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1.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 37(2): 184-193, 20220316. tab, fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362887

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La resucitación hemostática es una estrategia para compensar la pérdida sanguínea y disminuir el impacto de la coagulación inducida por trauma. Debido a que la disponibilidad de transfundir una razón equilibrada de hemocomponentes es difícil de lograr en el entorno clínico, la sangre total ha reaparecido como una estrategia fisiológica, con ventajas logísticas, que le permiten ser accesible para iniciar tempranamente la resucitación hemostática. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar las propiedades celulares, coagulantes y viscoelásticas de la sangre total almacenada por 21 días. Métodos. Las unidades de sangre total fueron obtenidas de 20 donantes voluntarios sanos. Se procesaron mediante un sistema de leucorreducción ahorrador de plaquetas y fueron almacenadas en refrigeración (1-6°C) sin agitación. Se analizaron los días 0, 6, 11 y 21. Las bolsas fueron analizadas para evaluar las líneas celulares, niveles de factores de coagulación y propiedades viscoelásticas mediante tromboelastografía. Resultados. El conteo eritrocitario y la hemoglobina se mantuvieron estables. El conteo de plaquetas tuvo una reducción del 50 % al sexto día, pero se mantuvo estable el resto del seguimiento. Los factores de coagulación II-V-VII-X, fibrinógeno y proteína C se mantuvieron dentro del rango normal. La tromboelastografía mostró una prolongación en el tiempo del inicio de la formación del coágulo, pero sin alterar la formación final de un coágulo estable. Conclusiones. La sangre total leucorreducida y con filtro ahorrador de plaquetas conserva sus propiedades hemostáticas por 21 días. Este es el primer paso en Colombia para la evaluación clínica de esta opción, que permita hacer una realidad universal la resucitación hemostática del paciente con trauma severo.


Background. Hemostatic resuscitation is a strategy to compensate blood loss and reduce the impact of trauma-induced coagulopathy. However, balanced resuscitation presents challenges in its application in the clinical setting. Whole blood has re-emerged as a physiologic strategy with logistical advantages that offer the opportunity for early initiation of hemostatic resuscitation. The study aims to evaluate the cellular, coagulation, and viscoelastic properties of whole blood preserved for 21 days. Methods. Whole blood units were donated by 20 healthy volunteers. These units were processed using a platelet-sparing leukoreduction filtration system. Units were stored under refrigeration (1-6°C) without agitation and were sampled on days 0, 6, 11, 16, and 21. The units were tested to assess its cellular properties and coagulation factors levels. In addition, viscoelastic features were tested using tromboelastography.Results. Red blood cells count and hemoglobin levels remained stables. Platelet count had a 50% reduction on day 6, and then remained stable for 21 days. Factors II-V-VII-X, fibrinogen, and protein C remained within normal range. Tromboelastrography test showed that the reaction time of clot formation is prolonged, but the final clot formation is not altered. Conclusion. Whole blood retains its hemostatic properties for 21 days. This is the first step to evaluate the use of whole blood in the resuscitation protocols for Colombia allowing hemostatic resuscitation become a universal reality.


Subject(s)
Humans , Resuscitation , Blood Preservation , Shock, Hemorrhagic , Blood , Blood Transfusion , Hemostasis
2.
Rev. med. Risaralda ; 27(1): 64-69, ene.-jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1280494

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: El shock hemorrágico es una de las causas más comunes de muerte en pacientes con trauma debido a que pone en marcha un círculo vicioso de mecanismos que incluyen hipotermia, acidosis y coagulopatía. Para mitigar estos efectos, se han propuesto estrategias de control de daños, incluido el aporte controlado de líquidos con hipotensión permisiva contemplando metas en la presión arterial sistólica para mantener una adecuada perfusión de los tejidos. Objetivo: Conocer información actualizada acerca del manejo de la hipotensión permisiva en pacientes con trauma. Metodología: Se buscó información en las bases de datos Web-of-Science y Scopus de los últimos cinco años. El resultado arrojó un total de 118 artículos de los cuales se tomaron 30, según los criterios de inclusión y exclusión. Resultados: Todos los artículos consideran el uso de la hipotensión permisiva como una buena opción para el manejo de los pacientes con trauma e hipotensión, sin embargo, difieren en qué momento es adecuado utilizarlo y en qué condiciones se debe realizar. Conclusiones: Si bien la hipotensión permisiva se ha convertido en uno de los pilares fundamentales en el manejo prehospitalario del paciente con trauma, se requieren estudios investigativos en humanos para soportar cuándo y cómo debe utilizarse.


Abstract Introduction: Hemorrhagic shock is one of the most common causes of death in trauma patients, because it sets in motion a vicious cycle of mechanisms, including hypothermia, acidosis, and coagulopathy. To mitigate these effects, damage control strategies have been proposed, including the controlled intake of fluids with permissive hypotension, contemplating goals in systolic blood pressure, and thus, maintaining adequate tissue perfusion. Objective: The present research aimed to review the literature in search of updated information about the management of permissive hypotension in patients with trauma. Methodology: Information was searched in the Web-of-Science and Scopus databases in the last five years. The result yielded a total of 118 articles, of which 30 were taken according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results: All the articles consider the use of permissive hypotension as a good option for the management of patients with trauma and hypotension, however, they differ when it is appropriate to use it and under what conditions it should be performed. Conclusions: Although permissive hypotension has become one of the fundamental pillars in the prehospital management of the patient with trauma, research studies in humans are required to support when and how it should be used.


