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Medicentro (Villa Clara) ; 27(2)jun. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1440525


Introducción: La estrategia de código rojo permite la atención inmediata, sistematizada y coordinada de la hemorragia posparto. Es un esquema de trabajo organizado que contribuye a un tratamiento oportuno y pertinente de la hemorragia obstétrica. Con esta herramienta, el equipo asistencial puede seguir los pasos indicados sin desviarse del objetivo, trabajar de manera ordenada y aplicarlo en cada situación específica, para disminuir la morbilidad y mortalidad materna. Objetivo: Caracterizar los resultados de la estrategia de código rojo en la atención a pacientes con hemorragia posparto en Villa Clara. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio de desarrollo, observacional, de corte transversal y retrospectivo de las pacientes con hemorragia posparto en Villa Clara, durante el período de enero 2018 a junio de 2021. La muestra no probabilística quedó conformada por 127 pacientes. Se utilizaron medidas de resumen para la descripción de las variables. En las cuantitativas se emplearon medidas de tendencia central y de dispersión (media y desviación estándar), para las variables cualitativas se mostraron frecuencias absolutas y relativas. Para establecer las relaciones entre variables se aplicó la prueba de independencia basada en la distribución Ji cuadrado. Resultados: En la evaluación del cumplimiento del protocolo de código rojo resultaron incorrectos algunos parámetros como: el diagnóstico de las etapas del choque y el tiempo de accionar. Conclusiones: Cada institución debe contar con protocolos y guías de atención de pacientes obstétricas con bases científicas que se correspondan a las posibilidades de cada país; estos protocolos deben facilitar y perfeccionar las acciones del médico.

Introduction: the red code strategy allows immediate, systematized and coordinated care of postpartum hemorrhage. It is an organized work scheme that contributes to timely and relevant treatment of obstetric hemorrhage. The healthcare team can follow with this tool the indicated steps without deviating from the objective, work in an orderly manner and apply it in each specific situation to reduce maternal morbidity and mortality. Objective: to characterize the results of the red code strategy in the care of patients with postpartum hemorrhage in Villa Clara. Methods: a retrospective, cross-sectional, observational and developmental study was carried out in patients with postpartum hemorrhage in Villa Clara from January 2018 to June 2021. The non-probabilistic sample consisted of 127 patients. Summary measures were used to describe the variables. Measures of central tendency and dispersion (mean and standard deviation) were used in the quantitative variables as well as absolute and relative frequencies were shown for the qualitative ones. The independence test based on the Chi-square distribution was applied to establish the relationships between variables. Results: some parameters were incorrect in the evaluation of compliance with the red code protocol such as the diagnosis of the stages of shock and the time to act. Conclusions: each institution must have protocols and guidelines for the care of obstetric patients with scientific bases that correspond to the possibilities of each country; these protocols should facilitate and improve the doctor's actions.

Shock , Evaluation Study , Postpartum Hemorrhage
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984395


Objectives@#Among critically ill patients, there is usually impairment of the hypothalamic-pituitary- adrenal axis, leading to a condition known as critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency (CIRCI). The aims of this investigation are to determine the incidence of and characterize CIRCI among patients with COVID-19 as well as to analyze the outcomes of these critically ill patients.@*Methodology@#This is a single-center, retrospective, cohort study that investigated the occurrence of CIRCI among critically ill patients infected with COVID-19.@*Results@#In this cohort, there were 145 COVID-19 positive patients with refractory shock included, which reflects that 22.94% of the COVID-19 admissions have probable CIRCI. Patients who were given corticosteroids were found to have statistically significant longer median days on ventilator (p= 0.001). However, those on the corticosteroid arm were at higher risk of morbidity and mortality and a greater proportion of patients with organ dysfunction. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that SOFA score was a significant predictor of mortality in CIRCI (p=0.013).@*Conclusion@#CIRCI has a unique presentation among COVID-19 patients because of the presence of a high level of inflammation in this life-threatening infection. It possibly is a harbinger of markedly increased risk of mortality in these patients.

Adrenal Insufficiency , COVID-19 , Critical Illness , Shock
Rev. Anesth.-Réanim. Med. Urg. Toxicol. ; 15(1): 41-45, 2023. tables
Article in French | AIM | ID: biblio-1438427


Introduction : Le choc hypovolémique est une défaillance circulatoire aiguë et critique, mettant rapidement en jeu le pronostic vital. L'objectif de l'étude était de déterminer les aspects épidémio-cliniques et la prise en charge du choc hémorragique periopéraoire au centre hospitalier de Mahajanga. Méthodes : Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective, descriptive, observationnelle et monocentrique réalisée dans le service de Réanimation Chirurgicale du CHU PZaGa de Mahajanga, sur une période de 52 mois. Les données socio-démographiques, les paramètres cliniques périopératoires, la prise en charge médico-chirurgicale, l'évolution et les retentissements organiques de l'état de choc hémorragique ont été les paramètres étudiés. Résultats : Nous avons collecté 6896 dossiers des patients, dont 70 cas de choc hémorragique ont été recensés (1,02%) pour tout type de chirurgie ; 62 dossiers ont été retenus dans l'étude. La majorité des cas était du genre féminin (87,10%). Les pathologies gynéco-obstétricales étaient la principale source de l'état de choc de (77,4%), dont 59,4% d'hémorragie du post-partum. L'insuffisance rénale aiguë était la principale atteinte viscérale (61%, n=38) suivie de 10% (n=6) des cas des troubles neurologiques. Tous les patients ont bénéficié d'une oxygénothérapie, et d'un remplissage vasculaire par des cristalloïdes et 3,2% ont eu des colloïdes. Les substances vasoactives utilisées étaient l'éphédrine 41,9%, suivie de l'adrénaline 27,4% et de la noradrénaline 17,7%. Vingt-sept virgule quarante pourcent de nos patients étaient décédés, et la cause la plus incriminée était la coagulopathie par défibrination. Conclusion: Les hémorragies obstétricales constituent la première cause de choc hémorragique ; le taux de mortalité reste encore élevé.

