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1.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(2): 885-893, Apr.-June 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886718

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Allobates subfolionidificans is a vulnerable and endemic leaf-litter frog from the state of Acre, Brazilian Amazonia. We monitored a population of A. subfolionidificans through regular censuses and mark-recapture of 181 individuals during an entire breeding season to characterize its reproductive behavior. The space use of A. subfolionidificans individuals differed between sexes, with males using smaller and more segregated spaces. Males defended territories and were aggressive against same-sex individuals, which was not the case in females. The daily cycle of calling activity showed peaks in the morning and in the afternoon, and the occurrence of reproductive events was positively correlated with monthly rainfall. The breeding behavior comprised vocal and tactile interactions, although the species lacked reproductive amplexus. Egg and larvae attendance, as well as tadpole transport to water environments was performed mostly by males but occasionally by females, probably in cases of desertion by the father. This species is characterized by performing courtship, mating, oviposition, as well as egg and larvae attendance exclusively on the under surface of leaves, a unique behavior among members of the superfamily Dendrobatoidea.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Anura/physiology , Sexual Behavior, Animal/physiology , Breeding , Oviposition/physiology , Reproduction/physiology , Seasons , Time Factors , Brazil , Sex Factors , Sex Distribution , Body Size
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 76(2): 307-314, Apr.-June 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-781385

ABSTRACT

Abstract Mass production of predatory stinkbugs in the laboratory is prioritized to release them into the field as part of IPM programs. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify the best prey for rearing the predator Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas, 1851) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) among five different species of insect (three of Lepidoptera, one of Coleoptera, and one of Diptera). Second-instar P. nigrispinus nymphs were conditioned in transparent 1000-mL plastic pots, adults were placed in Petri dishes for mating, and both stages were maintained under controlled conditions (25 ± 1°C, 12 hours of photophase, 70 ± 10% RH). Nymphs and adults of P. nigrispinus consumed more Musca domestica (Linnaeus, 1758) (Diptera: Muscidae) larvae than the other tested prey. The consumption of fly larvae was 1.5 larvae/day/nymph and adults 1.7 larvae/day/adult. However, the number of eggs per female was less when the predator consumed M. domestica larvae (407.8 eggs/female) and most when consumed the Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius, 1794) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) larvae (797.7 eggs/female). Furthermore, the percentage of hatched eggs was greater when the predator females consumed D. saccharalis larvae (90.0%). D. saccharalis larvae is the best prey to rearing P. nigrispinus.


Resumo A produção massal de percevejos predadores no laboratório é priorizada para liberá-los no campo, como parte de programas de MIP. Portanto, o objetivo deste estudo foi identificar a melhor presa para a criação do predador Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas, 1851) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) entre cinco espécies diferentes de insetos (três de Lepidoptera, uma de Coleoptera e uma de Diptera). Ninfas de segundo ínstar de P. nigrispinus foram acondicionadas em recipientes plásticos transparentes de 1000 ml, adultos foram colocados em placas de Petri para o acasalamento e, ambos os estágios foram mantidos sob condições controladas (25 ± 1°C, fotofase de 12 horas e 70 ± 10% UR). Ninfas e adultos de P. nigrispinus consumiram mais larvas de Musca domestica (Linnaeus, 1758) (Diptera: Muscidae) do que as outras presas testadas. O consumo de larvas de mosca foi de 1,5 larvas/dia/ninfa e adultos 1,7 larvas/dia/adulto. No entanto, o número de ovos por fêmea foi menor quando o predador consumiu larvas de M. domestica (407,8 ovos/fêmea) e maior quando consumiu larvas de Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius, 1794) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) (797,7 ovos/fêmea). Além disso, a percentagem de eclosão de ninfas foi maior quando as fêmeas do predador consumiram larvas de D. saccharalis larvas (90,0%). Larvas de D. saccharalis é a melhor presa para a criação de P. nigrispinus.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Sexual Behavior, Animal/physiology , Coleoptera/physiology , Food Chain , Hemiptera/physiology , Lepidoptera/physiology , Reproduction/physiology , Diptera/physiology , Life Cycle Stages/physiology
3.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 13(4): 663-672, Oct.-Dec. 2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-769842

ABSTRACT

Oviducal gland present in elasmobranchs is correlated to the organism's reproductive strategy, and its functions are to produce mucus, to form the egg's tertiary envelope and to store sperm. The gland contains four zones: club, papillary,baffle and terminal. The structures of the oviduct, oviducal gland and isthmus of blue shark Prionace glauca were described using macroscopic, light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy techniques. The epithelium of the oviduct and isthmus is folded and is a simple, columnar, ciliated lining epithelium with glandular cells. In the oviducal gland, the lining tissues in the four zones are similar to the oviduct and isthmus lining. The terminal zone shows the presence of sperm in the lumen of the secretory tubules, which remains stored even in the absence of recent copulation. Here, these organs were studied and their connections in an attempt to elucidate the mechanisms of reproduction in the blue shark, showing the three-dimensional aspects, thus adding morphological information important for the understanding of the structure and functioning of these organs of fundamental importance in the life of the majority of elasmobranchs.