Subject(s)
Humans , Shock, Hemorrhagic , Wounds and Injuries , Hypotension , Hypothermia , Tissues , Acidosis , Blood Pressure , Cause of Death , Health Strategies , Alkalies , Arterial Pressure
3.
J. bras. pneumol ; 47(4): e20200452, 2021. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286955

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo A escassez de pulmões viáveis ainda é um grande obstáculo para o transplante. As vítimas de trauma, que constituem potenciais doadores de pulmão, comumente apresentam choque hipovolêmico que acarreta inflamação e deterioração pulmonar e rejeição após o transplante. Buscando melhorar o enxerto pulmonar, testaram-se novas abordagens ao tratamento do doador. Este estudo foca o tratamento com células-tronco mesenquimais (CTMs) ou fatores solúveis produzidos pelas CTMs (FS-CTMs), usando um modelo com ratos para doadores de pulmão após choque hemorrágico. Métodos Quarenta e oito ratos foram divididos em quatro grupos: Controle (n=12), animais sem indução de choque hipovolêmico; Choque (n=12), animais submetidos a choque hipovolêmico (pressão arterial média de 40 mmHg); CTM (n=12), animais submetidos a choque hipovolêmico e tratados com CTMs; e FS (n=12), animais submetidos a choque hipovolêmico e tratados com FS-CTMs. Os animais foram submetidos a um procedimento de choque hipovolêmico (40 mmHg) com 50 minutos de duração. Os animais tratados foram monitorados por 115 minutos. Realizamos análise histopatológica do tecido pulmonar e quantificação dos marcadores inflamatórios (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, iCAM e vCAM) no tecido pulmonar e leucócitos no sangue periférico (LSPs). Resultados O choque hemorrágico resultou em taxas mais altas de LSPs e infiltrado de neutrófilos nos pulmões. Os animais do grupo FS apresentaram menor densidade de neutrófilos em comparação com os animais dos grupos Choque e CTM (p<0,001). Não foram observadas diferenças entre os grupos quanto aos níveis de citocinas no tecido pulmonar. Conclusão Os pulmões dos ratos submetidos a choque hemorrágico e tratados com FS-CTM apresentaram inflamação reduzida indicada por uma diminuição do infiltrado de neutrófilos nos pulmões.


ABSTRACT Objective The shortage of viable lungs is still a major obstacle for transplantation. Trauma victims who represent potential lung donors commonly present hypovolemic shock leading to pulmonary inflammation and deterioration and rejection after transplantation. Seeking to improve lung graft, new approaches to donor treatment have been tested. This study focuses on treatment with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) or soluble factors produced by MSCs (FS-MSC) using a rat model for lung donors after hemorrhagic shock. Methods Forty-eight rats were divided into four groups: Sham (n=12), animals without induction of hypovolemic shock; Shock (n=12), animals submitted to hypovolemic shock (mean arterial pressure 40 mmHg); MSC (n=12), animals submitted to hypovolemic shock and treated with MSCs, and FS (n=12), animals submitted to hypovolemic shock and treated with FS-MSC. The animals were subjected to a 50-minute hypovolemic shock (40 mmHg) procedure. The treated animals were monitored for 115 minutes. We performed histopathology of lung tissue and quantification of inflammatory markers (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, iCAM and vCAM) in lung tissue and peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs). Results Hemorrhagic shock resulted in higher PBLs and neutrophil infiltrate in the lungs. FS animals had lower neutrophil density comparing with Shock and MSC animals (p<0.001). No differences in the cytokine levels in lung tissue were observed between the groups. Conclusions The lungs of rats submitted to hemorrhagic shock and treated with FS-MSC showed reduced inflammation indicated in a decrease in lung neutrophil infiltrate.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Shock, Hemorrhagic/therapy , Lung Transplantation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Disease Models, Animal , Inflammation , Lung
5.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18: eAO5032, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1133784

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To describe the implementation of a care protocol based on rapid response teams, for management and resolution of bleeding. Methods A hospital protocol called Hemorrhage Code (Code H) was devised and developed. In a flow line, a multidisciplinary team provides comprehensive, fast and effective care to the patient with a severe hemorrhagic condition. In another flow line, professionals based at the hospital pharmacy focus on identifying patients at risk of bleeding, to avoid this event. Several hospital professionals and sectors were trained, each with specific roles, ensuring full support to the medical and nursing staffs. Results After implementing this protocol, we were able to significantly reduce the number of catastrophic events related to failure in bleeding management. Conclusion Code H is an example of a value-based medicine and precision medicine project by delivering comprehensive and multidisciplinary care, in addition to point-of-care testing introduced in clinical practice, optimizing patient safety and care practices at the hospital. Furthermore, it will be possible to minimize the risk of lawsuits for the hospital and physicians, as well as rationalizing resources with benefits for administrators and payers.


RESUMO Objetivo Descrever a implantação de um protocolo de atendimento nos moldes de times de resposta rápida, para manejo e resolução do sangramento. Métodos Foi idealizado e desenvolvido um protocolo institucional, chamado Código Hemorrágico, ou Código H, no qual, em um fluxo, um time multiprofissional e multidisciplinar foi constituído para atendimento integral, rápido e eficaz do paciente com doença hemorrágica grave. Em um outro fluxo, os profissionais, centralizados na farmácia do hospital, focavam na identificação do paciente com risco de hemorragia, no sentido de evitar o evento. Vários profissionais e setores do hospital foram treinados, e cada um, com funções específicas, deveria oferecer garantia total de apoio e suporte às equipes médica e de enfermagem. Resultados Após a implementação do protocolo, o número de eventos catastróficos relacionados à falha no manejo do sangramento reduziu significativamente. Conclusão O Código H é um exemplo de projeto de medicina baseada em valor e de medicina de precisão, por meio de atendimento integral e multidisciplinar, além de testes point of care introduzidos na prática clínica, com otimização da segurança do paciente e da prática assistencial na instituição. Ainda, por meio dele, deve ser possível minimizar o risco de ações judiciais para o hospital e os médicos, além de racionalizar recursos, com benefícios para administradores e fontes pagadoras.


