, la espirometría en porcentaje del predicho, el índice de masa corporal, la disnea mMRC, la capacidad de ejercicio y algunas variables fisiológicas con el test de la caminata de los seis minutos, la ansiedad-depresión (HADS) y la calidad de vida (SGRQ). Se tuvo un valor p<0,05 como estadísticamente significativo. Resultados: el índice paquetes fumados por año fue mayor en hombres 34±29.11 (p<0,001), mientras que la exposición al humo de leña fue cinco veces mayor en las mujeres (p=0,037). Todas las variables de capacidad de ejercicio mejoraron significativamente (p<0,021), sobresaliendo la distancia recorrida 63,26±60,03 versus. 51,53±61,02 a favor de las mujeres. La disnea mMRC fue inicialmente mayor en las mujeres comparado con hombres 0,709±0,287 y evidenció un mayor cambio en las mujeres 1,294±0,415 versus hombres 0,736±0,880 al final de la rehabilitación pulmonar. Conclusión: la rehabilitación pulmonar en mujeres muestra un incremento en la distancia recorrida de 63,26 metros, disminución de 1,294 puntos en la disnea, para hombres 51,53 metros y 0,736 puntos respectivamente, y una mejoría en la calidad de vida en hombres de 11,47 puntos SGRQ con respecto con mujeres de 0,600.


Objetivo: determinar os efeitos da reabilitação pulmonar em homens e mulheres com diagnóstico de DPOC em uma clínica na Colômbia. Método: estudo descritivo longitudinal em 75 pacientes com DPOC que ingressaram em programa de reabilitação pulmonar durante os anos de 2018 e 2019. A população foi dividida em grupos de acordo com o sexo e foram avaliadas algumas características sociodemográficas, espirometria em porcentagem do previsto, índice de massa corporal, mMRC dispneia, capacidade de exercício e algumas variáveis ​​fisiológicas com o teste de caminhada de seis minutos, ansiedade-depressão (HADS) e qualidade de vida (SGRQ). Considerou-se o valor de p <0,05 como estatisticamente significativo. Resultados: a taxa de fumaça de maços por ano foi maior nos homens 34 ± 29,11 (p <0,001), enquanto a exposição à fumaça de lenha foi cinco vezes maior nas mulheres (p = 0,037). Todas as variáveis ​​da capacidade de exercício melhoraram significativamente (p <0,021), destacando-se a distância percorrida 63,26 ± 60,03 versus 51,53 ± 61,02 a favor das mulheres. O mMRC dispneia foi inicialmente maior nas mulheres em relação aos homens 0,709 ± 0,287 e evidenciou maior alteração nas mulheres 1,294 ± 0,415 versus homens 0,736 ± 0,880 ao final da reabilitação pulmonar. Conclusão: a reabilitação pulmonar em mulheres mostra um aumento na distância percorrida de 63,26 metros e uma diminuição de 1.294 pontos na dispneia, enquanto para os homens os valores obtidos foram 51,53 metros e 0,736 pontos, respectivamente, e uma melhoria na qualidade de vida nos homens de 11,47 pontos do SGRQ em relação às mulheres, onde foi de 0,600 pontos.


Objective: To determine the effects of pulmonary rehabilitation in men and women with a COPD diagnosis in a Colombian clinic. Method: A longitudinal and descriptive study was conducted with 75 COPD patients who entered a pulmonary rehabilitation program during 2018 and 2019. The population was divided into groups according to gender and some sociodemographic characteristics were assessed, such as spirometry expressed in percentage of the predicted value, body mass index, mMRC dyspnea, and capacity for physical exercise, as well as some physiological variables with the six-minute walk test, anxiety-depression (HADS) and quality of life (SGRQ). A p-value<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The cigarette packs smoked per year index was higher in men, 34±29.11 (p<0.001), whereas the exposure to firewood smoke was five times higher in women (p=0.037). All the variables related to the capacity for physical exercise improved significantly (p<0.021), with distance covered standing out: 63.26±60.03 vs. 51.53±61.02 in favor of women. mMRC dyspnea was initially higher in women when compared to men, 0.709±0.287, and presented a greater change in women with 1.294±0.415 when compared to men, 0.736±0.880, at the end of pulmonary rehabilitation. Conclusion: Pulmonary rehabilitation in women shows an increase of 63.26 meters in the distance covered and a 1.294-point reduction in dyspnea; while, for men, these figures were 51.53 meters and 0.736 points, respectively, as well as an improvement in quality of life in men by 11.47 SGRQ points when compared to women: 0.600.


Subject(s)
Quality of Life , Rehabilitation , Sex , Exercise , Dyspnea , Lung Diseases
3.
Article in English | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1346626

ABSTRACT

Abstract Exposure to maternal depressive symptoms and negative parenting practices during childhood configures a vulnerability factor associated with behavior problems among children. This study aims to verify the predictive effects of maternal depression (main factor) on behavioral outcomes and maternal parenting practices, considering the sex of the children (covariate factor); and the predictive effect of maternal depression, parenting practices, and child's sex on behavioral outcomes. The sample was composed of a community sample of 101 mother-child pairs. Mothers answered to: Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders, Parenting Styles Inventory, and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. The covariance and multiple linear regressions analysis showed that being a boy, and specific practices of neglect, physical abuse, and permissive discipline were the main predictors of behavioral problems among children exposed to negative practices and maternal depression. These findings underline the role of the child's sex in the interactions between variables, which could contribute to interventions in mental health.


Resumo Na infância, a exposição a sintomas depressivos maternos e práticas parentais negativas configura-se como vulnerabilidade, associando-se a problemas comportamentais. Este estudo teve por objetivos: verificar o efeito da depressão materna (fator principal) para os indicadores comportamentais e práticas parentais, considerando-se o efeito do sexo dos filhos (fator covariável); e verificar os efeitos preditivos da depressão materna, práticas parentais maternas e sexo das crianças para os indicadores comportamentais. Incluída amostra da comunidade de 101 díades de mães-crianças. As mães responderam: Entrevista Clínica Estruturada para o DSM-IV, Inventário de Estilos Parentais e Questionário de Capacidades e Dificuldades da Criança. Análises de covariância e regressão linear multivariada evidenciaram o sexo masculino e práticas de negligência, abuso físico e disciplina relaxada como principais preditores de problemas comportamentais de crianças expostas a práticas negativas e depressão materna. Tais resultados evidenciam o papel do sexo nas interações entre as variáveis, podendo nortear intervenções em saúde-mental.