Female , Shock, Hemorrhagic , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation , Hemorrhage , Shock , Mortality
Rev. Anesth.-Réanim. Med. Urg. Toxicol. ; 15(1): 55-58, 2023. tables, figures
Article in French | AIM | ID: biblio-1438434


Background: Intensive Care Unit unit is taking care the serious patients whose vital prognosis is engaged. Death remains the main fear of those patients who are admitted to intensive care. The main objective of our study was to identify the causes of death in the intensive care unit at the Analakininina teaching hospital, Toamasina, madagascar. Methods: This was a descriptive, retrospective study carried out from January 1, 2019 to June 30, 2019. Results: We had identified 110 cases of death with a high male prevalence and a sex ratio of 1.75. The average age was 48.73 +/- 17.60 years. The main reason for admission was disturbance of consciousness in 63.64% of cases with 24.45% of severe coma. Regarding the causes of death, a total of 25 diagnosis were made. The shock states represented 30% of the causes of death of which 69% were septic, 18% cardiogenic and 15.15% hypovolemic. Next, stroke accounted for 28%, cerebral malaria 7.27% and diabetic coma accounted for 5.45% of causes of death. The average length of hospital stay was 1.91 days. Conclusion: Our study provides a better understanding of the causes of death of patients in the intensive care unit. These data can point towards initiatives to improve the quality of care

Humans , Shock, Cardiogenic , Cause of Death , Diabetic Coma , Intensive Care Units , Shock , Critical Care
Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 121-124, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970974


Viper bite envenomation represents a significant occupational hazard among agricultural workers in India. The viper bite envenomation is usually suspected when a patient presents with predominant local symptoms at the bitten site, including pain, swelling, and necrosis. Further, systemic findings such as diffuse intravascular coagulation, hypotension, and shock may alert physicians of viper bite envenomation rather than a neurotoxic snake bite. However, cerebral complications are rare in viper bites but may potentially fatal. Central nervous system involvement in a viper bite is either due to neurotoxins or hemorrhagins present in the venom, which may induce cerebral thrombosis, ischemia, infarction, and hemorrhage. Here we present a case of a previously healthy adult male who succumbed to extensive subarachnoid, intracerebral, and intraventricular hemorrhages involving bilateral cerebral hemispheres following viper snake bite envenomation. This report highlights the importance of anticipating cerebral complications in viper bite envenomation, a rare occurrence. It also emphasizes the need for early antisnake venom administration to prevent and control systemic envenomation and its complications.

Adult , Humans , Male , Snake Bites/complications , Hemorrhage/etiology , Intracranial Hemorrhages , Shock , India
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981995


OBJECTIVES@#To study the role of plasma exchange combined with continuous blood purification in the treatment of refractory Kawasaki disease shock syndrome (KDSS).@*METHODS@#A total of 35 children with KDSS who were hospitalized in the Department of Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, Hunan Children's Hospital, from January 2019 to August 2022 were included as subjects. According to whether plasma exchange combined with continuous veno-venous hemofiltration dialysis was performed, they were divided into a purification group with 12 patients and a conventional group with 23 patients. The two groups were compared in terms of clinical data, laboratory markers, and prognosis.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the conventional group, the purification group had significantly shorter time to recovery from shock and length of hospital stay in the pediatric intensive care unit, as well as a significantly lower number of organs involved during the course of the disease (P<0.05). After treatment, the purification group had significant reductions in the levels of interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, heparin-binding protein, and brain natriuretic peptide (P<0.05), while the conventional group had significant increases in these indices after treatment (P<0.05). After treatment, the children in the purification group tended to have reductions in stroke volume variation, thoracic fluid content, and systemic vascular resistance and an increase in cardiac output over the time of treatment.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Plasma exchange combined with continuous veno-venous hemofiltration dialysis for the treatment of KDSS can alleviate inflammation, maintain fluid balance inside and outside blood vessels, and shorten the course of disease, the duration of shock and the length of hospital stay in the pediatric intensive care unit.

