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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927869

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the rate and correlates of receiving human immunodeficiency virus(HIV) serostatus disclosure from their most recent male sexual partners among men who have sex with men(MSM) aged 50 and above. Methods With a geosocial networking application,we recruited participants through online convenience sampling to collect the demographic variables,behavioral information,receiving HIV serostatus disclosure,etc.Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to interpret the associated factors of receiving HIV serostatus disclosure. Results Overall,38.4%(398/1037) of participants received HIV serostatus disclosure from their most recent male sexual partners.The multivariable analysis demonstrated that the following populations were less likely to receive HIV serostatus disclosure from their most recent male sexual partners:participants with junior high school degree or below(OR=0.660,95%CI=0.473-0.922, P=0.015) compared to those with senior high school degree or above;participants unemployed(OR=0.537,95%CI=0.322-0.896, P=0.017) and employed(OR=0.663,95%CI=0.466-0.944, P=0.022) compared to those retired;participants without knowledge about HIV or acquired immune deficiency syndrome(AIDS) compared to those with knowledge about HIV/AIDS(OR=0.636,95%CI=0.466-0.868, P=0.004);participants having ≥2 male sexual partners in the last year(OR=0.433,95%CI=0.320-0.586, P<0.001) compared to those having none or one male sexual partner;participants never been tested for HIV(OR=0.544,95%CI=0.403-0.734, P<0.001) compared to those ever been tested for HIV;participants ever been diagnosed to have sexually transmitted infection(STI)(OR=0.472,95%CI=0.349-0.637, P<0.001) compared to those never diagnosed to have STI;and participants with higher level of HIV stigma(OR=0.742,95%CI=0.604-0.912, P=0.005). Conclusions Our findings indicated that the MSM aged 50 and above had low possibility of receiving HIV serostatus disclosure from the most recent male sexual partners.Education,employment status,number of sexual partners,HIV/AIDS-related knowledge,HIV testing behaviors,STI infection history,and HIV stigma contributed to this result.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Disclosure , Female , HIV , HIV Infections , Homosexuality, Male , Humans , Male , Sexual Behavior , Sexual Partners , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/diagnosis
2.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1380600

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: analisar a frequência de sífilis entre os usuários do Centro de Testagem e Aconselhamento de Montes Claros, Minas Gerais, e os fatores associados à infecção. Método: trata-se de um estudo transversal, com componentes descritivos e analíticos, realizado com usuários atendidos no serviço entre 2014 e 2019. Os dados foram coletados de fonte secundária, por amostragem aleatória e sistemática. Resultados: a amostra foi composta por 957 formulários de usuários e a frequência de casos de testes rápidos reagentes para sífilis foi de 11,3%, com distribuição semelhante entre os sexos. O diagnóstico da sífilis se associou de forma significativa às variáveis: situação conjugal, idade, escolaridade, quantidade de parcerias sexuais, orientação sexual e uso de drogas no último ano. Conclusão: programas de aconselhamento e testagem rápida devem ser incentivados para prevenção e diminuição das infecções sexualmente transmissíveis em Montes Claros e em todo país


Objective: to analyze the frequency of syphilis among users of the Testing and Counseling Center in Montes Claros, Minas Gerais, and the factors associated with the infection. Method: this is a cross-sectional study, with descriptive and analytical components, carried out with users seen at the service between 2014 and 2019. Data were collected from a secondary source, by random and systematic sampling. Results: the sample consisted of 957 user forms and the frequency of cases of rapid reactive tests for syphilis was 11.3%, with similar distribution between genders. The diagnosis of syphilis was significantly associated with the variables: marital status, age, education, number of sexual partners, sexual orientation and drug use in the last year. Conclusion:counseling and rapid testing programs should be encouraged to prevent and reduce sexually transmitted infections in Montes Claros and across the country


Objetivo: analizar la frecuencia de sífilis entre los usuarios del Centro de Asesoramiento y Pruebas en Montes Claros, Minas Gerais y los factores asociados a la infección. Método: se trata de un estudio transversal, con componentes descriptivos y analíticos, realizado con usuarios atendidos en el servicio entre 2014 y 2019. Los datos se recolectaron de una fuente secundaria, mediante muestreo aleatorio y sistemático. Resultados: la muestra estuvo conformada por 957 formularios de usuario y la frecuencia de casos de pruebas reactivas rápidas para sífilis fue de 11,3%, con distribución similar entre géneros. El diagnóstico de sífilis se asoció significativamente con las variables: estado civil, edad, educación, número de parejas sexuales, orientación sexual. y consumo de drogas en el último año. Conclusión: se deben fomentar los programas de asesoramiento y pruebas rápidas para prevenir y reducir las infecciones de transmisión sexual en Montes Claros y en todo el país


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Syphilis/diagnosis , Syphilis/epidemiology , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/diagnosis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Sexual Behavior , Risk Factors , Disease Prevention
3.
Rev. bras. anal. clin ; 53(3): 239-244, 20210930.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1368574

ABSTRACT

A OMS estima que mais de 1 milhão de infecções sexualmente transmissíveis é adquirido todos os dias em todo o mundo. Dentre as ISTs, a clamídia é a principal causa da doença inflamatória pélvica e de infertilidade em mulheres em todo o mundo. Para esta pesquisa foi realizada uma revisão sistemática. O processo de revisão foi realizado através de uma busca na base de dados eletrônica, como PubMed, Scielo, Google Acadêmico, e em livros didáticos, utilizando os descritores infertilidade, IST, Chlamydia trachomatis. O objetivo deste estudo é buscar na literatura estudos que relatam a relação da Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) com problemas de infertilidade e os melhores métodos de diagnósticos e custo/benefício. O estudo concluiu que a CT é uma IST bastante prevalente no mundo e preocupante devido às complicações que muitas vezes são irreversíveis, como a infertilidade. Dentre os testes existentes no mercado, a PCR e a captura híbrida foram os que apresentaram melhor sensibilidade e especificidade.