Resumen La exposición a depresión materna y prácticas parentales negativas en la infancia se configuran como factor de vulnerabilidad relacionado con problemas comportamentales. Este estudio tuvo por objetivo verificar el efecto de la depresión materna (factor principal) en los indicadores comportamentales y prácticas parentales, considerando el efecto del sexo de los hijos (factor covariable); así como identificar los efectos predictivos de la depresión, las prácticas parentales maternas y el sexo de los niños en los indicadores comportamentales. Se compuso la muestra comunitaria con 101 díadas madres-hijos. Las madres respondieron a la Entrevista Clínica Estructurada para el DSM-IV, al Inventario de Estilos Parentales y al Cuestionario de Capacidades y Dificultades. Los análisis de covariancia y de regresión lineal multivariada evidenciaron el sexo masculino y las prácticas de negligencia, abuso físico y disciplina relajada como los principales predictores de problemas comportamentales de niños expuestos a prácticas negativas y a depresión materna. Tales resultados evidencian el papel del sexo en las interacciones entre las variables, favoreciendo las intervenciones en salud mental.


Subject(s)
Humans , Sex , Child Behavior , Mental Health , Disaster Vulnerability , Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , Problem Behavior , Physical Abuse , Forecasting , Mothers
4.
Espaç. saúde (Online) ; 22(1): [774], 2021. ilust, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284276

ABSTRACT

Este estudo pretende identificar os níveis de estresse e ansiedade em residentes que fazem parte do programa de residência multiprofissional em saúde da criança e do adolescente do primeiro e segundo anos de uma faculdade particular da cidade de Curitiba - Paraná (PR). Estudo transversal de abordagem quantitativa, realizado com os residentes da área de saúde da criança e do adolescente. Foram utilizados três instrumentos autoaplicáveis: questionário sociodemográfico, Escala Hospitalar de Ansiedade e Depressão e Escala de Estresse Percebido. Participaram da pesquisa 54 profissionais matriculados no programa de residência, 98,1% do sexo feminino, idade entre 21 e 35 anos, 87% solteiros e 98,1% sem filhos; 55% apresentaram nível importante de estresse, 68,5% apresentaram resultado positivo para ansiedade e 33,3% obtiveram escore positivo para depressão. Sugere-se que as diretrizes e normas que envolvem os programas de residência sejam discutidas e revisadas a fim de melhorar as condições de trabalho dos residentes.


Subject(s)
Anxiety , Pediatrics , Child Health , Depression , Research , Sex , Single Person , Societies , Catchment Area, Health , Surveys and Questionnaires
5.
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 35(3): 311-318, jul.-set. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138788

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: el esófago de Barrett es un trastorno en el que ocurre un cambio del epitelio escamoso estratificado del esófago por uno columnar especializado, lo cual se da como consecuencia del reflujo gastroesofágico crónico. En Colombia no se conoce la prevalencia actual de esta patología, ni se ha caracterizado a la población que la padece. El presente estudio tiene como objetivo conocer cuáles son las características demográficas principales de la población diagnosticada con esófago de Barrett en dos instituciones médicas de Bogotá. Material y métodos: se realizó un estudio de corte transversal multicéntrico, en el cual se evaluaron los reportes de endoscopias y de histopatología de 3000 pacientes que asistieron a estas instituciones por cualquier indicación. A partir de estos reportes se tomaron los datos requeridos. Asimismo, se realizó un análisis estadístico descriptivo de dichos datos. Resultados: la prevalencia del esófago de Barrett en la muestra es del 0,73 %. Se observó, además, que la correlación endoscópico-patológica es baja (28,5 %). De los casos diagnosticados, el rango de edad más frecuente se ubica entre los 60 y 80 años, con una edad promedio de 65,5 años. Asimismo, existe una predominancia de esta patología en el sexo femenino (63,6 %), en personas con un índice de masa corporal (IMC) >25 kg/m² y en aquellas con antecedentes de tabaquismo, sin historial de consumo de alcohol. En la mayoría de pacientes, se realizó la endoscopia por síntomas de reflujo gastroesofágico (50 %). La longitud del segmento observado no fue reportada en una gran cantidad de endoscopias. Conclusiones: en las instituciones analizadas, el esófago de Barrett es una patología de muy baja prevalencia y predominante en mujeres de edad avanzada con síntomas de reflujo gastroesofágico, sobrepeso y antecedente de tabaquismo.


Abstract Introduction: Barrett's esophagus occurs when the stratified squamous epithelium of the esophagus changes to a specialized columnar epithelium as a result of chronic gastroesophageal reflux. Its current prevalence in Colombia is unknown and the population suffering from it has not been characterized. The present study aims to determine the main demographic characteristics of the population diagnosed with Barrett's esophagus treated at two medical centers in Bogotá, Colombia. Materials and methods: A multicenter cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the endoscopy and histopathology reports of 3,000 patients who underwent this procedure for any reason. A descriptive statistical analysis of the data was performed. Results: The prevalence of Barrett's esophagus in the sample was 0.73%. The endoscopic-histology correlation was low (28.5%). Of the diagnosed cases, the most frequent age range was 60-80 years, with an average age of 65.5 years. This condition is predominant in the female sex (63.6%), in people with a BMI over 25 kg/m², with a history of smoking, and no history of alcohol consumption. Most patients underwent endoscopy for symptoms associated with gastroesophageal reflux (50%). The length of the observed segment was not reported in most endoscopies. Conclusions: In the medical centers included in this study, Barrett's esophagus is a rare pathology, found predominantly in elderly women with symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux, overweight, and with a history of smoking.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Population , Barrett Esophagus , Cross-Sectional Studies , Statistical Analysis , Sex , History
6.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 40: e213871, jan.-maio 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1135836

ABSTRACT

Resumo Este estudo quantitativo visou elucidar o que homens e mulheres heterossexuais entendem por sexo sem compromisso/sexo casual. Consideraram-se motivações, atitudes e comportamentos associados a essa prática como categorias de análises representativas do fenômeno. Utilizou-se questionário de autopreenchimento, distribuído e aplicado via internet. Participaram 74 mulheres e 61 homens, entre 30 e 50 anos, escolaridade média ou superior e classe social média. Os resultados sugerem que, no sexo casual, homens e mulheres possuem em comum o desejo por encontro e prazer, confirmando que a sexualidade se imprimiu de novas modulações de subjetivação do corpo e de relacionamentos interpessoais, particularmente para a mulher. Entretanto, essas identidades e inserções sociais e afetivas subjetivam-se na forma de um duplo padrão sexual que denota de modo ainda tradicional os papéis atribuídos a cada gênero. Diferem algumas expectativas de vinculação posterior e as mulheres consideram-se prejulgadas pela sociedade quando praticam sexo casual. Os homens tendem a buscar mais esse tipo de relacionamento, ao passo que as mulheres mostram maior liberdade na expressão de intimidade. (AU)