Subject(s)
Humans , Shock, Hemorrhagic/therapy , Blood Coagulation Disorders/therapy , Blood Transfusion , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Patient Safety , Patient Care/standards , Hemorrhage/therapy , Brazil , Retrospective Studies , Hemorrhage/prevention & control
6.
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 47: e20202378, 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1136567

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Este estudo objetivou analisar o uso potencial Balão de Oclusão Endovascular da Aorta para Ressuscitação (REBOA) em um hospital brasileiro. Métodos: Foi realizada uma revisão da literatura e uma análise retrospectiva de todas as avaliações cirúrgicas de emergência para pacientes com suspeita de hemorragia maciça internados em um hospital brasileiro, de 1 de abril de 2017 a 31 de março de 2018. Os critérios de elegibilidade do REBOA foram: origem abdominal e/ou pélvica, choque hemorrágico e acima de 18 anos de idade. Os critérios de exclusão foram: acima de 70 anos e doença terminal pré-existente ou comorbidades significativas. Resultados: No período, foram solicitadas 90 avaliações. Em 14 ocasiões (15,6%) havia indicação para o uso do REBOA. Os casos em que isso foi possível foram devidos a causas ginecológicas/obstétricas em 11 casos (78,6%) e cirurgia oncológica eletiva em três casos (21,4%). Conclusões: O REBOA é ainda pouco utilizado em nosso país, mas pode ser uma ferramenta de extrema importância, e talvez o último recurso em pacientes extremamente graves, até que o tratamento definitivo, cirúrgico, endovascular ou endoscópico seja efetuado.


ABSTRACT Aim: To evaluate the potential use of REBOA in a Brazilian hospital. Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of all requests for emergency surgical evaluation for patients with suspected massive hemorrhage, hospitalized in a private Brazilian general hospital, from April 1, 2017 to March 31, 2018. Inclusion criteria for REBOA eligibility were: suspected abdominal and/or pelvic bleeding, hemorrhagic shock and older than 18 years of age. Exclusion criteria were: older than 70 years of age, and pre-existing terminal disease or significant comorbidities. Results: 90 evaluations were requested during the study period. However, according to our inclusion/exclusion criteria, only on 14 occasions (15.6%) there was a recommendation for the use of REBOA. Gynecological/obstetric conditions were the indication in 11 cases (78.6%) and elective oncologic surgery in three cases (21.4%). Conclusions: The use of REBOA is not common in our country, but it can be an essential tool, and perhaps the last resource in extremely severe conditions until the definitive surgical, endovascular or endoscopic treatment is performed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Shock, Hemorrhagic , Balloon Occlusion , Endovascular Procedures , Aorta , Resuscitation , Brazil , Retrospective Studies
7.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 69(2): 160-167, Mar.-Apr. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003397

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background and objectives: Dexmedetomidine has demonstrated protective effects against lung injury in vitro. Here, we investigated whether dexmedetomidine preconditioning protected against lung injury in hemorrhagic shock rats. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups (n = 8): control group, hemorrhagic shock group, 5 ug.kg-1 dexmedetomidine (DEX1) group, and 10 ug.kg-1 dexmedetomidine (DEX2) group. Saline or dexmedetomidine were administered over 20 min. 30 min after injection, hemorrhage was initiated in the hemorrhagic shock, DEX1 and DEX2 group. Four hours after resuscitation, protein and cellular content in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and the lung histopathology were measured. The malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, Bcl-2, Bax and caspase-3 were also tested in the lung tissue. Results: Compare with hemorrhagic shock group, 5 ug.kg-1 dexmedetomidine pretreatment reduced the apoptosis (2.25 ± 0.24 vs. 4.12 ± 0.42%, p < 0.05), histological score (1.06 ± 0.12 vs. 1.68 ± 0.15, p < 0.05) and protein (1.92 ± 0.38 vs. 3.95 ± 0.42 mg.mL-1, p < 0.05) and WBC (0.42 ± 0.11 vs. 0.92 ± 0.13 × 109/L, p < 0.05) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Which is correlated with increased superoxide dismutase activity (8.35 ± 0.68 vs. 4.73 ± 0.44 U.mg-1 protein, p < 0.05) and decreased malondialdehyde (2.18 ± 0.19 vs. 3.28 ± 0.27 nmoL.mg-1 protein, p < 0.05). Dexmedetomidine preconditioning also increased the Bcl-2 level (0.55 ± 0.04 vs. 0.34 ± 0.05, p < 0.05) and decreased the level of Bax (0.46 ± 0.03 vs. 0.68 ± 0.04, p < 0.05), caspase-3 (0.49 ± 0.03 vs. 0.69 ± 0.04, p < 0.05). However, we did not observe any difference between the DEX1 and DEX2 groups for these (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Dexmedetomidine preconditioning has a protective effect against lung injury caused by hemorrhagic shock in rats. The potential mechanisms involved are the inhibition of cell death and improvement of antioxidation. But did not show a dose-dependent effect.