The WHO estimates that more than 1 million sexually transmitted infections are acquired every day worldwide. Among STIs, chlamydia is the main cause of pelvic inflammatory disease and infertility in women worldwide. For this research a systematic review was carried out. The review process was carried out through a search in the electronic database, such as Pubmed, Scielo, Google Scholar and in textbooks, using the descriptors infertility, IST, Chlamydia trachomatis. The aim of this study is to search the literature for studies that report the relationship between CT and infertility problems and the best diagnostic methods and cost benefit. The study concludes that CT is an STI that is quite prevalent in the world and worrisome due to complications that are often irreversible such as infertility. Among the tests on the market, PCR and hybrid capture showed the best sensitivity and specificity.


Subject(s)
Sexually Transmitted Diseases/diagnosis , Chlamydia trachomatis , Pelvic Inflammatory Disease/diagnosis , Infertility
4.
Epidemiol. serv. saúde ; 30(spe1): e2020549, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154161

ABSTRACT

O artigo sintetiza o capítulo sobre vigilância epidemiológica das infecções sexualmente transmissíveis (IST), que compõe o Protocolo Clínico e Diretrizes Terapêuticas (PDCT) para Atenção Integral às Pessoas com IST 2020, publicado pela Secretaria de Vigilância em Saúde, do Ministério da Saúde do Brasil. São apresentadas algumas reflexões sobre as novas definições de caso, para vigilância da sífilis adquirida, sífilis em gestantes e sífilis congênita. O PCDT-IST 2020 foi elaborado com base em evidências científicas e validado em discussões com especialistas. Também são abordados aspectos epidemiológicos e clínicos, bem como orientações para gestores no manejo programático e operacional desses agravos, e para profissionais de saúde na triagem, diagnóstico e tratamento das pessoas com IST e suas parcerias sexuais, além de estratégias de ação para a vigilância, prevenção e controle.


This article summarizes the chapter on epidemiological surveillance of sexually transmitted infections (STI) that forms part of the Clinical Protocol and Treatment Guidelines (PDCT) for Comprehensive Care for People with STI 2020), published by the Health Surveillance Secretariat of the Ministry of Health of Brazil. It presents some reflections on the new case definitions for surveillance of acquired syphilis, syphilis in pregnant women and congenital syphilis. The PCDT-IST 2020 was developed based on scientific evidence and validated in discussions with specialists. Epidemiological and clinical aspects are addressed, as well as guidelines for health service managers regarding programmatic and operational management of these diseases, guidelines for health professionals on screening, diagnosing and treating people with STIs and their sex partners, in addition to strategies for surveillance, prevention and control actions.


El artículo resume el capítulo sobre Vigilancia Epidemiológica de las Infecciones de Transmisión Sexual (ITS) que compone el Protocolo Clínico y Directrices Terapéuticas para Atención Integral a las Personas con Infecciones de Transmisión Sexual 2020 (PCDT-ITS 2020), publicado por la Secretaría de Vigilancia Sanitaria del Ministerio de Salud de Brasil y presenta algunas reflexiones sobre las nuevas definiciones de casos de la vigilancia de sífilis adquirida, sífilis en gestantes y sífilis congénita. El PCDT-ITS 2020 fue elaborado en base a la evidencia científica y validado en discusiones con especialistas. En este artículo, se presentan aspectos epidemiológicos y clínicos, así como pautas para los gerentes en el manejo programático y operativo de estas enfermedades, a los profesionales de la salud en la detección, diagnóstico y tratamiento de personas con ITS y sus parejas sexuales, además de estrategias para acciones de vigilancia, prevención y control.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Syphilis, Congenital/epidemiology , Syphilis/epidemiology , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/epidemiology , Public Health Surveillance , Brazil/epidemiology , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/diagnosis , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/therapy , Clinical Protocols , Disease Notification/statistics & numerical data , Epidemiological Monitoring
5.
Epidemiol. serv. saúde ; 30(spe1): e2020633, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154152

ABSTRACT

Este artigo aborda as infecções que causam corrimento uretral, tema que compõe o Protocolo Clínico e Diretrizes Terapêuticas para Atenção Integral às Pessoas com Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis, publicado pelo Ministério da Saúde do Brasil em 2020. Tal documento foi elaborado com base em evidências científicas e validado em discussões com especialistas. As uretrites, quando não tratadas de maneira correta, ou quando o microrganismo desenvolve resistência ao tratamento empregado, podem causar danos graves e até irreversíveis à saúde. Os níveis de resistência antimicrobiana que esses agentes têm desenvolvido são considerados uma emergência global em saúde pública. Neste artigo, são apresentados aspectos epidemiológicos e clínicos, recomendações sobre diagnóstico e tratamento e estratégias para as ações de vigilância, prevenção e controle das infecções que causam corrimento uretral, com a finalidade de contribuir com gestores e profissionais de saúde para a qualificação da assistência.