A glândula oviducal presente nos elasmobrânquios está correlacionada com a estratégia reprodutiva, cuja função é de produzir o muco, formar o envelope terciário do ovo e armazenar espermatozóides. A glândula contém quatro zonas: club, papilar, baffle e terminal. Foi descrita a estrutura do oviduto, glândula oviducal e istmo do tubarão-azul, Prionace glauca , pelas técnicas macroscópica, microscópica de luz e eletrônica de varredura. Foi observado que no oviduto e istmo o epitélio é pregueado de revestimento simples, colunar, ciliado com células glandulares. Na glândula oviducal o tecido de revestimento é semelhante ao oviduto e istmo nas quatro zonas. Na zona terminal observou-se a presença de espermatozoides no lúmen dos túbulos secretores que permanecem estocados mesmo na ausência de copula recente. Aqui, estudaram-se esses órgãos e suas conexões na tentativa de elucidar os mecanismos da reprodução no tubarão azul, apresentando os aspectos tridimensionais, desta forma agregando informações morfológicas importantes para o entendimento da estrutura e funcionamento desses órgãos de fundamental importância na vida da maioria dos elasmobrânquios.


Subject(s)
Animals , Sexual Behavior, Animal/physiology , Elasmobranchii/classification , Elasmobranchii/growth & development , Reproductive Techniques/veterinary
4.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 13(4): 733-744, Oct.-Dec. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-769843

ABSTRACT

Pinguipes brasilianus is a conspicuous and abundant rocky-reef fish inhabiting the Northern Patagonian gulfs of Argentina, Southwest Atlantic. This study describes its reproductive biology in this region. We made macroscopic and histological descriptions of the testis and ovary development, analyzed the evolution of the gonadosomatic index (GSI) in both sexes throughout the year, and estimated fecundity and length at 50% maturity for females. Pinguipes brasilianus is a multiple spawner with indeterminate annual fecundity and an extended reproductive season, encompassing austral spring and summer. Low GSI values in males (monthly means ranged between 0.11% and 0.75%) and low relative fecundity in female fish (between 2 and 44 oocytes/g) are consistent with a need of close proximity between male and female during oocyte fertilization, sexual courtship and with spawning in pairs and/or within reef crevices. The estimated length at 50% maturity (± SD) for females was 15.22 ± 0.43 cm total length. Although P. brasilianus shares the main reproductive features of its congeneric species Pinguipes chilensis , male GSI and female length at 50% maturity in P. brasilianus were markedly lower than those reported for P. chilensis , while relative and batch fecundity were greater in fish of the same size.


Pinguipes brasilianus es una especie abundante en los arrecifes rocosos de los golfos norpatagónicos de Argentina, en el Atlántico Sudoccidental. En este trabajo estudiamos su biología reproductiva, incluyendo la descripción macroscópica e histológica del desarrollo de testículos y ovarios, el análisis de la evolución del índice gonadosomático (IGS) para ambos sexos a lo largo del ciclo anual, y la estimación de la fecundidad y la talla de primera madurez para las hembras. Pinguipes brasilianus es un desovante múltiple con fecundidad indeterminada y una estación reproductiva extensa que abarca la primavera y el verano australes. Los bajos valores de IGS en machos (el promedio mensual varió entre 0,11% y 0,75%), y la baja fecundidad relativa en las hembras (entre 2 y 4 oocitos/g) son consistentes con un sistema de apareamiento que involucra una estrecha proximidad entre machos y hembras durante la fertilización de los oocitos, cortejo y desove en parejas y/o en áreas confinadas (ej .: refugios). La talla de primera madurez (± DE) estimada para las hembras fue de 15,22 ± 0,43 cm de largo total. Aunque P. brasilianus comparte los principales rasgos reproductivos con Pinguipes chilensis , tanto los valores promedio de IGS en machos como la talla de primera madurez en hembras fueron menores que los reportados para P. chilensis , mientras que la fecundidad (parcial y relativa) fue mayor.


Subject(s)
Animals , Sexual Behavior, Animal/classification , Sexual Behavior, Animal/physiology , Reproductive Medicine/classification
5.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 13(1): 103-112, Jan-Mar/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-744496

ABSTRACT

Previously recognized color and pattern variants of adult Cichla temensis in Amazon flood pulse river environments reflect the cycling of individuals through seasonal sexual maturity and spawning. Individuals also vary in shape from blocky to fusiform. To determine if shape differences are related to patterns of fat reserve deposition and utilization, and to quantify the relationship of shape with color and pattern variation and life history status, specimens in each of four previously defined grades of color and pattern variation were compared using geometric morphometric techniques. Progressive shape changes occurred between grades independent of sex and correlated to gonosomatic index (GSI). Thin plate spline deformation visualizations indicate that the observed shape differences are related to fat deposition patterns. The seasonal timing of shape change and its link to color pattern variation, sexual maturity and local water level conditions suggests a relationship between the physiological and behavioral characteristics of C. temensis and the cyclical flood pulse pattern of its habitat.


As variantes de cor e padrão previamente reconhecidos dos adultos de Cichla temensis em ambientes alagáveis amazônicos refletem o ciclo de indivíduos durante o período de maturidade sexual e desova. Indivíduos também variam na forma de oblonga a fusiforme. Para determinar se as diferenças de forma estão relacionadas aos padrões de deposição e utilização das reservas de gordura e quantificar a relação da forma com cor, variação de padrão e status da história de vida, espécimes de cada quatro níveis de cor e variação de padrão previamente definidos foram comparados usando técnicas de morfometria geométrica. Mudanças progressivas ocorreram na forma entre os níveis independentes do sexo e correlacionadas ao índice gonadossomático (IGS). Visualizações de finas deformações na placa da espinha indicam que as diferentes formas observadas estão relacionadas aos padrões de deposição de gordura. O período de mudança de forma e sua ligação com a variação do padrão de cor, maturidade sexual e as condições do nível da água local sugerem uma relação entre as características fisiológicas e comportamentais de Cichla temensis e o padrão de inundação cíclico do seu habitat.


