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1.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 69(2): 160-167, Mar.-Apr. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003397

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background and objectives: Dexmedetomidine has demonstrated protective effects against lung injury in vitro. Here, we investigated whether dexmedetomidine preconditioning protected against lung injury in hemorrhagic shock rats. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups (n = 8): control group, hemorrhagic shock group, 5 ug.kg-1 dexmedetomidine (DEX1) group, and 10 ug.kg-1 dexmedetomidine (DEX2) group. Saline or dexmedetomidine were administered over 20 min. 30 min after injection, hemorrhage was initiated in the hemorrhagic shock, DEX1 and DEX2 group. Four hours after resuscitation, protein and cellular content in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and the lung histopathology were measured. The malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, Bcl-2, Bax and caspase-3 were also tested in the lung tissue. Results: Compare with hemorrhagic shock group, 5 ug.kg-1 dexmedetomidine pretreatment reduced the apoptosis (2.25 ± 0.24 vs. 4.12 ± 0.42%, p < 0.05), histological score (1.06 ± 0.12 vs. 1.68 ± 0.15, p < 0.05) and protein (1.92 ± 0.38 vs. 3.95 ± 0.42 mg.mL-1, p < 0.05) and WBC (0.42 ± 0.11 vs. 0.92 ± 0.13 × 109/L, p < 0.05) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Which is correlated with increased superoxide dismutase activity (8.35 ± 0.68 vs. 4.73 ± 0.44 U.mg-1 protein, p < 0.05) and decreased malondialdehyde (2.18 ± 0.19 vs. 3.28 ± 0.27 nmoL.mg-1 protein, p < 0.05). Dexmedetomidine preconditioning also increased the Bcl-2 level (0.55 ± 0.04 vs. 0.34 ± 0.05, p < 0.05) and decreased the level of Bax (0.46 ± 0.03 vs. 0.68 ± 0.04, p < 0.05), caspase-3 (0.49 ± 0.03 vs. 0.69 ± 0.04, p < 0.05). However, we did not observe any difference between the DEX1 and DEX2 groups for these (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Dexmedetomidine preconditioning has a protective effect against lung injury caused by hemorrhagic shock in rats. The potential mechanisms involved are the inhibition of cell death and improvement of antioxidation. But did not show a dose-dependent effect.


Resumo Justificativa e objetivos: Dexmedetomidina demonstrou efeitos protetores contra a lesão pulmonar in vitro. Neste estudo, investigamos se o pré-condicionamento com dexmedetomidina protege contra a lesão pulmonar em ratos com choque hemorrágico. Métodos: Ratos machos, Sprague-Dawley, foram aleatoriamente divididos em quatro grupos (n = 8): grupo controle, grupo com choque hemorrágico, grupo com 5 µg.kg-1 de dexmedetomidina (DEX1) e grupo com 10 µg.kg-1 de dexmedetomidina (DEX2). Solução salina ou dexmedetomidina foi administrada durante 20 minutos. Trinta minutos após a injeção, a hemorragia foi iniciada nos grupos choque hemorrágico, DEX1 e DEX2. Quatro horas após a ressuscitação, a proteína e o conteúdo celular no lavado broncoalveolar e a histopatologia pulmonar foram medidos. Malondialdeído, superóxido dismutase, Bcl-2, Bax e caspase-3 também foram testados no tecido pulmonar. Resultados: Na comparação com o grupo choque hemorrágico, o pré-tratamento com 5 ug.kg-1 de dexmedetomidina reduziu a apoptose (2,25 ± 0,24 vs. 4,12 ± 0,42%, p < 0,05), escore histológico (1,06 ± 0,12 vs. 1,68 ± 0,15, p < 0,05) e proteína (1,92 ± 0,38 vs. 3,95 ± 0,42 mg.mL-1, p < 0,05) e leucócitos (0,42 ± 0,11 vs. 0,92 ± 0,13 × 109/L, p < 0,05) no lavado broncoalveolar; o que está correlacionado com o aumento da atividade da superóxido dismutase (8,35 ± 0,68 vs. 4,73 ± 0,44 U.mg-1 de proteína, p < 0,05) e diminuição do malondialdeído (2,18 ± 0,19 vs. 3,28 ± 0,27 nmoL.mg-1 de proteína, p < 0,05). O pré-condicionamento com dexmedetomidina também aumentou o nível de Bcl-2 (0,55 ± 0,04 vs. 0,34 ± 0,05, p < 0,05) e diminuiu o nível de Bax (0,46 ± 0,03 vs. 0,68 ± 0,04, p < 0,05), caspase-3 (0,49 ± 0,03 vs. 0,69 ± 0,04, p < 0,05). No entanto, não houve diferença entre os grupos DEX1 e DEX2 para essas proteínas (p > 0,05). Conclusão: O pré-condicionamento com dexmedetomidina tem um efeito protetor contra a lesão pulmonar causada por choque hemorrágico em ratos. Os potenciais mecanismos envolvidos são a inibição da morte celular e a melhora da antioxidação. Porém, não mostrou um efeito dose-dependente.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Shock, Hemorrhagic/drug therapy , Protective Agents/administration & dosage , Dexmedetomidine/administration & dosage , Lung Injury/prevention & control , Rats , Shock, Hemorrhagic/complications , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Apoptosis/drug effects , Protective Agents/pharmacology , Dexmedetomidine/pharmacology , Disease Models, Animal , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Lung Injury/etiology
2.
Acta cir. bras ; 34(9): e201900903, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1054692