Abstract A quantitative research was conducted to verify what heterosexual men and women understand as sex without commitment/casual sex. Motivations, attitudes and behaviors associated with this practice were considered categories of analysis representative of the phenomenon. The instrument employed was a self-completion internet questionnaire. Participants were middle class women (74) and men (61) aged between 30 and 50 years old who completed at least high school. The results suggest that in casual sex, men and women share a desire for encounter and pleasure, confirming that sexuality has been influenced by new modulations of body subjectivation and interpersonal relationships, particularly for women. However, these social and affective identities and insertions are subjectivized through a double sexual pattern that still displays traditionally the roles assigned to each gender. Some expectations of future attachment differ, and women consider themselves subjected to society prejudices when they engage in casual sex. Men tend to pursue this kind of relationship more than women, while women show greater freedom expressing intimacy. (AU)


Resumen Esta investigación cuantitativa tuvo por objetivo elucidar lo que hombres y mujeres heterosexuales entienden como sexo sin compromiso/sexo casual. Se consideran las motivaciones, actitudes y comportamientos asociadas a esta práctica como categorías de análisis representativos del fenómeno. Se utilizó una encuesta de autorrelleno, distribuida y aplicada por internet. Contestaron a la encuesta 74 mujeres y 61 hombres, entre 30 y 50 años de edad, nivel de estudios secundaria o superior y clase social mediana. Los resultados sugieren que, en el sexo casual, hombres y mujeres poseen en común el deseo de encuentro y placer, confirmando que la sexualidad se imprimió de nuevas modulaciones de la subjetivación del cuerpo y de relacionamientos interpersonales, particularmente para la mujer. Todavía, esas identidades e inserciones sociales y afectivas se subjetivan en forma de un doble estándar sexual que denota de modo todavía tradicional los papeles atribuidos a cada género. Algunas expectativas sobre la vinculación posterior difieren, y las mujeres se consideran prejuzgadas por la sociedad cuando practican el sexo casual. Los hombres tienden a buscar más ese tipo de relacionamiento, mientras las mujeres muestran mayor libertad en la expresión de intimidad. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Sex , Sexuality , Heterosexuality , Pleasure , Gender Identity
7.
Rev. cient. odontol ; 8(1): e004, ene.-abr. 2020. tab.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIPECS | ID: biblio-1095493

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Determinar la asociación entre el índice canino mandibular y el sexo, mediante la evaluación de volúmenes de pacientes que acudieron al CDI en el periodo 2014-2017. Metodología: Se evaluaron 500 volúmenes por tomografía computarizada de haz cónico (TCHC) de 184 hombres y 316 mujeres, con edades entre 12 y 50 años, por medio del software RealScan 2.0. Para hallar los datos, se usó la herramienta de medida y se procedió a determinar el diámetro mesiodistal del canino inferior derecho e izquierdo, así como la distancia intercanina inferior en cada volumen. Luego, se determinó el dimorfismo sexual de caninos, y se halló que el izquierdo presentaba el mayor valor (5,667%). Con este dato, se obtuvo el índice canino mandibular (ICM) por cada volumen. Seguidamente, se determinó el índice canino mandibular estándar (ICMs) ­ punto de corte­ y se obtuvo un valor de 0,264 y, a partir de él, se realizó la comparación entre el valor real del sexo de cada volumen con el obtenido a partir del punto de corte. Resultados: La eficacia del índice canino mandibular en hombres fue del 55.43% y en mujeres, del 54,75% (kappa = 0,095). Conclusión: El índice canino mandibular no debe ser considerado como un método determinante para la estimación del sexo. (AU)


Objective: To determine the association between the mandibular canine index (MCI) and sex by evaluating cone-beam computed tomographies (TCHC) of patients attending a radiographic center during 2014 to 2017. Methodology: 500 TCHCs of 184 men and 316 women ages 12-50 years were assessed using RealScan 2.0 software. The distal mesio diameter of the right and left lower canines was determined, as well as the lower intercanine distance in each TCHC. Then, the presence of sexual dimorphism was determined according to the canine teeth, with the left canine presenting the highest value (5.67%), and with these data, the MCI was obtained for each TCHC. Subsequently, the standard MCI cut-off point was determined, obtaining a value of 0.264 and the real value of the sex of each TCHC was compared with the cut-off point. Results: The efficacy of the MCI was 55.43% in men and 54.75% in women (kappa = 0.095). Conclusion: The MCI is not a good determinant for estimating sex. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Sex , Sex Determination Analysis , Sex Characteristics , Cuspid , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Observational Studies as Topic
8.
REME rev. min. enferm ; 24: e1303, fev.2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1125487

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: investigar os fatores associados à saúde sexual de pacientes submetidos à cirurgia bariátrica. Métodos: trata-se de uma coorte realizada com 387 pacientes submetidos à cirurgia bariátrica entre os anos de 2012 e 2014, em um hospital geral e privado de Minas Gerais. As informações foram coletadas por meio dos prontuários eletrônicos e do telefone. Resultados: mulheres (87,60%); cor (autodeclarada) parda (49,84%); com escolaridade de 11 a 14 anos (32,57%); convivia com companheiro (69,06%); e renda média de um a três salários mínimos por domicílio (54,79%). Mediana de idade foi de 36 anos (IQ=30-43). Ao analisar a melhora no desempenho sexual após o procedimento cirúrgico, 214 (71,33%) dos pacientes ressaltaram melhora nesse aspecto. Destes, 32 (14,95%) eram do sexo masculino e 182 (85,04%) eram do sexo feminino. Fatores sociodemográficos no cenário estudado, exceto idade em sexo masculino, não mostraram diferença estatística na melhoria do desempenho sexual após a cirurgia bariátrica. Conclusão: o tratamento cirúrgico pode ter impacto positivo na vida sexual do paciente e esses resultados podem alertar as instituições de saúde para otimizar sua assistência. Assim, profissionais de saúde, especialmente os enfermeiros, exercem papel fundamental na compreensão de quais são fatores são associados à melhoria da vida sexual dos pacientes, permitindo a prevenção de queixas e medidas efetivas de intervenção.


