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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250723, 2024. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355902

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study assessed the anthelminthic feed additive albendazole effect on the main indicators of the quality of sheep meat obtained from infected and deworming animals. A total of 20 heads of Akzhaik meat and wool sheep (i.e. 2 years of age, of different sex) were used in a 20-day experiment and 2 groups of 10 heads were formed (n = 4). The sheep were fed with the basic diet (i.e. control, group CON), without adding anything, and the second group was fed the basic diet orally with the addition of a dose of 1.2 g / head (an experimental group). At the end of the experiment, a control slaughter was carried out from each group in order to study the biochemical composition of meat and its quality. The anthelmintic feed additive albendazole did not have a significant effect on the indicators (organoleptic and physicochemical) of meat quality (P> 0.04). However, the ratio of fat and ash in the meat of the control group has differences in indicators and is reduced by 24.81% and 0.03%, respectively. The drug had a significant effect on the biological value of meat in the experimental group, where there is a higher content of essential amino acids (P = 0.06), nonessential (P = 0.05) concentrations in comparison with the CON groups. The results obtained show that the meat of the experimental groups of sheep, when using the anthelminthic feed additive albendazole, did not have a significant effect on organoleptic parameters, but significantly positively influenced the metabolism, live weight gain and biological value of meat.


Resumo Este estudo avaliou o efeito do aditivo anti-helmíntico albendazol sobre os principais indicadores de qualidade da carne ovina obtida de animais infectados e desparasitados. Um total de 20 cabeças de carne Akzhaik e ovelhas de lã (ou seja, 2 anos de idade, de sexo diferente) foi usado em um experimento de 20 dias e dois grupos de 10 cabeças foram formados (n = 4). As ovelhas foram alimentadas com dieta básica (ou seja, controle, grupo CON), sem adicionar nada, e o segundo grupo foi alimentado com dieta básica por via oral com a adição de uma dose de 1,2 g / cabeça (um grupo experimental). Ao final do experimento, foi realizado um abate controle de cada grupo para estudar a composição bioquímica da carne e sua qualidade. O aditivo anti-helmíntico albendazol não teve efeito significativo sobre os indicadores (organolépticos e físico-químicos) de qualidade da carne (P > 0,04). No entanto, a proporção de gordura e cinzas na carne do grupo de controle tem diferenças nos indicadores e é reduzida em 24,81% e 0,03%, respectivamente. A droga teve efeito significativo sobre o valor biológico da carne no grupo experimental, onde há maior teor de aminoácidos essenciais (P = 0,06), concentrações não essenciais (P = 0,05) em comparação com os grupos CON. Os resultados obtidos mostram que a carne dos grupos experimentais de ovinos, ao utilizar o aditivo anti-helmíntico albendazol, não teve efeito significativo nos parâmetros organolépticos, mas influenciou positivamente de forma significativa no metabolismo, ganho de peso vivo e valor biológico da carne.


Subject(s)
Animals , Animal Feed/analysis , Anthelmintics , Sheep , Albendazole , Diet/veterinary , Meat/analysis
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e256923, 2024. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360219

ABSTRACT

Naturally occurring mutations in morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15) are associated with decreased ovulation rate (OR), litter size (LS), and sterility. It is of a great interest to elucidate BMP15 gene in Cholistani sheep breed to uplift socio-economic status and the knowledge of Cholistani sheep breeding in Southern Punjab, Pakistan. In our study, a total of 50 infertile Cholistani sheep aged between 2-6 years and having no blood relation were screened for BMP15 mutations. For this purpose, a high-quality DNA was extracted from the blood of sheep followed by primer designing, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) amplification, DNA sequencing, and in silico analyses. Out of total 50 samples, 9 samples including case 1 (T3), case 2 (T8), case 3 (T17), case 4 (T22), case 5 (T25), case 6 (T33), case 7 (T40), case 8 (T44), and case 9 (T47) were found positive for a variety of already reported and novel BMP15 mutations. Further in silico analyses of the observed mutations have shown the functional impact of these mutations on different characteristics (molecular weight, theoretical PI, estimated half-life, instability index, sub-cellular localization, and 3D confirmation) of the encoded proteins, possibly altering the normal functionality. In a nutshell, findings of this study have confirmed the possible essential role of the BMP15 mutations in the infertility of the Cholistani sheep.


Mutações de ocorrência natural na proteína morfogenética 15 (BMP15) estão associadas à diminuição da taxa de ovulação (TO), tamanho da ninhada (TN) e esterilidade. Estudar a BMP15 na raça Cholistani para elevar o status socioeconômico e o conhecimento da criação de ovinos Cholistani no sul de Punjab, Paquistão. Em nosso estudo, 50 ovelhas Cholistani inférteis sem parentesco sanguíneo foram rastreadas para mutações BMP15. Para tanto, um DNA de alta qualidade foi extraído do sangue dessas ovelhas, seguido de concepção do primer, amplificação da reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR), sequenciamento de DNA e análises in silico. Do total de 50 amostras, 9, incluindo caso 1 (T3), caso 2 (T8), caso 3 (T17), caso 4 (T22), caso 5 (T25), caso 6 (T33), caso 7 (T40), caso 8 (T44) e caso 9 (T47), foram consideradas positivas para uma variedade de mutações BMP15 novas e já relatadas. Mais análises in silico das mutações observadas mostraram o impacto funcional dessas mutações em diferentes características (peso molecular, PI teórico, meia-vida estimada, índice de instabilidade, localização subcelular e confirmação 3D) das proteínas codificadas, possivelmente alterando a funcionalidade normal. Nossos achados confirmaram o possível papel essencial das mutações BMP15 na infertilidade de ovelhas Cholistani.


Subject(s)
Animals , Sheep , Infertility , Mutation/genetics
3.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(6): 1687-1697, dic. 2023. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528806

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: In response to the threat posed by new variants of SARS-CoV-2 and the urgent need for effective treatments in the absence of vaccines, the aim of this study was to develop a rapid and cost-effective hyperimmune serum (HS) derived from sheep and assess its efficacy. The utilization of a halal-certified, easily maintained in certain geographic regions, easy-to-handle animal such as sheep could provide a viable alternative to the expensive option of horses. Sheep were immunized with a whole inactivated SARS-CoV- 2 antigen to produce HS, which was evaluated for neutralizing potency using the PRNT50 assay. K18-hACE2 transgenic mice (n=35) were divided into three groups: control, SARS-CoV-2 exposure through inhalation, and SARS-CoV-2 exposed mice treated with HS. HS efficacy was assessed through serum proinflammatory cytokine levels, qRT-PCR analysis, histopathological examination of lungs and hearts, and transmission electron microscopy. Purified HS exhibited significant neutralizing activity (1/24,576). The SARS-CoV-2+HS group showed lower levels of TNF-α, IL-10, and IL-6 (P<0.01) and relatively lower levels of MCP-1 compared to the SARS-CoV-2 group. HS prevented death, reduced viral RNA levels in the lungs and hearts, protected against severe interstitial pneumonia, preserved lung tissue integrity, and prevented myocyte damage, while the SARS-CoV-2 group exhibited viral presence in the lungs. This study successfully developed a sheep-derived HS against the entire SARS-CoV-2 virus, resulting in a significant reduction in infection severity, inflammation, and systemic cytokine production. The findings hold promise for treating severe COVID-19 cases, including emerging viral variants, and immunocompromised patients.