Humans , Child , Plasma Exchange , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/therapy , Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy , Renal Dialysis , Plasmapheresis , Shock
Ludovica Pediatr ; 25(2): 41-58, dic.2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1414378


El aporte de fluidos constituye un elemento central en la atención del paciente pediátrico hospitalizado, existiendo aún controversias acerca de cuál es la composición óptima, la dosis adecuada y la mejor estrategia para administrar los mismos. El propósito de este artículo de actualización es brindar al médico que se desempeña en las diferentes áreas de la internación pediátrica, conceptos y enfoques terapéuticos que lo ayuden en la asistencia de los pacientes que por diversos motivos requieren la administración de fluidos endovenosos. La recomendación de utilizar cristaloides en la reanimación es casi uniforme. Se observa una clara tendencia al uso de soluciones isotónicas balanceadas para la reposición del déficit previo y el aporte de fluidos de mantenimiento. En relación a la dosis y a la estrategia, es generalizada la recomendación de un enfoque más restrictivo en el aporte de volumen, aún en los pacientes con shock, donde es necesario lograr un balance entre una resucitación efectiva y el riesgo de sobrecarga de fluidos. Respecto a la administración de albúmina al 20% en el paciente crítico con hipoalbuminemia, la evidencia existente es escasa y no permite formular recomendaciones. Sin embargo, es frecuente su uso en la práctica asistencial

Intravenous fluids administration is a central element in the care of hospitalized pediatric patients, and there are still controversies about what is the optimal composition, the appropriate dose, and the best strategy for their administration. The purpose of this narrative review is to provide the physicians who works in the different areas of pediatric hospitalization, concepts and therapeutic approaches that help them in the care of patients who for diverse reasons require administration of intravenous fluids. The recommendation to use crystalloids in resuscitation is almost uniform. There is a clear trend towards the use of balanced isotonic solutions to replace the previous deficit and the supply of maintenance fluids. In relation to the dose and strategy, the recommendation of a more restrictive approach in volume administration is generalized, even in patients with shock, where it is necessary to strike a balance between effective resuscitation and the risk of fluid overload. Regarding the administration of 20% albumin in critically ill patients with hypoalbuminemia, the existing evidence is scarce and does not allow recommendations to be formulated. However, it is frequently used in healthcare practice

Humans , Child , Critical Care , Fluid Therapy , Shock/therapy , Electrolytes/administration & dosage , Hypotonic Solutions/administration & dosage , Isotonic Solutions/administration & dosage
rev.cuid. (Bucaramanga.2010) ; 13(1): 1-18, 20221213.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1369176


Introducción: En Colombia la hemorragia postparto es la segunda causa de mortalidad en mujeres gestantes de 24 a 34 años con 6,9 casos por cada 1000 nacidos vivos. Después del parto se prevé que el 8.2% de las mujeres latinoamericanas presentarán hemorragia postparto. Objetivo: Describir el cuidado de enfermería a mujeres que presentan hemorragia postparto para disminuir el riesgo de shock hipovolémico, a través de una revisión integrativa de la literatura. Metodología: Revisión integrativa de la literatura siguiendo la propuesta por Sasso, de Campos y Galvão, se realizó una búsqueda en ClinicalKey, LILACS, CINAHL, Epistemonikos, Cochrane Library, PubMed, Scielo y Google Scholar; se incluyeron artículos publicados en los últimos cinco años, en español, inglés y portugués, se clasificaron por nivel de evidencia y grado de recomendación. Esta investigación es de bajo riesgo por ser de tipo documental. Resultados: Se recopilaron 41 artículos definitivos. La información se organizó en: cuadro clínico, cuidados de enfermería y dificultades en la atención gineco-obstétrica. Discusión: El profesional de enfermería debe identificar barreras en la atención evaluando la capacidad resolutiva de las instituciones y analizando los casos de muerte materna. Se recomienda el uso de misoprostol con oxitocina o únicamente de carbetocina y la combinación de ergometrina con oxitocina según el volumen de sangrado. Conclusión: Es pertinente realizar un examen físico para reconocer signos de inestabilidad hemodinámica, y de shock hipovolémico. Además, los diagnósticos e intervenciones de enfermería se enfocan en brindar cuidados de calidad, para evitar complicaciones como la muerte.

Introduction: In Colombia, postpartum hemorrhage is the second leading cause of death in pregnant women at a rate of 6.9 deaths per 1,000 live births. After childbirth, 8.2% of Latin American women are expected to have postpartum hemorrhage. Objective: To describe nursing care delivered to women with postpartum hemorrhage to reduce the risk of hypovolemic shock by means of an integrative literature review. Materials and Methods: Following the approach suggested by Sasso, de Campos and Galvão, an integrative literature review was conducted on ClinicalKey, LILACS, CINAHL, Epistemonikos, Cochrane Library, PubMed and ScieELO Google Scholar databases. Articles published in the last five years in Spanish, English and Portuguese were selected and classified by their level of evidence and degree of recommendation. This is a low-risk research due to its documentary nature. Results: 41 articles were finally selected and classified into clinical picture, nursing care and challenges in OBGYN care. Discussion: Nursing professionals should identify barriers to care by evaluating institutional problem-solving capacity and analyzing maternal death cases. Using misoprostol and oxytocin or only carbetocin and ergometrine-oxytocin is suggested based on the quantity of blood loss. Conclusions: Performing a physical examination is important to recognize signs of hemodynamic instability and hypovolemic shock. Nursing diagnoses and interventions focus on providing quality patient care to prevent certain complications such as death.

