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1.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e186467, fev. 2022. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1380241

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The herbicide glyphosate, a pesticide used in agriculture to control weeds, both in food crops and in other agricultural areas, has been identified as an endocrine modulator through the inhibition of aromatase activity and the activation of estrogen receptors. The present study examined the effects of a glyphosate-based herbicide (Roundup® (GLY-BH) on sexual dimorphism of rats after perinatal exposure to low and high GLY-BH in males and females offspring. Methods: Two groups of pregnant rats were treated with two doses of GLY-BH (50 or 150 mg/kg) from day 15 of gestation (GD15) to postnatal day 7 (PND7). Play fighting behavior was observed at the juvenile stage and during social and sexual behaviors in adulthood. Results: Perinatal GLY-BH exposure reduced male and female body weight at 28, 75, and 90 days of age. The play fighting behavior was decreased in both sexes, but female rats were more affected. The sexual behaviors were reduced only in females. Conclusions: Perinatal exposure to both doses of GLY-BH promoted sexually dimorphic effects in both juvenile and adulthood stages. These effects were attributed to the inhibition of aromatase activity induced by exposure to GLY-BH in the perinatal period.(AU)


Objetivos: O glifosato é um herbicida não seletivo, usado em muitas culturas alimentares e não alimentares e em áreas não agrícolas, sendo que os produtos a base de glifosato atuam como moduladores das funções endócrinas por meio da inibição da atividade da aromatase e da ativação de receptores de estrógeno. O presente estudo avaliou os efeitos do herbicida Roundup® (GLY-BH) à base de glifosato, em comportamentos sexualmente dimórficos de ratos após exposição perinatal a doses baixas e altas de GLY-BH no período perinatal. Métodos: Ratas prenhas foram tratadas com 50 ou 150 mg/kg de GLY-BH do 15º dia de gestação (GD15) ao 7º dia de lactação (LD7). O comportamento de luta/brincar foi observado na fase juvenil e os comportamentos social e sexual na idade adulta. Resultados: a exposição perinatal a GLY-BH reduziu o peso corporal de machos e fêmeas aos 28, 75 e 90 dias de idade. O comportamento de luta/brincar diminuiu em ambos os sexos, sendo as ratas foram as mais afetadas. O comportamento sexual foi reduzido apenas nas fêmeas. Conclusões: A exposição perinatal a ambas as doses do GLY- BH promoveu tanto na idade juvenil como na idade adulta, efeitos sexualmente dimórficos. Esses efeitos foram atribuídos à inibição da atividade da aromatase induzida exposição perinatal ao GLY-BH.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Rats , Sexual Behavior, Animal/physiology , Social Behavior , Aromatase Inhibitors/adverse effects , Sex Characteristics , Herbicides/administration & dosage , Herbicides/adverse effects
2.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(6): 2157-2164, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1142294

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to describe emus' breeding performance in Brazil at different ages, grouped in couples or colonies. The duration of the breeding season and the production of eggs per female housed were recorded, and the productivity and breeding variables were associated with the variation of the photoperiod. The total production of the flock was 180 eggs, and the breeding season lasted 167 days (April-September), a period with an average of 11 h and 11min of daylight. The breeding season lasted 113, 133 and 82 days, the numbers of eggs produced per female were 7.29, 25.67 and 17.3, and productivity values were 31.6, 38.6, and 45.4% in the groups of birds with ages of two, four and seven years, respectively. The breeding season in 2016 occurred between April and August in Brazil. Older birds tended to start breeding later. The production rate observations indicated that earlier peak production was associated with lower egg production potential. Finally, there was a tendency for better breeding performance of birds housed in couples than in groups with more birds.(AU)


O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever o desempenho reprodutivo de emus de diferentes idades, agrupados em casais ou em colônias, no Brasil. A duração da estação reprodutiva e a produção de ovos por fêmea alojada foram registradas, a produtividade e as variáveis reprodutivas foram associadas às variações no fotoperíodo. A produção total do lote de aves foi de 180 ovos, e a estação reprodutiva durou 167 dias (abril-setembro), período que apresentou fotoperíodo médio de 11 horas e 11 minutos. Nos grupos de aves de dois, quatro e sete anos de idade, a estação reprodutiva durou 113,, 133 e 82 dias, o número de ovos por fêmea foi de 7,29, 25,67 e 17,3 e a produtividade foi de 31,6, 38,6 e 45,4%, respectivamente. A estação reprodutiva em 2016 ocorreu entre abril e agosto no Brasil. Aves mais velhas tenderam a iniciar o período reprodutivo mais tarde. As observações na taxa de produção podem indicar que quanto mais precoce o pico produtivo, menor o potencial de produção de ovos em emus. Houve a tendência ao melhor desempenho reprodutivo das aves alojadas em casais em comparação com as alojadas em colônias.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Reproduction , Sexual Behavior, Animal , Dromaiidae/physiology , Nesting Behavior , Brazil , Palaeognathae
3.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(4): 1102-1112, July-Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1131468

ABSTRACT

Este estudo teve por objetivo comparar variações de parâmetros andrológicos e comportamentais de touros Nelore de diferentes faixas etárias, calcular seu potencial reprodutivo (PR) e propor uma nova tabela de classificação por pontos, de acordo com as médias atualmente alcançadas por eles nas características estudadas. Foram utilizados dados de 6162 exames andrológicos de touros da raça Nelore, entre 12 e 80 meses de idade, em regime de monta natural. O número de touros classificados como aptos consistiu em 88,9% dos animais avaliados (n=5480), sendo 51,6% desses considerados excelentes (n=2827), 41,2% muito bons (n=2257) e 7,2% considerados bons (n=394). Entre os animais questionáveis (n=682; 11,1%), 79,6% foram classificados como inaptos temporários (n=542) e 20,4% (n=139) como animais descarte, de acordo com o exame andrológico, independentemente do teste da libido. O número de touros classificados como excelentes se reduziu para 752 (12,2%) quando dados de comportamento sexual foram incluídos para definição do seu PR. Concluiu-se que o uso de tabelas de classificação andrológica por pontos com atualizações técnicas beneficia a seleção mais apurada de touros Nelore. O teste da libido é ferramenta importante para a determinação do PR, o qual permite melhor aproveitamento dos reprodutores.(AU)


This study aimed to compare variations of andrological and behavioral parameters from Nelore bulls of different ages, to calculate their reproductive potential (RP) and propose a new classification table by points, considering current averages in each reproductive trait studied. Data were collected from 6162 breeding soundness examinations of Nelore bulls aged between 12 and 80 months, under natural mating. According to andrological parameters, regardless of the libido test, the number of bulls classified as approved was 88.9% (n= 5480), being 51.6% considered as excellent (n= 2827), 41.2% very good (n= 2257) and 7.2% considered as good (n= 394). Among the animals considered as questionable (n= 682; 11.1%), 79.6% were classified as temporarily reproved (n= 542) and 20.4% (n= 139) as discarded animals. The number of bulls classified as excellent decreased to 752 (12.2%) when sexual behavior data were included to define their RP. It was concluded that the use of tables for andrological classification by points with technical updates improves the reproductive selection of Nelore bulls. The libido test is an important tool for RP determination which provides better utilization of the sires.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Reproduction/physiology , Scrotum/anatomy & histology , Sexual Behavior, Animal , Libido
4.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(2): 553-559, Mar./Apr. 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1128404