En respuesta a la amenaza que suponen las nuevas variantes del SARS-CoV-2 y la urgente necesidad de tratamientos eficaces en ausencia de vacunas, el objetivo de este estudio fue desarrollar un suero hiperinmune (HS) rápido y rentable derivado de ovejas. y evaluar su eficacia. La utilización de un animal con certificación halal, de fácil mantenimiento en determinadas regiones geográficas y de fácil manejo, como las ovejas, podría proporcionar una alternativa viable a la costosa opción de los caballos. Las ovejas fueron inmunizadas con un antígeno de SARS-CoV-2 completamente inactivado para producir HS, cuya potencia neutralizante se evaluó mediante el ensayo PRNT50. Los ratones transgénicos K18-hACE2 (n = 35) se dividieron en tres grupos: control, exposición al SARS-CoV-2 mediante inhalación y ratones expuestos al SARS-CoV-2 tratados con HS. La eficacia de HS se evaluó mediante niveles de citoquinas proinflamatorias en suero, análisis qRT-PCR, examen histopatológico de pulmones y corazones y microscopía electrónica de transmisión. El HS purificado exhibió una actividad neutralizante significativa (1/24,576). El grupo SARS-CoV-2+HS mostró niveles más bajos de TNF-α, IL-10 e IL-6 (P<0,01) y niveles relativamente más bajos de MCP-1 en comparación con el grupo SARS-CoV-2. HS evitó la muerte, redujo los niveles de ARN viral en los pulmones y el corazón, protegió contra la neumonía intersticial grave, preservó la integridad del tejido pulmonar y evitó el daño de los miocitos, mientras que el grupo SARS-CoV-2 exhibió presencia viral en los pulmones. Este estudio desarrolló con éxito un HS derivado de ovejas contra todo el virus SARS-CoV-2, lo que resultó en una reducción significativa de la gravedad de la infección, la inflamación y la producción sistémica de citocinas. Los hallazgos son prometedores para el tratamiento de casos graves de COVID- 19, incluidas las variantes virales emergentes y los pacientes inmunocomprometidos.


Subject(s)
Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , Immune Sera/administration & dosage , Respiratory System/drug effects , Respiratory System/ultrastructure , Sheep , Vaccines, Inactivated , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/prevention & control , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Flow Cytometry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Heart/drug effects , Horses , Immunotherapy/methods , Multiple Organ Failure/prevention & control , Myocardium/ultrastructure
4.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 229-235, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969871

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the relationship between extracellular enzymes activity and virulence of Candida glabrata clinical isolates based on the infection model of Galleria mellonella larvae. Methods: Using experimental research methods, 71 strains of non-repetitive Candida glabrata were collected from Qinghai Provincial People's Hospital from June 2021 to January 2022. Bovine serum protein agar medium, egg yolk agar medium, sheep blood agar medium, Tween-80 agar medium and triglyceride agar medium were used to detect the aspartyl protease activity, phospholipase activity, hemolysis activity, esterase activity and lipase activity of Candida glabrata. Median lethal concentration (LC50) was calculated by using 1.25×108 CFU/ml,2.50×108 CFU/ml,3.75×108 CFU/ml,5.00×108 CFU/ml suspension of Candida glabrata ATCC2001 to infect Galleria mellonella larvae. Histopathological and etiological analysis was performed to determine whether the infection model was successfully established. The clinical isolates of Candida glabrata were configured to infect Galleria mellonella larvae with LC50 concentration to detect the pathogenicity of Galleria mellonella larvae.Spearman test or Pearson test were used to analyze the correlation between the extracellular enzyme activity of Candida glabrata clinical isolates and the pathogenicity of Galleria mellonella larvae. Results: 71 strains of Candida glabrata isolated clinically were detected to have low hemolytic activity after 2 days of culture. Aspartyl protease was detected after 4 days of culture, among which 7 strains (9.86%), 19 strains (26.76%) and 45 strains (63.38%) showed low, medium and high aspartyl protease activity. After 7 days of culture, 71 strains did not detect phospholipase, esterase and lipase activities. Candida glabrata on Galleria mellonella larvae of LC50=2.5×108 CFU/ml Fungal spore were found in the intestinal tissue pathological section of Galleria mellonella larvae in the experimental group, and Candida glabrata was identified by the microbial Mass Spectrometry after culture, while no fungi were found in the pathological section and culture of the control group. Spearman test shows that, there was a linear positive correlation between aspartyl protease activity and the survival rate of Galleria mellonella larvae (r = 0.73, P<0.01), the difference was statistically significant.Pearson test shows that, there was no significant linear relationship between hemolytic activity and survival rate of Galleria mellonella larvae (r = 0.16, P = 0.34), the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The clinical isolates of Candida glabrata in this study had aspartyl protease activity and low hemolytic activity, but no phospholipase, esterase and lipase activity. The activity of aspartyl aspartyl protease of Candida glabrata was positively correlated with the pathogenicity of Galleria mellonella larvae.


Subject(s)
Animals , Sheep , Larva/microbiology , Virulence , Candida glabrata , Agar , Moths/microbiology , Esterases , Aspartic Acid Proteases , Lipase
5.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 4219-4233, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008022

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to explore the expression changes of VASA gene in sheep testis development and to construct VASA gene knock-in vector to prepare for the study on the differentiation of sheep germ cells in vitro. The testicular tissues of 3-month-old (3M) and 9-month-old (9M) sheep which represent immature and mature stages, respectively, were collected. The differential expression of VASA gene was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and Western blotting, and the location of VASA gene was detected by immunohistochemistry. The sgRNA targeting the VASA gene was designed and homologous recombination vectors were constructed by PCR. Subsequently, plasmids were transferred into sheep ear fibroblasts. The VASA gene was activated in combination with CRISPR/dCas9 technology to further verify the efficiency of the vector. The results showed that the expression level of VASA gene increased significantly with the development of sheep testis (P < 0.01), and was mainly located in spermatocytes and round spermatids. The knock-in vector of VASA gene was constructed by CRISPR/Cas9 system, and the Cas9-gRNA vector and pEGFP-PGK puro-VASA vector were transfected into ear fibroblasts. After CRISPR/dCas9 system was activated, ear fibroblasts successfully expressed VASA gene. The results suggest that VASA gene plays a potential function in sheep testicular development and spermatogenesis, and the VASA gene knock-in vector can be constructed in vitro through the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Our results provided effective research tools for further research of germ cell development and differentiation.


Subject(s)
Male , Animals , Sheep/genetics , CRISPR-Cas Systems/genetics , Gene Knock-In Techniques , RNA, Guide, CRISPR-Cas Systems , Plasmids , Germ Cells
6.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 204-216, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970369

ABSTRACT

In this study, a single base editing system was used to edit the FecB and GDF9 gene to achieve a targeted site mutation from A to G and from C to T in Ouler Tibetan sheep fibroblasts, and to test its editing efficiency. Firstly, we designed and synthesized sgRNA sequences targeting FecB and GDF9 genes of Ouler Tibetan sheep, followed by connection to epi-ABEmax and epi-BE4max plasmids to construct vectors and electrotransfer into Ouler Tibetan sheep fibroblasts. Finally, Sanger sequencing was performed to identify the target point mutation of FecB and GDF9 genes positive cells. T-A cloning was used to estimate the editing efficiency of the single base editing system. We obtained gRNA targeting FecB and GDF9 genes and constructed the vector aiming at mutating single base of FecB and GDF9 genes in Ouler Tibetan sheep. The editing efficiency for the target site of FecB gene was 39.13%, whereas the editing efficiency for the target sites (G260, G721 and G1184) of GDF9 gene were 10.52%, 26.67% and 8.00%, respectively. Achieving single base mutation in FecB and GDF9 genes may facilitate improving the reproduction traits of Ouler Tibetan sheep with multifetal lambs.