This article approach infections that cause urethral discharge, theme which is part of the Clinical Protocol and Therapeutic Guidelines for Comprehensive Care for People with Sexually Transmitted Infections, published by the Ministry of Health of Brazil in 2020. These guidelines were prepared based on scientific evidence and validated in discussions with experts. When urethritis is not treated correctly, or when the microorganism develops antimicrobial resistance, it can cause serious and even irreversible health damage. It is noteworthy that the high levels of antimicrobial resistance developed by pathogens that causes urethritis comprises a global emergency in public health. This article presents epidemiological and clinical aspects, recommendations on diagnostic and treatment, and strategies for surveillance, prevention and control actions of infections that cause urethral discharge, with the purpose of contributing with managers and health professionals to care qualification.


El artículo trata de las infecciones que causan secreción uretral, tema que hace parte del Protocolo Clínico y Directrices Terapéuticas para Atención Integral a Personas con Infecciones de Transmisión Sexual, publicado por el Ministerio de Salud de Brasil en 2020. Dicho documento se elaboró con base en evidencias científicas y se validó en discusiones con expertos. Las uretritis, cuando no tratadas correctamente o cuando el microorganismo desarrolla resistencia al tratamiento, puede ocasionar daños graves a la salud. Los niveles de resistencia antimicrobiana que estos agentes desarrollan son considerados una emergencia de salud pública. En este artículo, se presentan aspectos epidemiológicos y clínicos, recomendaciones para el diagnóstico y tratamiento y estrategias para acciones de monitoreo epidemiológico, prevención y control de las infecciones que causan secreción uretral, a fin de contribuir con gestores y personal de salud para la cualificación de la asistencia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Urethritis/therapy , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/diagnosis , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/therapy , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/epidemiology , Clinical Protocols , Brazil/epidemiology , Chlamydia Infections/therapy , Gonorrhea/therapy
6.
Epidemiol. serv. saúde ; 30(spe1): e2020593, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154147

ABSTRACT

O tema corrimento vaginal é um dos capítulos que compõem o Protocolo Clínico e Diretrizes Terapêuticas para Atenção Integral às Pessoas com Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis, publicado pelo Ministério da Saúde do Brasil em 2020. Tal documento foi elaborado com base em evidências científicas e validado em discussões com especialistas. Neste artigo, são apresentados aspectos epidemiológicos e clínicos relacionados às situações de corrimento vaginal, bem como orientações aos gestores e profissionais de saúde na triagem, diagnóstico e tratamento desses agravos, que constituem uma das principais queixas entre mulheres que procuram serviços de saúde e que podem ser causados por fatores infecciosos ou não infecciosos. Além disso, são apresentadas informações sobre estratégias para as ações de vigilância, prevenção e controle, a fim de promover o conhecimento do problema e a oferta de assistência de qualidade e tratamento efetivo.


The topic of vaginal discharge is one of the chapters of the Clinical Protocol and Therapeutic Guidelines for Comprehensive Care for People with Sexually Transmitted Infections, published by the Brazilian Ministry of Health in 2020. The chapter has been developed based on scientific evidence and validated in discussions with specialists. This article presents epidemiological and clinical aspects related to vaginal discharge conditions, as well as guidelines for health service managers and health professionals about screening, diagnosing and treating these conditions, which are one of the main complaints among women seeking health services, and which may be caused by infectious or non-infectious factors. In addition, information is presented on strategies for surveillance, prevention and control actions, in order to promote knowledge of the problem and provision of quality care and effective treatment.


El tema del flujo vaginal es uno de los capítulos del Protocolo Clínico y Directrices Terapéuticas para la Atención Integral a las Personas con Infecciones de Transmisión Sexual, publicado por el Ministerio de Salud de Brasil en 2020. El documento fue desarrollado en base a evidencia científica y validado en discusiones con especialistas. En este artículo se presentan aspectos epidemiológicos y clínicos relacionados a las situaciones de flujo vaginal, así como pautas para gestores y profesionales de la salud en el cribado, diagnóstico y tratamiento de esas complicaciones, que son una de las principales quejas entre las mujeres que buscan servicios de salud y que pueden ser causadas por factores infecciosos o no infecciosos. Además, se presenta información sobre estrategias para acciones de vigilancia, prevención y control, con el fin de promover la comprensión del problema y la oferta de asistencia de calidad y tratamiento eficaz.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Vaginitis/epidemiology , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/diagnosis , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/epidemiology , Quality of Health Care , Vaginitis/diagnosis , Brazil/epidemiology , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/prevention & control
7.
Epidemiol. serv. saúde ; 30(spe1): e2020630, 2021. graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154151

ABSTRACT

As recomendações de testes diagnósticos para investigação da sífilis compõem o Protocolo Clínico e Diretrizes Terapêuticas para Atenção Integral às Pessoas com Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis e o Manual Técnico para Diagnóstico de Sífilis, publicados pelo Ministério da Saúde do Brasil. Tais recomendações foram elaboradas com base em evidências científicas e discussões com painel de especialistas. Visando contribuir com gestores e profissionais de saúde na qualificação da assistência, este artigo apresenta o uso dos exames diretos para detecção de Treponema pallidum em lesões, assim como algoritmos que combinam testes imunológicos treponêmicos e não treponêmicos para auxiliar no diagnóstico da sífilis. O artigo também apresenta o uso dos testes não treponêmicos para investigação de neurossífilis e orientações para interpretação do título dos anticorpos não treponêmicos no monitoramento do tratamento e diagnóstico de sífilis congênita, bem como as perspectivas futuras de inovações em diagnóstico. Ressalta-se, além disso, o importante papel dos testes rápidos imunocromatográficos treponêmicos para a saúde pública e o enfrentamento da sífilis.