ABSTRACT

Durante o periparto, as vacas leiteiras são submetidas a uma grande demanda de energia, ao mesmo tempo em que reduzem sua ingestão de matéria seca. O balanço energético negativo, resultante dessa equação, acarreta severos transtornos metabólicos, à produção e, principalmente, à reprodução. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar o efeito da colina protegida sobre os parâmetros metabólicos, o intervalo entre parto e concepção e a produção de leite em vacas no período de transição. Cinquenta e quatro vacas leiteiras foram divididas em três grupos: controle, suplementação com colina por 10 dias pré-parto (T10) e suplementação com colina por 20 dias pré-parto (T20). Após o parto, foram mensurados os teores de frutosamina, colesterol, ácidos graxos não esterificados (AGNE), beta-hidroxibutirato (BHB), aspartato aminotransferase (AST), gamaglutamiltransferase (GGT) e total de oxidantes (TOS), nos dias 10, 20 e 30. Ainda foram avaliadas produção de leite e intervalo entre parto e concepção. Não houve efeito da suplementação com colina sobre os parâmetros sanguíneos e a produção. O intervalo entre parto e concepção foi menor no grupo T20. A colina suplementada por 20 dias durante o pré-parto melhorou a performance reprodutiva de vacas leiteiras(AU)


During the periparturient dairy cows undergo a large energy demand, at the same time reducing their intake of dry matter. The negative energy balance resulting from this equation leads to severe metabolic disorders in production, and mainly in reproduction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of protected choline on metabolic parameters, reproductive performance, and milk production in cows during the transition period. Fifty-four dairy cows were divided into three groups: control, supplementation with choline for 10 days prepartum (T10) and supplementation with choline for 20 days prepartum (T20). After delivery we measured fructosamine levels, cholesterol, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT), and total oxidant (TOS) on days 10, 20 and 30. We also evaluated milk production and interval between calving and conception. There was no effect of supplementation with choline on blood and production parameters. The interval between calving and conception was lower in the T20 group. Choline supplemented by 20 during the antepartum improved reproductive performance of dairy cows, although it did not change the metabolic profile.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Cattle , Sexual Behavior, Animal , Choline/administration & dosage , Peripartum Period/physiology , Metabolism , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Cholesterol , 3-Hydroxybutyric Acid , Fatty Acids, Nonesterified , gamma-Glutamyltransferase
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879931

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of Chinese medicine Wubi Shanyao pills on sexual function of kidney-yang-deficiency mice induced by hydrocortisone.@*METHODS@#Male Kunming mice were injected with hydrocortisone for 10 days to prepare the kidney-yang-deficiency model, and administrated with Wubi Shanyao pills (0.91, 1.82, 2.73 g/kg) for 9 weeks. The general behaviors of mice (autonomous activity, grasping power) were observed; sexual behaviors (capture, straddle, ejaculation frequency and incubation period) of mice were detected by mating experiment. The serum levels of cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), estradiol (E@*RESULTS@#Wubi Shanyao pills increased the number of independent activities, grasping power, capture frequency of model mice and shortened the capture latency (all @*CONCLUSIONS@#Wubi Shanyao pills can improve the sexual function of mice with kidney-yang-deficiency induced by hydrocortisone, which may be related to regulating the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis), promoting the proliferation of testicular cells, and inhibiting cell apoptosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Follicle Stimulating Hormone/blood , Hydrocortisone , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System , Kidney/drug effects , Kidney Diseases/drug therapy , Male , Mice , Pituitary-Adrenal System/drug effects , Random Allocation , Sexual Behavior, Animal/drug effects , Yang Deficiency/drug therapy
6.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 57(3): e164061, 2020. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1122193

ABSTRACT

The most used reproduction method in beef cattle in Brazil is natural breeding, which corresponds to 84% of calves born. Breeders adopt the bull:cow ratio of 1:25, which results in a sub utilization of bulls, making natural breeding antieconomic and underestimating the reproductive ability of competent bulls. The bull:cow ratio is determined by several factors, such as climate and nutrition, but the most determining factor is the fertility of the bull, estimated with more precision through breeding soundness examination of bulls. The aim of this study was to develop a simulation model as an aid to choose the best bull:cow ratio according to the combination of the many factors that determine this ratio. It is a conceptual, empiric, static, and determinist model which, through the processing of the input data, simulates the best BCR. Developed on the Vensim PLE 6.1 software, the model describes variables related to bulls and cows. Two equations were generated to predict the mating potential of males. In the same way, according to the reproductive status of females, equations were generated to predict the cyclicity rate of the cows. The sum of these equations originated the one that determines BCR according to the reproductive status of females. This model might serve as a tool to support decisions as to the best BCR and could be used with several combinations of models ́ characteristics.(AU)


O método de reprodução mais utilizado em bovinos de corte no Brasil é a monta natural, que corresponde a 84% dos bezerros nascidos. Os criadores adotam a relação touro:vaca de 1:25, o que resulta em uma subutilização de touros, tornando a reprodução natural antieconômica e subestimando a capacidade reprodutiva de touros competentes. A proporção touro:vaca é determinada por alguns fatores, como clima e nutrição, mas o principal fator determinante é a fertilidade do touro, estimada de forma mais precisa por meio do exame andrológico. O objetivo deste estudo foi construir um modelo de simulação como auxílio para a escolha da melhor relação touro:vaca de acordo com a combinação dos diversos fatores que determinam essa relação. É um modelo conceitual, empírico, estático e determinista que, por meio do processamento dos dados de entrada, simula a melhor relação touro:vaca. O modelo foi desenvolvido no software Vensim PLE 6.1. e descreve variáveis relacionadas a touros e vacas. Duas equações foram geradas para prever o potencial de acasalamento dos machos. Da mesma forma, de acordo com a condição reprodutiva das fêmeas, foram geradas equações para prever a taxa de ciclicidade delas. A soma dessas equações originou o que determina a relação touro:vaca de acordo com a condição reprodutiva das fêmeas. Esse modelo pode servir como um recurso para apoiar a decisão sobre a melhor relação touro:vaca e pode ser usado com várias combinações de características dos modelos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Cattle , Reproduction , Sexual Behavior, Animal , Breeding , Sex Ratio , Simulation Exercise , Mating Preference, Animal
7.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 18(3): e200008, 2020. graf, mapas, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1135402

ABSTRACT

The present work aimed at studying the sicklefin devil ray (Mobula tarapacana) that aggregates seasonally in the Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago (SPSPA). From December 2008 to June 2016, 827 rays were sighted through free diving visual census survey. From the total of the records, it was possible to identify the sex of 361 specimens, in which 215 were females and 146 were males. The disk width ranged from 2.40 m to 3.20 m with mean size of 2.60 m, for both males and females, indicating that the population is composed by sub-adults and adults. Using photo-identification of the pectoral-fins in the ventral side, 11 males and 44 females were identified and compared with each other, but no re-sight was detected. Recent mating scars were observed in males (n= 7) and females (n= 6), as well as courtship and pursuit behaviors, confirming that the SPSPA is an important area of aggregation and mating for M. tarapacana in the Atlantic Ocean.(AU)