Subject(s)
Animals , Sexual Behavior, Animal/physiology , Body Composition/physiology , Perciformes/physiology , Ecosystem/adverse effects
6.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 35(3): 304-310, 03/2015. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-751976

ABSTRACT

A comunicação do estado reprodutivo nos primatas da família Callithrichidae, depende principalmente dos comportamentos sócio-sexuais como um sistema de sinalização primário, uma vez que nestas espécies a ovulação não é percebida pelos machos. Neste trabalho, os padrões de comportamentos sócio-sexuais foram analisados em conjunto com as concentrações de metabólitos fecais dos esteróides sexuais progesterona (MFP), estradiol (MFE) e testosterona (MFT) em casais cativos de Sagüi-de-tufos-pretos (Callithrix penicillata), nas diferentes fases do ciclo ovariano. O grupo estudado era composto por quarto casais adultos, mantidos no Centro de Reabilitação de Animais Selvagens da prefeitura de São Paulo. Os padrões comportamentais foram registrados pelo método de amostragem focal por intervalo de tempo a cada 30 segundos, cinco vezes por semana, totalizando 14.400 registros por animal. A mensuração das concentrações de metabólitos fecais dos esteroides sexuais foram realizados pelo método de enzima imunoensaio (EIE). Os resultados obtidos dessas concentrações possibilitaram a determinação endócrina das fases do ciclo ovariano (folicular e luteal) e de suas respectivas durações, assim como a determinação da fase periovulatória. Foram caracterizados 31 ciclos ovarianos completos, com duração de 24,3±4,1 dias (média ±DP), sendo que a fase folicular compreendeu 13,04±4,8dias e a fase lútea 11,2±4,2 dias. Os comportamentos sócio-sexuais (marcação por cheiro, cheirar genitália, catação e apresentação sexual) e a variável "proximidade" mostraram-se significativamente mais prevalentes na fase periovulatória do que nas demais fases do ciclo. Não houve alteração das concentrações de MFT dos machos ao longo de todo o período estudado. A análise conjunta das concentrações de metabólitos fecais de esteróides sexuais e dos comportamentos sócio-sexuais possibilitou um melhor entendimento das relações endócrino-comportamentais e reprodutivas de C. penicillata.


The communication of the female reproductive status in Callithrichidae relies mainly on the socio-sexual behavior, as generally the ovulation is concealed in this primate family by a primary signaling system. In this study the socio-sexual behavior patterns was analyzed in association with the concentration of fecal metabolites of sex steroid hormones progesterone (MFP), estradiol (MFE) and testosterone (MFT) in captive couples of Black-Tufted-Marmoset (Callithrix penicillata), during the different phases of the ovarian cycle. The studied group was composed of four adult couples kept in the São Paulo City Wild Animals Rehabilitation Center. The behavioral patterns were record by focal samplings, with 30 seconds intervals for each observation, five days a week, totalizing 14.400 registers per animal. The measurement of fecal metabolites of progesterone (MFP), estradiol (MFE) and testosterone (MFT) proceeded by enzyme immune assay (EIA). The results allowed to determine the duration of the ovarian cycle and to characterize three different phases (follicular, periovulatory and luteal). It was possible to determine 31 complete cycles that lasted 24.3±4.1 days (Mean ± SD). The follicular and luteal phases lasted 13.04±4.8 and the luteal phase 11.2±4.2 days. The behavioral patterns (scent marking, sniff genitals, grooming and sexual presentation) were more prevalent in the periovulatory phase as the behavioral variable "proximity" as well. There were no variations in the concentration of MFT in the males during the period studied. The associated analyses of the fecal metabolite of sex steroids and the socio-sexual behaviors led to a better understanding of the factors involved in the reproduction of C. penicillata.


Subject(s)
Animals , Callithrix/physiology , Sexual Behavior, Animal/physiology , Gonadal Steroid Hormones/isolation & purification , Social Behavior , Estradiol , Progesterone , Testosterone
7.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 47(4): 430-436, Jul-Aug/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-722297

ABSTRACT

Introduction In Triatominae, reproductive efficiency is an important factor influencing population dynamics, and a useful parameter in measuring a species' epidemiological significance as a vector of Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas, 1909). The reproductive efficiency of triatomines is affected by food availability; hence, we measured and compared the effects of feeding frequency on the reproductive parameters of Triatoma patagonica (Del Ponte, 1929) and Triatoma infestans (Klug, 1934), and the effects of starvation on T. patagonica. Methods Couples from both species were fed weekly, or every 3 weeks; in addition, females in couples of T. patagonica were not fed. Each couple was observed weekly and reproductive efficiency was assessed on the following parameters: fecundity (eggs/female), fertility (eggs hatched/eggs laid), initiation and end of oviposition, initiation of mating, number of matings/week, and number of reproductive weeks. Relative meal size index (RMS), blood consumption index (CI), and E values (eggs/mg blood) were also calculated. Results Changes in feeding frequency affected the reproductive parameters of T. patagonica only, with a decrease in fecundity and number of reproductive weeks for those fed every 3 weeks, or not fed. The reproductive period, RMS index, and CI were lower for T. patagonica than T. infestans. However, despite the lower fecundity of T. patagonica, this species required less blood to produce eggs, with an E values of 2 compared to 2.94 for T. infestans. Conclusions Our results suggest that the differences in fecundity observed between species reflect the availability of food in their natural ecotopes. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Insect Vectors/physiology , Triatoma/physiology , Insect Vectors/classification , Population Dynamics , Reproduction/physiology , Starvation , Sexual Behavior, Animal/physiology , Triatoma/classification
8.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 66(3): 681-687, 06/2014. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-718064