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To investigate the effect of mesenteric lymph drainage on the spleen injury and the expressions of inflammatory cytokines in splenic tissue in mice following hemorrhagic shock. Methods: Male C57 mice were randomly divided into the sham shock, shock and shock+drainage groups. The mice in both shock and shock+drainage groups suffered femoral artery bleeding, maintained mean arterial pressure (MAP) of 40±2 mmHg for 90 min, and were resuscitated. And mesenteric lymph drainage was performed in the shock+drainage group at the time of resuscitation. After three hours of resuscitation, the splenic tissues were harvested for the histological observation and protein and mRNA expression analysis of cytokines. Results: The spleen in the shock group revealed a significantly structural damage and increased mRNA expressions of MyD88 and TRAF6 and protein expressions of TIPE2, MyD88, TRIF and TRAF3 compared to the sham group. By contrast, the splenic pathological injury in the shock+drainage group was alleviated significantly, and the mRNA and protein expressions of TIPE2, MyD88, TRIF, TRAF3 and TRAF6 were significantly lower than those in the shock group. Conclusion: These results indicate that post-hemorrhagic shock mesenteric lymph drainage alleviates hemorrhagic shock-induced spleen injury and the expressions of inflammatory cytokines.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Shock, Hemorrhagic/complications , Spleen/injuries , Lymphatic Vessels/surgery , Inflammation/prevention & control , Mesentery , Resuscitation , Drainage/methods , Disease Models, Animal , Inflammation/etiology , Mice, Inbred C57BL
3.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 31(1): 45-51, Jan.-Feb. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-778367

ABSTRACT

Abstract Experimental models of human pathology are useful guides to new approaches towards improving clinical and surgical treatments. A systematic search through PubMed using the syntax (shock) AND (trauma) AND (animal model) AND (cardiovascular) AND ("2010/01/01"[PDat]: "2015/12/31"[PDat]) found 88 articles, which were reduced by manual inspection to 43 entries. These were divided into themes and each theme is subsequently narrated and discussed conjointly. Taken together, these articles indicate that valuable information has been developed over the past 5 years concerning endothelial stability, mesenteric lymph, vascular reactivity, traumatic injuries, burn and sepsis. A surviving interest in hypertonic saline resuscitation still exists.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/physiopathology , Cardiovascular System/physiopathology , Disease Models, Animal , Shock, Hemorrhagic/complications , Wounds and Injuries/complications , Brain Injuries/complications , Brain Injuries/physiopathology , Brain Injuries/therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Resuscitation/methods , Saline Solution, Hypertonic , Sepsis/complications , Sepsis/physiopathology , Sepsis/therapy , Shock, Hemorrhagic/physiopathology , Shock, Hemorrhagic/therapy , Wounds and Injuries/physiopathology , Wounds and Injuries/therapy
4.
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 42(4): 273-278, July-Aug. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-763362