Introdução: Na Colômbia, a hemorragia pós-parto é a segunda principal causa de mortalidade em mulheres grávidas de 24-34 anos, com 6,9 casos por 1000 nascidos vivos. Após o parto, 8,2% das mulheres latino-americanas devem sofrer de hemorragia pós-parto. Objetivo: Descrever os cuidados de enfermagem a mulheres com hemorragia pós-parto para reduzir o risco de choque hipovolêmico, através de uma revisão integrativa da bibliografia. Metodologia: Revisão integrativa da bibliografia seguindo a proposta de Sasso, de Campos e Galvão, foi realizada uma pesquisa em ClinicalKey, LILACS, CINAHL, Epistemonikos, Cochrane Library, PubMed, Scielo e Google Scholar; foram incluídos artigos publicados nos últimos cinco anos em espanhol, inglês e português, classificados por nível de evidência e grau de recomendação. Esta é uma pesquisa de baixo risco, pois é do tipo documental. Resultados: Foram recolhidos 41 artigos definitivos. A informação foi organizada em: quadro clínico, cuidados de enfermagem e dificuldades nos cuidados gineco-obstetrítricos. Discussão: O profissional de enfermagem deve identificar as barreiras ao cuidado, avaliando a capacidade das instituições e analisando os casos de morte materna. O uso de misoprostol com ocitocina, ou carbetocina isoladamente, e a combinação de ergometrina com ocitocina são recomendados dependendo do volume de sangramento. Conclusão: O exame físico para sinais de instabilidade hemodinâmica e choque hipovolêmico é relevante. Além disso, os diagnósticos e intervenções de enfermagem concentram-se na prestação de cuidados de qualidade para evitar complicações como a morte.

Humans , Female , Shock , Postpartum Hemorrhage , Nursing Care
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1408190


Introducción: Las enfermedades vasculares periféricas constituyen un problema de salud en el ámbito mundial por resultar causa importante de discapacidad y de invalidez. Objetivo: Caracterizar a los pacientes con enfermedades vasculares periféricas fallecidos en un período de cuatro años. Método: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y analítico en los pacientes fallecidos entre enero de 2015 y diciembre de 2018. Se estudiaron variables sociodemográficas y clínicas. Se estimaron las frecuencias absolutas y relativas, así como la tasa de mortalidad. Se identificó la asociación entre las variables con la causa directa de muerte. Resultados: El 42,7 por ciento de los diabéticos fallecieron; de estos, el 57,5 por ciento estaban descompensados. La hipertensión arterial, el tabaquismo y la diabetes mellitus fueron los factores de riesgo más frecuentes. La tasa de mortalidad total resultó 0,171/1000 ingresos. Como enfermedades arteriales más frecuente aparecieron los AAA (28,1 por ciento ) y la angiopatía diabética (25 por ciento ); y, como parte de esta última, el pie (25,7 por ciento ). La aneurismectomía con injerto por sustitución representó la cirugía revascularizadora más realizada (58,8 por ciento ). El shock hipovolémico y el tromboembolismo pulmonar predominaron como complicaciones posquirúrgicas (15,7 por ciento ). El shock séptico (31,6 por ciento ) y la bronconeumonía bacteriana (25,7 por ciento) fueron las causas directas de muerte. Conclusiones: Se logró caracterizar a los pacientes con enfermedades vasculares periféricas fallecidos en los últimos cuatro años, por lo que estimaron la tasa de prevalencia y la tendencia anual de la mortalidad en el Instituto Nacional de Angiología y Cirugía Vascular en ese período; asimismo, las variables asociadas a las causas directas de muerte(AU)

Introduction: Peripheral vascular diseases are a global health problem because they are a major cause of disability. Objective: Characterize patients with peripheral vascular diseases who died over a period of four years. Method: A descriptive and analytical study was conducted in patients who died between January 2015 and December 2018. Socio-demographic and clinical variables were studied. Absolute and relative frequencies were estimated, as well as the mortality rate. The association between the variables with the direct cause of death was identified. Results: 42.7 percent of diabetic patients died; of these, 57.5 percent were decompensated. High blood pressure, smoking and diabetes mellitus were the most frequent risk factors. The total mortality rate was 0.171/1000 admissions. The most frequent arterial diseases were AAA (28.1 percent) and diabetic angiopathy (25 percent); and, as part of the latter, foot angiopathy (25.7 percent). Aneurysmectomy with graft substitution represented the most performed revascularizing surgery (58.8 percent). Hypovolemic shock and pulmonary thromboembolism predominated as post-surgical complications (15.7 percent). Septic shock (31.6 percent) and bacterial bronchopneumonia (25.7 percent) were the direct causes of death. Conclusions: It was possible to characterize patients with peripheral vascular diseases who died in the last four years, so they estimated the prevalence rate and the annual trend of mortality at the National Institute of Angiology and Vascular Surgery in that period; also, the variables associated with direct causes of death(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Shock/complications , Risk Factors , Peripheral Vascular Diseases/mortality , Shock, Septic/mortality , Bronchopneumonia/mortality , Epidemiology, Descriptive
Rev. cuba. cir ; 61(1)mar. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1408227