ABSTRACT

O desempenho reprodutivo de exemplares selvagens de beijupirá capturados no litoral de Pernambuco e aclimatados ao cativeiro foi avaliado durante 10 meses. Um plantel composto por duas fêmeas (peso de 14 a 16kg) e quatro machos (cerca de 12kg) mantidos em um único tanque de 70t produziu 48,7 milhões de ovos no período de outubro a junho. As fêmeas foram capazes de desovar 21 vezes, com uma frequência média (±DP) de uma desova a cada 11,9 dias (±2,9). Em média, cada desova produziu 2,4 milhões de ovos, com fertilização de 52,4 por cento, o que resultou em aproximadamente 1,0 milhão de larvas por desova. Os resultados demonstram a viabilidade da metodologia empregada na formação do plantel e no manejo de reprodutores e confirmam a relativa facilidade de obtenção de desovas espontâneas do beijupirá em cativeiro. Também foi confirmado que o período reprodutivo dessa espécie em cativeiro se estende além do observado na natureza. Este é o primeiro relato sobre o desempenho reprodutivo do beijupirá em cativeiro no Brasil...


The reproductive performance of wild cobia caught off the coast of Pernambuco, northeastern Brazil, was assessed. Six breeders (two females with 14-16kg and four males with approximately 12kg each) were maintained in a 70 ton tank from October to June and produced 48.7 million eggs. Females were able to spawn every 11.9 days (±2.9), which resulted in 21 spawns. On average each spawn produced 2.4 million eggs with a fertilization of 52.4 percent, which resulted in approximately 1.0 million larvae per spawn. The present results demonstrate the feasibility of the methodology employed here in the formation and management of a cobia breeding stock and confirm the ease of spawning cobia in captivity. It was also confirmed that the spawning season may be extended under captivity when compared to the wild stock. This is the first report on the reproductive performance of cobia in captivity in Brazil...


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Sexual Behavior, Animal/physiology , Perciformes/growth & development , Reproduction , Clutch Size
9.
Rev. biol. trop ; 62(1): 118-131, ene.-mar. 2014. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-715419

ABSTRACT

Euthyrhynchus floridanus (Linnaeus) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is a neotropical species belonging to the family Pentatomidae with over 4 000 species described, and is distributed from Florida to Brazil. This study describes the sexual behavior and reported for the first time the production of substrate vibrations by males and females during copulatory behavior and mating. Courtship and copulatory behavior, as well as the diverse signals, were recorded with a phonographic cartridge connected to a video camera. Female vibrations were reproduced in the absence of females and the responses by males were recorded. At least three types of substrate vibrations were distinguished in males and one in females, and these signals were characterized by their low frequency, varying from 127 to 180Hz. The sounds of E. floridianus males were significantly different in frequency, duration and number of pulses, both in courtship and in copulation, for the purring and drumming sounds. The production of sounds in this species is associated principally with mechanical, stimulatory behavior during courtship and copulation. Patterns of behavior and their relation to substrate vibrations suggest that these signals are important for the males in the context of mate location and sexual selection.


Euthyrhynchus floridanus (Linnaeus) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) es una especie neotropical perteneciente a la familia Pentatomidae con más de 4 000 especies descritas, y se distribuye desde la Florida hasta Brasil. Este estudio describe el comportamiento sexual y reporta por primera vez la producción de vibraciones de sustrato por machos y hembras durante el comportamiento precopulatorio y la cópula. Se grabó tanto el comportamiento de cortejo y de cópula como las diversas señales producidas utilizando un cartucho fonográfico, conectado a una cámara de video. Posteriormente se reprodujo las vibraciones de las hembras en ausencia de estas y se registró las respuestas de los machos. Se distinguieron al menos tres vibraciones de sustrato distintas para los machos y una para las hembras, y se caracterizaron por ser señales de baja frecuencia que van desde los 127 hasta 180Hz. Las sonidos de los machos en E. floridianus fueron significativamente diferentes en la frecuencia, duración y número de pulsos tanto en el cortejo como en la cópula para los sonidos de ronroneo y tamborileo. La producción de sonidos en esta especie se asoció principalmente con comportamientos estimulatorios- mecánicos durante el cortejo y copula. Patrones de comportamiento y su relación con las vibraciones del sustrato sugiere que estas señales pueden ser importantes para los machos en el contexto de la localización de su compañera y la selección sexual.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Copulation/physiology , Hemiptera/physiology , Sexual Behavior, Animal/physiology , Vocalization, Animal/physiology , Brazil , Hemiptera/classification , Reproduction/physiology , Sex Factors
10.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2014 Jan; 52(1): 30-35
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-150329

ABSTRACT

The behavioural assays were carried out in a Y-maze wherein intact, castrated and testosterone-treated male mice were exposed to oestrus and non-oestrus urine samples. The intact male mice investigated more frequently and spent more time in the Y-maze arm with oestrus urine than in that with non-oestrus urine. In contrast, the castrated mice were not attracted to oestrus urine, whereas testosterone-treated mice showed preference for oestrus urine. The rate of self-grooming was higher in intact males in case of exposure to oestrus urine while the rate was lower with respect to non-oestrus urine. However, castrated mice exhibited less self-grooming behaviour which was partially restored by testosterone treatment. The results suggest that self-grooming behaviour is an indicator of detection and discrimination of oestrus by males, and supports the androgen role in male chemosensory ability to discriminate between oestrus and non-oestrus female odours.