Subject(s)
Animals , Sheep/genetics , Gene Editing , Tibet , Mutation , Phenotype , Mutagenesis, Site-Directed
7.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 60: e199050, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | VETINDEX, LILACS | ID: biblio-1415384

ABSTRACT

Gastrointestinal parasites are a significant challenge in sheep farming, and periparturient ewes are one of the most susceptible categories in sheep flocks. This study aimed to verify whether the injection of B vitamins at the acupuncture point governing vessel 14 (GV14) can influence the parasitic load or host-parasite interaction in naturally infected ewes during the peripartum period. Four weeks before parturition, 25 ewes were divided into five treatment groups: (1) Dose Control: 0.2 mL of B complex via IM; (2) Drug Control: 2 mL Complex B via IM; (3) Acupoint Control: 0.2 mL of Water at GV14 point; (4) Control; (5) Test group: 0.2 mL of B complex at the GV14 point. Treatments were performed at weeks -3, -1, 2, 4, and 6 about the parturition time. Fecal samples to estimate the parasitic load by fecal egg counts (FEC) and total blood samples for hemogram examination were performed seven days after the treatment, coinciding with weeks -2, 3, 5, and 7 about the parturition time. The number of peripheral eosinophils was higher in group 3 than in group 1 (p <0.05). Although groups 3 and 5 had lower mean values of FEC and higher hematological values at the time of weaning, these differences were not statistically significant (p> 0.05) according to the F test. However, all animals in groups 3 and 5 maintained low parasitism levels until the end of the experiment. Further studies should be performed with larger sample sizes and minor changes to the experimental protocol to elucidate the role of GV14 acupoint stimulation in the host-parasite relationship.(AU)


A parasitose gastrointestinal é o principal desafio sanitário para a criação de ovinos a pasto, e as ovelhas no periparto são uma das categorias mais susceptíveis a esta infeção no rebanho. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar se a injeção de vitaminas do complexo B no acuponto Vaso Governador 14 (VG14) poderia influenciar a carga parasitária ou modular a interação hospedeiro-parasito em ovelhas naturalmente infectadas no período de periparto. Quatro semanas antes da data prevista para o parto, 25 ovelhas foram divididas em cinco grupos de tratamento (1) Controle da dose: 0,2 mL de vitaminas do complexo B via IM; (2) Controle do fármaco: 2mL complexo B via IM; (3) Controle do Ponto: 0,2 mL de água destilada no ponto VG14; (4) Controle sem tratamento; (5) Grupo teste: 0,2 mL de complexo B no pontoVG14. Estes tratamentos foram realizados nas semanas -3; -1; 2; 4 e 6 em relação à data do parto. Amostras de fezes para contagem de ovos por grama de fezes (OPG), assim como amostras de sangue para realizar o hemograma, foram obtidas dos animais sete dias após os tratamentos, coincidindo com as semanas -2, 3, 5 e 7 do parto. O número de eosinófilos periféricos foi superior no grupo 3 se comparado ao grupo 1 (p <0,05). Os animais dos grupos 3 e 5 tiveram menores valores de OPG e maior hematócrito, mas estas diferenças não foram consideradas significativas pelo teste F (p> 0,05). No entanto, todas as ovelhas dos grupos 3 e 5 se mantiveram com níveis baixos de parasitismo durante todo o experimento. Sugere-se que novos estudos sejam realizados com algumas modificações deste protocolo a fim de aprofundar o conhecimento do potencial imunomodulador do acuponto VG14.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Sheep/parasitology , Acupuncture Therapy/veterinary , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Vitamin B Complex/analysis , Peripartum Period , Gastrointestinal Diseases
8.
Vet. zootec ; 30: 1-9, 2023. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1513212

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito da inclusão de cilostazol no meio de maturação in vitro de oócitos sobre produção in vitro de embriões ovinos. Para isso, foram realizadas colheitas de oócitos oriundos de ovários obtidos em abatedouro por meio do método de aspiração folicular com bomba de vácuo. Os oócitos foram divididos em quatro grupos de maturação: grupo CON, onde os complexos cumulus oócitos foram imersos em TCM-199, suplementado com 500 UI de penicilina, 0,5 mg de estreptomicina, 1,25 µg de anfotericina, 0,2 mM de piruvato de sódio, 10% (v/v) de soro fetal bovino (SFB), 10 ng/mL de fator de crescimento epidérmico (EGF), 10 ug/m de FSH, 10 µg/mL de LH, 10 ug/mL de estradiol e 100 µM de cisteamina; e nos grupos CILO0,3; CILO1 e CILO10, os oócitos foram maturados no meio do grupo CON, mas sem a adição de cisteamina e suplementado com as concentrações de 0,3; 1 e 10 µM, respectivamente. Após 24h, os oócitos foram avaliados quanto a presença ou não de células do cumulus e quanto ao grau de expansão e destinados à fecundação in vitro, em meio FIV, juntamente com espermatozoides. Após a FIV, os presumíveis zigotos seguiram para o cultivo in vitro. Foram avaliadas clivagens no dia 2, sendo dia 0 o dia do início do CIV. Os resultados foram expressos em porcentagem e as variáveis de expansão das células do cumulus e número de estruturas clivadas foram comparadas por meio do teste qui-quadrado do software Epi Info (Epi Info 7.2.5, Atlanta, GA, EUA, 2021). Os resultados foram considerados significativos quando P<0,05. Em relação à expansão das células do cumulus, todos os grupos apresentaram 100% de expansão. Não houve diferenças significativas quanto ao grau de expansão das células do cumulus entre os grupos suplementados com cilostazol e cisteamina (P>0,05), assim como não houve diferenças significativas entre as taxas de clivagem entre os grupos suplementados com cilostazol e cisteamina (P > 0,05).


The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of including cilostazol in the in vitro maturation medium of oocytes on the in vitro production of sheep embryos. Oocytes were collected from ovaries obtained from a slaughterhouse by follicular aspiration with a vacum pump. The oocytes were divided into four maturation groups: the CON group, where the cumulus-oocyte complexes were immersed in TCM-199 supplemented with 500 IU of penicillin, 0.5 mg of streptomycin, 1.25 µg of amphotericin, 0.2 mM of sodium pyruvate, 10% (v/v) fetal bovine serum (FBS), 10 ng/mL of epidermal growth factor (EGF), 10 µg/mL of FSH, 10 µg/mL of LH, 10 µg/mL of estradiol, and 100 µM of cysteamine; and in the CILO0.3, CILO1, and CILO10 groups, the oocytes were matured in the CON group medium without the addition of cysteamine and supplemented with concentrations of 0.3, 1, and 10 µM of cilostazol, respectively. After 24 hours, the oocytes were evaluated for the presence or absence of cumulus cells and the degree of expansion and then subjected to in vitro fertilization (IVF) with sperm in FIV medium. After IVF, the presumptive zygotes were cultured in vitro. Cleavage was evaluated on day 2, with day 0 being the start of IVF. Results were expressed as a percentage, and variables such as cumulus cell expansion and the number of cleaved structures were compared using the chi-square test in the Epi Info software (Epi Info 7.2.5, Atlanta, GA, USA, 2021). Results were considered significant when P < 0.05. All groups showed 100% cumulus cell expansion, and there were no significant differences in cumulus cell expansion degree between the cilostazol- and cysteamine-supplemented groups (P > 0.05), as well as no significant differences in cleavage rates between the cilostazol- and cysteamine-supplemented groups (P > 0.05).