RESUMEN Objetivo: investigar los factores asociados con la salud sexual de los pacientes sometidos a cirugía bariátrica. Métodos: estudio de cohorte realizado con 387 pacientes que sometidos a cirugía bariátrica entre 2012 y 2014, en un hospital general privado del estado de Minas Gerais. La información se recogió a través de registros médicos electrónicos y de llamadas telefónicas. Resultados: mujeres (87,60%); color de piel (autodeclarada) parda (49.84%); con escolaridad de 11 a 14 años (32.57%); en pareja (69.06%); e ingresos promedio de uno a tres salarios mínimos por domicilio (54.79%), edad promedio de 36 años (coeficiente intelectual = 30-43). Al analizar la mejora en el rendimiento sexual después del procedimiento quirúrgico, 214 (71,33%) de los pacientes confirmaron haber mejorado.Entre ellos, 32 (14.95%) eran hombres y 182 (85.04%) mujeres. Los factores sociodemográficos en el escenario estudiado, excepto la edad en los hombres, no mostraron diferencias estadísticas en la mejora del rendimiento sexual después de la cirugía bariátrica. Conclusión: el tratamiento quirúrgico puede generar un impacto positivo en la vida sexual del paciente lo cual puede hacer notar a las instituciones de salud la importancia de optimar su asistencia. Los profesionales de la salud, sobre todo los enfermeros, desempeñan un rol fundamental en la comprensión de los factores asociados con la mejora de la vida sexual de los pacientes, permitiendo la prevención de quejas y medidas de intervención efectivas.


ABSTRACT Objective: to investigate the factors associated with the sexual health of patients subjected to bariatric surgery. Methods: this is a cohort performed with 387 patients who were subjected to bariatric surgery between the years 2012 and 2014, in a general and private hospital in Minas Gerais. The information was collected through electronic medical records and the telephone. Results: women (87.60%); brown (self-declared) color (49.84%); with education from 11 to 14 years (32.57%); lived with a partner (69.06%); and average income of one to three minimum wages per household (54.79%). Median age was 36 years (IQ=30-43). When analyzing the improvement in sexual performance after the surgical procedure, 214 (71.33%) of the patients highlighted improvement in this aspect. Of these, 32 (14.95%) were male and 182 (85.04%) were female. Sociodemographic factors in the studied scenario, except for age in males, showed no statistical difference in the improvement of sexual performance after bariatric surgery. Conclusion: surgical treatment can have a positive impact on the patient's sexual life and these results can alert health institutions to optimize their assistance. Thus, health professionals, especially nurses, play a fundamental role in understanding what factors are associated with improving patients' sexual lives, allowing the prevention of complaints and effective intervention measures.


Subject(s)
Humans , Epidemiologic Factors , Bariatric Surgery/psychology , Bariatric Surgery/rehabilitation , Sexual Health , Sex , Comprehension , Obesity/prevention & control
9.
Gerais (Univ. Fed. Juiz Fora) ; 13(1): 1-19, jan.-abr. 2020. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090455

ABSTRACT

Trata-se de revisão sistemática para investigar as definições de pornografia utilizadas por pesquisadores e os efeitos do consumo desse material nos relacionamentos amorosos. Buscaram-se artigos teóricos ou empíricos, nos idiomas espanhol, inglês e português, publicados em periódicos nacionais e internacionais, indexados nas plataformas eletrônicas Doaj, SciELO e Scopus, que contivessem, em qualquer parte do texto, os termos "pornografia" e "relacionamento". Retornaram 433 documentos que, aplicados os critérios de inclusão e exclusão, resultaram em 45 artigos. Na amostra estudada, material sexualmente explícito parece ser a definição mais aceita de pornografia. Em relação aos aspectos negativos percebidos do consumo de pornografia ao relacionamento, foram elencadas as categorias: prejuízos à saúde, prejuízos ao relacionamento, violência contra as mulheres e aspectos socioculturais. Em relação aos aspectos positivos, foram levantadas as categorias: sexualidade, desenvolvimento pessoal e benefícios ao relacionamento. Os possíveis impactos do consumo de pornografia nos relacionamentos são ainda bastante imprecisos e ambíguos.


This systematic review aims to investigate pornography definitions used by researchers and the effects of the consumption of this material in romantic relationships. We searched for theoretical or empirical papers published in Brazilian and international journals indexed in the DOAJ, SciELO and Scopus electronic platforms, which contained, in any part of the text, the terms "pornography" and "relationship" in Spanish, English or Portuguese. This search resulted in 433 documents that, after application of the inclusion and exclusion criteria, resulted in 45 papers. Within the sample, sexually explicit material seems to be the most accepted definition of pornography. Regarding the perception of negative aspects of pornography consumption on the relationship, the following categories were listed: health damage, relationship impairment, violence against women and social and cultural aspects. In relation to the positive aspects, the categories surveyed were: sexuality, personal development and benefits to the relationship. The possible impacts of pornography consumption in relationships are still quite vague and ambiguous.


Subject(s)
Marriage , Erotica , Sex , Sexuality , Erotica/psychology
10.
Ciênc. cuid. saúde ; 19: e50232, 20200000.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1119964

ABSTRACT

Objective: to analyze the elderly person's perception about their sexuality. Methodology: this is a field study, descriptive and of qualitative nature, carried out at the Social Assistance Reference Center (CRAS) of Ipaumirim, Ceará. The sample consisted of nine (9) individuals and data collection was performed between August and September 2016, using a previously prepared questionnaire. The data were analyzed according to content analysis techniques and discussions based on the dialectical method. Results: the elderly participants in the study understand the concepts related to sex, despite not having an active sex life. The subjects emphasized the importance of sexuality in old age and consider prejudice as the main factor that hinders the full experience of sexuality in old age. Conclusion: it is possible to conclude that the older adults understand the importance of sexuality and are aware of their own needs and desires, as well as they perceive the benefits of an active sex life for well-being and quality of life. However, the culture of asexuality and the prejudice surrounding old age make this practice difficult.