O presente trabalho teve como objetivo conhecer a população da raia manta chilena (Mobula tarapacana) que forma agregações sazonais no Arquipélago de São Pedro e São Paulo (ASPSP). Durante o período de dezembro de 2008 a junho de 2016, foram avistadas 827 raias através de censo visual por mergulho livre. Do total das raias avistadas, foi possível identificar o sexo de 361 espécimes, dos quais 215 eram fêmeas e 146 eram machos. A largura de disco variou de 2,40 m a 3,20 m, com média de 2,60 m, tanto para machos como para fêmeas, evidenciando que a população é composta por adultos e sub-adultos. Com base na foto-identificação do padrão de coloração do contorno localizado na região ventral, foram identificados e comparados entre si, 11 machos e 44 fêmeas, não tendo sido observada, porém, nenhuma reavistagem. Marcas de cópula recente foram observadas tanto em machos (n= 7) como em fêmeas (n= 6). Comportamentos de corte e perseguição também foram observados, indicando que o ASPSP é uma importante área de agregação e acasalamento da espécie no Oceano Atlântico.(AU)


Subject(s)
Reproduction , Sexual Behavior, Animal , Skates, Fish/classification , Surveys and Questionnaires
8.
Acta amaz ; 49(4): 277-282, out. - dez. 2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1118937

ABSTRACT

The search for alternatives to increase productivity and sustainability of livestock production in the Amazon region without increasing deforestation is challenging. Mixed pastures of grasses with forage peanut (Arachis pintoi) have shown positive economic impacts. However, gaps in the knowledge of the reproductive biology of A. pintoi have limited the development of new cultivars adapted to the environmental variations in the Brazilian Amazon. Pasture consortiums of Brachiaria humidicola with forage peanuts (cv. Mandobi) resulted in a 42% increase in weight gain productivity. New cultivars better adapted to the Amazon climate should bring even greater gains. We evaluated the mating system in twenty A. pintoi accessions, and approximately 40 offspring per accession genotyped with eight microsatellites (or markers). The parameters of genetic diversity and inbreeding, the outcrossing rate and coancestry were calculated. The observed heterozygosity was significantly higher and the fixation index was significantly lower in adults compared with the offspring. The crossing rate was variable among genotypes (2 to 80%), and the mean outcrossing rate was 36%. These results indicate that pollinator presence in pastures can influence gene flow in A. pintoi more than expected. Arachis pintoi presented a mixed mating system with a predominance of selfing, and families presented inbreeding and different levels of relatedness. New strategies of genotype conservation are needed to avoid pollinator-mediated crossing between accessions. (AU)


Subject(s)
Arachis , Sexual Behavior, Animal , Breeding , Amazonian Ecosystem , Genotype
9.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(5): 1551-1557, set.-out. 2019. graf, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1038685

ABSTRACT

As serpentes pertencem ao segundo maior grupo dentro dos répteis, podendo apresentar sazonalidade quanto à espermatogênese, com produção descontínua ou contínua. O presente trabalho tem como objetivo caracterizar aspectos da biologia reprodutiva de Boa constrictor constrictor com base nos achados histológicos dos testículos nos períodos de máxima atividade (período de gametogênese) e quiescência. Os testículos de dois espécimes de Boa c. constrictor (7767 e 11752) foram cortados a uma espessura de 3µm em micrótomo, corados com azul de toluidina 1%, fotodocumentados e descritos. A presença de espermatozoides na luz do túbulo seminífero no indivíduo 7767 indica um período de máxima gametogênese, enquanto o lúmen dos túbulos seminíferos pouco evidentes, sem a presença de espermatozoides e de células gaméticas em divisão, caracteriza o indivíduo 11752 em período quiescente. Mediante os achados histológicos descritos no presente estudo, concluiu-se que Boa c. constrictor apresenta sazonalidade em relação à gametogênese, sendo esse padrão de sazonalidade associado ao período de cópulas relatado em literatura característico de serpentes com padrão pré-nupcial.(AU)


These snakes belong to the second largest group within the reptiles, being able to present seasonality regarding spermatogenesis, with discontinuous or continuous production. The present study aims to characterize Boa constrictor constrictor reproductive biology aspects from histological findings in testicles during periods of maximum activity (period of gametogenesis) and quiescence. The testicles of two specimens of Boa c. constrictor (7767 and 11752) were cut to a thickness of 3µm in microtome, stained with 1% toluidine blue, photodocumented and described. The spermatozoa presence in the seminiferous tubule lumen in individual 7767 indicates a period of maximum gametogenesis, whereas the seminiferous tubules lumen is not very evident without spermatozoa and the absence of dividing gametic cells characterizes individual 11752 in the quiescent period. Through the histological findings we concluded that Boa c. constrictor presents seasonality in relation to gametogenesis, and the pattern of reproductive seasonality observed along with the period of copulas reported in the literature resembles the pre-nuptial pattern.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Seasons , Sexual Behavior, Animal , Spermatogenesis/physiology , Boidae/growth & development , Boidae/physiology , Boidae/genetics , Gametogenesis/physiology
10.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(3): 488-494, July-Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001450

ABSTRACT

Abstract In this study we evaluate the biotic potential and reproductive parameters of Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker, 1858) under controlled conditions (25 ± 1 °C, 70 ± 10% RH and 14 hour photophase). Females, on average, (14.433 days) did not live significantly longer than their male counterparts (13.100 days). The mean durations of the pre-oviposition, oviposition and post-oviposition periods were 2.767, 10.600 and 1.067 days, respectively. The mean fecundity of females was 5,073.533 eggs and the mean fertility was 5,021.027 larvae. On average, females copulated 1.167 times. Fecundity was positively correlated with the number of copulations (r = 0.583, P <0.001). The number of copulations, however, was negatively correlated whit the duration of the pre-oviposition (r = -0.560, P = 0.007) and oviposition (r = -0.479, P = 0.048) periods, and overall longevity (r = -0.512, P = 0.031). The biotic potential was estimated at 6.547 x 1021 individuals/female/year. The net reproductive rate (Ro) was 2,193.722 times per generation and the mean generation time (T) was 46.407 days. The intrinsic rate of increase (rm) was 0.166, with a finite rate of increase (λ) of 1.180, per week.