El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el efecto de la inclusión de cilostazol en el medio de maduración in vitro de ovocitos sobre la producción in vitro de embriones ovinos. Para ello, se realizaron recolecciones de ovocitos provenientes de ovarios obtenidos en un matadero mediante el método de aspiración folicular con bomba de vacío. Los ovocitos se dividieron em cuatro grupos de maduración: grupo CON, donde los complejos cúmulus ovocitos se sumergieron en TCM-199, suplementado con 500 UI de penicilina, 0,5 mg de estreptomicina, 1,25 ug de anfotericina, 0,2 mM de piruvato de sodio, 10% (v/v) de suero fetal bovino (SFB), 10 ng/mL de factor de crecimiento epidérmico (EGF), 10 ug/m de FSH, 10 µg/mL de LH, 10 µg/mL de estradiol y 100 µM de cisteamina; y en los grupos CILO0,3; CILO1 y CILO10, los ovocitos se maduraron en el medio del grupo CON, pero sin la adición de cisteamina y suplementado con las concentraciones de 0,3; 1 y 10 µM, respectivamente. Después de 24 horas, los ovocitos se evaluaron en cuanto a la presencia o no de células del cúmulus y em cuanto al grado de expansión y se destinaron a la fecundación in vitro, en medio FIV, junto con espermatozoides. Después de la FIV, los presuntos cigotos siguieron para el cultivo in vitro. Se evaluaron las clivajes en el día 2, siendo el día 0 el día del início del CIV. Los resultados se expresaron en porcentaje y las variables de expansión de las células del cúmulos y número de estructuras clivadas se compararon mediante la prueba del chi-cuadrado del software Epi Info (Epi Info 7.2.5, Atlanta, GA, EE. UU., 2021). Los resultados se consideraron significativos cuando P < 0,05. En relación a la expansión de las células del cúmulus, todos los grupos presentaron el 100% de expansión. No hubo diferencias significativas en cuanto al grado de expansión de las células del cúmulus entre los grupos suplementados con cilostazol y cisteamina (P > 0.05), así como no hubo diferencias significativas entre las tasas de clivaje entre los grupos suplementados con cilostazol y cisteamina (P>0,05).


Subject(s)
Animals , Sheep/physiology , Cysteamine/analysis , Cilostazol/administration & dosage , Cilostazol/analysis , Immunodeficiency Virus, Feline , In Vitro Oocyte Maturation Techniques/veterinary
9.
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1518157

ABSTRACT

In Brazil, lamb producers face challenges raising their animals because of high anthelmintic resistance and loss of productivity due to parasites. It is well known that parasitic infections can reduce the performance of sheep. However, until the publication of this work, no research was found that quantified the effects that anemia reflected by FAMACHA© scores can exert on other zootechnical indicators in a lamb production system. The objective of this study was to use the FAMACHA© scores to quantify the impacts of anemia in ewes at breeding and lambing on the productive and reproductive performance of a meat sheep flock. The variables evaluated were i) FAMACHA© score of ewes at breeding and lambing, ii) body condition score of ewes at breeding and at lambing, iii) average daily gain of lambs until weaning, iv) ewe's age, v) birth weights per individual lamb and litter, vi) weaning weight, vii) ewe's weight, viii) litter size and ix) pre-weaning survival. The treatments evaluated corresponded to the FAMACHA© score of the ewes during breeding and lambing. Quantitative responses were submitted to analyses of variance and compared by Duncan's test. In contrast, qualitative or discrete responses were evaluated by the Kruskal & Wallis test and compared to Dunn's test. The Wilcoxon test was performed to compare the FAMACHA©scores of ewes at breeding and lambing. All statistical analyzes were performed using the R-Studio software version 4.2.0 at a 5% significance level. The FAMACHA© score of breeding ewes was related to the body condition score at breeding, ewe weight, pre-weaning survival, ewe age, litter size, and birth weight. Furthermore, the FAMACHA© score of ewes at lambing was related to the body condition score at lambing, ewe weight, pre-weaning survival, birth weight per lamb and litter, pre-weaning average daily gain, weaning weight, and age of the ewe. There was no significant difference between the test times of the FAMACHA© scores of the ewes, indicating that an ewe will present a similar score at both stages. It was concluded that ewes with FAMACHA© scores of 4 and 5 and their offspring showed the worst productive and reproductive performances. Conversely, the ewes with FAMACHA© 1 obtained the opposite result, demonstrating better technical performance.(AU)


No Brasil, produtores de cordeiros enfrentam desafios na criação de seus animais devido à alta resistência anti-helmíntica e perda de produtividade devido a parasitoses. Sabe-se que as infecções parasitárias podem reduzir o desempenho de matrizes ovinas, contudo, até a elaboração desse trabalho não foram encontradas pesquisas que mensuraram os efeitos que a anemia refletida pelos graus FAMACHA© podem exercer sobre outros indicadores zootécnicos em um sistema de produção de cordeiros. Sendo assim, o objetivo desse estudo foi quantificar os impactos das verminoses em matrizes ovinas, representadas pelo grau FAMACHA©, durante a estação de monta e a parição, no desempenho produtivo e reprodutivo de um rebanho ovino de corte. As variáveis avaliadas foram: i) grau FAMACHA© das matrizes à monta e ao parto, ii) escore de condição corporal das matrizes à monta e ao parto, iii) ganho médio diário até o desmame, iv) idade da matriz, v) pesos dos cordeiros ao nascer individual e por parto, vi) peso ao desmame, vii) peso da matriz, viii) prolificidade e ix) sobrevivência pré-desmame. Os tratamentos avaliados corresponderam ao grau FAMACHA© das matrizes durante a monta e parto. As respostas quantitativas foram submetidas à análise de variância e comparadas pelo teste de Duncan, já as respostas qualitativas ou discretas foram avaliadas pelo teste de Kruskal & Wallis e comparadas pelo teste de Dunn. Realizou-se o teste de Wilcoxon para comparar os graus FAMACHA© das matrizes nos momentos de monta e parto. Todas as análises estatísticas foram realizadas no software R-Studio versão 4.2.0 ao nível de 5% de significância. O grau FAMACHA© das matrizes à monta foi relativo ao escore de condição corporal à monta, peso da matriz, sobrevivência pré-desmame, idade da matriz, prolificidade e peso ao nascer coletivo por parto. Já o grau FAMACHA© das matrizes ao parto foi relativo ao escore de condição corporal ao parto, peso da matriz, sobrevivência pré-desmame, pesos ao nascer individual e coletivo por parto, ganho médio diário pré-desmame, peso ao desmame e idade da matriz. Não houve diferença significativa entre os momentos dos graus FAMACHA© das matrizes, indicando que uma ovelha manterá um grau FAMACHA© similar em ambas as fases. Conclui-se que ovelhas com graus FAMACHA© 4 e 5, assim como suas crias, apresentaram os piores desempenhos produtivos e reprodutivos. Em contrapartida, as matrizes com FAMACHA©1 obtiveram o resultado oposto, mostrando indicadores zootécnicos com valores mais eficientes ao sistema de produção.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Parasitic Diseases, Animal , Sheep/parasitology , Molecular Targeted Therapy/methods , Anthelmintics , Brazil
10.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248978, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339406

ABSTRACT

Abstract The present research was planned to assess the occurrence of intestinal parasites in small ruminants of Upper Dir of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province of Pakistan. For this purpose, the faecal material was collected randomly with gloved fingers directly from the rectum region of sheep and goats and the faecal materials were then put in hygienic plastic bottles with 10% formalin. The overall 315 (n=184 sheep and n= 131 goats) faecal samples were collected out of 315 samples, 281 were found positive for different parasites. Patterns-wise prevalence of GI parasites of the study area was found. Overall Single parasitism 89.20% (281/315) with 94.0% (173/184) in sheep and 82.43% (108/131) in goats. Double parasitic infection in small ruminant recorded in which Fasciola+ Haemonchus. contortus in sheep were found their prevalence was 25.54% (47/184). While in goats, the double parasitic infection in which Haemonchus contortus+Trichuris spp were found and their prevalence were 23.43% (30/131). The species found in the sample of sheep were includes, i.e., Strongyloides papillosus (41.30%), Heamonchus controtus (21.73%), Trichuris ovis (17.39%), and Fasciola hepatica (13.58%), the corresponding value for goat were Strongyloides spp 33.33% (36/108), Haemonchus spp 28.70%, (27/108), Trichuris spp 25.20% (27/184) and Fasciola spp 10.68% (14/184). The sheep of the study area are more infected as compared to goats. This study suggested that gastrointestinal parasites are major health problems of small ruminants in the study area. Therefore, a comprehensive study on species of gastrointestinal parasites circulating in the area, control options, cost-effective strategies and awareness about gastrointestinal parasites among the farmers in the study area should be instituted.