Objetivo: analisar a percepção da pessoa idosa acerca da sua sexualidade. Metodologia: trata-se de um estudo de campo, descritivo e de cunho qualitativo, realizado no Centro de Referência da Assistência Social (CRAS) de Ipaumirim, Ceará. A amostra foi de nove (9) indivíduos e a coleta de dados realizada nos meses de agosto e setembro de 2016, por meio de um questionário previamente elaborado. Os dados foram analisados conforme técnicas de análise de conteúdo e discussões com base no método dialético. Resultados: os idosos participantes do estudo compreendem os conceitos relacionados ao sexo, apesar de não possuírem uma vida sexual ativa. Os sujeitos ressaltaram a importância da sexualidade na terceira idade e consideram o preconceito como principal fator que dificulta a vivência plena da sexualidade na velhice. Conclusão: é possível concluir que os idosos compreendem a importância da sexualidade e são conscientes sobre suas próprias necessidades e desejos, assim como percebem os benefícios da vida sexual ativa para o bem-estar e qualidade de vida. Porém a cultura da assexualidade e o preconceito em torno da velhice dificultam está prática.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aged , Sexuality , Quality of Life , Sex , Aging , Nursing
11.
Acta odontol. Colomb. (En linea) ; 10(2): 39-51, 2020. tab, tab, graf, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1123457

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: evaluar la relación entre la condición de hipertensión arterial y las caracterís-ticas sociodemográficas de los pacientes atendidos en la clínica de atención prioritaria de odontología de la Universidad del Valle, entre los años 2013 y 2016. Métodos: este es un estudio descriptivo retrospectivo de corte transversal. Las variables evaluadas fueron: edad, sexo, presión arterial diastólica y sistólica al inicio y al final de la consulta de valoración, grado de escolaridad, peso, talla, índice de masa corporal, conocimiento de condición de hipertensión, y prevalencia. Para analizar la información se empleó el programa Stata13. Como prueba de normalidad para las variables numéricas, se utilizó la prueba de Shapiro Wilks, para las variables que no se comportaron normal, la prueba U de Mann Whitney y para las variables categóricas con un error aceptado de p<0,05, la prueba de chi2. Resultados: se incluyeron 1815 pacientes en la muestra, de los cuales 528 tuvieron datos de tensión arterial ≥140/90 mm Hg. Así, el 70% desconocían que tenían valores ≥140/90 mm Hg. El 36% de las mujeres y el 23% de los hombres conocían su condición de hipertensión arterial. El índice de masa corporal por encima de 25.6, ser mayor de 50 años y el sexo femenino son factores de riesgo para la HTA. Conclusión:como factores de riesgo para la tensión arterial elevada se determinan el sexo, la edad y el índice de masa corporal. El 70% de los pacientes desconocían los valores de su tensión arterial y la prevalencia de probable hipertensión encontrada fue de 29%.


Objective: Evaluate the relationship between arterial hypertension condition and the sociodemographic characteristics of patients attended in the Priority dental care clinic at the Universidad del Valle between 2013-2016. Methods: This is a retrospective, cross sectional, descriptive study. The evaluated variables were: age, gender, diastolic and systolic BP at the beginning and at the end of the first assessment consultation, educational level, weight, size and body mass index (BMI), awareness of high blood pressure condition, and prevalence. The information was analyzed with STATA 13. The Shapiro Wilks test was used for normality in numerical variables , the Mann Whitney U test for the numerical variables which did not behave normal for frequency and distribution; and the chi square test for categorical variables with an accepted error of 5%. Results: 1815 patients were evaluated for their blood pressure levels, 528 with values ≥140/90 mm Hg. 70% were not aware they could be hypertensive, 36% of women and 23% of men were knew of their hypertension condition. Most of the patients with levels (≥140/90 mm Hg) were in the age range between 50-59 years. The variables of age, body mass index and gender showed to be risk related with HBP. Conclusions: Sex, age and body mass index were risk related with high blood pressure. The prevalence of probable hypertension in this study was 29%, and 70% of the patients ignored their possible high blood pressure condition.


Subject(s)
Humans , Prevalence , Hypertension/pathology , Sex , Body Mass Index , Risk Factors , Age Effect , Arterial Pressure
12.
Acta odontol. Colomb. (En linea) ; 10(1): 37-46, 2020. tab, tab, tab, tab, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1123491

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: determinar la prevalencia de la fisura labio alveolo palatina (FLAP) en las prin-cipales ciudades del Ecuador: Quito, Guayaquil y Cuenca, en el período comprendido desde el año 2010 al 2018. Metodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo, observacional de corte transversal y retrospectivo mediante la revisión de la base de datos de estudios realizados en medios hospitalarios de las ciudades de Quito, Guayaquil y Cuenca en pacientes con diagnóstico de FLAP nacidos en el periodo comprendido desde el año 2010 al 2018. La información mediante un formulario para el nacido vivo con FLAP sindrómico, no sindrómico y de la madre. Resultados: se encontró que la frecuencia de FLAP es 14.97 por cada 10,000 nacidos vivos, dato concordante con el de los países de la región. Según registros hospitalarios del sistema nacional de salud, 1132 pacientes con diagnostico FLAP fueron atendidos en el periodo 2010 a 2018. Con respecto al de edad de los niños que requirieron atención por FLAP, este fue de 3 años (DS: ±3.2). Su proporción por sexo fue 38.19% en mujeres vs. 61.68% en hombres. Conclusión: hasta ahora no se han encontrado estudios en el Ecuador que cuenten con criterios unifi-cados sobre diagnóstico y clasificación de las FLAP, para así aportar a la formulación políticas de salud pública y al mejoramiento de la calidad de vida del paciente fisurado.


Objective: To determine the prevalence of the cleft lip and palate (CLAP) in the main cities of Ecuador: Quito, Guayaquil and Cuenca, in the period from 2010 to 2018. Methods: A descriptive, observational, cross-sectional and retrospective study was carried out by reviewing the database of studies conducted in hospital settings in the cities of Quito, Guayaquil and Cuenca of patients diagnosed with FLAP born in the period from 2010 to 2018. The information was collected using a form for the live birth with syndromic, non-syndromic and mother CLAP. Results: The frequency of CLAP was found to be 14.97 per 10,000 live births, consistent with that of the countries in the region. 1132 patients diagnosed with CLAP were treated in the national health system according to hospital records, in the period 2010 to 2018; Regarding the average age of children who required CLAP care, it was 3 years (SD: ± 3.2). Their sex ratio was 38.19% women vs. 61.68% men Conclusion: No studies have been found in Ecuador that have unified criteria on diagnosis and classification of CLAPs that help formulate public health policies that improve the quality of life of the cracked patient.