ABSTRACT

Trauma is one of the world's leading causes of death within the first 40 years of life and thus a significant health problem. Trauma accounts for nearly a third of the lost years of productive life before 65 years of age and is associated with infection, hemorrhagic shock, reperfusion syndrome, and inflammation. The control of hemorrhage, coagulopathy, optimal use of blood products, balancing hypo and hyperperfusion, and hemostatic resuscitation improve survival in cases of trauma with massive hemorrhage. This review discusses inflammation in the context of trauma-associated hemorrhagic shock. When one considers the known immunomodulatory effects of traumatic injury, allogeneic blood transfusion, and the overlap between patient populations, it is surprising that so few studies have assessed their combined effects on immune function. We also discuss the relative benefits of curbing inflammation rather than attempting to prevent it.


O Trauma é uma das principais causas de morte até 40 anos de idade em todo o mundo e, portanto, um significativo problema de saúde. Esta doença é ainda responsável por quase um terço dos anos perdidos de vida produtiva até os 65 anos de idade e esta associada com infecção, choque hemorrágico, síndrome de reperfusão e inflamação. O controle da hemorragia, coagulopatia, utilização dos produtos derivados do sangue, equilibrando hipo e hiperperfusão, e reanimação hemostática melhoraram a sobrevida em casos de trauma com hemorragia volumosa. Esta revisão discute a inflamação no contexto de choque hemorrágico associado ao trauma. Quando consideradosos efeitos imunomoduladores conhecidos da lesão traumática e transfusão de sangue alogênico em relação aos doentes, é surpreendente que tão poucos estudos avaliaram os seus efeitos combinados sobre a função imunológica. Discutimos também os benefícios relativos de reduzir a inflamação ao invés de tentar impedi-la.


Subject(s)
Humans , Shock, Hemorrhagic/complications , Wounds and Injuries/complications , Inflammation/etiology , Inflammation/therapy , Shock, Hemorrhagic/etiology , Shock, Hemorrhagic/immunology , Wounds and Injuries/immunology , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/etiology
5.
Acta cir. bras ; 30(6): 439-444, 06/2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-749641

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate whether post-hemorrhagic shock mesenteric lymph (PSML) is involved in cardiac dysfunction induced by hemorrhagic shock. METHODS: The hemorrhagic shock model (40±2 mmHg, 3h) was established in rats of the shock and shock+drainage groups; and PSML drainage was performed from hypotension 1-3h in the shock+drainage rats. Then, the isolated hearts were obtained from the rats for the examination of cardiac function with Langendorff system. Subsequently, the isolated hearts were obtained from normal rats and perfused with PSML or Krebs-Henseleit solution, and the changes of cardiac function were observed. RESULTS: The left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP) and the maximal rates of LV developed pressure (LVDP) rise and fall (±dP/dt max) in the shock and shock+drainage groups were lower than that of the sham group; otherwise, these indices in the shock+drainage group were higher compared to the shock group. In addition, after isolated hearts obtained from normal rats perfusing with PSML, these cardiac function indices were gradual decline along with the extension of time, such as heart rate, LVSP, ±dP/dt max, etc. CONCLUSION: Post-hemorrhagic shock mesenteric lymph is an important contributor to cardiac dysfunction following hemorrhagic shock. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Heart Diseases/etiology , Heart Diseases/physiopathology , Lymph/physiology , Mesentery/physiopathology , Shock, Hemorrhagic/complications , Shock, Hemorrhagic/physiopathology , Disease Models, Animal , Drainage/methods , Glucose , Heart Rate/physiology , Heart Ventricles/physiopathology , Mesentery/pathology , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Reference Values , Time Factors , Tromethamine , Ventricular Pressure/physiology
6.
Cuad. cir ; 26(1): 42-47, 2012. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-721846