Resumo Neste estudo avaliamos o potencial biótico e parâmetros reprodutivos de Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker, 1858) em condições controladas (25 ± 1 °C, 70 ± 10% UR e 14 horas de fotofase). Em média, as fêmeas (14,433 dias) não viveram significativamente mais do que os machos (13,100 dias). A duração média dos períodos de pre-oviposição, oviposição e pós-oviposição foram 2,767; 10,600 e 1,067 dias, respectivamente. A fecundidade média das fêmeas foi de 5.073,533 ovos e a fertilidade média foi de 5.021,027 larvas. Em média, as fêmeas copularam 1,167 vezes. A fecundidade correlacionou-se positivamente com o número de cópulas (r = 0,583; P <0,001). Entretanto, o número de cópulas correlacionou-se negativamente com a duração dos períodos de pré-oviposição (r = -0,560; P = 0,007), oviposição (r = -0,479; P = 0;048) e a longevidade (r = -0,512; P = 0,031). O potencial biótico foi estimado em 6,547 x 1021 indivíduos/fêmea/ano. A taxa líquida de reprodução (Ro) foi de 2.193,722 vezes por geração e o tempo médio de cada geração (T) foi de 46,407 dias. A taxa intrínseca de crescimento (rm) foi 0,166, com uma taxa finita de aumento (λ) de 1,180, por semana.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Oviposition , Sexual Behavior, Animal , Spodoptera/physiology , Life History Traits , Reproduction , Life Tables , Spodoptera/growth & development , Larva/growth & development , Larva/physiology , Longevity
11.
Int. j. morphol ; 36(1): 59-62, Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893187

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: In order to evaluate the effect on sexual behavior and spermatic parameters of white New Zealand rabbits, at the onset of puberty, they were fed a standard diet supplemented with canola oil (obesogenic). Two groups were formed; one of which received daily 180 g of a standard commercial diet supplemented with 13 ml of canola oil during 12 weeks, while the second group (control) were fed daily 180 g of only the standard commercial diet. Starting at 20-weeks of age, seminal volume, en masse and individual sperm motility, and sperm concentration per mm3 were measured from each individual, as well as the behaviors olfactory exploration, chinning, and first and second attempt at mounting were assessed. No significant differences were found between groups in terms of seminal volume, and en masse and individual sperm motility count and percentage (P>0.05). In relation to sexual behavior, the group fed with supplemental canola oil showed reduced the response time to females in the sexual behaviors of chinning, olfactory exploration, and first and second attempt at mounting when compared to the control group (P<0.01). The data indicate that the addition of canola oil to a standard rabbit diet at the start of puberty and continued for 12 weeks increases the body mass index and reduces the response time in sexual behaviors such as olfactory exploration, chinning, and second attempt at mounting when interacting with female stimulus. Nevertheless, the seminal parameters did not show any modification. Other studies are needed to show the benefits or disadvantages of the addition of varying inclusion percentages of other vegetable oils, to evaluate their effects on reproductive efficiency in breeder male rabbits.


RESUMEN: Con el propósito de evaluar en conejos Nueva Zelanda blanca de granja el efecto de una dieta estándar suplementada con aceite de canola (obesogénica) sobre el comportamiento sexual y los parámetros espermáticos al inicio de la pubertad, se formaron dos grupos. Un grupo recibió una dieta consistente de 180 g al día de una dieta estándar comercial adicionada con 13 ml de aceite de canola durante 12 semanas y al otro grupo (testigo) se le suministró 180 g por día de la misma dieta estándar sin aceite de canola. A partir de las 20 semanas de edad en cada individuo se midió el volumen seminal, la motilidad espermática en masa e individual, la concentración espermática por mm3 y se evaluaron la conducta de: exploración olfatoria, frotamiento del mentón (Chinning), primer intento de monta y segundo intento de monta. En las variables volumen seminal, conteo y porcentaje de motilidad espermática en masa e individual no hubo diferencia significativa entre ambos grupos (P>0,05). Con respecto al comportamiento sexual, el grupo suplementado con aceite vegetal presentó menor tiempo de respuesta a la hembra estímulo en las conductas de frotamiento del mentón, exploración olfatoria y segundo intento de monta con respecto al grupo testigo (P<0,01). Los datos obtenidos indican que la adición de aceite de canola a la dieta estándar de conejos al inicio de la pubertad durante 12 semanas aumenta el índice de masa corporal de los individuos y disminuye el tiempo de respuesta en las conductas de exploración olfatoria, de frotamiento del mentón y de segundo intento de monta al interaccionar con la hembra estímulo. Sin embargo, no modificó los parámetros seminales evaluados. Es necesario realizar otros estudios con el fin de evaluar en conejos sementales el beneficio o desventaja sobre su eficiencia reproductiva al utilizar diferentes porcentajes de inclusión en la dieta de otros aceites vegetales.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rapeseed Oil/pharmacology , Rabbits , Semen/drug effects , Sexual Behavior, Animal/drug effects , Dietary Supplements , Sexual Maturation
12.
National Journal of Andrology ; (12): 104-108, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775212

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To explore the feasibility and practicability of establishing a rat model of premature ejaculation (PE) by injection of 8-OH-DPAT into the subarachnoid space of the lumbosacral spinal cord segments.@*METHODS@#Twenty-four male Wistar rats were equally randomized into a PE model and a blank control group. The PE model was established by injection of 8-OH-DPAT in 10 ml normal saline at 0.8 mg per kg of the body weight per day into the subarachnoid space of the lumbosacral spinal cord segments and the control rats were injected with the same volume of normal saline only, both for 4 weeks. Another 24 female Wistar rats were injected subcutaneously with benzoic acid estradiol at 20 μg to induce estrus at 36 hours before mated with the male animals. At 2 and 4 weeks, the male rats were mated with the female ones for 30 minutes each time and meanwhile observed for their mating behavior indicators, such as mount latency, intromission latency, ejaculation latency, mount frequency, intromission frequency, and ejaculation frequency.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the controls, the PE model rats showed a significantly lower ejaculation latency ([712.35 ± 36.77] vs [502.35 ± 46.72] s, P0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#A rat model of premature ejaculation was successfully established by injection of 8-OH-DPAT into the subarachnoid space of the lumbosacral spinal cord segments, which is of great significance for further study of the mechanism of premature ejaculation.


Subject(s)
8-Hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin , Animals , Benzoic Acid , Disease Models, Animal , Ejaculation , Estradiol , Estrus , Feasibility Studies , Female , Injections, Spinal , Male , Premature Ejaculation , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Sexual Behavior, Animal , Spinal Cord , Subarachnoid Space
13.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(2): 885-893, Apr.-June 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886718

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Allobates subfolionidificans is a vulnerable and endemic leaf-litter frog from the state of Acre, Brazilian Amazonia. We monitored a population of A. subfolionidificans through regular censuses and mark-recapture of 181 individuals during an entire breeding season to characterize its reproductive behavior. The space use of A. subfolionidificans individuals differed between sexes, with males using smaller and more segregated spaces. Males defended territories and were aggressive against same-sex individuals, which was not the case in females. The daily cycle of calling activity showed peaks in the morning and in the afternoon, and the occurrence of reproductive events was positively correlated with monthly rainfall. The breeding behavior comprised vocal and tactile interactions, although the species lacked reproductive amplexus. Egg and larvae attendance, as well as tadpole transport to water environments was performed mostly by males but occasionally by females, probably in cases of desertion by the father. This species is characterized by performing courtship, mating, oviposition, as well as egg and larvae attendance exclusively on the under surface of leaves, a unique behavior among members of the superfamily Dendrobatoidea.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Anura/physiology , Sexual Behavior, Animal/physiology , Breeding , Oviposition/physiology , Reproduction/physiology , Seasons , Time Factors , Brazil , Sex Factors , Sex Distribution , Body Size
14.
Rev. biol. trop ; 65(1): 211-228, Jan.-Mar. 2017. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-897536