Subject(s)
Animals , Castration , Estrous Cycle/metabolism , Estrous Cycle/physiology , Estrus/metabolism , Estrus/physiology , Female , Grooming/physiology , Male , Mice , Odorants , Sexual Behavior, Animal/physiology , Testosterone/metabolism
11.
Alexandria Journal of Veterinary Sciences [AJVS]. 2014; 41: 62-67
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-160069

ABSTRACT

The present study is a trial to improve the reproductive performance of dairy cows following the administration of an immune-stimulant prebiotic drug during the transition period. A total number of 30 dairy cows, 3-8 years old and 1-6 parities, were assigned into two comparable groups: 20 cows were taken Celmanax, as a immune-stimulant prebiotic drug, and 10 cows were left as control. The obtained results showed a non-significant reduction in the rate of retained placenta and the number of service/conception, significant shortness in time of uterine involution and the days open as well as improvement of the conception rate for the treated rather than for the non-treated dairy cattle. The serum IgG and IgM increased, while the serum Nitric oxide decreased from the 30th day before to the 15th day after parturition in the treated group. From the present study, it can be concluded that supplementation of dairy cattle by Celmanax, as an immunopotentiating factor, helps in improvement of the reproductive performance of the dairy cattle incorporation with the increase in the serum immune-stimulant responses of IgG / IgM and the decrease in the serum nitric oxide


Subject(s)
Animals , Sexual Behavior, Animal/physiology , Reproductive Behavior
12.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 108(supl.1): 18-25, 2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-697829

ABSTRACT

Dengue is one of the world’s most important mosquito-borne diseases and is usually transmitted by one of two vector species: Aedes aegypti or Aedes albopictus . These two diurnal mosquitoes are frequently found coexisting in similar habitats, enabling interactions between adults, such as cross-mating. The objective of this study was to assess cross-mating between Ae. aegypti females and Ae. albopictus males under artificial conditions and evaluate the locomotor activity of Ae. aegypti virgin females injected with male accessory gland (MAG) homogenates to infer the physiological and behavioural responses to interspecific mating. After seven days of exposure, 3.3-16% of Ae. aegypti females mated with Ae. albopictus males. Virgin Ae. aegypti females injected with conspecific and heterospecific MAGs showed a general decrease in locomotor activity compared to controls and were refractory to mating with conspecific males. The reduction in diurnal locomotor activity induced by injections of conspecific or heterospecific MAGs is consistent with regulation of female reproductive activities by male substances, which are capable of sterilising female Ae. aegypti through satyrisation by Ae. albopictus .


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Aedes/physiology , Insect Vectors/physiology , Insemination/physiology , Motor Activity/physiology , Sexual Behavior, Animal/physiology , Behavior, Animal/physiology , Dengue/transmission , Sex Factors , Species Specificity
13.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 108(supl.1): 26-33, 2013. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-697833

ABSTRACT

Acoustic signalling has been extensively studied in insect species, which has led to a better understanding of sexual communication, sexual selection and modes of speciation. The significance of acoustic signals for a blood-sucking insect was first reported in the XIX century by Christopher Johnston, studying the hearing organs of mosquitoes, but has received relatively little attention in other disease vectors until recently. Acoustic signals are often associated with mating behaviour and sexual selection and changes in signalling can lead to rapid evolutionary divergence and may ultimately contribute to the process of speciation. Songs can also have implications for the success of novel methods of disease control such as determining the mating competitiveness of modified insects used for mass-release control programs. Species-specific sound “signatures” may help identify incipient species within species complexes that may be of epidemiological significance, e.g. of higher vectorial capacity, thereby enabling the application of more focussed control measures to optimise the reduction of pathogen transmission. Although the study of acoustic communication in insect vectors has been relatively limited, this review of research demonstrates their value as models for understanding both the functional and evolutionary significance of acoustic communication in insects.


Subject(s)
Animals , Animal Communication , Diptera/physiology , Hemiptera/physiology , Insect Vectors/physiology , Sound , Species Specificity , Sexual Behavior, Animal/physiology
14.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 108(supl.1): 88-91, 2013. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-697835

ABSTRACT

Lutzomyia longipalpis s.l. is the main vector of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) and occurs as a species complex. DNA samples from two Brazilian sympatric species that differ in pheromone and courtship song production were used to analyse molecular polymorphisms in an odorant-binding protein ( obp29 ) gene. OBPs are proteins related to olfaction and are involved in activities fundamental to survival, such as foraging, mating and choice of oviposition site. In this study, the marker obp29 was found to be highly polymorphic in Lu. longipalpis s.l. , with no fixed differences observed between the two species. A pairwise fixation index test indicated a moderate level of genetic differentiation between the samples analysed.