Resumo Justificativa e objetivos: Dexmedetomidina demonstrou efeitos protetores contra a lesão pulmonar in vitro. Neste estudo, investigamos se o pré-condicionamento com dexmedetomidina protege contra a lesão pulmonar em ratos com choque hemorrágico. Métodos: Ratos machos, Sprague-Dawley, foram aleatoriamente divididos em quatro grupos (n = 8): grupo controle, grupo com choque hemorrágico, grupo com 5 µg.kg-1 de dexmedetomidina (DEX1) e grupo com 10 µg.kg-1 de dexmedetomidina (DEX2). Solução salina ou dexmedetomidina foi administrada durante 20 minutos. Trinta minutos após a injeção, a hemorragia foi iniciada nos grupos choque hemorrágico, DEX1 e DEX2. Quatro horas após a ressuscitação, a proteína e o conteúdo celular no lavado broncoalveolar e a histopatologia pulmonar foram medidos. Malondialdeído, superóxido dismutase, Bcl-2, Bax e caspase-3 também foram testados no tecido pulmonar. Resultados: Na comparação com o grupo choque hemorrágico, o pré-tratamento com 5 ug.kg-1 de dexmedetomidina reduziu a apoptose (2,25 ± 0,24 vs. 4,12 ± 0,42%, p < 0,05), escore histológico (1,06 ± 0,12 vs. 1,68 ± 0,15, p < 0,05) e proteína (1,92 ± 0,38 vs. 3,95 ± 0,42 mg.mL-1, p < 0,05) e leucócitos (0,42 ± 0,11 vs. 0,92 ± 0,13 × 109/L, p < 0,05) no lavado broncoalveolar; o que está correlacionado com o aumento da atividade da superóxido dismutase (8,35 ± 0,68 vs. 4,73 ± 0,44 U.mg-1 de proteína, p < 0,05) e diminuição do malondialdeído (2,18 ± 0,19 vs. 3,28 ± 0,27 nmoL.mg-1 de proteína, p < 0,05). O pré-condicionamento com dexmedetomidina também aumentou o nível de Bcl-2 (0,55 ± 0,04 vs. 0,34 ± 0,05, p < 0,05) e diminuiu o nível de Bax (0,46 ± 0,03 vs. 0,68 ± 0,04, p < 0,05), caspase-3 (0,49 ± 0,03 vs. 0,69 ± 0,04, p < 0,05). No entanto, não houve diferença entre os grupos DEX1 e DEX2 para essas proteínas (p > 0,05). Conclusão: O pré-condicionamento com dexmedetomidina tem um efeito protetor contra a lesão pulmonar causada por choque hemorrágico em ratos. Os potenciais mecanismos envolvidos são a inibição da morte celular e a melhora da antioxidação. Porém, não mostrou um efeito dose-dependente.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Shock, Hemorrhagic/drug therapy , Protective Agents/administration & dosage , Dexmedetomidine/administration & dosage , Lung Injury/prevention & control , Rats , Shock, Hemorrhagic/complications , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Apoptosis/drug effects , Protective Agents/pharmacology , Dexmedetomidine/pharmacology , Disease Models, Animal , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Lung Injury/etiology
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719662

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: A task force appointed by the Korean Society of Acute Care Surgery reviewed previously published guidelines on antibiotic use in patients with abdominal injuries and adapted guidelines for Korea. METHODS: Four guidelines were assessed using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation II instrument. Five topics were considered: indication for antibiotics, time until first antibiotic use, antibiotic therapy duration, appropriate antibiotics, and antibiotic use in abdominal trauma patients with hemorrhagic shock. RESULTS: Patients requiring surgery need preoperative prophylactic antibiotics. Patients who do not require surgery do not need antibiotics. Antibiotics should be administered as soon as possible after injury. In the absence of hollow viscus injury, no additional antibiotic doses are needed. If hollow viscus injury is repaired within 12 hours, antibiotics should be continued for ≤ 24 hours. If hollow viscus injury is repaired after 12 hours, antibiotics should be limited to 7 days. Antibiotics can be administered for ≥7 days if hollow viscus injury is incompletely repaired or clinical signs persist. Broad-spectrum aerobic and anaerobic coverage antibiotics are preferred as the initial antibiotics. Second-generation cephalosporins are the recommended initial antibiotics. Third-generation cephalosporins are alternative choices. For hemorrhagic shock, the antibiotic dose may be increased twofold or threefold and repeated after transfusion of every 10 units of blood until there is no further blood loss. CONCLUSION: Although this guideline was drafted through adaptation of other guidelines, it may be meaningful in that it provides a consensus on the use of antibiotics in abdominal trauma patients in Korea.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Injuries , Advisory Committees , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Antibiotic Prophylaxis , Cephalosporins , Consensus , Humans , Korea , Shock, Hemorrhagic
9.
Acta cir. bras ; 34(9): e201900903, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1054692

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To investigate the effect of mesenteric lymph drainage on the spleen injury and the expressions of inflammatory cytokines in splenic tissue in mice following hemorrhagic shock. Methods: Male C57 mice were randomly divided into the sham shock, shock and shock+drainage groups. The mice in both shock and shock+drainage groups suffered femoral artery bleeding, maintained mean arterial pressure (MAP) of 40±2 mmHg for 90 min, and were resuscitated. And mesenteric lymph drainage was performed in the shock+drainage group at the time of resuscitation. After three hours of resuscitation, the splenic tissues were harvested for the histological observation and protein and mRNA expression analysis of cytokines. Results: The spleen in the shock group revealed a significantly structural damage and increased mRNA expressions of MyD88 and TRAF6 and protein expressions of TIPE2, MyD88, TRIF and TRAF3 compared to the sham group. By contrast, the splenic pathological injury in the shock+drainage group was alleviated significantly, and the mRNA and protein expressions of TIPE2, MyD88, TRIF, TRAF3 and TRAF6 were significantly lower than those in the shock group. Conclusion: These results indicate that post-hemorrhagic shock mesenteric lymph drainage alleviates hemorrhagic shock-induced spleen injury and the expressions of inflammatory cytokines.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Shock, Hemorrhagic/complications , Spleen/injuries , Lymphatic Vessels/surgery , Inflammation/prevention & control , Mesentery , Resuscitation , Drainage/methods , Disease Models, Animal , Inflammation/etiology , Mice, Inbred C57BL
10.
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 46(1): e2064, 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-990364