ABSTRACT

La coagulopatía inducida por el shock hemorrágico se encuentra presente en casi un 25 por ciento de los pacientes ingresados por esta causa. Una vez que la coagulopatía se ha instalado aumenta drásticamente la morbimortalidad. Los paradigmas en la reanimación en el paciente traumatizado han variado dramáticamente en los últimos años, cambiando el uso de grandes volúmenes de cristaloides con el uso precoz de los hemoderivados y otros productos para tratar de revertir la coagulopatía y la "triada de la muerte". El objetivo de este trabajo es revisar la fisiopatologia de la coagulopatía en el trauma y las tendencias terapéuticas para revertiría.


Coagulopathy induced by hemorrhagic shock is present in almost 25 percent of patients admitted for this reason. Once the coagulopathy develops patients morbidity and mortality dramatically increases. The paradigms in trauma patients resuscitation have changed considerably in the last years by changing the use of large volumes of crystalloid with the early use of blood products and other products to try to reverse the coagulopathy and the "triad of death." The aim of this paper is to review the pathophysiology of coagulopathy in trauma and therapy trends to reverse it.


Subject(s)
Humans , Shock, Hemorrhagic/complications , Wounds and Injuries/complications , Blood Coagulation Disorders/therapy , Shock, Hemorrhagic/therapy , Hemostatic Techniques , Resuscitation/methods , Blood Coagulation Disorders/physiopathology , Multiple Trauma/complications
7.
Clinics ; 65(6): 621-628, 2010. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-553968

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Combining the hemodynamic and immune benefits of hypertonic saline with the anti-inflammatory effects of the phosphodiesterase inhibitor pentoxifylline (HSPTX) as a hemorrhagic shock resuscitation strategy reduces lung injury when compared with the effects of Ringer's lactate (RL). We hypothesized that HSPTX exerts its anti-inflammatory effects by interfering with nuclear factor kappa B/cAMP response element-binding protein (NF-êB-CREB) competition for the coactivator CREB-binding protein (CBP) in lung tissue, thus affecting pro-inflammatory mediator production. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent 60 minutes of hemorrhagic shock to reach a mean arterial blood pressure of 35 mmHg followed by resuscitation with either RL or HSPTX (7.5 percent HS + 25 mg/kg PTX). After four hours, lung samples were collected. NF-êB activation was assessed by measuring the levels of phosphorylated cytoplasmic inhibitor of kappa B (I-êB) and nuclear NF-êB p65 by western blot. NF-êB and CREB DNA-binding activity were measured by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). Competition between NF-êB and CREB for the coactivator CBP was determined by immunoprecipitation. Interleukin-8 (IL-8) levels in the lung were measured by ELISA. RESULTS: RL resuscitation produced significantly higher levels of lung IL-8 levels, I-êB phosphorylation, p65 phosphorylation, and NF-êB DNA binding compared with HSPTX. NF-êB-CBP-binding activity was similar in both groups, whereas CREB-CBP-binding activity was significantly increased with HSPTX. CREB-DNA binding-activity increased to a greater level with HSPTX compared with RL. DISCUSSION: HSPTX decreases lung inflammation following hemorrhagic shock compared with conventional resuscitation using RL through attenuation of NF-êB signaling and increased CREB-DNA binding activity. HSPTX may have therapeutic potential in the attenuation of ischemia-reperfusion...