Resumo A presente pesquisa foi planejada para avaliar a ocorrência de parasitas intestinais em pequenos ruminantes do distrito Upper Dir, da província de Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, no Paquistão. Para tanto, o material fecal foi coletado aleatoriamente com dedos enluvados diretamente da região do reto de ovelhas e cabras, e os materiais fecais foram colocados em garrafas plásticas higiênicas com formol a 10%. No total, 315 (n = 184 ovelhas e n = 131 cabras) amostras fecais foram coletadas; destas, 281 foram consideradas positivas para diferentes parasitas. A prevalência de padrões de parasitas GI da área de estudo foi encontrada. Parasitismo global único 89,20% (281/315) com 94,0% (173/184) em ovinos e 82,43% (108/131) em cabras. Infecção parasitária dupla em pequenos ruminantes registrada em Fasciola + Haemonchus contortus em ovinos, sua prevalência foi de 25,54% (47/184). Já em caprinos, a dupla infecção parasitária em que Haemonchus contortus + Trichuris spp foram encontrados e sua prevalência foi de 23,43% (30/131). As espécies encontradas na amostra de ovinos foram: Strongyloides papillosus (41,30%), Heamonchus controtus (21,73%), Trichuris ovis (17,39%) e Fasciola hepatica (13,58%), o valor correspondente para cabra foi Strongyloides spp. 33,33% (36/108), Haemonchus spp. 28,70%, (27/108), Trichuris sp 25,20% (27/184) e Fasciola spp. 10,68% (14/184). As ovelhas da área de estudo estão mais infectadas do que as cabras. Este estudo sugeriu que os parasitas gastrointestinais são os principais problemas de saúde dos pequenos ruminantes na área de estudo. Portanto, um estudo abrangente sobre as espécies de parasitas gastrointestinais que circulam na área, opções de controle, estratégias de baixo custo e conscientização sobre parasitas gastrointestinais entre os agricultores na área de estudo deve ser instituído.


Subject(s)
Animals , Parasites , Sheep Diseases/epidemiology , Goat Diseases/epidemiology , Pakistan/epidemiology , Ruminants , Goats , Sheep , Prevalence , Feces
11.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e251671, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345526

ABSTRACT

Abstract Trypanosomiasis is a protozoan infection affecting both human and animals in almost all parts of the world. It can affect a very large range of domestic and wild hosts including camelids, equines, cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats, pigs, dogs and other carnivores, deer, gazelles and elephants. This review paper was designed to address the effect of this economically important disease in countries on the Red Sea, especially in Egypt, Sudan, Somalia, and Saudi Arabia during the period 2010 to 2020. The prevalence of trypanosomiasis is different between these countries due to different types of diagnostic methods (Giemsa-stained blood smears, Hematocrit centrifugation, Serological test, and molecular analysis PCR) used and differential distribution of vector (Tse tse) flies. In current review, retrospective studies of published literature on distribution and prevalence of Trypanosoma evansi infection in the Red Sea Countries was conducted [Google Scholar and PubMed were used to retrieve the published literature from 2000-2020. A total of 77 published articles met the eligibility criteria and were reviewed. A total of 16 reports have been reported on the prevalence and distribution of Trypnosoma evansi infection in the Red Sea Countries have been from 2010-2020]. According to the published literature, we can say that trypanosomiasis in camels are more prevalent in Sudan than in other countries, followed by 17% and 51.78% in both clinical and non-clinical cases. Hence, the reliable diagnostic tests should be used for rapid treatment or control of the disease as if not treated appropriately in early-stage, can lead to death of the camels.


Resumo A tripanossomíase é uma infecção por protozoário que afeta humanos e animais em quase todas as partes do mundo. Pode afetar grande variedade de hospedeiros domésticos e selvagens, incluindo camelídeos, equinos, gado, búfalos, ovelhas, cabras, porcos, cães e outros carnívoros, veados, gazelas e elefantes. Este artigo de revisão foi elaborado para abordar o efeito dessa doença economicamente importante em países do mar Vermelho, especialmente Egito, Sudão, Somália e Arábia Saudita, durante o período de 2010 a 2020. A prevalência de tripanossomíase é diferente entre esses países devido a tipos distintos de métodos diagnósticos (esfregaços de sangue corados com Giemsa, centrifugação de hematócrito, teste sorológico e PCR de análise molecular) usados ​​e distribuição diferencial de moscas vetoras (tsé-tsé). Na revisão atual, foram realizados estudos retrospectivos da literatura publicada sobre distribuição e prevalência da infecção por Trypanosoma evansi nos países do mar Vermelho [Google Scholar e PubMed foram usados ​​para recuperar a literatura publicada de 2000 a 2020. Um total de 77 artigos publicados preencheu os critérios de elegibilidade e foi revisado. E há também 16 relatos sobre a prevalência e distribuição da infecção por Trypnosoma evansi nos países do mar Vermelho, de 2010 a 2020]. De acordo com a literatura publicada, podemos afirmar que a tripanossomíase em camelos é mais prevalente no Sudão do que em outros países, seguida por 17% e 51,78% em casos clínicos e não clínicos. Assim, os testes diagnósticos confiáveis ​​devem ser utilizados para o tratamento rápido ou controle da doença, pois, se eles não forem tratados de forma adequada na fase inicial, isso pode levar à morte dos camelos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Trypanosomiasis/diagnosis , Trypanosomiasis/veterinary , Trypanosomiasis/epidemiology , Deer , Cattle , Sheep , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Indian Ocean , Horses
12.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(6): 1536-1545, dic. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1421804

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The aim of the study was to investigate the head structures of two domestic sheep breeds (Hasak and Hasmer) in Turkey. Gender neutral eight adult Hasmer sheep of 45-66 kg and eight Hasak sheep breeds of 43-66 kg obtained from Bahri Dag˘das¸ International Agricultural Research Institute were used in this study. Measurements were made using digital caliper from 40 points on the skulls of both species. The skull of Hasmer sheep (265.56 ± 14.08) was longer than the skull of Hasak sheep (262.86 ± 9.65). However, the length of the arcus alveolaris maxillaris (77.01 ± 5.08), the length of the molar teeth (50.81 ± 1.22) and the length of the premolar teeth (26.16 ± 4.62) of Hasak sheep were compared to the Hasmer sheep (71.59, ± 5.25; 47.99 ± 3.64; 24.03 ± 3.76, respectively) was observed to be greater. According to these findings, although the skull length of Hasak sheep was shorter than that of Hasmer sheep and arcus alveolaris maxillaris in which molar and premolar teeth were placed was longer. In Hasmer sheep the values of greatest breadth of the foramen magnum, height of the foramen magnum (basion - opisthion), greatest neurocranium breadth-greatest breadth of the braincase (euryon - euryon) were higher than those of Hasak sheep. The difference between these values was also statistically significant (p <0.05). The lateral length of the premaxilla (nasointermaxillare- prosthion) parameter measured between these two species was statistically very important (p <0.01). In conclusion, in this study craniometric values depending on skull morphology of Hasmer and Hasak sheep which accepted as native breeds of Turkey were tried, to reveal similarities and differences with other sheep breeds in both amongst themselves.