Subject(s)
Humans , Prevalence , Ecuador , Sex , Ethnic Groups , Hospital Records , Cleft Lip , Cleft Palate
14.
Rev. iberoam. psicol. (En línea) ; 13(2): 71-82, 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1247656

ABSTRACT

Las conductas violentas en el noviazgo de adolescentes ha sido objeto de interés en las últimas décadas. En su estudio se han priorizado diversos factores individuales, relacionales, familiares y sociales. En el caso de los aspectos familiares, se ha sugerido que la vivencia de experiencias negativas en el seno familiar podría funcionar como factor de riesgo para la aparición de conductas violentas. Por ello, el presente estudio explora las diferencias por sexo en cuanto a la violencia sufrida y cometida, así como la posible asociación entre la cohesión y la adaptabilidad familiar con la frecuencia de conductas violentas cometidas o sufridas en la muestra participante. Participaron 161 mujeres y 151 hombres, con edades entre los 15 y 19 años (M= 16.73; DT=1.093), originarios del estado de Colima, México. Entre los diversos resultados obtenidos destaca que no se hallaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en los diversos tipos de violencia evaluados, aunque los hombres señalaron haber sufrido más violencia que las mujeres. Añadido a ello, ambos sexos señalaron mayor frecuencia en conductas específicas de control hacia su pareja y presión para sostener relaciones sexuales. Con respecto a la asociación teórica entre funcionamiento familiar, evaluado a través de la cohesión y adaptabilidad, y la violencia cometida y sufrida, solo se hallaron correlaciones muy débiles. Se discuten los resultados enfatizando la prevención de la minimización o normalización de conductas específicas de control entre los y las jóvenes.


Violent teen dating behavior has been the subject of interest in recent decades. In his study, various individual, relational, family and social factors have been prioritized. In the case of family aspects, it has been suggested that the experience of negative experiences within the family could function as a risk factor for the appearance of violent behaviors. Therefore, the present study explores the differences by sex in terms of violence suffered and committed, as well as the possible association between cohesion and family adaptability with the frequency of violent behaviors committed or suffered in the participating sample. 161 women and 151 men participated, aged between 15 and 19 years (M = 16.73; SD = 1,093), originally from the state of Colima, Mexico. Among the various results obtained, it stands out that no statistically significant differences were found in the various types of violence evaluated, although men reported having suffered more violence than women. Added to this, both sexes reported a higher frequency in specific behaviors of control towards their partner and pressure to have sexual relations. Regarding the theoretical association between family functioning, evaluated through cohesion and adaptability, and the violence committed and suffered, only very weak correlations were found. The results are discussed emphasizing the prevention of the minimization or normalization of specific control behaviors among young people.


Subject(s)
Humans , Violence , Intimate Partner Violence , Sex , Behavior , Family , Compliance
15.
Rev. iberoam. psicol. (En línea) ; 13(1): 33-44, 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1247802

ABSTRACT

Este estudio muestra los significados expresados por tres parejas del mismo género (cuatro mujeres y dos hombres) sobre la crianza de sus hijas e hijos, quienes tenían entre uno y tres años de edad. Desde un enfoque hermenéutico-interpretativo, analizamos entrevistas narrativas, resultando en las siguientes categorías: Importancia de verbalizar y explicar; Reglas, límites y consecuencias; Enseñanza y aprendizaje de valores y habilidades sociales; Mantener una relación cercana; Rasgos/atributos personales valorados (en las y los niños). Encontramos diversas funciones asumidas en su labor como educadores, que se vincularon de forma dinámica con lo que esperaban y valoraban en cuanto a aprendizaje y desarrollo. Fue importante para ellos/as complacer, dar gusto y satisfacer las necesidades de sus niñas y niños, sin que esto significara descuidar una alimentación saludable, establecer y mantener reglas y rutinas, así como enseñar habilidades acordes a su edad. Un significado compartido giró en torno al lenguaje y comunicación, pues para los adultos era importante explicar: desde rutinas, hasta verbalizar sentimientos, o hacer explícito su tipo de familia (tener dos padres o dos madres); siempre considerando lo que puede comprenderse a esa edad. También fue importante para los adultos que sus hijos e hijas fueran alegres y sintieran su amor, manteniendo una relación cercana: cálida, lúdica y afectuosa. Concluimos que estos padres gais y madres lesbianas significaron a la crianza como una tarea amorosa, ardua, permanente y dirigida a formar sujetos con derechos, con quienes se podía negociar y llegar a acuerdos, aun siendo niños y niñas


This study shows the meanings expressed by three Mexican same-gender couples (four women and two men) about the upbringing of their daughters and sons, who were aged between one and three years. From a hermeneutic-interpretative approach, we analysed narrative interviews, resulting in the following categories: Importance of verbalizing and expressing; Rules, limits and consequences; Teaching and learning values and social skills; Maintain a warm relationship; Personal traits/attributes valued (in children). We found that fathers and mothers played different roles in their work as educators, which were linked dynamically with what they expect and value in terms of learning and development. It was important for them to please, to indulge and to satisfy their children's needs, without this neglecting a healthy diet, establishing and maintaining rules and routines, as well as teaching values and skills according to their age. A shared meaning revolved around language and communication: for adults it was important explaining routines, verbalizing feelings, or making explicit their type of family (having two fathers or two mothers); always considering what can be understood at that age. It was also important for our participants that their sons and daughters felt happy and loved through a close, warm, playful and affectionate relationship. We conclude that these gay parents and lesbian mothers meant the upbringing as a loving, arduous and permanent task, committed to forming subjects with rights, with whom they could negotiate and reach agreements


Subject(s)
Humans , Family Characteristics , Parenting , Language , Sex , Teaching , Family , Nuclear Family , Communication , Emotions , Learning , Love , Mexico
16.
Rev. iberoam. psicol. (En línea) ; 13(1): 45-57, 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1247804

ABSTRACT

El mayor acceso y el incremento en el uso de las tecnologías ha invadido el mundo adolescente y, a partir de ello, se observa un nuevo tipo de agresión más expansiva y nociva denominado ciberacoso. Se considera importante incluir en el estudio de esta problemática el análisis del clima familiar como el escolar. El estudio de tipo cuantitativo tiene como objetivos: estudiar la prevalencia del ciberacoso en función de los roles, el sexo, la edad y la gestión escolar; determinar en qué medida el ciberacoso y las variables de clima escolar y familiar están relacionadas entre sí y, finalmente, caracterizar los grupos de adolescentes en relación a las conductas de ciberacoso y las variables en estudio. Se administró el test Cyberbullying a 3,500 adolescentes entre 11 y 20 años. Los resultados arrojan que se encuentra mayor proporción de varones en el rol de ciberagresores (escuelas privadas) y las mujeres de escuelas públicas se posicionan más como cibervíctimas y ciberobservadoras. En ambos tipos de gestión, son las chicas quienes presentan una diferencia significativa en relación a las dimensiones de clima familiar y escolar. En el análisis de correlación, se observa que, si bien la mayoría de las relaciones estudiadas son estadísticamente significativas, los coeficientes encontrados son moderados o bajos. El análisis de clúster permitió identificar cuatro grupos con una explicación del 68% de la variabilidad interna de los datos. Se concluye que se necesita incorporar las dimensiones del contexto familiar y escolar en programas socioeducativos centrados en la prevención y reducción del ciberacoso