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Lung/metabolism , Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Shock, Hemorrhagic/therapy , Transcription Factors/metabolism , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Disease Models, Animal , Lung/pathology , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Nuclear Proteins/metabolism , Pentoxifylline/therapeutic use , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Reperfusion Injury/drug therapy , Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Resuscitation/methods , Saline Solution, Hypertonic/therapeutic use , Shock, Hemorrhagic/complications , Shock, Hemorrhagic/metabolism
8.
Acta cir. bras ; 24(3): 233-238, May-June 2009. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-515808

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To analyze influence of omentoplasty on anastomosis in descending colon of rats. Rats were submitted to the hypovolemic shock of the hemorrhagic type by the Biomechanical Test of Pressure of Rupture by Liquid Distension (BTPRLD). In addition, establish a type of acute anemia in rats that are provided to the study. METHODS: Comparative study between two groups of animals with ten rats in each one, all submitted to hemorrhagic shock for 30 percent volemic removal by the carotid artery. An anastomosis was performed in left colon. An anastomosis was performed in the left colon. Group 1 took place anastomosis with Polyvinyl Chloride (P.V.C) film to prevent the adhesions formation on sature line. Group 2 placed the great omentum around the anastomosis. Euthanasia occurred on the fifth day, when the anastomoses were submitted to the biomechanical test of pressure of rupture by liquid distension (BTPRLD). RESULTS: High rupture pressure was gained with omentoplasty group in relation to the group in which anastomosis was protected from adhesions formation. A statistical significance was noted. CONCLUSION: Protection by great omentum has increased the anastomosis resistance of the shocked animals. Also, the proposed hemorrhagic shock type has proven to be useful for this study.


OBJETIVO: Analisar a influência da omentoplastia sobre anastomose realizada em cólon descendente de ratos que foram submetidos a choque hipovolêmico do tipo hemorrágico, por meio do Teste Biomecânico de Pressão de Ruptura à Distensão por Líquido. Além disso, estabelecer modelo de anemia aguda em rato que se preste ao referido estudo. MÉTODOS: Estudo comparativo entre dois grupos de animais com 10 ratos em cada, todos submetidos a choque hemorrágico por retirada volêmica de 30 por cento através da artéria carótida, sendo realizada anastomose em cólon esquerdo. No grupo 1 realizou-se proteção da anastomose com película de polivinilcloreto para impedir a formação de aderências sobre a linha de sutura; no grupo 2 colocou-se em torno da anastomose o grande omento. A eutanásia deu-se no quinto dia, quando as anastomoses foram submetidas ao Teste Biomecânico Pressão de Ruptura à Distensão por Líquido (TBPRDL). RESULTADOS: Obteve-se maior pressão de ruptura no grupo em que se realizou a omentoplastia em relação ao grupo em que a anastomose foi protegida da formação de aderências, notando-se significância estatística. CONCLUSÃO: A proteção pelo grande omento aumentou a resistência das anastomoses dos animais chocados. Também, o modelo de choque hemorrágico proposto mostrou-se útil para este estudo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Colon/surgery , Colonic Diseases/surgery , Omentum/surgery , Shock, Hemorrhagic/complications , Wound Healing/physiology , Analysis of Variance , Anastomosis, Surgical , Disease Models, Animal , Rats, Wistar , Statistics, Nonparametric
9.
Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences. 2009; 25 (2): 289-292
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-92421

ABSTRACT

Hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation is well known to result in myocardial dysfunction and injury. Stimulation of the Na[+] -H[+] exchanger plays an important role in the pathway of myocardial injury. The purpose of the present study was to examine the protective effects of blocking the cardiac Na[+] -H[+] exchange, using 100mM ethyl-isopropyl amiloride [EIPA], a specific Na[+] -H[+] exchanger blocker, on myocardial contractile function on ex vivo resuscitation of isolated rat heart following one hour of hemorrhagic shock. Sprague- Dawley rats were assigned to hemorrhage, hemorrhage + EIPA, sham hemorrhage and sham hemorrhage + EIPA groups. Rats were hemorrhaged for one hour. Hearts were harvested and ex vivo treated and resuscitated by perfused in the Langendorff System. Myocardial function was determined. The results showed that inhibition of the Na[+] -H[+] exchanger using EIPA improved the post-resuscitation myocardial contractile function. Blocking the Na[+] -H[+] exchanger using 100mM EIPA following 60 minutes of hemorrhagic shock improved myocardial function