Subject(s)
Animals , Insect Vectors/genetics , Psychodidae/genetics , Receptors, Odorant/genetics , Sexual Behavior, Animal/physiology , Sympatry/genetics , Brazil , Genetic Fitness , Pheromones/genetics , Polymorphism, Genetic/genetics , Reproductive Isolation , Sequence Analysis, DNA
15.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 10(4): 847-854, Oct. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-654944

ABSTRACT

Considering that reproduction studies are fundamental to understand the life cycle of organisms, this study aimed to investigate the reproductive strategies of saguirus Cyphocharax nagelii and Steindachnerina insculpta in a dam of Mogi Guaçu River, (SP). Specimens were collected between August 2005 and July 2006 using gillnets with mesh sizes ranging from 1.5 to 5.0 cm between adjacent knots. Reproductive dynamics, body condition, reproductive period, spawning type and fecundity were analyzed in both species. The body condition reflected the reproductive dynamics, and differed significantly between the wet and dry seasons. During the dry season, the feeding activity and the accumulation of fat in the visceral cavity were higher. The reproductive period of both species covered the months between August and February, with peaks in October and December, and the distribution of the diameters of oocytes allowed to classify them as total spawners. The fecundity increased with weight and length, reaching 28,800 and 27,906 oocytes per female for C. nagelii and S. insculpta, respectively, whereas the amplitude of oocyte diameters varied between 50-1025 µm for the former and 75-975 µm for the later species. Taking into account that species with different reproductive strategies also respond differently to environmental impacts, our findings provide important information to subsidize management plans for these curimatid species.


Considerando que o conhecimento da reprodução é fundamental para a compreensão do ciclo de vida dos organismos, este trabalho buscou avaliar as estratégias reprodutivas dos saguirus Cyphocharax nagelii e Steindachnerina insculpta em um represamento no rio Mogi Guaçu (SP). Os exemplares foram coletados entre agosto de 2005 e julho de 2006 com redes-de-espera (com tamanhos de malha variando entre 1,5 e 5,0 cm entre nós adjacentes). A dinâmica reprodutiva, a condição corporal, o período reprodutivo, o tipo de desova e a fecundidade foram os parâmetros reprodutivos analisados nas duas espécies. A condição corpórea refletiu a dinâmica reprodutiva, sendo significativamente diferente entre os períodos seco e chuvoso. Durante o período seco, a atividade alimentar e o acúmulo de gordura na cavidade visceral foram maiores. O período reprodutivo das duas espécies abrangeu os meses entre agosto e fevereiro, com picos em outubro e dezembro, e a distribuição dos diâmetros de ovócitos permitiu classificá-las como desovadoras totais. A fecundidade aumentou com o peso e com o comprimento, atingindo em média 28.800 e 27.906 ovócitos por fêmea, para C. nagelii e S. insculpta, respectivamente, ao passo que a amplitude de diâmetros ovocitários variou de 50 a 1.025 µm para a primeira e de 75 a 975 µm para a segunda espécie. Considerando que espécies com estratégias reprodutivas diferentes também respondem de modos diferentes aos impactos ambientais, as informações obtidas são importantes subsídios para nortear medidas de manejo para essas espécies de curimatídeos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Characiformes/growth & development , Characiformes/physiology , Reproduction , Sexual Behavior, Animal/physiology , Oocytes/growth & development
16.
Rev. biol. trop ; 60(3): 1259-1270, Sept. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-659586

ABSTRACT

Studies in transgenic soybean crops in Buenos Aires province, Argentina, revealed that Alpaida veniliae is one of the most abundant species in the guild of orb web spiders. This species is an effective natural enemy of insect pests affecting this crop. In the present study we carried out a descriptive and quantitative analysis of sexual behavior (courtship, mating and post-mating) of A. veniliae. The spiders were collected in transgenic soybean crops located in Chivilcoy (35º01’ S - 60º06’ W), Buenos Aires, Argentina, and reared under laboratory conditions. Based on observations of 20 couples (with virgin females), behavioral units of male and female in terms of postures and movements, including details on duration and frequency, were described at all stages of sexual activity (courtship, mating and post-mating). Courtship exhibited the greatest number and duration of behavioral units in both sexes. Male and female had a sequence of 16 and nine units, respectively, being the frequency of repetitions of the units significantly higher in the male. Mating was brief and males used a single palp to fill only one of the female spermathecae, after which the female became unreceptive. Mating had two behavioral units in the male and only one in the female. During post-mating males had three and females two behavioral units. The average duration of the whole sexual behavior was 541.90±123.1 seconds for the male and 338.20±74.1 seconds for the female. Alpaida veniliae females rarely accept a second mating with the same or another male (remating), indicating a strict monogamy. In 46% of observed mating, the female cannibalized the male after it. Females became unattractive after mating, since stop producing sex pheromones, causing a reduction of the male vibratory courtship. The high cost of courtship, including the risk of cannibalism, would reinforce the selectivity of males towards receptive virgin females.