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: avaliar a evolução de pacientes vítimas de trauma abdominal grave, nos quais o protocolo de transfusão maciça foi acionado, e que foram submetidos à Tomografia Axial Computadorizada (TAC) no Pronto Socorro (PS), com o intuito de verificar o prognóstico do paciente e a eficiência diagnóstica da TAC nesse cenário. Métodos: estudo retrospectivo, longitudinal e observacional, feito em centro de referência para trauma. Foram selecionados 60 pacientes vítimas de trauma abdominal grave que ativaram o protocolo de transfusão maciça, divididos em dois grupos: os submetidos à TAC no PS e os que não foram. Verificou-se a acurácia da TAC, comparou-se o número de óbitos nos dois grupos, o tempo de internamento e os hemocomponentes transfundidos. Resultados: dos 60 pacientes, 66,67% receberam concentrados de hemácias ainda no PS; 33,3% foram submetidos à TAC na admissão, pela melhora hemodinâmica, e 66,7% não realizaram o exame na entrada. O percentual de óbitos foi de 35% em ambos os grupos. A diferença entre as médias do tempo de internamento entre os grupos não foi estatisticamente significativa, assim como a média da quantidade de concentrado de hemácias transfundido. No grupo que fez TAC, 45% não necessitaram de laparotomia exploratória. Conclusão: a TAC pôde ser realizada de maneira rápida em pacientes com instabilidade hemodinâmica na chegada ao PS, não influenciou significativamente a mortalidade e poupou alguns doentes de uma laparotomia exploratória desnecessária.


ABSTRACT Objective: to evaluate the evolution of severe abdominal trauma patients, for whom the massive transfusion protocol was triggered, and who were submitted to Computed Axial Tomography (CAT) in the emergency room (ER), in order to verify the patient's prognosis and the diagnostic efficiency of CAT in this scenario. Methods: retrospective, longitudinal and observational study performed at a referral center for trauma care in Curitiba, Parana, Brazil. We selected 60 severe abdominal trauma patients who had massive transfusion protocol activation and divided them into two groups: patients who underwent CAT at ER and patients who did not. We verified the diagnostic accuracy of CAT-scan examination and compared the number of deaths, hospitalization time, and transfused blood components in both groups. Results: considering the 60 patients, 66.67% received red blood cells at ER; 33.3% underwent CAT on admission due to hemodynamic improvement, and 66.7% did not perform the examination at the entrance. The percentage of deaths was 35% in both groups. Considering the two groups, the difference between the mean lengths of hospital stay was not statistically significant, as well as the difference between the mean numbers of transfused red blood cells. In the group that underwent CAT, 45% did not require exploratory laparotomy. Conclusion: CAT could be rapidly performed in patients with hemodynamic instability on arrival at ER, sparing some patients from an unnecessary exploratory laparotomy and not significantly influencing mortality.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Shock, Hemorrhagic/diagnostic imaging , Blood Transfusion , Abdominal Injuries/diagnostic imaging , Shock, Hemorrhagic/epidemiology , Brazil , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Data Accuracy , Laparotomy , Abdominal Injuries/classification , Abdominal Injuries/epidemiology , Length of Stay
11.
Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 129-133, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771614

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE@#To summarize and analyze the early treatment of multiple injuries combined with severe pelvic fractures, especially focus on the hemostasis methods for severe pelvic fractures, so as to improve the successful rate of rescue for the fatal hemorrhagic shock caused by pelvic fractures.@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was conducted in 68 cases of multiple trauma combined with severe pelvic fractures in recent 10 years (from Jan. 2006 to Dec. 2015). There were 57 males and 11 females. Their age ranged from 19 to 75 years, averaging 42 years. Causes of injury included traffic accidents in 34 cases (2 cases of truck rolling), high falling injuries in 17 cases, crashing injuries in 15 cases, steel cable wound in 1 case, and seat belt traction injury in 1 case. There were 31 cases of head injury, 11 cases of chest injury, 56 cases of abdominal and pelvic injuries, and 37 cases of spinal and limb injuries. Therapeutic methods included early anti-shock measures, surgical hemostasis based on internal iliac artery devasculization for pelvic hemorrhage, and early treatment for combined organ damage and complications included embolization and repair of the liver, spleen and kidney, splenectomy, nephrectomy, intestinal resection, colostomy, bladder ostomy, and urethral repair, etc. Patients in this series received blood transfusion volume of 1200-10,000 mL, with an average volume of 2850 mL. Postoperative follow-up ranged from 6 months to 1.5 years.@*RESULTS@#The average score of ISS in this series was 38.6 points. 49 cases were successfully treated and the total survival rate was 72.1%. Totally 19 patients died (average ISS score 42.4), including 6 cases of hemorrhagic shock, 8 cases of brain injury, 1 case of cardiac injury, 2 cases of pulmonary infection, 1 case of pulmonary embolism, and 1 case of multiple organ failure. Postoperative complications included 1 case of urethral stricture (after secondary repair), 1 case of sexual dysfunction (combined with urethral rupture), 1 case of lower limb amputation (femoral artery thrombosis), and 18 cases of consumptive coagulopathy.@*CONCLUSION@#The early treatment of multiple injuries combined with severe pelvic fractures should focus on pelvic hemostasis. Massive bleeding-induced hemorrhagic shock is one of the main causes of poor prognosis. The technique of internal iliac artery devasculization including ligation and embolization can be used as an effective measure to stop or reduce bleeding. Consumptive coagulopathy is difficult to deal with, which should be detected and treated as soon as possible after surgical measures have been performed. The effect of using recombinant factor VII in treating consumptive coagulopathy is satisfactory.