Greater access and increased use of technology have invaded the adolescent world and, from this, a new type of more expansive and harmful aggression called cyberbullying can be observed. It is considered important to include in the study of this problem the analysis of both family and school climate. The quantitative study aims to investigate the prevalence of cyberbullying in terms of roles, sex, age and school type; to determine to what extent cyberbullying and school and family climate variables are related and to characterize groups of adolescents in relation to cyberbullying behaviors and variables under study. The Cyberbullying test was administered to 3,500 adolescents between 11 and 20 years old. The results show that a greater proportion of men are in the role of cyberaggressors (private schools) and women in public schools position themselves more as cyber-victims and cyber-observers. In both school type, women are the ones who present a significant difference in relation to the dimensions of family and school climate. The correlation analysis shows that although most of the relationships studied are statistically significant, the coefficients found are moderate or low. Cluster analysis identified four groups with an explanation of 68% of the internal variability data. We conclude that it is necessary to incorporate the dimensions of the family and school context in socio-educational programs focused on the prevention and reduction of cyberbullying


Subject(s)
Humans , Sex , Aggression , Cyberbullying , Schools , Technology , Women , Behavior , Family , Incidence , Prevalence
17.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190378, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SESSP-IALPROD, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1092220

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION Human retroviruses and the hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV and HCV, respectively) share routes of transmission; thus, coinfections occur and could alter subsequent disease outcomes. A preliminary study on human T-lymphotropic virus types 1 and 2 (HTLV-1/2) in serum samples from HBV- and HCV-infected individuals in São Paulo revealed 1.3% and 5.3% rates of coinfection, respectively. These percentages were of concern since they were detected in HTLV-endemic regions and in high-risk individuals in Brazil. The present study was conducted to extend and confirm these data. METHODS HTLV-1/2 and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection status were identified in 1,984 sera for HBV and HCV viral load quantification - 1,290 samples from HBV-infected individuals (53.3% men, mean age: 47.1 years) and 694 samples from HCV-infected individuals (56.3% men, mean age: 50.1 years). HTLV-1/2 antibodies were detected by enzyme immunoassay, followed by western blotting and line immunoassay; HIV infection was detected by enzyme immunoassay. RESULTS HTLV-1/-2 infection was detected in 1.9% HBV-infected individuals (0.7% HTLV-1 and 1.2% HTLV-2) and in 4.0% (2.4% HTLV-1 and 1.6% HTLV-2) HCV-infected individuals; HIV infection was detected in 9.2% and 14.5%, respectively. Strong associations with HTLV and HIV, male sex, and older age were found in HBV/HTLV and HCV/HTLV-coinfected individuals (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 were confirmed to be prevalent in individuals with HBV and HCV in São Paulo; coinfected individuals deserve further clinical and laboratory investigation.


Subject(s)
Sex , HIV , Viral Load , Hepatitis B , Infections , Methods
18.
Paidéia (Ribeirão Preto, Online) ; 30: e3015, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1135426

ABSTRACT

Abstract Our study sought to compare mothers' behavioral repertoire (educational social skills and negative practices) and maternal anxiety and depression indicators with children's behaviors (behavior problems and social skills), by assessing the variables "sex" (boys and girls) and "occurrence of behavior problems". The sample consisted of 20 children with behavior problems (clinical group), 20 without behavior problems (non-clinical group), their mothers and teachers. Reporting instruments were used with teachers and mothers and comparative analyzes were conducted between groups. The results indicated that the clinical group had higher rates of behavior problems and maternal depressive symptoms, whereas the non-clinical group showed more child social and educational social skills. Sex did not differ between groups. We concluded that maternal educational practices are more influenced by children's behaviors than by their sex.


Resumo Este estudo objetivou comparar repertório comportamental de mães (habilidades sociais educativas e práticas negativas), indicadores de ansiedade e depressão maternos e comportamentos de crianças (problemas de comportamento e habilidades sociais), controlando as variáveis sexo (meninos e meninas) e ocorrência de problemas de comportamento. A amostra foi composta por 20 crianças com problemas de comportamento (grupo clínico), 20 sem problemas de comportamento (grupo não clínico), suas mães e professores. Foram utilizados instrumentos de relato com professores e mães e conduzidas análises comparativas entre os grupos. Os resultados indicaram que o grupo clínico apresentou maiores taxas em problemas de comportamento e sintomas de depressão materna, enquanto o grupo não clínico apresentou mais habilidades sociais infantis e habilidades sociais educativas. O sexo não diferenciou os grupos. Conclui-se que as práticas educativas maternas são mais influenciadas pelos comportamentos das crianças do que pelo sexo delas.


Resumen Este estudio tuvo como objetivo comparar el repertorio conductual de madres (habilidades sociales educativas y prácticas negativas), los indicadores de ansiedad y depresión maternos y los comportamientos de los niños (problemas del comportamiento y habilidades sociales) diferenciados por las variables sexo (niños y niñas) y la aparición de problemas del comportamiento. La muestra consistió en 20 niños con problemas del comportamiento (grupo clínico), 20 niños sin problemas del comportamiento (grupo no clínico), sus madres y maestros. Se utilizaron instrumentos de informe con maestros y madres y se realizaron análisis comparativos entre grupos. Los resultados indicaron que el grupo clínico tenía tasas más altas de problemas del comportamiento y síntomas de depresión materna, mientras que el grupo no clínico tenía más habilidades sociales infantiles y habilidades sociales educativas. El sexo no se diferenció en los grupos. Se concluye que las prácticas educativas maternas están más influenciadas por los comportamientos de los niños que por el sexo de los mismos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adult , Anxiety , Sex , Signs and Symptoms , Child Behavior , Homeopathic Repertory , Notification , Depression , Social Skills , Problem Behavior , School Teachers , Mothers
19.
rev. psicogente ; 22(42): 106-125, jul.-dic. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1094664