ABSTRACT

ResumenEn Colombia, C. acutus se encuentra catalogada en peligro crítico. Durante julio 2007, agosto 2008, junio y agosto 2009 y entre marzo y agosto 2010 y 2011, la población en Bahía Portete fue estudiada para evaluar la anidación y obtener la información necesaria para el ajuste de un programa de manejo acorde con la biología de la especie. Este estudio asumió la vinculación de la comunidad indígena Wayuü para emplear el modelo de acuerdo de conservación. Se realizaron transectos en toda la costa de la bahía para la búsqueda de nidadas. En la determinación de las áreas de importancia para la anidación, se registraron las características biométricas de los nidos, la biometría de huevos y crías, la fertilidad de huevos y eventos reproductivos. Como resultado se recorrieron 55.12 km, se determinaron cuatro zonas de importancia para la anidación, la de mayor importancia fue la isla Juyui. En todas las áreas de anidación, variables como la anidación colonial o gregaria y las variables ambientales fueron factores que afectaron el éxito de eclosión. El 37 % de los nidos estuvieron orientados hacia el norte y el 48 % fueron construidos en cercanía de Stenocereus griseus. La isla Juyui presentó los mayores porcentaje de arena (71.9 %, 71.44 %). El promedio de huevos por nido fue 28.42 ± 6.63. Los huevos presentaron un diámetro mayor promedio de 71.84 ± 3.54 mm y peso 81.54 ± 9.99 g. Las crías presentaron un promedio de longitud total de 25.47 ± 1.16 cm. El período reproductivo para este sector de Colombia, se inicia en marzo y culmina en agosto. Las pocas áreas de anidación y la fertilidad del 95 % sugieren la ejecución de un programa conservación para C. acutus en Bahía Portete.


Abstract:C. acutus is cataloged in critical danger in Colombia. We studied its population at Bahia Portete, in order to survey the nesting activities and to obtain valuable information for a conservation management program. This study was undertaken with the participation of the Wayuü community using the Agreement Conservation Model, and took place during July 2007, August 2008, June and August 2009, and March to August 2010 and 2011. Sampling surveys were made by the use of transects along the coast, in order to find nests. For each nesting area found, we recorded the nests biometrics, eggs and hatchlings, fertility of the eggs and reproductive events. We explored a total of 55.12 km, and determined four nesting areas. Colonial nesting and the environmental variables were factors that affected the hatchling success. From the total of nests found, 37 % were oriented towards North, and 48 % were built next to Stenocereus griseus. Juyui island substrate was mostly constituted by sand (71.9 %, 71.44 %). The average number of eggs by nest was 28.42 ± 6.63, the largest egg diameter was 71.84 ± 3.54 mm, the average nest weight was 81.54 ± 9.99 g, and the hatchlings presented an average length of 25.47 ± 1.16 cm. For this specific site in Colombia, the reproductive period begins in March and ends in August. The few areas of nesting and the 95 % fertility suggest the performance of a conservation management program for this species at Bahía Portete. Rev. Biol. Trop. 65 (1): 211-228. Epub 2017 March 01.


Subject(s)
Animals , Reproduction/physiology , Alligators and Crocodiles/physiology , Nesting Behavior/physiology , Reference Values , Seasons , Sexual Behavior, Animal/physiology , Time Factors , Analysis of Variance , Population Density , Colombia , Ecosystem , Bays , Eggs/statistics & numerical data
15.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 15(1): e160022, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-841873

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This study estimates and analyses the reproductive parameters and cycle of Sympterygia bonapartii in San Matías Gulf, northern Patagonia, Argentina. A total of 827 males and 1,299 females were analysed. Males ranged from 185 to 687 mm of total length (TL) and females from 180 to 742 mm TL. Sexual dimorphism was detected; females were larger, heavier, exhibited heavier livers, wider discs and matured at lager sizes than males. Immature females ranged from 180 to 625 mm TL, maturing females from 408 to 720 mm TL, mature ones from 514 to 742 mm TL and females with egg capsules from 580 to 730 mm TL. Immature males ranged from 185 to 545 mm TL, maturing ones from 410 to 620 mm TL and mature males from 505 to 687 mm TL. Size at which 50% of the skates reached maturity was estimated to be 545 mm TL for males and 594 mm TL for females. According to the reproductive indexes analysed, S. bonapartii exhibited a seasonal reproductive pattern. Mating may occur during winter-early spring and the egg-laying season, during spring and summer.


RESUMEN El presente estudio estima y analiza los parámetros reproductivos y el ciclo reproductivo de Sympterygia bonapartii en el Golfo San Matías, Patagonia norte, Argentina. Se analizaron 827 machos y 1.299 hembras. Los machos midieron entre 185 y 687 mm de largo total (LT) y las hembras entre 180 y 742 mm LT. Se detectó dimorfismo sexual; las hembras fueron más grandes y pesadas que los machos y presentaron anchos de disco, pesos de hígado y tallas de madurez sexual mayores a los de los machos. Las hembras inmaduras midieron entre 180 y 625 mm LT, las hembras en maduración entre 408 y 720 mm LT, las maduras entre 514 y 742 mm LT y las hembras con cápsulas entre 580 y 730 mm LT. Los machos inmaduros midieron entre 185 y 545 mm LT, los machos en maduración entre 410 y 620 mm LT y los maduros entre 505 y 687 mm LT. La talla media de madurez sexual fue estimada en 545 mm LT para los machos y 594 mm LT para las hembras. De acuerdo con los índices reproductivos analizados, S. bonapartii se reproduce estacionalmente. El apareamiento ocurriría durante el invierno y la primavera y la temporada de puesta durante la primavera y el verano.