Introducción: El traumatismo abdominal cerrado puede provocar lesiones orgánicas graves con hemorragias que demandan un tratamiento quirúrgico emergente y es la principal causa de muertes evitables en todos los grupos de edad. Objetivo: Evaluar las características clínico quirúrgicas de los pacientes con trauma cerrado de abdomen. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo y retrospectivo para evaluar el comportamiento del trauma cerrado de abdomen en 81 pacientes atendidos en el Hospital General Provincial Docente "Roberto Rodríguez Fernández" de Morón desde enero del 2014 hasta diciembre de 2019. Resultados: El adulto joven fue el grupo de edad predominante (34,6 por ciento) del sexo masculino (19,8 por ciento), el accidente de tránsito (48,1 por ciento) fue la causa principal. El cuadro hemorrágico (39,5 por ciento) seguidos del cuadro doloroso abdominal (38,3 por ciento) representaron los síntomas clínicos más relevantes. La positividad de los exámenes auxiliares estuvo representada por la ecografía abdominal (74,1 por ciento) seguida de la punción abdominal (9,9 por ciento. Las lesiones hepáticas (27,0 por ciento) seguidas de las esplénicas (19,0 percent) fueron las vísceras macizas más afectadas. El 77,8 por ciento fue intervenido quirúrgicamente y las técnicas quirúrgicas hepáticas fueron las más empleadas para un total de 17 casos (26,9 por ciento). El choque hipovolémico (12,7 por ciento) fue la complicación posoperatoria más encontrada. Se reportó un 12,3 por ciento de fallecidos. Conclusiones: El paciente con trauma cerrado de abdomen debe ser considerado siempre politraumatizado cuyo tratamiento inicial se dirige a la estabilización rápida e identificación de lesiones que amenacen la vida(AU)

Introduction: Blunt abdominal trauma can cause severe organ injury with hemorrhage demanding emergent surgical treatment. It is the leading cause of preventable death among all age groups. Objective: To assess the clinical-surgical characteristics of patients with blunt abdominal trauma. Methods: A descriptive and retrospective observational study was carried out to assess the characteristics of blunt abdominal trauma in 81 patients treated at Roberto Rodríguez Fernández General Provincial Teaching Hospital of Morón from January 2014 to December 2019. Results: Young adults represented the predominant age group (34.6 percent), together with the male sex (19.8 percent). Traffic accident (48.1 percent) was the main cause. Hemorrhagic symptoms (39.5 percent) was the most relevant clinical symptoms, followed by abdominal pain (38.3 percent). Positive results in complementary tests were represented by abdominal ultrasound (74.1 percent), followed by abdominal puncture (9.9 percent). Hepatic lesions (27.0 percent) was the most affected solid viscera, followed by splenic lesions (19.0 percent). 77.8 percent of cases were operated on and hepatic surgical techniques were the most frequently used, accounting for 17 cases (26.9 percent). Hypovolemic shock (12.7 percent) was the most frequent postoperative complication. A death rate of 12.3 percent was reported. Conclusions: The patient with blunt abdominal trauma should always be considered polytraumatized, in which case the initial treatment is aimed at rapid stabilization and identification of life-threatening injuries(AU)

Humans , Male , Young Adult , Postoperative Complications , Accidents, Traffic , Abdominal Injuries/diagnostic imaging , Shock/complications , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies , Observational Studies as Topic
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-962085


Background@#Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is one of the fastest-growing diseases and most serious major health problems worldwide. Few studies have focused on the association of social support with diabetes-related dietary behaviour.@*Objective@#To examine the relationship between social support and dietary behaviour among patients with diabetes in a rural area of Indonesia.@*Methodology@#This was a descriptive cross-sectional study that included 120 physically healthy patients above 18 years old with T2DM for at least 6 months. Data analysis was done using a stepwise regression model.@*Results@#The mean age was 61.97 years (SD = 7.85, range = 52-74); 86.7% of the participants were females. Social support (β = 0.272, p = <0.001), diabetes medications (β = 0.169, p = 0.003), duration of diabetes (β = 0.118, p = 0.0047), and presence of diabetes complications (β = 0.197, p = 0.008) were significant predictors of dietary behaviour and accounted for 34.2% of the variance.@*Conclusions@#Social support, diabetes medications, presence of diabetes complications, and duration of diabetes were associated with improved dietary behaviour. Therefore, social support should be considered when designing dietary interventions for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Shock , Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Hydrocortisone
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-962000


Objectives@#The diagnosis and management of critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency (CIRCI) remains a challenge. This initiative aimed to develop a protocol for the diagnosis and management of CIRCI which will facilitate informed decision-making among clinicians through consensus-building among a multi-disciplinary team.@*Methodology@#This was a single-center, qualitative study which utilized the modified Delphi method, consisting of a sequential iterative process with two rounds of voting. A cut-off value of 70% was set as the threshold for reaching consensus.@*Results@#The protocol on the diagnosis and management of CIRCI was approved after two rounds of voting, with all the components reaching 83.3%-100% agreement. This protocol on CIRCI provided a framework for the clinical approach to refractory shock. It was advocated that all cases of probable CIRCI should immediately be started on hydrocortisone at 200 mg/day. The definitive diagnosis of CIRCI is established through a random serum cortisol <10 mcg/dL or increase in cortisol of <9 mcg/dL at 60 minutes after a 250 mcg ACTH stimulation test in patients with indeterminate random cortisol levels@*Conclusion@#The presence of refractory shock unresponsive to fluid resuscitation and vasopressors should warrant the clinical suspicion for the existence of CIRCI and should trigger a cascade of management strategies.