The recommendations for diagnostic tests for investigating syphilis are part of the Clinical Protocol and Therapeutic Guidelines for Comprehensive Care for People with Sexually Transmitted Infections and the Technical Manual for Syphilis Diagnosis, published by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. These recommendations were developed based on scientific evidence and discussions with a panel of experts. Aiming to contribute to the efforts of health service managers and health professionals in qualifying health care, this article presents the use of direct tests to detect Treponema pallidum in lesions, as well as algorithms that combine treponemal and non-treponemal antibody tests to assist in the diagnosis of syphilis. The article also covers use of non-treponemal tests to investigate neurosyphilis and guidelines for interpreting non-treponemal antibody titers in monitoring treatment and diagnosis of congenital syphilis, as well as prospects for innovations in diagnosis. The important role of rapid immunochromatographic treponemal tests for public health and for addressing syphilis is also highlighted.


Las recomendaciones de las pruebas de diagnóstico de sífilis forman parte del Protocolo Clínico y Directrices Terapéuticas para la Atención Integral a las Personas con Infecciones de Transmisión Sexual y del Manual Técnico para el Diagnóstico de Sífilis, publicados por el Ministerio de Salud de Brasil. Estos documentos fueron preparados en base a la evidencia científica y discusiones con especialistas. Con el objetivo de contribuir con los administradores y profesionales de la salud pública en la calificación de la atención, este artículo presenta el uso de pruebas directas para la detección de Treponema pallidum en lesiones, además de algoritmos que combinan pruebas treponémicas y no treponémicas para ayudar al diagnóstico. También se presentan las pruebas no treponémicas para investigar la neurosífilis y orientaciones para la interpretación de títulos de anticuerpos no treponémicos para monitorear la respuesta al tratamiento y diagnosticar la sífilis congénita, así como las perspectivas futuras para las innovaciones diagnósticas. También se enfatiza el uso de pruebas inmunocromatográficas treponémicas rápidas como una herramienta importante para la salud pública y para el enfrentamiento de la sífilis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Syphilis Serodiagnosis , Syphilis/epidemiology , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/diagnosis , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/epidemiology , Syphilis, Congenital/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Clinical Protocols , Diagnostic Tests, Routine
8.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54(supl.1): e2020598, 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250850

ABSTRACT

Abstract The sexually transmitted enteric infections topic is one of the chapters of the Clinical Protocol and Therapeutic Guidelines for Comprehensive Care for People with Sexually Transmitted Infections, published by the Brazilian Ministry of Health in 2020. The document was developed based on scientific evidence and validated in discussions with specialists. This article presents epidemiological and clinical aspects of these infections and guidance for service managers on their programmatic and operational management. The aim is to assist health professionals with screening, diagnosis, and treatment of people with sexually transmitted enteric infections and their sexual partners, in addition to supporting strategies for their surveillance, prevention, and control.


Subject(s)
Humans , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/diagnosis , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/prevention & control , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/epidemiology , Sexual Behavior , Brazil/epidemiology , Sexual Partners , Cross-Sectional Studies
9.
Actual. SIDA. infectol ; 29(107): 150-155, 2021 nov. tab, fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1348775

ABSTRACT

El linfogranuloma venéreo (LGV) es una enfermedad de transmisión sexual (ETS) poco frecuente causada por los serotipos L1, L2 y L3 de Chlamydia trachomatis.Desde hace más de una década se produjo un aumento de la incidencia de proctitis por LGV casi exclusivamente en hombres que tienen sexo con hombres con prácticas sexuales de riesgo para ETS.Se presentan cuatro casos con LGV rectal


Lymphogranuloma venereum is a rare sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by serotypes L1, L2 and L3 of Chlamydia trachomatis.For over a decade, there has been a considerable increase in the incidence of LGV proctitis in almost exclusively men who have sex with men with STI risk behaviors.Four cases of rectal LGV are reported


Subject(s)
Male , Adult , Proctitis/immunology , Lymphogranuloma Venereum/pathology , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/diagnosis , Concurrent Symptoms , Sexual and Gender Minorities , COVID-19/immunology
10.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54(supl.1): e2020549, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250847

ABSTRACT

Abstract This article summarizes the chapter on epidemiological surveillance of sexually transmitted infections (STI) that comprises the 2020 Clinical Protocol and Therapeutic Guidelines (PCDT) for Comprehensive Care for People with STI, published by the Health Surveillance Department of the Brazilian Ministry of Health. It presents some reflections on the new case definitions for surveillance of acquired syphilis, syphilis in pregnant women, and congenital syphilis. The 2020 PCDT-IST was elaborated grounded on scientific evidence and validated in discussions with specialists. Epidemiological and clinical aspects are addressed, and health service managers' guidelines regarding programmatic and operational management of these diseases are presented. Guidelines for health professionals on screening, diagnosing, and treating people with STI and their sex partners, in addition to strategies for surveillance, prevention, and control actions, are also published.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Child , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Syphilis, Congenital , Syphilis/diagnosis , Syphilis/epidemiology , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/diagnosis , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/prevention & control , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology
11.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54(supl.1): e2020597, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250846