Subject(s)
Adult , Embolization, Therapeutic , Methods , Factor VII , Female , Fractures, Bone , Therapeutics , Hemostasis, Surgical , Humans , Iliac Artery , General Surgery , Injury Severity Score , Ligation , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Trauma , Therapeutics , Pelvic Bones , Wounds and Injuries , Prognosis , Recombinant Proteins , Retrospective Studies , Shock, Hemorrhagic , Young Adult
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758481

ABSTRACT

A closed internal degloving injury is a soft tissue injury, in which the subcutaneous tissue is ripped from the underlying fascia. In rare cases, a closed internal degloving injury can lead to hemorrhagic shock. A 79-year-old woman was brought to the emergency department following an auto-pedestrian accident, in which she was hit by a car. She was in a stupor and was hypotensive. The initial evaluation was unremarkable. During management, the patient required the transfusion of a large volume of blood, and vasoactive agent. Abdominal computed tomography revealed a large hematoma in her lower back and gluteal area and she was diagnosed with a closed internal degloving injury. Missed or delayed diagnosis of this type of injury may result in a significant increase in transfusion requirements and irreversible hemorrhagic shock.


Subject(s)
Aged , Contusions , Delayed Diagnosis , Emergency Service, Hospital , Fascia , Female , Hematoma , Humans , Shock, Hemorrhagic , Soft Tissue Injuries , Stupor , Subcutaneous Tissue
13.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 53(5): 614-621, Sept.-Oct. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-977897

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: Crush syndrome is characterized by traumatic muscular injuries with severe systemic clinical repercussions. The systemic inflammatory reaction characterized acutely by infiltration of neutrophils in the lungs has been studied as part of the spectrum of crush syndrome. Experimental research may demonstrate alternative treatments for crush syndrome. The authors studied the hypothesis that hypertonic saline solution (7.5% NaCl) could minimize the local and systemic effects in a model of muscular compression and hemorrhagic shock. Methods: Rabbits were submitted to a new model of muscle compression associated with hemorrhagic shock. Compression was applied through an Esmarch bandage, used for 1 h on the entire right lower limb. Hemorrhagic shock was induced for 1 h by dissection and catheterization of the carotid artery. Blood replacement or hypertonic saline solution was used to treat the shock. Biochemical analysis of plasma, quantification of muscular edema, and infiltration of inflammatory cells in the lungs were carried out. Results: Animals treated with hypertonic solution presented the same hemodynamic response as the blood treated patients, less water in the compressed muscles and less infiltration of inflammatory cells in the lungs. The blood group presented hypocalcemia, a facet of crush syndrome. Conclusions: The proposed model was effective for the study of crush syndrome associated with hemorrhagic shock. The treatment with hypertonic solution showed benefits when compared with blood volume replacement.


RESUMO Objetivo: A síndrome de esmagamento é caracterizada por lesões musculares traumáticas com graves repercussões clínicas sistêmicas. A reação inflamatória sistêmica, caracterizada agudamente por infiltração de neutrófilos nos pulmões, tem sido estudada como parte do espectro da síndrome de esmagamento. A pesquisa experimental pode demonstrar opções de tratamento para a síndrome de esmagamento. Os autores estudaram a hipótese de que solução salina hipertônica (NaCl 7,5%) pudesse minimizar os efeitos locais e sistêmicos da síndrome de esmagamento em um modelo de compressão muscular e choque hemorrágico. Métodos: Coelhos foram submetidos a um novo modelo de compressão muscular associado ao choque hemorrágico. A compressão foi feita por uma faixa de Esmarch aplicada por uma hora em todo membro inferior direito. O choque hemorrágico foi induzido durante uma hora por dissecção e cateterização da artéria carótida. O choque foi tratado com reposição de sangue ou solução salina hipertônica. Foram feitas análises bioquímicas do plasma, quantificação do edema muscular e infiltração de células inflamatórias nos pulmões. Resultados: Os animais tratados com solução hipertônica apresentaram a mesma resposta hemodinâmica observada naqueles tratados com sangue, menor quantidade de água nos músculos comprimidos e menor infiltração de células inflamatórias nos pulmões. O grupo tratado com sangue apresentou hipocalcemia, característica da síndrome de esmagamento. Conclusões: O modelo proposto mostrou-se efetivo para o estudo da síndrome de esmagamento associada ao choque hemorrágico. O tratamento com solução hipertônica apresentou benefícios quando comparado com a reposição volêmica com sangue.