Shock , Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Hydrocortisone
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939651


A boy, aged 11 years, was admitted due to intermittent fever for 15 days, cough for 10 days, and "hemoptysis" for 7 days. The boy had fever and cough with left neck pain 15 days ago, and antibiotic treatment was effective. During the course of disease, the boy developed massive "hemoptysis" which caused shock. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy revealed a left pyriform sinus fistula with continuous bleeding. In combination with neck and vascular imaging examination results, the boy was diagnosed with internal jugular vein injury and thrombosis due to congenital pyriform sinus fistula infection and neck abscess. The boy was improved after treatment with temperature-controlled radiofrequency ablation for the closure of pyriform sinus fistula, and no recurrence was observed during the follow-up for one year and six months. No reports of massive hemorrhage and shock due to pyriform sinus fistula infection were found in the searched literature, and this article summarizes the clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment of this boy, so as to provide a reference for the early diagnosis of such disease and the prevention and treatment of its complications.

Humans , Male , Abscess/surgery , Cough , Fever/complications , Fistula/surgery , Hemoptysis/complications , Neck , Shock
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 401-407, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936026


Microcirculatory dysfunction is an important pathophysiological change of shock. In the last decade, many researches on the mechanism of microcirculatory dysfunction have been involved in areas such as the glycocalyx damage of vascular endothelial cells, macrocirculation- microcirculation discoupling, vascular hyporeactivity, and microcirculation monitoring. Accordingly, this paper discussed how these research findings can be applied to burn patients, with the aim of alerting the clinicians to improving microcirculation, and maintaining hemodynamic coordination during the treatment of burn shock and burn septic shock. In addition, with the development of accurate and reliable microcirculation monitoring techniques, it is necessary to carry out multi-center clinical trials to reveal the clinical significance of target-oriented shock resuscitation protocol combining macrocirculatory and microcirculatory parameters.

Humans , Burns/therapy , Endothelial Cells , Hemodynamics/physiology , Microcirculation/physiology , Resuscitation , Shock , Shock, Septic/therapy
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 9-12, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935973


Shock is one of the most common complications and one of the main causes of death after severe burns. The prevention and treatment of shock runs through the whole process of severe burn treatment. Shocks after severe burns, based on their causes, are mainly classified as follows: hypovolemic shock characterized by elevated hematocrit, also known as burn shock, and caused by serious leakage of intravascular fluid to body surface and interstitial spaces in the early stage of burns; hemorrhagic shock caused by large scale of incision and tension reduction, gastrointestinal stress ulcer, or large area of escharectomy and tangential excision surgery; septic shock caused by various microbial invasion; anaphylactic shock caused by infusion of drugs or blood. From the perspective of the reduction of effective circulating volume, burn shock and hemorrhagic shock are hypovolemic shocks, and septic shock and anaphylactic shock are vasodilatory shocks. As the aforementioned shocks vary in terms of occurrence timing, occurrence mechanism, and clinical manifestations, individualized strategies should be adopted for the prevention and treatment.

Humans , Burns/therapy , Shock/prevention & control , Skin Transplantation
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 38-44, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935971