Subject(s)
Animals , Elasmobranchii/anatomy & histology , Reproductive Behavior/classification , Sex Characteristics , Sexual Behavior, Animal
16.
Rev. biol. trop ; 64(4): 1519-1526, oct.-dic. 2016. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-958231

ABSTRACT

Abstract:The agouti (Dasyprocta sp.) is a hystricomorph rodent found in some regions of the Americas. It is an important cynegetic species, which indicates that the overhunting is a threat to their conservation. Very little is known about this wildlife in relation to what already has been studied in domestic animals. Thus, the knowledge on reproduction of wildlife becomes necessary and essential for the management and conservation of these natural resources. Specifically, studies regarding hormonal monitoring are important as a basic tool for research in modern reproductive biotechnology, and currently, there is no information on the progesterone changes during pregnancy of Dasyprocta sp., compared to other hystricomorphs. The aim of this study was to describe the profile of plasmatic progesterone during pregnancy, and report the restart of ovarian cycle in agouti after parturition. For this purpose, 18 black-rumped agoutis (Dasyprocta prymnolopha) born in captivity were used, and one or more consecutive pregnancies were observed. Copulation was confirmed by the presence of spermatozoa observed in the colpocytological examination. Blood samples were collected two times per week, and concentrations of progesterone, assessed in ten agoutis, were determined by radioimmunoassay. The onset of ovarian activity in six females was observed daily by colpocytological examination, starting on the seventh day postpartum. The gestational period observed in this study was 104.04 days (SD = 1.31) (101-106 days) (Number of cases, N = 26), and the interval between births was 126.03 days (SD = 18.40) (109-184 days). The plasmatic profile of progesterone during pregnancy showed a progressive increase from the 1st to the 5th week. The higher progesterone levels over this period (6.88 ng / mL, SD = 3.01) were detected in the 5th week. This value was similar (One-Way ANOVA, p > 0.05) to that observed in the 4th and 6th weeks, but was statistically different (One-Way ANOVA, p < 0.05) when compared to the other weeks. After the 6th week there was a progressive decrease in plasmatic progesterone levels. The animals showed a postpartum estrus of 12.04 days (SD= 4.29) (7-24 days) (N= 23). It was observed that 80.95 % (N= 19) of copulations during this period were fertile. This work contributed to understanding the dynamic changes in the progesterone levels during the pregnancy in agouti. Nevertheless, more studies are needed for a better appreciation of other endocrine and biological changes, in the mother and feto-placental unit of the agouti. Rev. Biol. Trop. 64 (4): 1519-1526. Epub 2016 December 01.


Resumen:El agouti (Dasyprocta sp.) es un roedor histricomorfo encontrado en algunas regiones de América. Es una especie cinegética importante, lo que indica que la caza excesiva es una amenaza para su conservación. Muy poco es lo que se conoce acerca de la biología de los animales silvestres, en relación al conocimiento acumulado sobre los domésticos. Por lo tanto, el estudio sobre la reproducción de los animales silvestres se hace necesario e imprescindible para el manejo y conservación de la especie como recurso natural. En concreto, los estudios relativos a la monitorización hormonal son una herramienta básica para la investigación en biotecnología reproductiva moderna. No hay información sobre los cambios de progesterona durante la preñez de Dasyprocta sp. en comparación con otros histricomorfos. El objetivo de este estudio fue describir el perfil de la progesterona plasmática durante la preñez, y reportar el reinicio del ciclo ovárico después del parto. Para ello, se utilizaron 18 agoutis de rabo negro (Dasyprocta prymnolopha) nacidos en cautiverio. Fueron estudiadas una o más preñeces consecutivas. La copulación fue confirmada por la presencia de espermatozoides observados en examen colpocitológico. Las muestras de sangre se recogieron dos veces por semana, y las concentraciones de progesterona se determinaron en 10 individuos mediante radioinmunoensayo. Se observó el inicio de la actividad ovárica diaria por examen colpocitológico, comenzando en el día séptimo posparto. El período gestacional observado en este estudio fue de 104.04 días (SD= 1.31, rango entre 101-106 días, N= 26), y el intervalo entre los nacimientos fue 126.03 días (SD= 18.40, rango entre 109-184 días). El perfil plasmático de la progesterona durante el embarazo mostró un aumento progresivo de la 1ª a la 5ª semana. Los mayores niveles de progesterona durante este período (6.88 ng / mL, SD= 3.01) se detectaron en la quinta semana. Este valor fue similar (ANOVA de um factor, p > 0.05) al observado en las semanas cuatro y seis, pero fue estadísticamente diferente (ANOVA de um factor, p<0.05) en comparación con las otras semanas. Después de la sexta semana hubo una disminución progresiva en los niveles plasmáticos de progesterona. Los animales mostraron un estro posparto de 12.04 días (SD= 4.29, rango entre 7-24 días, N= 23). Se observó que el 80.95 % (N= 19) de cópulas durante este período fueron fértiles. Este trabajo contribuyó a la comprensión de los cambios dinámicos en los niveles de progesterona durante la preñez del agouti. Sin embargo, se necesitan más estudios para una mejor comprensión de otros cambios biológicos y endocrinos, y en la unidad materna y feto-placentaria del agouti.


Subject(s)
Animals , Pregnancy , Progesterone/blood , Estrus/blood , Postpartum Period/blood , Dasyproctidae/blood , Reference Values , Sexual Behavior, Animal/physiology , Time Factors , Analysis of Variance , Gestational Age
17.
Rev. biol. trop ; 64(4): 1369-1381, oct.-dic. 2016. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-958220

ABSTRACT

Abstract:Migratory fishes have been seriously impacted by the building of reservoirs and because of the negative effects of these projects such as the interruption of migratory routes, reduction or elimination of spawning/ feeding areas, and initial development can influence the population structure the migratory fishes, resulting in reduction in abundance. Leporinus piau is migratory fish widely distributed in the watersheds of the Brazilian semiarid and it is of importance for artisanal and sport fishing. The goal of the study was to evaluate the population structure and reproductive dynamics of the migratory species Leporinus piau in the Pau dos Ferros Reservoir, which is located in the semiarid region of Brazil. The CPUE, length structure, length-weight relation-ship, length at first maturity, sex ratio, gonad development and IGS were analyzed. Collections were performed quarterly between February 2011 and November 2012 using gillnets. The captured fish were counted; the standard length (cm) and total weight (g) were measured, and dissected to determine the sex and gonad maturity stage. The rainfall and reservoir water levels were recorded, and their correlations with the reproductive period and CPUE were analyzed. A total 549 individuals were captured. The average CPUE varied between 0.0259 individuals/m2*h (May/2011) and 0.0008 individuals/m2*h (August/2012), and significant differences were observed; however, significant correlations were not observed between rainfall and reservoir levels. The standard length varied between 5.9 cm and 20.7 cm, and the weight varied between 4.16 g and 271.5 g. A histogram analysis revealed that the 5-10 cm standard length class was the most abundant for juveniles and that the 10-15 cm class was the most abundant for adult females and males. The weight-length relationship was best fit by the equation log10Wt = -1.57711 + 3.00707 Log10 Ls, and the species presented isometric growth. The estimated length at first maturity was 12.76 cm. A total of 148 males and 82 females were collected (1.81:1, M:F), and these values were significantly different. The highest GSI was observed in February 2011 for both females (10.69) and males (5.72), and the GSI was significantly and positively correlated with rainfall. We concluded that the L. piau population is established in the reservoir and found that its reproduction period occurred during the rainy season between February and May. Rev. Biol. Trop. 64 (4): 1369-1381. Epub 2016 December 01.