Estudios realizados en cultivos de soja transgénica en la provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina, revelaron que Alpaida veniliae es una de las especies más abundantes dentro del gremio de arañas orbiculares. Esta especie es un eficaz enemigo natural de las plagas de insectos de este cultivo. En el presente estudio se llevó a cabo un análisis descriptivo y cuantitativo de la conducta sexual (cortejo, cópula y post-cópula) de A. veniliae. Las arañas fueron recolectadas en cultivos de soja transgénica ubicados en Chivilcoy (35º01’ S - 60º06’ W), (Buenos Aires, Argentina) y criadas en condiciones de laboratorio. A partir de la formación de 20 parejas (con hembras vírgenes), se observaron las unidades de comportamiento de machos y hembras, en términos de posturas y movimientos, incluyendo los detalles de su duración y frecuencia en todas las etapas del apareamiento. El cortejo exhibió el mayor número y la mayor duración de las unidades de comportamiento en ambos sexos. La secuencia de unidades fue 16 en el macho y nueve en la hembra, siendo la frecuencia de repeticiones de las unidades significativamente mayor en el macho. La cópula fue breve y el macho usó un solo palpo transfiriendo esperma a una sola espermateca de la hembra. Hubo dos unidades de comportamiento en el macho y una en la hembra. Durante la post-cópula el macho tuvo tres y la hembra dos unidades de comportamiento. La duración media de todo el comportamiento sexual fue 541.90±123.1 segundos para el macho y 338.20±74.1 segundos para la hembra. La hembra de A. veniliae sólo excepcionalmente aceptó una segunda cópula con el mismo u otro macho, lo que indica una monogamia estricta. En el 46% de las cópulas observadas la hembra canibalizó al macho al terminar la misma. Debido a que a partir de este momento dejan de producir feromonas sexuales, se vuelven no receptivas y provocan una reducción del cortejo del macho. El alto costo del cortejo del macho, incluyendo el riesgo de canibalismo, reforzaría la selectividad de éstos hacia las hembras receptivas vírgenes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Courtship , Sexual Behavior, Animal/physiology , Spiders/physiology , Cannibalism , Mating Preference, Animal , Sex Factors , Spiders/classification , Time Factors
17.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 10(1): 159-166, 2012. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-624077

ABSTRACT

The reproductive and feeding biology of Acestrorhynchus pantaneiro were studied in the upper Uruguay River, southern Brazil. Fourteen sites were surveyed seasonally between 2000 and 2006. A total of 3,427 fish were caught, being 2,015 females and 1,412 males. The sex ratio was 1.66:1 (female:male) in lentic habitats (p<0.05), but showed equal proportion in lotic and transition habitats. Feeding activity was similar for both sexes and showed little variation along the year. The analysis of stomach contents of 2,401 stomach showed that "fish" was the most consumed resource in all different habitats, corresponding to 99% of the food in the gravimetric analyzes. The species showed a multiple spawning type with a long reproductive period, although the highest intensity of reproduction occurred between the beginning of spring and summer, marked by the highest GSI and advanced gonadal maturity stages. Relative fecundity (mean ± SD) was 139 ± 56 oocytes per mm of total length and 152 ± 66 oocytes per gram of total weight. The mean absolute fecundity was 33,470 ± 19,151 oocytes and the average of the mature oocytes diameter was 897.5 ± 365.4 µm. Acestrorhynchus pantaneiro is more abundant in lentic environments and presents biological characteristics that favor the establishment of the species in dammed rivers.


A biologia reprodutiva e alimentar do peixe-cachorro Acestrorhynchus pantaneiro foi avaliada na região do alto rio Uruguai, sul do Brasil. Um total de 3.427 exemplares foram capturados, em 14 estações amostradas sazonalmente no período entre 2000 e 2006. Destes, 2.015 eram fêmeas e 1.412 machos. A proporção sexual nos ambientes lênticos foi de 1,66:1 (fêmeas:machos) (p<0,05), apresentando proporções semelhantes nos ambientes lóticos e de transição lótico-lêntico. A atividade alimentar foi semelhante entre os sexos e apresentou pequena variação ao longo do ano. A análise de 2.401 estômagos revelou que a espécie alimentou-se predominantemente da categoria "peixe" em todos os ambientes amostrados, representando 99% do alimento pela análise gravimétrica. O período reprodutivo é longo e se estende por quase todo o ano, embora esteja mais concentrado entre o início da primavera e o verão, quando foram observados os maiores valores da relação gonadossomática e dos estádios avançados de maturação gonadal. A desova é do tipo parcelada. A fecundidade absoluta (média ± DP) é de 33.470 ± 19.151 ovócitos, enquanto a fecundidade relativa é de 139 ± 56 ovócitos/mm e 152 ± 66 ovócitos/g. O diâmetro médio dos ovócitos maduros é de 897,5 ± 365,4 µm. Acestrorhynchus pantaneiro é mais abundante nos ambientes lênticos e apresenta características biológicas que favorecem o estabelecimento da espécie em ambientes formados pelo represamento dos rios.


Subject(s)
Animals , Aquatic Environment/analysis , Characiformes/growth & development , Sexual Behavior, Animal/physiology , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Feeding Behavior/ethnology
18.
Rev. biol. trop ; 59(1): 363-372, mar. 2011. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-638072

ABSTRACT

Reproductive season onset and time invested in territory defense in Colinus leucopogon males (Galliformes: Odontophoridae). The factors that determine the onset of the reproductive season and the relationship between territory defense and mating success of Colinus leucopogon males are unknown. Here I report on climatic variables influencing the time of permanence on the territory, and how this affects the species mating success. I also analyze the relationship between the time devoted by males on territory defense and the relationship of song and territorial characteristics. The onset of the reproductive season was determined by an amount of rain greater than 14.3mm during March, favouring the food availability and nesting places abundance, and also allowed an increase in the reproductive success of Colinus leucopogon. The time invested in territory defense by males was not related with their mating success. Moreover, the duration in territory defense was similar for males that paired, compared with those that did not. In addition, song and territory characteristics were not related with males invested time in their territory defense. Therefore, this could be another reason explaining the lack of a relationship between the duration in the territories by males and pair formation, and suggests that song characteristics strongly influence the formation of pairs in this species. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (1): 363-372. Epub 2011 March 01.