Objective: To investigate the effects of continuous goal-directed analgesia on fluid resuscitation during shock stage in patients with massive burns, providing a basis for rational optimization of analgesia protocols in patients with burn shock. Methods: A retrospective case series study was conducted. One hundred and thirty-six patients with massive burns who met the inclusion criteria were admitted to Zhengzhou First People's Hospital from January 2015 to December 2020, and the patients were divided into continuous analgesia (CA) group (68 cases,with average age of 44 years old) and intermittent analgesia (IA) group (68 cases,with average age of 45 years old) according to whether sufentanil injection was continuously used for intravenous analgesia during the shock stage. The patients in the 2 groups were predominantly male. Before and at 72 h of treatment, the severity of disease and trauma pain of patients in the 2 groups were scored by the acute physiology and chronic health evaluation Ⅱ (APACHE Ⅱ) and the visual analogue scale (VAS). Hematocrit, heart rate, mean arterial pressure (MAP), central venous pressure (CVP), oxygen saturation in central venous blood (ScvO2), rehydration coefficient, blood lactate value, hourly urine output, and the adverse reactions such as hypotension, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, skeletal muscle tonicity, respiratory depression, bradycardia, pruritus, and drug addiction of patients in the 2 groups during the treatment were recorded at the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd 24 h post-injury. Data were statistically analyzed with analysis of variance for repeated measurement, paired or independent sample t test, Bonferroni correction,chi-square test and Mann-Whitney U test. Results: Before treatment, APACHE Ⅱ and VAS scores of patients in the 2 groups were close (with t values of -0.67 and 0.32, respectively, P>0.05); At 72 h of treatment, APACHE Ⅱ and VAS scores of patients in CA group were 8.5±2.2 and 2.5±1.6, both of which were significantly lower than (15.2±3.0) and (7.9±2.0) of patients in IA group, respectively (with t values of -14.94 and -17.46, respectively, P<0.01). Compared with the pre-treatment period, the APACHE Ⅱ and VAS scores of patients in IA group decreased significantly at 72 h of treatment (with t values of 11.35 and 30.59, respectively, P<0.01); the changes in APACHE Ⅱ and VAS scores of patients at 72 h of treatment in comparison with those of patients before treatment in CA group were all similar to those of patients in IA group (with t values of 4.00 and 4.82, respectively, P<0.01). Compared with those of patients in IA group, there were no significant changes in CVP, hematocrit, heart rate, ScvO2, and MAP of patients in CA group at all three 24 h post-injury (with t values of <0.01, 0.12, 2.10, 1.55, 0.03; 0.13, 0.22, <0.01, 0.17, 0.49; 0.63, 0.06, 0.04, 2.79, and 2.33, respectively, P>0.05). Compared with those of patients in IA group at the 1st 24 h post-injury, CVP, ScvO2 and MAP of patients were significantly higher at the 2nd and 3rd 24 h post-injury (with t values of -10.10, -9.31, -8.89; -10.81, -4.65, and -9.43, respectively, P<0.01), and the heart rate of patients was significantly lower at the 2nd and 3rd 24 h post-injury (with t values of 7.53 and 7.78, respectively, P<0.01), and the hematocrit of patients decreased significantly only at the 3rd 24 h post-injury (t=15.55, P<0.01); the changes of CVP, ScvO2, MAP and heart rate of patients at the 2nd and the 3rd 24 h post-injury, and HCT of patients at the 3rd 24 h post-injury, in comparison with those of patients at the 1st 24 h post-injury in CA group were similar to those of patients in IA group (with t values of -12.25, -10.24, -8.99, 9.42, -8.83, -7.53, -11.57, 10.44, and 12.91, respectively, P<0.01). Compared with those of patients in IA group, the rehydration coefficient of patients in CA group was significantly higher only at the 3rd 24 h post-injury (t=5.60, P<0.05), blood lactate value of patients in CA group was significantly lower at the 1st and 2nd 24 h post-injury (with t values of 4.32 and 14.52, respectively, P<0.05 or P<0.01), the hourly urine output of patients in CA group increased significantly at the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd 24 h post-injury (with t values of 24.65, 13.12, and 5.63, respectively, P<0.05 or P<0.01). Compared with the those of patients at the 1st 24 h post-injury, the rehydration coefficient of patients in IA group decreased significantly at the 2nd and the 3rd 24 h post-injury (with t values of 33.98 and 36.91, respectively, P<0.01), the blood lactate values of patients in IA group decreased significantly at the 2nd and the 3rd 24 h post-injury (with t values of 8.20 and 11.68, respectively, P<0.01), and the hourly urine output of patients in IA group was significantly increased at the 2nd and the 3rd 24 h post-injury (with t values of -3.52 and -5.92, respectively, P<0.01); the changes of rehydration coefficients and blood lactate values of patients at the 2nd and the 3rd 24 h post-injury in comparison with those of patients at the 1st 24 h post-injury in CA group were similar to those of patients in IA group (with t values of 35.64, 33.64, 9.86, and 12.56, respectively, P<0.01), but hourly urine output of patients in CA group increased significantly only at the 3rd 24 h compared with that of patients at the 1st 24 h post-injury (t=-3.07, P<0.01). Adverse reactions such as hypotension, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, bradycardia, and pruritus occurred rarely in patients of the 2 groups, and none of the patients had skeletal muscle tonicity, respiratory depression, or drug addiction. The incidence of adverse reactions of patients in CA group was similar to that in IA group (χ2=0.08, P>0.05). Conclusions: Continuous goal-directed analgesia can effectively relieve pain and improve vital signs of patients with large burns. Meanwhile it has little impact on volume load, which can assist in correcting ischemia and hypoxia during the shock period and help patients get through the shock period smoothly.

Adult , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Analgesia , Burns/therapy , Fluid Therapy , Goals , Pain , Resuscitation , Retrospective Studies , Shock/therapy
Med. lab ; 26(3): 297-305, 2022. Tabs
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1412418


Los tumores neuroendocrinos son neoplasias que suelen tener un comportamiento clínico maligno, son provenientes de células entero cromafines y/o células productoras de gastrina. Según su origen anatómico, se clasifican en tumores del intestino anterior (comprometen estómago, duodeno, pulmones y páncreas), intestino medio (parte distal del duodeno) e intestino posterior (colon transverso hasta el recto). El síndrome carcinoide, presente en la mitad de los casos al momento del diagnóstico, se caracteriza por desencadenar episodios de diarrea, taquicardia, hipotensión, rubor (por el desarrollo de telangiectasias), y según la gravedad, valvulopatías cardiacas. Por otro lado, la crisis carcinoide, una complicación infrecuente, está relacionada con episodios de choque, que cuando ocurren son consecuencia de la liberación en la circulación sistémica de aminas vasoactivas, posterior a un evento desencadenante. A continuación, se presenta el caso de un paciente masculino con antecedente de un tumor neuroendocrino de intestino delgado, quien luego de ser llevado a embolización de metástasis hepáticas, presentó una crisis carcinoide, y finalmente un choque distributivo refractario a tratamientos convencionales, incluyendo octreotide y vasopresores, que culminó con la muerte del paciente. Se realiza la discusión del caso clínico y la presentación de la literatura disponible, donde se describe la epidemiología, patogénesis, diagnóstico, clínica y tratamiento de esta entidad