ABSTRACT

Abstract The topics of congenital syphilis and children exposed to syphilis compose the Clinical Protocol and Therapeutic Guidelines for Comprehensive Care for People with Sexually Transmitted Infections, published by the Brazilian Ministry of Health in 2020. Such document was elaborated based on scientific evidence and validated in discussions with specialists. This article provides guidelines for syphilis in pregnant women and congenital syphilis clinical management, emphasizing the vertical transmission of Treponema pallidum prevention. Epidemiological and clinical aspects of these infections are presented and recommendations for managers in the programmatic and operational management of syphilis. The article also includes guidelines for health professionals in screening, diagnosing, and treating people with sexually transmitted infections and their sex partners, in addition to strategies for surveillance actions, prevention, and control of the disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Child , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Syphilis, Congenital/diagnosis , Syphilis, Congenital/prevention & control , Syphilis/diagnosis , Syphilis/epidemiology , Syphilis/diagnostic imaging , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/diagnosis , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/prevention & control , Brazil/epidemiology
12.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54(supl.1): e2020587, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250839

ABSTRACT

Abstract Infections that cause cervicitis are a topic presented in the "Clinical Protocol and Therapeutic Guidelines for Comprehensive Care for People with Sexually Transmitted Infections", published by the Brazilian Ministry of Health in 2020. The document was developed based on scientific evidence and validated in discussions with experts. This article presents epidemiological and clinical aspects of infections that cause cervicitis and recommendations on screening, diagnosis, and treatment of affected people and their sexual partnerships. Also, it discusses strategies for surveillance, prevention, and control of these infections for health professionals and health service managers involved in the programmatic and operational management of sexually transmitted infections. Expanding access to diagnostic tests and early treatment are crucial for controlling the spread of pathogens that cause cervicitis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/diagnosis , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/epidemiology , Uterine Cervicitis/diagnosis , Uterine Cervicitis/epidemiology , Sexual Behavior , Brazil/epidemiology , Sexual Partners , Condoms
13.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54(supl.1): e2020834, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250844

ABSTRACT

Abstract This article discusses viral hepatitis, a theme addressed by the Clinical Protocol and Therapeutic Guidelines to Comprehensive Care for People with Sexually Transmitted Infections and, more precisely, by the Clinical Protocols and Therapeutic Guidelines for Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C and Coinfections, published by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. Besides the broad spectrum of health impairment, hepatitis A, B, and C viruses also present different transmission forms, whether parenteral, sexual, vertical, or fecal-oral. Among the strategies suggested for the control of viral hepatitis, in addition to behavioral measures, are expanded diagnosis, early vaccination against hepatitis A and hepatitis B viruses, and access to available therapeutic resources. Considering vertical transmission of the hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses, screening for pregnant women with chronic hepatitis B and C is an essential perinatal health strategy, indicating with precision those who can benefit from the prophylactic interventions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/diagnosis , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/prevention & control , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , Hepatitis C/prevention & control , Hepatitis B/diagnosis , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Brazil , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control
14.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54(supl.1): e2020602, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250845

ABSTRACT

Abstract Pelvic Inflammatory Disease is a topic included in the Clinical Protocol and Therapeutic Guidelines for Comprehensive Care for People with Sexually Transmitted Infections, published by the Brazilian Ministry of Health in 2020. Pelvic inflammatory disease is an upper female genital tract acute infection due to canalicular spread of endogenous cervicovaginal microorganisms and especially the sexually transmitted microorganisms. Standing out among the etiological agents involved are Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The main sequelae are chronic pelvic pain, infertility, and ectopic pregnancy. Clinical diagnosis is the most important practical approach. Antibiotic treatment must start immediately after the clinical suspicion. Guidelines for health service managers and health professionals on diagnostic tests, treatment, follow-up, counseling, notification, handling sexual partners and special populations are described. Given the increased availability of the molecular biology techniques in Brazil, C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae screening are recommended as a disease prevention strategy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Chlamydia Infections/diagnosis , Chlamydia Infections/drug therapy , Gonorrhea , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/diagnosis , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/prevention & control , Pelvic Inflammatory Disease/diagnosis , Brazil , Chlamydia trachomatis , Mass Screening
15.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 85(2): 175-184, abr. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115514

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: revisar los diferentes métodos de diagnóstico de la tricomoniasis vaginal disponibles hasta el presente. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: se revisó la bibliografía latinoamericano e internacional a través de los sitios electrónicos de Pub-Med y Scielo. RESULTADOS: la Tricomonas vaginalis es considera como la enfermedad de transmisión sexual no viral, curable más frecuente y prevalente en el mundo. Se revisan los diferentes de métodos para diagnosticar la presencia de la tricomonas vaginalis en pacientes femeninos con síntomas y signos de la infección producida por el protozoario flagelado. CONCLUSIONES: se revisaron los diferentes métodos de diagnostico de la infección producida por la Tricomonas vaginalis en pacientes femeninas, desde los clásicos hasta los más actuales que emplean alta tecnología.