Resumen:Los peces migratorios se han visto gravemente afectados por la construcción de embalses y los efectos negativos de estos proyectos, tales como la interrupción de rutas migratorias, reducción o eliminación de desove / áreas de alimentación. El desarrollo inicial puede influir en la estructura de la población de los peces migratorios, lo que resulta en la reducción en la abundancia de los mismos. El Leporinus piau es un pez migratorio que se encuentra ampliamente distribuido en las cuencas del semiárido brasileño y es de importancia para la pesca deportiva y artesanal. El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar la estructura de la población y la dinámica de reproducción de la especie migratoria Leporinus piau en el embalse Pau dos Ferros, región semiárida de Brasil. La relación estructura de tallas y talla-peso de la CPU la talla de la primera la madurez, proporción de sexos, el desarrollo gonadal y el IGS se analizaron. Con redes de enmalle se llevaron a cabo recolecciones trimestralmente entre febrero 2011 y noviembre 2012. Se contaron los peces capturados; se midieron la longitud estándar (cm) y peso total (g), y se disectaron para determinar el estadio del sexo y la madurez de las gónadas. Los niveles de agua de lluvia y los embalses se registraron y se analizaron sus correlaciones con el período reproductivo y la CPUE. Un total de 549 individuos fueron capturados. La CPUE promedio varió entre 0.0259 individuos/m2 * h (mayo/ 2011) y 0.0008 individuos/m2 * h (Agosto/2012), y se observaron diferencias significativas; sin embargo, ninguna correlación significativa se observo entre los niveles de lluvia y el nivel de la represa. La longitud estándar varió entre 5.9 y 20.7 cm, y el peso entre 4.16 y 271.5 g. Un análisis de histogramas, reveló que la clase estándar de 5-10 cm de longitud fue la más abundante de los jóvenes y que la clase 10-15 cm fue la más abundante de las hembras y machos adultos. La relación peso-talla se ajusta más adecuadamente a la ecuación log10Wt = -1.57711 + 3.00707 Log10 Ls, donde la especie presenta un crecimiento isométrico. La medida estimada de la primera madurez fue 12.76 cm. Se recogieron un total de 148 machos y 82 hembras (1.81: 1, M: F), y estos valores fueron significativamente diferentes. El más alto GSI se observó en febrero 2011, tanto para las mujeres (10.69) como para hombres (5.72), y el GSI fue significativa y positivamente correlacionado con la precipitación. Se llegó a la conclusión de que la población L. piau está establecida en la represa y encontramos que su periodo de reproducción se produjo durante la época de lluvias entre febrero y mayo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Reproduction/physiology , Animal Migration/physiology , Rivers , Characiformes/physiology , Seasons , Sexual Behavior, Animal , Sex Ratio , Tropical Climate , Brazil , Population Dynamics , Spatio-Temporal Analysis , Animal Distribution/physiology
18.
Rev. biol. trop ; 64(3): 991-1005, jul.-sep. 2016. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-958190

ABSTRACT

ResumenLas corvinas son especies de interés comercial que han sido sobreexplotadas en el Golfo de Nicoya, Costa Rica. El objetivo de este estudio fue describir por primera vez, el desove espontáneo y la ontogenia de las larvas de la corvina aguada Cynoscion squamipinnis en cautiverio, con el fin de realizar repoblamiento y proyectos de maricultura. Reproductores silvestres (n= 6, 1-2 Kg), fueron capturados y mantenidos en la Estación de Biología Marina Juan Bertoglia Richards (Puntarenas, Costa Rica) por un periodo de dos años (octubre 2006-diciembre 2008). Durante este periodo, el estado de madurez de las hembras (n= 3) fue registrado mediante muestras de cánula y los machos (n= 3) mediante masaje abdominal. Todos los reproductores fueron colocados juntos en un tanque de 18 t, con aireación, a una salinidad entre 33-35 ups y expuestos a una temperatura constante (29 ± 1 °C). De enero a marzo 2009 ocurrió un periodo de desove espontáneo, obteniéndose 162 000 huevos en tres desoves. El porcentaje de fertilización fue de 50-60 %, y la supervivencia después de la eclosión fue entre 60-85 %. El diámetro de los huevos fue de 0.852 mm (Desviación Estándar= 0.039), con una gota de aceite de 0.269 mm (DE= 0.016). En el desarrollo embrionario, la primera división mitótica ocurrió una hora después del desove (hdd), la segunda división 1:30 hdd, la tercera división 2 hdd, la cuarta división a las 2:30 hdd, y la quinta 3:00 hdd. La mórula fue observada a las 3:30 hdd, la blástula a las 4:30 hdd, la gástrula a las 8:30 hdd, la forma C a las 10:00 hdd, y la forma S ocurrió de las 10-19 hdd. La eclosión ocurrió 19 hdd. La larva midió 2.234 mm (DE= 0.122) de longitud total (LT), y 2.179 mm (DE= 0.119) de longitud notocordial (LN). La preflexión inició 49 hdd, la flexión 11 días después del desove (ddd) (3.767 mm LT, DE= 0.209), y la postflexión a los 14 ddd (4.015 mm LT, DE= 0.302). A los 45 ddd, los juveniles pesaron 3.68 g (DE= 1.09). El tiempo de eclosión de las larvas de la corvina aguada fue menor al de otras especies de corvina. Los tiempos de formación en las etapas embrionarias difirieron poco con respecto a los tiempos observados para otras especies de corvinas. Las diferencias observadas con respecto a otras especies, probablemente responden a las características genéticas propias de cada especie y a la temperatura de incubación de los huevos. La obtención de desoves espontáneos sin aplicaciones hormonales a los reproductores, y la producción de juveniles en cautiverio demostraron que la corvina aguada puede ser considerada en programas de repoblamiento y proyectos de maricultura.


Abstract:The croakers or drums are commercial species, which have been overfished in the Nicoya Gulf, Costa Rica. This study aimed to describe, for the first time, the reproduction and the ontogeny of weakfish, Cynoscion squamipinnis in captivity, in order to perform restocking and mariculture projects. Wild fish (n= 6, 1-2 Kg) were captured and maintained in the Estación de Biología Marina Juan Bertoglia Richards (Puntarenas, Costa Rica) for a two years period (October 2006- December 2008). During this period, maturation stage was monitored periodically by cannula samples in the females (n= 3) and gentle massage in males (n= 3). All fish were stocked in an 18 t tank, with aeration, 33-35 ups of salinity, and a constant temperature (29 ± 1 °C). The spawning period occurred from January to March 2009, producing 162 000 eggs in three spontaneous spawns. The fertilization percentage was 50-60%, and survival after hatching was 60-85%. The egg diameter was 0.852 mm (Standard deviation (SD)= 0.039), and oil drop of 0.269 mm (SD= 0.016). In the embryonary development, the first mitotic division (MD) was observed one hour after spawning (has), the second MD was 1:30 has, the third MD was 2:00 has, the fourth MD was 2:30 has, and fifth MD at 3:00 has. Morule was observed 3:30 has, the blastule 4:30 has, the gastrule 8:30 has, C shape at 10:00 has, and C shape at 12:00 has. After 19 has hatching larvae occurred. The total length (TL) of the larvae was 2.234 mm (SD= 0.122), and the nothochordial length (NL) was 2.179 mm (SD= 0.119). Preflexion stage was observed 49 has, flexion stage was 11 days after spawn (das) (3.767 mm LT (SD= 0.209)), and postflexion stage was 14 das (4.015 mm LT (SD= 0.302)). After 45 das, the juvenile weights 3.68 g (SD= 1.09). Hatch time of the weakfish larvae was minor than of others croaker species. The stages times of embrionary development were a little different from others croaker species, and probably respond to genetic characteristics of each species and the eggs incubation temperature. The spontaneously spawning without broodstock hormonal applications, and the juveniles production in captivity showed that weakfish is a potential species for restocking programs and mariculture projects. Rev. Biol. Trop. 64 (3): 991-1005. Epub 2016 September 01.