El objetivo del estudio fue investigar las estructuras de la cabeza de dos razas de ovejas domésticas (Hasak y Hasmer) de Turquía. En este estudio se utilizaron ocho ovejas Hasmer adultas de género neutral de 45-66 kg y ocho ovejas de raza Hasak de 43-66 kg, obtenidas del Instituto Internacional de Investigación Agrícola Bahri Dagdas. Las mediciones en los cráneos de ambas especies se realiza-ron con caliper digital de 40 puntos. El cráneo de la oveja Hasmer (265,56 ± 14,08 mm) era más largo que el cráneo que el de la oveja Hasak (262,86 ± 9,65 mm). En las ovejas Hasak la longitud del arcus alveolaris maxillaris fue 77,01 ± 5,08 mm, la longitud de los dientes molares fue 50,81 ± 1,22 mm y la longitud de los dientes premolares fue de 26,16 ± 4,62 mm, en cambio en las ovejas Hasmer fue de 71,59 ± 5,25 mm; 47,99 ± 3,64 mm; 24,03 ± 3,76 mm, respectivamente. Según estos hallazgos, la longitud del cráneo de la oveja Hasak era más corta que la de la oveja Hasmer y el arcus alveolaris maxillaris en el que se colocaron los dientes molares y premolares era más largo. En ovinos Hasmer los valores de mayor amplitud del foramen magnum, altura del foramen magnum (basion - opisthion), mayor amplitud del neurocráneo-mayor amplitud de la caja craneana (euryon - euryon) fueron superiores a los de las ovejas Hasak. La diferencia entre estos valores también fue estadísticamente significativa (p <0,05). El parámetro de longitud lateral del premaxilar (nasointermaxillare-prosthion) medido entre estas dos especies fu estadísticamente significativo (p <0.01). En conclusión, los valores craneométricos en relación a la morfología del cráneo de las ovejas Hasmer y Hasak que se definieron como razas autóctonas de Turquía revelaron similitudes y diferencias con otras razas de ovejas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Skull/anatomy & histology , Sheep, Domestic/anatomy & histology , Turkey , Sheep/anatomy & histology
13.
Rev. bras. ciênc. vet ; 29(4): 164-168, out./dez. 2022. il.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1427041

ABSTRACT

Objetivou-se comparar o efeito in silico do florfenicol nas doses de 20 e 30 mg/Kg em ovinos pelas vias intravenosa (IV) e intramuscular (IM), usando a modelagem PK/PD. Realizou-se uma simulação de Monte Carlo com base nos dados de concentração plasmática de um estudo publicado anteriormente. Calculou-se a área sob a curva (ASC) e as taxas de eficácia do florfenicol para os efeitos bacteriostático, bactericida e de erradicação bacteriológica. A dose de 20 mg/Kg IV demonstrou efeitos de erradicação de 100, 93 e 0% para CIM de 0,5, 1 e acima, respectivamente. O efeito bacteriostático foi de 99 e 90% para CIM de 4 e 2 µg/ml, enquanto o bactericida foi de 14% para CIM de 2 µg/ml. A dose de 30 mg/Kg IV apresentou 100% de erradicação para CIM de 1 µg/mL e 100% de efeito bactericida para CIM de 2 µg/mL. Há 100% de efeito bacteriostático em CIM de 4 µg/ml. As doses de 20 e 30 mg/Kg IM mostraram 100% de erradicação para CIM até 1 µg/mL e 0% para CIM maiores. O efeito bacteriostático foi mantido em 100% para uma CIM de 4 µg/mL em ambas as doses. Este estudo mostra o efeito de erradicação bacteriológica do florfenicol nas doses de 20 e 30 mg/Kg, IV e IM. Recomenda-se que seja feito um estudo de eficácia in vivo com a dose de 30mg/Kg IM em ovinos infectados por F. necrophorum com MIC superior a 2 µg/mL.


We aimed to compare the in silico effect of florfenicol at doses of 20 and 30 mg/Kg in sheep by intravenous (IV) and intramuscular (IM) routes, using PK/PD modeling. We performed a Monte Carlo simulation based on plasma concentration data from a previously published study. We calculated the area under the curve (AUC) and the efficacy rates of florfenicol to bacteriostatic, bactericidal, and bacteriological eradication effects. The dose of 20 mg/Kg IV demonstrated 100, 93, and 0% eradication effects for MICs of 0.5, 1, and above, respectively. The bacteriostatic effect was 99 and 90% for MIC of 4 and 2 µg/ml, while the bactericide was 14% for MIC of 2 µg/ml. The 30 mg/Kg IV dose showed 100% eradication for MIC of 1 µg/mL and 100% bactericidal effect for MIC of 2 µg/mL. There is a 100% of bacteriostatic effect at MIC of 4 µg/ml. Doses of 20 and 30 mg/Kg IM showed 100% eradication for MIC up to 1 µg/mL and 0% for MIC above. The bacteriostatic effect was maintained at 100% for a MIC of 4 µg/mL at both doses. This study shows the bacteriological eradication effect of florfenicol at doses of 20 and 30 mg/Kg, IV, and IM. Therefore, we recommend an in vivo efficacy study with a dose of 30mg/Kg IM in sheep infected with F. necrophorum with MIC greater than two µg/mL.


Subject(s)
Animals , Sheep/abnormalities , Bacteriological Techniques/veterinary , Foot Rot/drug therapy , Fusobacterium necrophorum/pathogenicity , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Monte Carlo Method
14.
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 39(3): 328-335, jul.-sep. 2022. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1410000

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo . Explorar la viabilidad de desarrollar un modelo de neurocisticercosis (NCC) de oveja mediante infección intracraneal de oncosferas de T. solium. Materiales y métodos. Se realizó un modelo de infección experimental de NCC en ovejas. Se inocularon aproximadamente 10 posoncósferas de T. solium cultivadas previamente por 30 días por vía intracraneal en diez ovejas. Las oncósferas, en 0,1 mL de solución salina fisiológica, se inyectaron en el lóbulo parietal a través de una aguja de calibre 18. Resultados. Después de tres meses, en dos ovejas se encontraron granulomas y en una tercera identificó un quiste de 5 mm de diámetro en el ventrículo lateral derecho y la evaluación histológica confirmó que el quiste corresponde a una larva de T. solium. También se utilizó inmunohistoquímica con anticuerpos monoclonales dirigidos contra componentes de membrana y antígenos excretorios/secretorios del quiste de T. solium para confirmar la etiología de los granulomas encontrados. Uno de ellos mostro reactividad ante los anticuerpos monoclonales utilizados, confirmando así que se trató de un cisticerco. Conclusión. Este experimento es la prueba de concepto de que es posible infectar ovejas con cisticercosis por inoculación intracraneal.