Los factores que determinan el inicio de la época reproductiva, y la relación entre el tiempo que un macho de Colinus leucopogon defiende su territorio con el éxito reproductivo del mismo son desconocidos. Por lo tanto aquí se reporta el efecto de variables climáticas sobre el inicio de la época reproductiva, y el efecto de la duración de los machos en su territorio con el éxito de adquirir pareja. También se analiza la relación entre la duración de los machos en su territorio con las características del canto y el territorio. Precipitaciones superiores a 14.3mm en marzo determinaron el inicio de la época reproductiva. Esto favoreció el incremento de alimento y sitios para anidar, lo que podría incrementar el éxito reproductivo de la especie. La duración de los machos dentro de su territorio no se asoció con la adquisición de pareja, debido a que machos que logran emparejarse duraron un tiempo similar en sus territorios, que machos que no se emparejaron. Las características del canto y el territorio tampoco se relacionaron con la duración del macho dentro de su territorio. Por lo tanto esto puede ser otra causa para que no se haya encontrado una relación entre la duración del macho en su territorio con la formación de parejas, ya que las características del canto son las que más influyen en la formación de parejas en esta especie.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Colinus/physiology , Sexual Behavior, Animal/physiology , Territoriality , Reproduction/physiology , Seasons
19.
Neotrop. entomol ; 39(2): 235-240, mar.-abr. 2010.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-547686

ABSTRACT

The importance of the protein ingestion during the adult stage on the mating success of males of Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann was evaluated in experiments of laboratory and field cage. In laboratory, the effects of protein ingestion during the first four or 12 days of the male adult life was assessed by the following parameters: mating success (capacity of being chosen by the female) and the number of males that give out pheromonal signals. Some experiments of mating success had been carried through with males in different ratios. In these tests, the number of males which had ingested protein (an unique male) was remained constant and the number of males fed without protein was gradually increased from 1:1 to 1:5. In the field cages, the mating success experiments were done using a 1:1 ratio. The results showed that the protein ingestion in the first four days of life did not influence any of the analyzed parameters. When the period of ingestion of protein was extended to 12 days, protein-fed males fed produced more pheromonal signals and had a higher mating success when at a 1:1 ratio in laboratory and field cage assays. In laboratory, females randomly chose males in any other tested ratio (1:2, 1:3, 1:4 and 1:5), indicating that the female may lose the perception to identify the male who ingested protein in the first 12 days.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Ceratitis capitata , Dietary Proteins , Sexual Behavior, Animal/physiology
20.
Rev. biol. trop ; 57(1/2): 361-370, March-June 2009. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-637724

ABSTRACT

Males of the damselfly Hetaerina rosea may defend mating sites along river margins (resident males) or, alternatively, wander among different areas presumably searching for mates (nonterritorial males). Although the occurrence of territorial and nonterritorial males of H. rosea is very common in Brazil, studies examining which factors may be responsible for the adoption of alternative mate-locating tactics in this species are inexistent. We investigated the relationship between the adoption of these alternative mate-locating tactics by males of H. rosea and two possible causes: body weight and male abundance. We carried the study in three areas: sites 1, 2 and 3. Samples were monthly undertaken in sites 1 and 2 between September/2001 and August/2002 and in site 3 between May/1999 and January/2001. Using the scan method with fixed areas and mark-resighting techniques, we did not find any relationship between the proportion of nonterritorial males and male abundance per month on sites 2 (n=6) and 3 (n=7), indicating that the adoption of alternative mate-locating tactics is not affected by competition for territories. In the same way, nonterritorial and resident males showed similar body and thoracic weight measures (n=30 and n=27 for sites 2 and 3 respectively). Maybe the nonterritorial tactic is adopted by individuals searching for better territories or males that were evicted from their defended sites. The absence of relationship between weight and male territorial status is in accordance with other Hetaerina species. However, other traits not investigated here such as parasitic load, fat content and age may influence the adoption of different mate-acquisition tactics in H. rosea males. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (1-2): 361-370. Epub 2009 June 30.


Los machos de la libélula Hetaerina rosea pueden defender sus sitios de apareamiento a lo largo de márgenes de ríos (machos residentes) o, alternativamente, deambulan entre diferentes áreas presumiblemente buscando pareja (machos no territoriales). Aunque la existencia de machos territoriales y no territoriales de H. rosea es muy común en Brasil, no hay estudios que examinen cuáles factores pueden ser responsables para la adopción de tácticas alternativas para localizar pareja en esta especie. Investigamos la relación entre la adopción de estas tácticas alternativas para localizar pareja por machos de H. rosea, y dos posibles causas: peso del cuerpo y abundancia de machos. Realizamos el estudio en tres áreas: sitios 1, 2 y 3. Las muestras se tomaron mensualmente en sitios 1 y 2 entre setiembre 2001 y agosto 2002, y en sitio 3 entre mayo 1999 y enero 2001. La adopción de tácticas alternativas de localización de machos no se ve afectada por competencia por territorios. La ausencia de relación entre peso y estatus del macho territorial coincide con otras especies de Hetaerina. No obstante, otros rasgos que no fueron estudiados aquí, como la carga de parásitos, contenido de grasa y edad, pueden influenciar la adopción de diferentes tácticas de adquisición de pareja en machos de H. rosea.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Insecta/physiology , Sexual Behavior, Animal/physiology , Territoriality , Brazil , Insecta/anatomy & histology , Insecta/classification , Population Density , Seasons , Sex Ratio
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