OBJECTIVE: to review the different diagnostic methods of Trichomonas vaginal available at the present time. MATERIAL AND METHOD: it was reviewed the Latin-American and international bibliography using the Pub-Med and Scielo web sites. RESULTS: Trichomonas vaginalis is considered the most common and prevalent sexual transmitted disease curable and non-viral worldwide. It was reviewed the different methods to diagnose the presence of Trichomonas vaginalis in female patients with symptoms and signs of infection produces by the flagellate protozoa. CONCLUSION: Different methods of diagnosis of the infection produced by Trichomonas vaginalis, since the classics to the most current methods that use high technology, were reviewed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Trichomonas Vaginitis/diagnosis , Trichomonas vaginalis , Vaginal Smears , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/diagnosis , Sensitivity and Specificity , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , Culture Techniques , Antigens/analysis
16.
Rev. chil. salud pública ; 24(1): 30-39, 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1121731

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Las infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS) se expresan con mayor frecuencia en poblaciones marginadas, como lo son los ciudadanos que se encuentran en situación de calle y con problemas de drogadicción. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Mediante un estudio de campo descriptivo retrospectivo, se determinó la prevalencia de las ITS que se detallan en los ciudadanos residentes de un Centro de Inclusión Social en Venezuela durante los años 2013 a 2018. Para ello, suero de 280 individuos fue analizado mediante la prueba ELISA de diferentes compañías biotecnológicas. RESULTADOS: 50 casos (17,8%) fueron reactivos a cualquiera de las enfermedades investigadas. El biomarcador de mayor prevalencia durante el lapso estudiado fue el antiHBc con 13,9% y las menores fueron HBsAg con 0,75%, VHC con 0,71% y Treponema pallidum con 2,85%, así como 2,14% para VIH. No se detectó ningun caso de HTLV. Del mismo modo, se observó una tasa de co-infección entre hepatitis B y VIH de 2,32%, entre hepatitis C y VIH de 1,5% y en dos años se consiguió co-infeccion de hepatitis B y Sífilis con 1,5% y 5,8% en el 2014 y 2018 respectivamente. DISCUSIÓN: Se encontró que los sujetos acogidos en el Centro de Inclusión Social son un grupo vulnerable a las ITS y las coinfecciones, por lo que deben llevarse a cabo campañas de preven-ción y pruebas de detección de estas enfermedades en dicha población.


INTRODUCTION: Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) are most frequently expressed in marginalized populations, such as as homeless individuals or those with substance abuse issues. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Through a retrospective descriptive study, the prevalence of various STDs was determined among residents of a Social Inclusion Center in Venezuela from 2013 to 2018. For this purpose, serum from 280 individuals were analyzed with ELISA tests from different biotech companies. RESULTS: 50 cases (17.86%) were sero-reactive to any of the STIs investigated. The most preva-lent biomarker during the study period studied was antiHBc (13.9%) and the lowest prevalen-ces were HBsAg with 0.75%, HCV with 0.71%, and Treponema pallidum with 2.85%, as well as 2.14% for HIV. No cases of HTLV were detected. Similarly, there was coinfection between hepatitis B and HIV in 2.32% of cases, between hepatitis C and HIV in 1.5%, and between syphillis and hepatitis in 1,5% and 5,8% of cases (in 2014 and 2018 respectively). DISCUSSION: Individuals in Centers for Social Inclusion are at risk of presenting STIs and co-infections; therefore, STI prevention campaigns and screenings should be conducted in this vulnerable group.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/diagnosis , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/epidemiology , Venezuela/epidemiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Biomarkers/analysis , Serotyping , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Vulnerable Populations , Coinfection , Hepatitis B/epidemiology
17.
Rev. bras. enferm ; 72(6): 1595-1601, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1042162

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To verify the association between social determinants of health and the vulnerability of adolescents to Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs). Method: Cross-sectional study, performed with 287 students aged 11 to 17 years, in the outskirts of Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil, from August do September 2016. Two instruments were used, one destined to social determinants of health and another to investigating the vulnerability to STIs. The magnitude of associations was expressed through odds ratio and interval of confidence, considering a 5% significance level. This research was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the Federal University of Ceará. Results: 212 (73.9%) adolescents were considered more vulnerable, with a score ≥ 4. The intermediate social determinant "housing (home ownership)" obtained significant association with with the vulnerability to STIs (p of 0.022; CI 1.1 to 3.3; OR 1.9). Conclusion: The intermediate social determinant "type of housing" influences the vulnerability to STAs.


RESUMEN Objetivo: Comprobar si hay una asociación entre los determinantes sociales de la salud y la vulnerabilidad de los adolescentes a las Infecciones Sexualmente Transmisibles (IST). Método: Estudio transversal, realizado de agosto a septiembre de 2016 con 287 estudiantes de 11 a 17 años, en la periferia de Fortaleza, Ceará, Brasil. Se utilizaron dos instrumentos: el primer estaba destinado a los determinantes sociales de la salud y segundo al estudio de la vulnerabilidad a las IST. La magnitud de las asociaciones se calculó mediante la razón de posibilidades e intervalo de confianza, considerando el nivel de significancia del 5%. La investigación fue aprobada por el Comité de Ética de la Universidad Federal de Ceará. Resultados: Se consideraron más vulnerables a 212 (un 73,9%) adolescentes, con una calificación ≥ 4 puntuaciones. El determinante social intermedio "vivienda (casa propia)" obtuvo una asociación significativa con la vulnerabilidad a las IST (p de 0,022; IC 1,1 a 3,3; OR 1,9). Conclusión: El determinante social intermedio "tipo de vivienda" influye en la vulnerabilidad a las IST.