Subject(s)
Animals, Laboratory , Shock, Hemorrhagic/complications , Amiloride/pharmacology , Sodium-Hydrogen Exchangers/antagonists & inhibitors , Resuscitation , Rats , Hemorrhage , Myocardial Contraction/drug effects , Amiloride/analogs & derivatives
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-153148

ABSTRACT

Dominant inflammatory cytokines might be different depending on the underlying causes of acute lung injury (ALI). The role of kertinocyte-derived chemokine (KC), a potent chemoattractant for neutrophils, has not been clearly established in hemorrhage-induced ALI. In this study, lung injury and cytokine expressison were evaluated in LPS- or hemorrhage-induced ALI models of BALB/c mice. The myeloperoxidase activities at 4 hr after hemorrhage and LPS-injection were 47.4+/-13.0 and 56.5+/-16.4 U/g, respectively. NF-kappa B activity peaked at 4 hr after hemorrhage, which was suppressed to the control level by anti-high mobility group B1 (HMGB1) antibody. Lung expressions of TNF-alpha, MIP-2, and IL-1beta were increased by LPS injection. However, there was only a minimal increase in IL-1beta and no expressions of TNF-alpha or MIP-2 in hemorrhage-induced ALI. In contrast, lung KC increased significantly at 4 hr after hemorrhage compared to control levels (83.1+/-12.3 vs. 14.2+/-1.6 pg/mL/mg by ELISA) (P<0.05). By immunohistochemical staining, lung neutrophils stained positive for KC. Increased KC was also observed in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and plasma. KC plays an important role in hemorrhage-induced ALI.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury/etiology , Animals , Antibodies/immunology , Chemokine CXCL2/analysis , Chemokines/analysis , Chickens , HMGB1 Protein/metabolism , Humans , Interleukin-1beta/analysis , Lipopolysaccharides/toxicity , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Neutrophils/immunology , Peroxidase/analysis , Shock, Hemorrhagic/complications , Time Factors , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/analysis
11.
Acta cir. bras ; 23(3): 237-242, May-June 2008. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-484382

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of hemorrhagic shock in colonic anastomoses in rats, with a rupture by liquid distension resistance test. METHODS: Wistar lineage rats, averaging 90 days old and weighing from 310 to 380 grams were divided into two groups. In the first group (G1), 10 animals were submitted to colonic anastomoses in normovolemic terms and the second group (G2), of 10 animals, was submitted to colonic anastomoses in hypovolemic conditions. The shock was caused by half milliliter of blood withdrawn, every two minutes, until the value of average 50mmHg arterial pressure or a total volume corresponding 30 percent withdrawal of volemia was reached. Serum lactate dosages were carried out at the beginning and end of the procedure. The average serum lactate values at the end of the surgery were 1.91 mmol/l in G1 group and 3.69 mmol/l in G2 group (p<0.05). On the fifth postoperative day, the animals were euthanized. The anastomoses were evaluated with a rupture by liquid distension resistance test. RESULTS: In G1, the average value of colonic rupture was 160.7 mmHg whereas in G2 it was 152.1mmHg (p>0.05). CONCLUSION: Hemorrhagic shock, under the established conditions of this study, had no influence on colonic anastomoses in rats evaluated with the rupture by liquid distention resistance test.


OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito do choque hemorrágico em anastomoses de cólon em ratos, com teste de ruptura à distensão por líquido. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados ratos da linhagem Wistar, com idade aproximada de 90 dias e peso variando de 310 gramas a 380 gramas. Os animais foram divididos em dois grupos, sendo o grupo G1, composto por 10 animais submetidos à anastomose de cólon em condições de normovolemia e o grupo G2, composto por 10 animais submetidos à anastomose de cólon em condições de hipovolemia. O choque foi instalado através da retirada de meio mililitro de sangue a cada dois minutos, até que se atingissem valores de pressão arterial média (PAM) de 50mmHg ou volume total de retirada correspondente a 30 por cento da volemia. Foram realizadas dosagens séricas de lactato (mmol/l) no início do procedimento e ao término do mesmo. Os valores séricos médios de lactato ao término da cirurgia foram de 1,91 mmMol/l no grupo G1 e de 3,69 mmMol/l no grupo G2 (p<0,05) No quinto dia de pós-operatório, os animais foram submetidos à eutanásia e tiveram suas anastomoses testadas por teste de resistência à pressão de ruptura à distensão por líquido. RESULTADOS: No grupo G1, o valor médio da pressão de ruptura do cólon à distensão por líquido foi de 160,7mmHg enquanto que no grupo G2 foi de 152,1mmHg (p>0,05). CONCLUSÃO: A presença de choque hemorrágico, nas condições estabelecidas neste estudo, não exerce influência em anastomoses de cólon em ratos, avaliadas com teste de ruptura à distensão por líquido.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Colon/injuries , Shock, Hemorrhagic/complications , Anastomosis, Surgical , Biomarkers/blood , Colon/pathology , Colon/surgery , Disease Models, Animal , Dilatation, Pathologic/pathology , Hypovolemia/etiology , Hypovolemia/pathology , Lactic Acid/blood , Rats, Wistar , Rupture/pathology , Stress, Mechanical , Shock, Hemorrhagic/pathology , Shock, Hemorrhagic/surgery , Surgical Wound Dehiscence/etiology , Surgical Wound Dehiscence/pathology
12.
Rev. argent. anestesiol ; 65(3): 203-212, jul.-sept. 2007. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-480353

ABSTRACT

El trauma exanguinante, a punto de partida de las cavidades corporales, con sus grandes requerimientos de infusión de líquidos y transfusión de glóbulos rojos, plasma y factores de coagulación, enfrenta al paciente al llamado "triángulo de la muerte", dado por la hipotermia, coagulopatía y acidosis. La estrategia de control del daño permite una rápida hemostasia inicial, generalmente con el empaquetamiento de la fuente de la hemorragia (en no más de 60 minutos), la estabilización en el área de cuidados intensivos (expansión, calentamiento, transfusión) y la cirugía definitiva (a las 24-48 horas del trauma inicial). El manejo del paciente crítico debe ser integral, desde el área de recepción inicial hasta la unidad de cuidados intensivos, pasando por el área quirúrgica y de imágenes, constituyendo un todo. El emergentólogo y el anestesiólogo son piezas fundamentales de este equipo de cuidados, ya que pueden prever o establecer la necesidad de instaurar el control del daño en una determinada víctima de trauma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Wounds and Injuries/surgery , Shock, Hemorrhagic/complications , Shock, Hemorrhagic/therapy , Emergency Treatment/methods , Acidosis , Analgesia , Abdomen/physiopathology , Blood Coagulation Disorders , Compartment Syndromes , Pain/drug therapy , Homeostasis , Hypothermia , Intubation/methods , Reoperation
13.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-39549

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To determine the outcomes of pregnancies with placental abruption and to investigate the relationship between clinical maternal characteristics and poor perinatal outcomes. MATERIAL AND METHOD: A retrospective descriptive study was conducted to evaluate 103 cases of placental abruption delivered at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital from 1995 to 2004. RESULTS: There were 111,375 singleton deliveries with 103 cases (0.92 in 1,000) complicated by placental abruption during the study period. Placental abruption attributed to maternal complications including hemorrhagic shock (19.4%), Couvelaire uterus (16.5%) and DIC (5.8%). The perinatal outcomes included low birth weight (65.0%), preterm (56.3%), severe birth asphyxia (16.5%) and perinatal death (16.5%). Placental abruption with pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH), DIC and blood transfusion had a significantly higher incidence of perinatal mortality than the remainder (odds ratio [OR] 4.16, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.41-12.24; OR 12.92, 95%CI 2.15-77.80 and OR 3.93, 95%CI 1.27-12.19, respectively). Placental abruption with Couvelaire uterus had a significantly higher incidence of severe birth asphyxia than the remainder (OR 3.72, 95%CI 1.14-2.09). CONCLUSION: Placental abruption had a profound impact on both maternal and perinatal complications including DIC, Couvelaire uterus, severe birth asphyxia and perinatal death. The relationship between PIH, DIC, blood transfusion and Couvelaire uterus with poor perinatal outcomes were found Therefore, placental abruption with these clinical characteristics should be closely monitored and prompt delivery should be carried out at tertiary care centers with adequate maternal-neonatal intensive care facilities.