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: Evaluar la eficacia del programa psicoeducativo para la estimulación y desarrollo del pensamiento formal N.A.P diseñado por Núñez, Anaya y Prieto (2014) en estudiantes de 9° de un colegio público del departamento del Magdalena. Método: Es un estudio de tipo cuantitativo, con un diseño cuasiexperimental antes y después, con un grupo control no equivalente; la muestra estuvo conformada por 48 estudiantes de 13 a 17 años, 25 de sexo masculino y 23 de sexo femenino, seleccionados a través de un muestreo no probabilístico intencional. 27 estudiantes hicieron parte del grupo experimental y fueron sometidos al programa durante 5 meses con una intensidad de una hora semanal; mientras los 21 alumnos del grupo control no fueron intervenidos. La eficacia del programa se determinó por medio de la prueba TOLT (Tobín & Capie, 1981). Resultados: Mediante el estadístico T de Student se halló un valor 0,003 menor del margen de error, indicando variaciones significativas entre el pre-test y pos-test del grupo experimental, y en el grupo control no hubo ninguna significancia, lo que indica que el programa tuvo éxito en la estimulación del pensamiento formal. Conclusión: Los hallazgos de la investigación demostraron la eficacia del programa para el desarrollo del pensamiento formal, en el pos-test del grupo experimental el 38 % de estudiantes se ubicaron en transición y el 3 % en el nivel formal; en el grupo control el 100 % de estudiantes antes y después se ubicaron en el nivel concreto. Además, las habilidades potenciadas con las actividades del programa fueron la proporcionalidad y correlación, por tanto puede ser de utilidad en la academia para estimular este tipo de pensamiento.


Abstract Objective: This paper aims to assess the effectiveness of the Psycho-educational Program for Stimulation and Development of Formal Thinking N.A.P in ninth grade students of a public school at Magdalena (Col), designed by Núñez, Anaya and Prieto (2014). Method: This is a quantitative research, with a quasi-experimental design before and after sampling, and with a non-equivalent control group. 48 students from 13 to 17 years old, 25 male and 23 female, selected through an intentional non-probabilistic sampling were sampled. 27 students were part of an experimental group and subjected to the program with an average of one hour per week. While 21 control group-students were not intervened. The effectiveness of the program was determined through the TOLT test (Tobín & Capie, 1981). Results: Using the Student's T statistic, a 0,003 value of the margin of error was found, indicating significant variations between the pre-test and post-test of the experimental group, and in the control group there was no significance, indicating that the program had success in stimulating formal thinking. Conclusion: The research findings showed the effectiveness of the program for the development of formal thinking, in the post-test of the experimental group 38 % of students were in transition and 3 % in the formal level; in the control group 100 % of students before and after were located at the concrete level. In addition, the skills enhanced with the activities of the program were proportionality and correlation, therefore it can be useful in the academy to stimulate this type of thinking.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Thinking , Sex , Students , Effectiveness
20.
Rev. Eugenio Espejo ; 13(2): 42-52, 20191202.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048527

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: determinar el riesgo de diabetes mellitus tipo 2 en el personal de salud del Hospital Alfredo Noboa Montenegro. Materiales y métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo de tipo transversal, durante el período octubre 2015 a febrero 2016 en 90 trabajadores de la salud en el contexto declarado. Se aplicó el cuestionario FINDRISC (Finish Diabetes Risk Score). Resultados: De los 90 sujetos, 70% (63) fueron mujeres y 30% (27) hombres, la edad promedio fue de 42,8 años con una desviación estándar de +/- 10,4. Se encontró que el 35,6% (32) tuvo un Riesgo Bajo, el 33,3% (30) Riesgo Ligeramente Elevado, el 20% (18) Riesgo Moderado, el 10% (9) Riesgo Alto y el 1,1% (1) Riesgo Muy Alto de Diabetes Mellitus tipo 2 a 10 años. El mayor riesgo se identificó en el sexo femenino. El IMC ≥ 25 Kg/m2 tuvo un OR de 5.0 (IC 95%: 2,610 ­ 9,578, p<0,0005), perímetro abdominal ≥ de 80 cm en mujeres presentó un OR de 8.0 (IC 95%: 3,645 ­ 10,321, p<0,0005), uso de antihipertensivos OR 9,32 (IC95%: 2,285 ­ 37,976, p de 0,002), antecedentes familiares OR 11,31 (IC95%: 3,951 ­ 32,362, p<0,0005), actividad física OR 0,33 (IC 95% 0,126 ­ 0,861, p de 0,023). Conclusiones: el riesgo de diabetes mellitus tipo 2 con una puntuación FINDRISC mayor o igual a 12 fue del 31,1%. Los principales factores de riesgo fueron un índice de masa corporal ≥ 25 Kg/m2, perímetro abdominal ≥ 80 cm para mujeres, uso de drogas antihipertensivas y antecedentes familiares de diabetes mellitus.


Objective: to determine the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in the health staff of Alfredo Noboa Montenegro Hospital. Materials and methods: a cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted during the period October 2015 to February 2016 in 90 health workers in the declared context. The FINDRISC (Finish Diabetes Risk Score) questionnaire was applied. Results: considering there were 90 subjects, 70% (63) were women and 30% (27) men, the average age was 42.8 years with a standard deviation of +/- 10.4. It was found that 35.6% (32) had a Low Risk, 33.3% (30) Slightly High Risk, 20% (18) Moderate Risk, 10% (9) High Risk and 1.1 % (1) Very High Risk of Diabetes Mellitus type 2 to 10 years. The highest risk was identified in the female sex. The BMI ≥ 25 Kg / m2 had an OR of 5.0 (95% CI: 2,610 - 9,578, p <0.0005), abdominal perimeter ≥ 80 cm in women presented an OR of 8.0 (95% CI: 3,645 - 10,321, p <0.0005), use of antihypertensives OR 9.32 (95% CI: 2.285 - 37.976, p of 0.002), family history OR 11.31 (95% CI: 3.951 - 32.362, p <0.0005), physical activity OR 0.33 (95% CI 0.126-0.861, p 0.023). Conclusions: the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus with a FINDRISC score greater than or equal to 12 was 31.1%. The main risk factors were a body mass index ≥ 25 Kg / m2, abdominal perimeter ≥ 80 cm for women, use of antihypertensive drugs and a family history of diabetes mellitus.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Health Personnel , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Sex , Exercise , Health
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