RESUMO Objetivo: Verificar a associação entre os determinantes sociais de saúde e a vulnerabilidade dos adolescentes às Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis (ISTs). Método: Estudo transversal, realizado com 287 escolares de 11 a 17 anos, na periferia de Fortaleza, Ceará, Brasil, de agosto a setembro de 2016. Foram utilizados dois instrumentos, um destinado aos determinantes sociais de saúde e o outro à investigação da vulnerabilidade às ISTs. A magnitude das associações foi expressa através da razão de chances e intervalo de confiança, considerando-se nível de significância de 5%. A pesquisa foi aprovada pelo Comitê de Ética da Universidade Federal do Ceará. Resultados: 212 (73,9%) adolescentes foram considerados mais vulneráveis, com uma pontuação ≥ 4 escores. O determinante social intermediário "moradia (casa própria)" obteve associação significativa com a vulnerabilidade às ISTs (p de 0,022; IC 1,1 a 3,3; OR 1,9). Conclusão: O determinante social intermediário "tipo de moradia" influencia na vulnerabilidade às ISTs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/diagnosis , Adolescent Behavior/psychology , Vulnerable Populations/statistics & numerical data , Social Determinants of Health/trends , Brazil/epidemiology , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/epidemiology , Odds Ratio , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors
18.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 65(6): 745-754, June 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012984

ABSTRACT

The Guidelines Project, an initiative of the Brazilian Medical Association, aims to combine information from the medical field in order to standardize producers to assist the reasoning and decision-making of doctors. The information provided through this project must be assessed and criticized by the physician responsible for the conduct that will be adopted, depending on the conditions and the clinical status of each patient.


Subject(s)
Humans , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/diagnosis , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/standards , Brazil , Risk Factors , Sensitivity and Specificity , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Clinical Decision-Making
19.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 35(3): e00118118, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989523

ABSTRACT

Our aim was to systematically review data about the risk of sexually transmitted infections (STI) and bacterial vaginosis among lesbian women and to suggest strategies to improve prevention, diagnosis and treatment. A search strategy for lesbian, STI and bacterial vaginosis was applied to PubMed, LILACS and BDENF databases. Of 387 unique references retrieved, 22 fulfilled the inclusion criteria (cross-sectional studies reporting prevalence for 8 STIs/bacterial vaginosis and history of a STI). The most frequent infection reported was bacterial vaginosis, and none study reported data on hepatitis B. A wide range of prevalence was observed for most infections. In terms of risk factors, the number of sexual partners, the past or current smoking, a history of forced sex and sexual stigma seem to increase the risk of STI and bacterial vaginosis. The findings of this review are discussed considering guidelines directly addressing the LGBT community's health and relevant studies investigating both safe sexual practices and the intricate relationship between LGBT people and their care providers. A set of recommendations to improve preventive care for lesbian women is proposed. Affirming that little is known about the extent of STIs and bacterial vaginosis transmission in female-to-female sexual activities or about the risk factors for STI and bacterial vaginosis among lesbian women is reasonable. In fact, the overall quality of the studies was low or very low with significant uncertainty around their findings. However, we consider that the available knowledge indicates some paths to be followed by care providers and policy decision-makers to improve their actions towards better sexual health of lesbian women.


Nosso objetivo foi revisar sistematicamente dados sobre o risco de infecções sexualmente transmissíveis (ISTs) e vaginose bacteriana em mulheres lésbicas e sugerir estratégias para melhorar prevenção, diagnóstico e tratamento. Uma estratégia de busca para lésbica, ISTs e vaginose bacteriana foi aplicada às bases PubMed, LILACS e BDENF. De 387 referências únicas identificadas, 22 preenchiam os critérios de inclusão (estudos seccionais relatando a prevalência de 8 ISTs/vaginose bacteriana e histórico de ISTs). A infecção mais frequentemente relatada foi vaginose bacteriana e nenhum estudo relatou dados sobre hepatite B. Uma ampla gama de prevalências foi observada para a maioria das infecções. Em termos de fatores de risco, o número de parceiras sexuais, ser ou ter sido fumante, histórico de sexo forçado e estigma sexual parecem aumentar o risco de ISTs e vaginose bacteriana. Os resultados desta revisão são discutidos à luz de diretrizes que abordam diretamente a saúde da comunidade LGBT e também de estudos relevantes que investigaram tanto práticas de sexo seguro quanto a complexa relação entre pessoas LGBT e profissionais de saúde. Um conjunto de recomendações para melhorar o cuidado preventivo para mulheres lésbicas é proposto. É razoável afirmar que pouco se sabe sobre a dimensão da transmissão de ISTs e vaginose bacteriana em atividades sexuais entre mulheres ou sobre os fatores de risco para ISTs e vaginose bacteriana em mulheres lésbicas. De fato, a qualidade dos estudos foi, de forma geral, baixa ou muito baixa, com incerteza significativa quanto a seus resultados. Contudo, consideramos que o conhecimento disponível indica alguns caminhos a serem seguidos por profissionais de saúde e na elaboração de políticas públicas para melhorar ações em direção a uma melhor saúde sexual de mulheres lésbicas.