Subject(s)
Rabbits , Saline Solution, Hypertonic , Shock, Hemorrhagic , Crush Syndrome
14.
J. vasc. bras ; 17(4): 328-332, out.-dez. 2018. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-969168

ABSTRACT

Os aneurismas de artéria mesentérica superior são raros, representando menos de 0,5% de todos os aneurismas intra-abdominais. São causados principalmente por aterosclerose e por êmbolos sépticos decorrentes de endocardite bacteriana. Apesar de incomuns, são considerados graves, devido a possíveis complicações como ruptura com hemorragia e isquemia intestinal. Com consequências potencialmente devastadoras, o diagnóstico e o tratamento em tempo hábil são essenciais para se otimizarem os resultados. Ainda sem um consenso bem definido, os tratamentos propostos envolvem cirurgia convencional, terapia endovascular e conduta expectante com exames periódicos. Este trabalho relata o caso de um homem de 58 anos, assintomático, com achado incidental e incomum de dois aneurismas de artéria mesentérica superior. Perante uma anatomia desfavorável à abordagem endovascular, foi realizado o tratamento cirúrgico aberto, utilizando-se prótese de dácron na reconstrução arterial, com sucesso


Superior mesenteric artery aneurysms are rare, accounting for less than 0.5% of all intra-abdominal aneurysms. They are mainly caused by atherosclerosis and septic emboli resulting from bacterial endocarditis. Although uncommon, these aneurysms are considered dangerous because of possible complications such as rupture with hemorrhage and intestinal ischemia. Since the consequences can be very serious, early diagnosis and treatment are essential to improve outcomes. Although there is no well-defined consensus, recommended treatments include open surgery, endovascular therapy, and watchful waiting with periodic examinations. In this article we report the case of an asymptomatic 58-year-old man with an incidental and unusual finding of two superior mesenteric artery aneurysms. Since anatomy was not favorable for an endovascular approach, open surgery was performed, using a dacron graft to successfully repair the artery


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mesenteric Artery, Superior/diagnostic imaging , Endovascular Procedures/methods , Aneurysm/surgery , Prostheses and Implants , Shock, Hemorrhagic , Diagnostic Imaging/methods , Ultrasonography/methods
15.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 136(5): 488-491, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-979380

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT CONTEXT: Aneurysms of the gastroepiploic arteries are seen only rarely. They are usually diagnosed during autopsy or laparotomy in patients with hemodynamic instability. Although the operation to treat this condition is relatively easy, delay in making the diagnosis affects the course of the disease. Case Report: A 57-year-old woman was admitted to the emergency department with abdominal pain and unconsciousness. A computed tomography scan showed extravasation of contrast agent at the headcorpus junction of the pancreas, and the patient underwent exploratory laparotomy under general anesthesia. During laparotomy, aneurysmatic rupture of the right gastroepiploic artery was detected. Control over bleeding was achieved by ligating the right gastroepiploic artery at its origin. The aneurysm was also resected and sent for pathological examination. CONCLUSION: Especially in cases of unidentified shock, splanchnic artery aneurysms should be kept in mind. Moreover, in the light of the data in the literature, the possibility of death should be taken into account seriously and, if feasible, prophylactic aneurysmectomy should be performed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Shock, Hemorrhagic/etiology , Aneurysm, Ruptured/complications , Gastroepiploic Artery/surgery , Gastroepiploic Artery/diagnostic imaging , Rupture, Spontaneous/surgery , Rupture, Spontaneous/complications , Rupture, Spontaneous/diagnostic imaging , Shock, Hemorrhagic/surgery , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Abdominal Pain/etiology , Aneurysm, Ruptured/surgery , Aneurysm, Ruptured/diagnostic imaging , Laparotomy/methods
16.
Rev. SOBECC ; 23(2): 77-83, abr.-jun.2018.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-909064

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Identificar a ocorrência de eventos adversos graves (EAG) em pacientes cirúrgicos e seus possíveis desfechos. Método: Estudo retrospectivo, quantitativo, realizado pela análise de prontuários e banco de dados de pacientes no perioperatório, que sofreram EAG em 2016, em um hospital privado de São Paulo. Resultados: Ocorreram 19 EAG, com predominância de pacientes do sexo feminino, entre 40 e 49 anos, internados por patologias do sistema gastroenterológico. As ocorrências mais incidentes foram: lesão de órgãos digestórios, choque hemorrágico e lesão vascular. Quanto aos desfechos, os pacientes foram encaminhados à unidade de terapia intensiva, clínica médico-cirúrgica e hemodinâmica; dois pacientes evoluíram a óbito. Conclusão: Os profissionais da equipe de enfermagem devem estar atentos aos fatores que podem contribuir para a ocorrência de EAG e orientados em relação à notificação, a fim de aperfeiçoar a segurança e a qualidade da assistência prestada aos pacientes cirúrgicos


Objective: To identify the occurrence of serious adverse events (SAE) in surgical patients and their possible outcomes. Method: Retrospective quantitative study, performed by the analysis of records and data of perioperative patients, who suffered SAE in 2016 at a private hospital in São Paulo. Results: There were 19 SAEs, mostly in female patients aged 40 to 49 years, hospitalized by gastroenterological pathologies. The most frequent occurrences were damage in digestive organs, hemorrhagic shock and vascular lesion. Regarding outcomes, patients were referred to the intensive therapy unit, medical-surgical clinic and hemodynamics; two patients died. Conclusion: The nursing staff should be aware of factors that may lead to SAE and receive guidance on notification, so they can improve surgical patients' safety and care.