Neuroendocrine tumors are neoplasms that usually have a malignant clinical behavior. They arise from enterochromaffin-like and/or gastrin-producing cells. According to their anatomical location they can be classified as foregut tumors (af- fecting stomach, duodenum, lungs and pancreas), midgut tumors (affecting distal portion of the duodenum) and hindgut tumors (affecting transverse colon to rectum). Carcinoid syndrome, occurring in half of the cases at the time of diagnosis, is characterized by episodes of diarrhea, tachycardia, hypotension, flushing (due to telangiectasia), and heart valve disease depending on their severity. On the other hand, the carcinoid crisis, a rare complication that is related to episodes of shock, occur as a consequence of the release of vasoactive amines into the systemic circulation after a triggering event. Here we describe a case of a male patient with a history of neuroendocrine neoplasm, who after embolization of hepatic metastatic lesions presented a carcinoid crisis, ending with a vasodilatory shock, refractory to conventional treatment including octreotide and vasopressors, which resulted in the death of the patient. A discussion of the clinical report and a review of the available literature are presented, including the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, clinical manifestations and treatment of this entity

Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine , Shock , Carcinoid Tumor , Malignant Carcinoid Syndrome
Ibom Medical Journal ; 15(2): 175-177, 2022. tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1380091


Background:Certain life-threatening complications and morbidities may occur following consensual sexual intercourse which may not be commonly experienced in clinical practice. One of such complications is hypovolaemic shock resulting from profuse bleeding.AbstractMethods:Two cases of vaginal laceration complicated by hypovolaemic shock following consensual sexual intercourse are presented.Results:Both patients had resuscitation with intravenous fluid, blood transfusion and subsequent examination under anaesthesia with repair of laceration in theater. Post-operative recovery period was uneventful and they were both discharged after proper counselling. Conclusion:Bleeding from coital laceration could be life threatening. Prompt treatment should be instituted in such cases

Therapeutics , Coitus , Peritonitis , Shock , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Morbidity , Lacerations
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 49(4): e200, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1341236


Abstract Introduction Vasopressors are essential in the management of various types of shock. Objective To establish the trend of vasopressors use in the intensive care units (ICU) in a population of patients affiliated with the Colombian Health System, 2010-2017. Methods Observational trial using a population database of patients hospitalized in eleven ICUs in various cities in Colombia. The drugs dispensed to hospitalized patients over 18 years old, from January 2010 until December 2017 were considered. A review and analysis of the vasopressors dispensed per month was conducted, taking into account sociodemographic and pharmacological variables (vasopressor used and daily doses defined per 100/beds/day (DBD). Results 81,348 dispensations of vasopressors, equivalent to 26,414 treatments in 19,186 patients receiving care in 11 hospitals from 7 cities were reviewed. The mean age of patients was 66.3±18.1 years and 52.6 % were males. Of the total number of treatments recorded, 17,658 (66.8 %) were with just one vasopressor. Norepinephrine was the most frequently prescribed drug (75.9 % of the prescriptions dispensed; 60.5 DBD), followed by adrenaline (26.6 %; 41.6 DBD), dopamine (19.4%), dobutamine (16.0 %), vasopressin (8.5 %) and phenylephrine (0.9 %). The use of norepinephrine increased from 2010 to 2017 (+6.19 DBD), whilst the use of other drugs decreased, particularly the use of adrenaline (-60.6 DBD) and dopamine (-10.8 DBD). Conclusions Norepinephrine is the most widely used vasopressor showing a growing trend in terms of its use during the study period, which is supported by evidence in favor of its effectiveness and safety in patients with shock.

Resumen Introducción Los fármacos vasopresores son fundamentales en el manejo de los diferentes tipos de choque. Objetivo Determinar la tendencia de utilización de fármacos vasopresores en unidades de cuidados intensivos (UCI) en una población de pacientes afiliados al Sistema de Salud de Colombia, 2010-2017. Métodos Estudio observacional, a partir de una base de datos poblacional con pacientes hospitalizados en once UCI de diferentes ciudades de Colombia. Se obtuvieron las dispensaciones de pacientes mayores de 18 años hospitalizados desde enero de 2010 hasta diciembre de 2017. Se hizo revisión y análisis de la dispensación mensual de vasopresores. Se consideraron variables sociodemográficas y farmacológicas (medicamento vasopresor usado y dosis diarias definidas por 100 camas/día [DCD]). Resultados Se revisaron 81.348 dispensaciones de vasopresores, equivalentes a 26.414 terapias en 19.186 pacientes atendidos en 11 hospitales de 7 ciudades, cuya edad promedio fue 66,3±18,1 años y el 52,6 % eran hombres. Del total de terapias registradas, 17.658 (66,8 %) fueron con un solo vasopresor. La norepinefrina fue el más comúnmente prescrito (75,9 % de las dispensaciones; 60,5 DCD), seguido por adrenalina (26,6 %; 41,6 DCD), dopamina (19,4 %), dobutamina (16,0 %), vasopresina (8,5 %) y fenilefrina (0,9 %). El uso de norepinefrina se incrementó de 2010 a 2017 (+6,19 DCD), mientras que el de otros fármacos disminuyó, especialmente adrenalina (-60,6 DCD) y dopamina (-10,8 DCD). Conclusiones La norepinefrina es el fármaco vasopresor más utilizado y el que ha demostrado una tendencia de uso incremental durante el periodo de estudio, lo cual está respaldado por evidencia a favor de su efectividad y seguridad en pacientes con choque.

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Aged , Shock , Vasoconstrictor Agents , Vasopressins , Intensive Care Units , Phenylephrine , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Dopamine , Epinephrine , Norepinephrine , Dobutamine , Drug Utilization , Dosage , Prescriptions