ABSTRACT Objective. To explore the feasibility of developing a sheep model of neurocysticercosis (NCC) by intracranial infection with T. solium oncospheres. Materials and methods. We carried out an experimental infection model of NCC in sheep. Approximately 10 T. solium oncospheres previously cultured for 30 days were inoculated intracranially into ten sheep. The oncospheres, in 0.1 mL of physiological saline, were injected into the parietal lobe through an 18-gauge needle. Results. After three months, granulomas were found in two sheep. In a third sheep we identified a 5 mm diameter cyst in the right lateral ventricle and histological evaluation confirmed that the cyst corresponded to a T. solium larva. Immunohistochemistry with monoclonal antibodies directed against membrane components and excretory/secretory antigens of the T. solium cyst was also used to confirm the etiology of the found granulomas. One of them showed reactivity to the monoclonal antibodies used, thus confirming that it was a cysticercus. Conclusion. This experiment is the proof of concept that it is possible to infect sheep with cysticercosis by intracranial inoculation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain , Cysticercosis , Sheep , Lateral Ventricles , Cysts , Epilepsy , Granuloma
15.
Rev. bras. ciênc. vet ; 29(2): 81-84, abr./jun. 2022. il.
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1399547

ABSTRACT

The objective of this work was to describe the first record of antibodies to the Bluetongue Virus (BTV) in ewe, in the state of Amazonas. The ewe, which was in twin pregnancy, gave birth on May 9, 2015, but a lamb died hours after delivery. Veterinary service was then requested by the owner, where emaciation, loss of wool, pyrexia, apathy, dyspnea, mucoid nasal secretion, facial, lingual and submandibular edema were observed. There was a visit by the Agricultural Defense Agency of the State of Amazonas to the property and blood samples were collected from the animal. The whole blood and serum were sent to the National Agricultural Laboratory, where it was possible to detect the presence of specific antibodies to BTV, through the Agar Gel Double Immunodiffusion. The ewe was submitted to a new blood collection, following the same protocols and the samples were sent to the Biological Institute of São Paulo, confirmed diagnosis. The animal in a serious clinical condition, could not resist and died in July 2015. The occurrence of an allochthonous case, in an area where vector insects occur, can trigger an endemic process in the Amazon region. With this, the epidemiological control of these occurrences is necessary, in order to avoid the spread of the disease in the country.


O objetivo do trabalho foi descrever o primeiro registro de anticorpos para o Vírus da Língua Azul (VLA) em ovino, no estado do Amazonas. A ovelha, que se encontrava em gestação gemelar, pariu no dia 9 de maio de 2015, porém um cordeiro faleceu horas após o parto. Foi então solicitado serviço veterinário por parte do proprietário, onde foi observado emaciação, perda de lã, pirexia, apatia, dispneia, secreção nasal mucoide, edema facial, lingual e submandibular. Houve visita da Agência de Defesa Agropecuária do Estado do Amazonas na propriedade e coletadas amostras de sangue do animal. O sangue total e soro foram enviados ao Laboratório Nacional Agropecuário, no qual foi possível detectar a presença de anticorpos específicos para VLA, através do teste de Imunodifusão Dupla em Gel de Ágar. A ovelha foi submetida a uma nova coleta de sangue, seguindo os mesmos protocolos e as amostras foram enviadas ao Instituto Biológico de São Paulo, confirmando diagnóstico. O animal em estado clínico grave, não resistiu e veio a óbito em julho de 2015. A ocorrência de um caso alóctone, em uma área de ocorrência de insetos vetores, pode desencadear um processo de endemia na região amazônica. Com isso, o controle epidemiológico destas ocorrências, se fazem necessários, afim de se evitar a disseminação da doença no país.


Subject(s)
Animals , Sheep/abnormalities , Immunodiffusion/veterinary , Bluetongue virus/immunology , Endemic Diseases/veterinary , Antibodies, Viral/analysis
16.
Rev. bras. ciênc. vet ; 29(2): 88-94, abr./jun. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1399553

ABSTRACT

Objetivou-se descrever o perfil dos sistemas de criação de caprinos e ovinos da Ilha de São Luís no estado do Maranhão. Para isso, realizou-se um estudo descritivo, exploratório e quali-quantitativo com 80 produtores rurais selecionados pela técnica Snowball, no período de fevereiro a abril de 2021. Em relação ao perfil do produtor rural, verificou-se predominância do gênero masculino (93,8%), apresentando faixa etária entre 25 a 60 anos (86,2%). A maioria dos produtores apresentavam ensino médio completo (23,8%) ou ensino superior completo (23,8%) e 88,8% dos produtores não estavam vinculados a organizações coletivas, associações, cooperativas ou sindicatos. Nas propriedades rurais o sistema de criação predominante era o semi-extensivo (73,8%) com presença de apriscos (76,2%) e as criações eram consorciadas com caprinos e ovinos (58,8%). A principal causa de morte nos animais verificada foi a verminose (58,8%). Conclui-se que se faz necessário o estabelecimento de medidas de estímulo às criações na Ilha de São Luís por meio de políticas públicas voltadas aos produtores locais, requerendo, sobretudo, assistência técnica, orientações zootécnicas, educação sanitária e acesso ao crédito, para, assim, deixar de ser apenas uma atividade de subsistência e passar a gerar maiores rendas para as famílias produtoras.


The objective of this research was to describe the profile of the goat and sheep rearing systems on the Island of São Luís in the state of Maranhão. For this, a descriptive, exploratory and qualitative-quantitative study was carried out with 80 rural producers selected by the Snowball technique, from February to April 2021. Regarding the profile of the rural producer, there was a predominance of males (93.8%), aging between 25 and 60 years (86.2%). Most producers had completed high school (23.8%) or higher education (23.8%) and 88.8% were not members of collective organizations, associations, cooperatives or unions. In rural properties, the predominant rearing system was semi-extensive (73.8%) with the presence of sheepfolds (76.2%) and mutual goats and sheep farming (58.8%). The main cause of death of animals was warm infections (58.8%). In conclusion, it is necessary to establish measures to support sheep and goat farming on the Island of São Luís through public policies focused on local producers, which require, above all, technical assistance, zootechnical guidelines, health education and access to credit in order to the farms stop being just a subsistence activity and start generating higher incomes for producing families.


Subject(s)
Animals , Ruminants , Sheep , Rural Economy , Farmers/statistics & numerical data , Farms/organization & administration , Animal Husbandry/organization & administration
17.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e237869, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1249268

ABSTRACT

Reproductive diseases have been well documented in domestic livestock such as sheep, goat, cattle and pigs. However, there is very little information on these diseases in the agouti (Dasyprocta leporina). The agouti is used for its meat in South America and the Caribbean. More recently, intensive farming of this animal is being practiced in the Neotropics. There is dearth of information on dystocia and vaginal prolapses in the agouti. This document reports on three cases of reproductive diseases in captive reared agoutis in Trinidad and Tobago. The first case was a female agouti weighing approximately 3 kg that was in the last stage of pregnancy, which was found dead in its cage. The vulva of the mother had the protruding hind-limbs of the fetus. Necroscopic evaluation of carcass revealed little fat tissue and the mother had two fetuses in the right horn of the uterus. Each fetus weighed approximately 200 g. The fetuses were well formed with fur, teeth and eyes. The placenta was attached to each fetus. The pathological findings suggested that dystocia resulted from secondary uterine inertia which was the cause of death of the adult female agouti. The second case was that of an adult female agouti weighing 2.5 kg. This female had given birth to an offspring three weeks prior and was observed to have had a vaginal prolapse. Surgery was performed and the prolapsed vagina was placed back into the pelvic cavity. Further to this intervention, the vagina prolapsed twice. Subsequent to the re-insertion of the vaginal tissue the agouti was euthanized. The third case was also that of a dystocia. However, the fetuses weighed 235 g and 165 g respectively and were in normal presentation, posture and positioning. The fetus however was unable to pass via the vagina and was trapped in the pelvic cavity. This caused secondary uterine inertia which was the cause of death. The causes of reproductive diseases in these cases are unknown but the feeding management and space allowance given to the agouti in late gestation may be contributing factors.