Objetivo: Identificar la ocurrencia de eventos adversos graves (EAG) en pacientes quirúrgicos y sus posibles desenlaces. Método: Estudio retrospectivo, cuantitativo, realizado por el análisis de prontuarios y banco de datos de pacientes en el perioperatorio, que sufrieron EAG en 2016, en un hospital privado de São Paulo. Resultados: Ocurrieron 19 EAG, con predominancia de pacientes del sexo femenino, entre 40 y 49 años, internados por patologías del sistema gastroenterológico. Las ocurrencias más incidentes fueron: lesión de órganos digestivos, choque hemorrágico y lesión vascular. Cuanto a los desenlaces, los pacientes fueron encaminados a la unidad de terapia intensiva, clínica médico-quirúrgica y hemodinámica; dos pacientes evolucionaron a óbito. Conclusión: Los profesionales del equipo de enfermería deben estar atentos a los factores que pueden contribuir para la ocurrencia de EAG y orientados con relación a la notificación, a fin de perfeccionar la seguridad y la calidad de la asistencia prestada a los pacientes quirúrgicos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Surgicenters , Gastrointestinal Tract , Perioperative Period , Shock, Hemorrhagic , Wounds and Injuries , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions
17.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1156-1161, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-689513

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the changes of cerebral metabolism in rabbit model of hemorrhagic shock by using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy(PMRS).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Ten New Zealand white rabbits were used for construction of the model of acute hemorrhagic anemia. 1H-MRS was performed before and at the time-peint of 30, 90, and 180 min after hemorrhagic shock. The concentrations of NAA, Cr, Cho, Lac, and NAA/Cr and Cho/Cr ratios were estimated.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Hemorrhagic shock was associated with significant reductions in red blood cell count, hemoglobin level, hematocrit, pH, and PaCO, and elevations of blood lactate and PaO. The ratios of NAA/Cr at 30 min, 90 min and 180 min after shock were (1.50±0.09), (1.37±0.09) and (1.27±0.10), respectively, which were significantly lower than those before shock (2.11±0.16) (P <0.05) (1.16±0.05) and (0.97±0.04) at 30 min and 90 min after shock, respectively, which were significantly lower than those pre-shock (1.38±0.08) (P <0.05). The ratis of Cho/Cr at 30 min and 90 min were (1.16±0.05) and (0.97±0.04), respectively, which were significantly lower than those before shock (1.38±0.08) (P <0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>MRS can noninvasively and dynamically detect brean metabolic changes in early hemorrhagic shock, and has positive significance for early diagnosis and prognosis assessment of hemorrhagic shock.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Aspartic Acid , Brain , Choline , Disease Models, Animal , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Protons , Rabbits , Shock, Hemorrhagic
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717633

ABSTRACT

Spontaneous rupture with internal bleeding of solid tumors has rarely been described at the time of diagnosis or during chemotherapy. This rare event must be regarded as a life threatening condition. In these emergency situations, control of hemorrhage, which is life-saving, can be achieved by transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) and/or surgical resection. This report describes two infants presenting with acute hemorrhagic shock due to spontaneous tumor rupture of hepatoblastoma and neuroblastoma during chemotherapy. TAE successfully arrested the tumor bleeding and a visibly reduced the tumor size in both children. Spontaneous rupture of solid tumors occur infrequently in children, but is a life threatening situation. Careful monitoring for the occurrence of this rare event especially in very young children presenting with a large tumor mass.


Subject(s)
Child , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Emergencies , Hemorrhage , Hepatoblastoma , Humans , Infant , Neuroblastoma , Rupture , Rupture, Spontaneous , Shock, Hemorrhagic
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739174

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) creation for the management of portal hypertension in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: A literature search of the MEDLINE/PubMed and Embase databases was conducted. All articles reporting the outcomes of TIPS creation for variceal bleeding and refractory ascites and hepatic hydrothorax in patients with HCC were included. Exclusion criteria were non-English language, sample size < 5, data not extractable, and data reported in another article. RESULTS: A total of 280 patients (mean age, 48–58; male gender, 66%) from five articles were included. TIPS creation was performed for variceal bleeding in 79% and refractory ascites and/or hepatic hydrothorax in 26% of patients. Technical and clinical success was achieved in 99% and 64% of patients, respectively. Clinical failure occurred in 36% of patients due to rebleeding or recurrent bleeding (n = 77) or no resolution or improvement of refractory ascites and hepatic hydrothorax (n = 24). One percent of patient had major complications, including accelerated liver failure (n = 1) and multi-organ failure resulting from hemorrhagic shock (n = 1), all of which resulted in early (i.e., within 30 days) death. Hepatic encephalopathy occurred in 40% of patients after TIPS creation. Lung metastasis was found 1% of patient 5 months (n = 1) and 72 months (n = 1) after TIPS creation. CONCLUSION: TIPS creation seems to be safe and effective for the management of portal hypertension in patients with HCC.


Subject(s)
Ascites , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Esophageal and Gastric Varices , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage , Hemorrhage , Hepatic Encephalopathy , Humans , Hydrothorax , Hypertension, Portal , Liver Failure , Liver Neoplasms , Lung , Male , Neoplasm Metastasis , Portasystemic Shunt, Surgical , Portasystemic Shunt, Transjugular Intrahepatic , Sample Size , Shock, Hemorrhagic
20.
Neonatal Medicine ; : 85-89, 2018.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714581

ABSTRACT

Rotavirus is the major cause of gastroenteritis in children under the age of 5. Rotavirus infection may lead to several neurological complications as meningitis, encephalitis, convulsion, encephalopathy, hemorrhagic shock, central pontine myelinolysis, Guillain-Barre syndrome, and Reye's syndrome. Further, some reports have described diffuse cerebral white matter lesions on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in neonates with rotavirus induced seizures. Here, we report on three neonates with rotavirus induced seizures with cerebral white matter abnormalities on MRI.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases , Child , Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Encephalitis , Gastroenteritis , Guillain-Barre Syndrome , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Meningitis , Myelinolysis, Central Pontine , Reye Syndrome , Rotavirus Infections , Rotavirus , Seizures , Shock, Hemorrhagic , White Matter
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