Nuestro objetivo fue realizar una revisión sistemática de los datos sobre infecciones de trasmisión sexual (ITS) y riesgo de vaginosis bacteriana entre mujeres lesbianas y sugerir estrategias para mejorar su prevención, diagnóstico y tratamiento. La estrategia de búsqueda de lesbiana, ITS y vaginosis bacteriana se realizó en las bases de datos de PubMed, LILACS y BDENF. De 387 referencias únicas recogidas, 22 reunían criterios de inclusión (estudios transversales informaron sobre la prevalencia de 8 ITS/vaginosis bacteriana e historial de una ITS). La infección más frecuente fue vaginosis bacteriana y ningún estudio proporcionó datos sobre hepatitis B. se observó un amplio rango de prevalencia para la mayoría de las infecciones. En términos de factores de riesgo, el número de parejas sexuales, ser fumador o exfumador, un pasado de abusos sexuales, así como el estigma sexual parece que incrementaron el riesgo de ITS y vaginosis bacteriana. Los hallazgos del presente estudio se discuten a la luz de las directrices de salud directamente dirigidas a la comunidad LGBT, y también a estudios relevantes que investigaban tanto las prácticas sexuales seguras, como la relación intricada entre individuos del colectivo LGBT y sus proveedores de salud. Se propone un conjunto de recomendaciones para mejorar el cuidado preventivo de mujeres lesbianas. Es razonable afirmar que se conoce poco sobre el grado de transmisión de las ITS y vaginosis bacteriana en las relaciones sexuales entre mujeres o sobre los factores de riesgo para las ITS y vaginosis bacteriana entre mujeres lesbianas. De hecho, la calidad general de los estudios fue baja o muy baja con una incertidumbre significativa sobre sus resultados. No obstante, consideramos que el conocimiento disponible indica algunos caminos que pueden recorrer proveedores de salud y tomadores decisiones para mejorar sus acciones orientadas a una mejor salud sexual de las mujeres lesbianas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/prevention & control , Vaginosis, Bacterial/prevention & control , Homosexuality, Female , Sexual Behavior , Brazil/epidemiology , Sexual Partners , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/classification , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/diagnosis , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/epidemiology , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Vaginosis, Bacterial/diagnosis , Vaginosis, Bacterial/transmission , Vaginosis, Bacterial/epidemiology , Sexual and Gender Minorities
20.
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 23(1): e20180212, 2019.
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-975238

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To analyze the knowledge and practice of nursing professionals about the prophylaxis of ophthalmia neonatorum. Method: Descriptive study, of qualitative approach, carried out in the first semester of 2018, in a city hall hospital located in the lake area of the Rio de Janeiro's state, through semi-structured interviews with 14 Nursing professionals participating in the care of the newborn, whose data were submitted to the Thematic Analysis. Results: From the three emerging thematic categories, there are gaps in knowledge related to ophthalmia neonatorum, silver nitrate and the instillation procedure of this prophylactic solution, as well as differences in care practice regarding care before, during and after the procedure. Conclusion and implications for practice: The data point to the importance of training the Nursing team in the prophylaxis of ophthalmia neonatorum, the revision of guidelines and procedures aimed at standardizing the procedure, as well as emphasizing the need for adequate follow-up of pregnant women in prenatal care.


Resumen Objetivo: Analizar el conocimiento y la práctica de los profesionales de Enfermería sobre la profilaxis de la oftalmía neonatal. Método: Estudio descriptivo, de naturaleza cualitativa, realizado en el primer semestre de 2018, en un hospital municipal ubicado en la bajada costera del estado de Río de Janeiro, a través de entrevistas semiestructuradas desarrolladas con 14 profesionales de Enfermería, que participan en la asistencia al recién nacido, cuyos datos se sometieron al análisis temático. Resultados: A partir de las tres categorías temáticas emergentes se evidencian lagunas en el conocimiento relacionadas a la oftalmía neonatal, al nitrato de plata y al procedimiento de instilación de esa solución profiláctica, además de divergencias en la práctica asistencial en cuanto a los cuidados antes, durante y después de la realización del procedimiento. Conclusión y las implicaciones para la práctica: Los datos apuntan a la importancia de la capacitación del equipo de Enfermería para la realización de la profilaxis de la oftalmia neonatal, de la revisión de directrices y conductas que visen la estandarización del procedimiento, además de resaltar la necesidad de un acompañamiento adecuado de las gestantes en el prenatal.


Resumo Objetivo: Analisar o conhecimento e a prática de profissionais de Enfermagem sobre profilaxia da oftalmia neonatal. Método: Estudo descritivo, de natureza qualitativa, realizado no primeiro semestre de 2018, em um hospital municipal localizado na baixada litorânea do estado do Rio de Janeiro, por meio de entrevistas semiestruturadas com 14 profissionais de Enfermagem, que participam da assistência ao recém-nascido, cujos dados foram submetidos à Análise Temática. Resultados: A partir das três categorias temáticas emergentes evidenciaram-se lacunas no conhecimento relacionadas à oftalmia neonatal, ao nitrato de prata e ao procedimento de instilação dessa solução profilática, além de divergências na prática assistencial quanto aos cuidados antes, durante e após a realização do procedimento. Conclusão e implicações para a prática: Os dados apontam para a importância da capacitação da equipe de Enfermagem para a realização da profilaxia da oftalmia neonatal, da revisão de diretrizes e condutas que visem a padronização do procedimento, além de ressaltar a necessidade de um acompanhamento adequado das gestantes no pré-natal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Adult , Middle Aged , Ophthalmia Neonatorum/nursing , Neonatal Nursing , Professional Practice , Silver Nitrate/administration & dosage , Silver Nitrate/adverse effects , Silver Nitrate/toxicity , Silver Nitrate/therapeutic use , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/diagnosis , Chlamydia trachomatis , Ophthalmia Neonatorum/prevention & control , Ophthalmia Neonatorum/therapy , Conjunctivitis, Viral , Blindness/complications , Qualitative Research , Corneal Injuries/complications , Neisseria gonorrhoeae
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