Subject(s)
Animals , Ovum/growth & development , Reproduction/physiology , Perciformes/growth & development , Sexual Behavior, Animal , Time Factors , Sex Factors , Costa Rica , Fisheries , Larva/growth & development
19.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 68(3): 755-760, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: lil-785706

ABSTRACT

O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o desenvolvimento de novilhas de corte em três sistemas alimentares: exclusivamente em pastagem de azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) ou em pastagem de azevém e recebendo 0,93% do peso corporal de grão de milho inteiro ou grão de aveia branca como suplemento. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente ao acaso, com medidas repetidas no tempo. A utilização da pastagem de azevém, com ou sem uso de grão de milho ou aveia como suplemento, possibilita desenvolvimento reprodutivo para que as bezerras sejam acasaladas aos 14 meses de idade. O peso corporal ao início da utilização da pastagem é determinante para que as bezerras atinjam adequado desenvolvimento reprodutivo no início da estação de acasalamento.(AU)


The experiment was carried out to evaluate the development of beef heifers in three feeding systems: exclusively on ryegrass pasture (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) or in ryegrass pasture and receiving 0.93% of body weight of corn whole grain or oats grain as a supplement. The experimental design was completely randomized with repeated measures in time. The utilization of ryegrass pasture, with or without the use of corn or oats grain as a supplement, provides reproductive development of heifers in order for them to be mated at 14 months of age. The body weight at the beginning of pasture utilization is crucial for heifers to reach adequate reproductive development at the beginning of the mating season.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Animal Feed , Avena , Body Weight , Pasture , Reproduction , Zea mays , Dietary Supplements , Lolium , Sexual Behavior, Animal , Weight Gain
20.
Rev. biol. trop ; 64(2): 547-557, abr.-jun. 2016. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-843297

ABSTRACT

AbstractThe genus Leucothyreus has been linked to some commercial plant crop pests. Eventhough several species have been described for this genus, information about this group is still scarce. This study investigated some biological aspects and mating behavior in Leucothyreus albopilosus. Studies were conducted at the State University of Mato Grosso do Sul, in the municipalities of Aquidauana and Cassilândia, MS, Brazil. For biological studies, adults were collected with light traps from February 2011 to February 2012, and for behavior analyses from September to December 2014. Biological studies were undertaken every three days and included the eggs inspection, and the separation of the newly hatched larvae to observe and describe their developmental stages; to monitor larval growth and differentiate larval instars, we measured the larvae cephalic capsule. Life cycle was determined starting from the newly laid eggs until adult death. For mating behavior studies, adults obtained with light traps were taken to the laboratory. As soon as they started flying in the evening, couples were formed and copulation steps were recorded. in the field, we observed that adults were mostly collected during warmer and wetter periods (from August to March). Our results showed that the embryonic period of L. albopilosus lasted 20.5 days, the 1st, 2nd and 3rd instars lasted 31.0, 33.1 and 85.6 days, respectively. The pupal stage lasted 20 days, and the egg to adult period was completed in 185.5 days; these results suggest that L.albopilosus can be characterized as a univoltine species. Observations of mating behavior in the laboratory showed that, after the sunset, adults projected a small portion of clypeus near the soil surface and flew off seeking a female to mate. The female could accept or reject the male for mating. When the female accepted the male, copulation occurred from 19:00 to 23:00 hours, and lasted 19.45 minutes on average. Sometimes females refused to mate, probably because the male or female were not sexually mature to perform copulation, and there might be a chemical communication between the adults. Adults were observed feeding on ripe bananas (Musa sp., Musaceae) and on mangaba flowers (Hancornia speciosa, Apocynaceae) in the laboratory. With this work we contributed with the description of mating behavior in the genus Leucothyreus and concluded that the biological cycle was completed in less than 200 days. Rev. Biol. Trop. 64 (2): 547-557. Epub 2016 June 01.


ResumenEn el género Leucothyreus se describen varias especies, sin embargo, hay poca información sobre este grupo. El presente trabajo tuvo por objetivo estudiar los aspectos biológicos y el comportamiento de copula de Leucothyreus albopilosus. Los estudios se realizaron en la Universidade Estadual de Mato Grosso do Sul, en los municipios de Aquidauana y Cassilândia, MS, Brasil. Fueron recolectados adultos con trampa de luz desde febrero 2011 hasta febrero 2012 para realizar estudios biológicos y desde septiembre hasta diciembre de 2014 para estudios de comportamiento. Para los estudios biológicos, se inspeccionaron los huevos cada tres días, y cuando las larvas eclosionaban, eran separadas para monitorear su desarrollo. Para supervisar el desarrollo y diferenciar las etapas larvarias fueron medidas las cápsulas cefálicas de las mismas. El ciclo de vida se determinó a partir de la ovoposición hasta la muerte de los adultos. Para realizar los estudios del comportamiento de la cópula, los adultos obtenidos con trampas de luz fueron llevados al laboratorio, y al atardecer cuando iniciaron el vuelo, se formaron parejas, permitiendo observar y registrar los pasos que involucran este comportamiento. En campo, se observó que los adultos fueron recolectados principalmente en los períodos más calientes y húmedos entre los meses de agosto y marzo. El período embrionario de L. albopilosus duró 20.5 días. La primera, segunda y tercera etapa duraron 31.0, 33.1 y 85.6 días, respectivamente. La etapa de pupa duró 20 días y el período desde huevo hasta adulto fue completado en 185.5 días. Estos resultados sugieren que L. albopilosus puede ser caracterizado como una especie univoltina. Con respecto al comportamiento de copula en el laboratorio, al iniciar la noche, los adultos primeramente proyectan una pequeña porción del clípeo próximo a la superficie del suelo, en seguida realizan el vuelo buscando una hembra para iniciar la cópula. La hembra puede aceptar o no al macho para realizar la cópula. Cuando la hembra aceptó al macho para la copula, esta ocurrió desde 19:00 hasta las 23:00 horas durando 19.45 minutos en promedio. Cuando la hembra rechazó al macho para la copula, se debió probablemente a que ella o el no estaban maduros sexualmente, ocurriendo un reconocimiento químico entre ellos. Se observó en el laboratorio que los adultos se alimentaban de plátanos maduros (Musa sp., Musaceae) y flores de mangabeira (Hancornia speciosa, Apocynaceae). En este trabajo se concluye que el ciclo biológico se completa en menos de un año y se describen las primeras etapas del comportamiento de copula del género Leucothyreus.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Sexual Behavior, Animal/physiology , Coleoptera/physiology , Oviposition/physiology , Seasons , Coleoptera/classification
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