As doenças reprodutivas têm sido bem documentadas em rebanhos domésticos, como ovinos, caprinos, bovinos e suínos. Porém, há muito pouca informação sobre essas doenças na cutia (Dasyprocta leporina). A cutia é usada como carne na América do Sul e no Caribe. Mais recentemente, a criação intensiva desse animal está sendo praticada na região neotropical., Há escassez de informações sobre distocia e prolapsos vaginais na cutia. Este documento relata três casos de doenças reprodutivas em cutias criadas em cativeiro em Trinidad e Tobago. O primeiro caso foi de uma cutia de aproximadamente 3 kg que estava na última fase de gestação, encontrada morta em sua gaiola. A vulva da mãe tinha as patas traseiras salientes do feto. A avaliação necroscópica da carcaça revelou pouco tecido adiposo e a mãe tinha dois fetos no corno direito do útero. Cada feto pesava aproximadamente 200 g. Os fetos eram bem formados com pelos, dentes e olhos. A placenta foi presa a cada feto. Os achados patológicos sugeriram que a distocia resultou de inércia uterina secundária, que foi a causa da morte da cutia adulta. O segundo caso foi o de uma cutia adulta pesando 2,5 kg. Essa fêmea deu à luz uma cria três semanas antes e foi observado que tinha prolapso vaginal., A cirurgia foi realizada e a vagina prolapsada foi colocada de volta na cavidade pélvica. Após essa intervenção, a vagina prolapsou duas vezes. Após a reinserção do tecido vaginal, a cutia foi eutanasiada. O terceiro caso também foi de distocia. No entanto, os fetos pesavam 235 g e 165 g e estavam em apresentação, postura e posicionamento normais. O feto, entretanto, não conseguiu passar pela vagina e ficou preso na cavidade pélvica. Isso causou inércia uterina secundária, que foi a causa da morte. As causas das doenças reprodutivas nesses casos são desconhecidas, mas o manejo da alimentação e o espaço concedido à cutia no final da gestação podem ser fatores contribuintes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Dasyproctidae , South America , Swine , Trinidad and Tobago , Cattle , Sheep , Caribbean Region
18.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 31(1): e014021, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1365761

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study aimed to evaluate foraging distance (FD) from the dung, parasitological and physiological factors in 18 Crioula Lanada lambs naturally infected by nematodes with three infection levels (IL) in a Voisin Grazing System. In the pre-experimental phase animal feces collection, deworming, observer training, animal adaptation and dung demarcation were carried out; in the experimental phase, grazing distance, feces, pasture and blood sampling. An initial exploratory analysis was carried out (Kruskal-Wallis test). Fixed predictors were selected with a cumulative logit regression model; an ordinal logistic regression mixed model identified influencing factors of ordinal responses for (i) FD, (ii) infective larvae quantity (L3). Animals approached the dung when the radiation or temperature were more intense (P < 0.05). Paddock entry/exit, IgG and L3 influenced FD over time (P < 0.05). L3, in turn, was influenced by IL, FEC and corpuscular volume (CV). In the High IL group, FD varied between 60-100 cm. Greater L3 and FEC were found in the High and Low IL from the 4th week (P < 0.05). Naturally infected Crioula Lanada lambs increased the distance from the dung, which was not related to IL but to the dynamics of solar radiation and parasitological and immunological factors.


Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a distância de forrageamento do bolo fecal (DF), fatores parasitológicos e fisiológicos em 18 cordeiros Crioula Lanada, naturalmente infectados por nematoides com três níveis de infecção (NI) em sistema Pastoreio Racional Voisin (PRV). Na fase pré-experimental, houve coleta de fezes dos animais, vermifugação, treinamento de observadores, adaptação dos animais e demarcação do bolo fecal; na fase experimental, distância, fezes, pastagem e sangue. Um modelo de regressão "logit" cumulativa selecionou preditores fixos; um modelo misto de regressão logística ordinal identificou fatores influenciadores das respostas ordinais para (i) DF (ii) quantidade de larva infectante (L3). Os cordeiros se aproximaram do bolo fecal quando a radiação ou temperatura foram mais intensas (P < 0,05). A entrada e a saída dos piquetes, a ingestão de L3 e IgG influenciaram DF (P < 0,05). L3 foi influenciada por NI, OPG e volume corpuscular. O grupo NI Alta variou a distância entre 60-100 cm. Maior L3 e a FEC foram encontrados nos grupos NI Alta e Baixa a partir da 4ª semana (P < 0,05). Cordeiros Crioula Lanada, naturalmente infectados, aumentaram a DF, sem relação com nível, de infecção, mas com a dinâmica da radiação solar e dos fatores parasitológicos e imunológicos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Sheep Diseases/parasitology , Nematoda , Avoidance Learning , Sheep , Feces/parasitology , Larva
19.
Malaysian Journal of Microbiology ; : 58-67, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-977452

ABSTRACT

Aims@#This study evaluated in vitro resistance and susceptibility of Enterobacteriaceae (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella oxytoca strains) and Staphylococci strains, isolated from sheep’s milk, against antibiotics and essential oils from Thymus satureioides and Mentha pulegium.@*Methodology and results@#Antibiotic resistance tests were done using disc diffusion while essential oils were extracted by steam distillation and yields were calculated relative to plant dry matter. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to analyze each oil's chemical composition. Amoxicillin + Clavulanic acid (AMC), Cefotaxime (CTX), Cefoxitine (FOX), Nalidixic acid (NA), Gentamicin (CN), Ciprofloxacin (CIP) and Ofloxacin (OFX) were very effective against the E. coli strains tested. Half of the strains were resistant to AMC, 60% to Ticarcillin (TIC) and 80% to Tetracycline (TE). Klebsiella oxytoca was resistant against AMC, FOX and TIC (100%). Antibiotic-resistant testing on Staphylococci strains indicated Staphylococcus capitis and S. chromogenes as the most sensitive. Staphylococcus aureus, S. xylosus and S. cohnii ureal exhibited less resistance to Oxacilin (OX), TE, Pristinamycin (PT), Erythromycin (E) and Penicillin (P). Mentha pulegium resulted in a higher yield of essential oil of 3.2% oil compared to T. satureioides with only 1.85% yield. The monoterpene oxygenated derivatives, monoterpene hydrocarbons and phenols are found in essential oil extracts. Thymus satureioides essential oil had high antibacterial activity even at low concentrations (0.2; 0.55 g/mL). The minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) values indicate that the essential oils from the plants analyzed had bactericidal effects on all strains tested and are similar to the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values.@*Conclusion, significance and impact of study@#The high antibacterial properties of these medicinal plants, against bacteria isolated from sheep’s milk, provide an opportunity to use these medicinal plants in the breeding sector, as additives and preservatives in the dairy industry.


Subject(s)
Enterobacteriaceae , Staphylococcus , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Sheep
20.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 139-147, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927699

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to refold the OvisAries leukocyte antigen (OLA) class Ⅰ protein with peptides derived from sheeppox virus (SPPV) to identify SPPV T cell epitopes. Two pairs of primers were designed based on the published sequence of a sheep major histocompatibility complex Ⅰ to amplify the heavy chain gene of OLA Ⅰ α-BSP and the light chain gene of OLA Ⅰ-β2m. Both genes were cloned into a pET-28a(+) expression vector, respectively, and induced with ITPG for protein expression. After purification, the heavy chain and light chain proteins as well as peptides derived from SPPV were refolded at a ratio of 1:1:1 using a gradual dilution method. Molecular exclusion chromatography was used to test whether these peptides bind to the OLA Ⅰ complex. T-cell responses were assessed using freshly isolated PBMCs from immunized sheep through IFN-γ ELISPOT with peptides derived from SPPV protein. The results showed that the cloned heavy chain and light chain expressed sufficiently, with a molecular weight of 36.3 kDa and 16.7 kDa, respectively. The protein separated via a SuperdexTM 200 increase 10/300 GL column was collected and verified by SDS-PAGE after refolding. One SPPV CTL epitope was identified after combined refolding and functional studies based on T-cell epitopes derived from SPPV. An OLA Ⅰ/peptide complex was refolded correctly, which is necessary for the structural characterization. This study may contribute to the development of sheep vaccine based on peptides.


Subject(s)
Animals , Capripoxvirus , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/genetics , Peptides/genetics , Poxviridae Infections , Sheep , Sheep Diseases
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