Subject(s)
Abruptio Placentae/epidemiology , Adult , Asphyxia Neonatorum/epidemiology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/complications , Female , Fetal Death , Humans , Infant, Low Birth Weight , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Shock, Hemorrhagic/complications , Thailand
14.
Acta cir. bras ; 21(1): 31-37, Jan.-Feb. 2006. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-420968

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Avaliar e comparar o seqüestro de neutrófilos no rim de rato, como efeito da isquemia e reperfusão hepática total após estado de choque hemorrágico controlado, com uso de diferentes soluções eletrolíticas.MÉTODOS: Utilizou-se 18 ratos Wistar, machos, adultos, divididos em três grupos conforme a solução utilizada para reanimação: Grupo SF: solução fisiológica; Grupo SH: solução hipertônica de NaCl a 7,5% seguido pela solução de ringer com lactato; Grupo RL: solução de ringer com lactato. Todos os animais foram submetidos à sangria controlada até pressão arterial média (PAM) atingir 40 mmHg, permanecendo por 20 minutos. Realizou-se reanimação volêmica até PAM=80 mmHg com a solução conforme o grupo estudado. Em seguida realizou-se uma laparotomia e a manobra de Pringle por 15 minutos. Os animais foram acompanhados até duas horas. Para comparações estatísticas entre as contagens de neutrófilos, no interstício do córtex renal, foram efetuados os testes ANOVA e a análise de covariância, ajustando-se para o tempo de sobrevida. Os parâmetros hemodinâmicos avaliados foram: PAM, freqüência cardíaca, índice cardíaco, índice de resistência vascular sistêmica. As variáveis metabólicas analisadas foram: pH, bicarbonato, reserva de base e lactato, além de eletrólitos. RESULTADOS: Os valores médios de tempo de sobrevida, em minutos, por grupo foram: Grupo SF 79,0±12,0; Grupo RL 97,0±11,0; Grupo SH 67,0±10. Os valores médios da contagem de neutrófilos/campo no córtex renal foram: Grupo SF 0,55±0,68; Grupo RL 1,68±0,53; Grupo SH 1,33±0,43. E quando são ajustados para o tempo de sobrevida encontram-se: Grupo SF 0,55; Grupo RL 1,62; Grupo SH 1,39. Houve diferença estatisticamente significativa, na contagem de neutrófilo entre o Grupo SF com os demais, usando-se ou não o ajuste pelo tempo de sobrevida (p=0,016 e p=0,0128). CONCLUSAO: As duas situações críticas, choque hemorrágico controlado e manobra de Pringle, promoveram seqüestro de neutrófilos no interstício renal do rato, sendo a solução fisiológica com a menor média, diferenciando estatisticamente das demais soluções, neste modelo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Blood Volume/physiology , Ischemia/physiopathology , Liver/blood supply , Neutrophils/physiology , Reperfusion , Shock, Hemorrhagic/physiopathology , Blood Volume/immunology , Disease Models, Animal , Epidemiologic Methods , Isotonic Solutions , Ischemia/immunology , Kidney Cortex/immunology , Kidney Cortex/physiopathology , Liver/pathology , Neutrophils/immunology , Saline Solution, Hypertonic , Shock, Hemorrhagic/blood , Shock, Hemorrhagic/complications , Sodium Chloride/immunology , Time Factors
16.
Rev. argent. anestesiol ; 54(4): 249-53, jul.-ago. 1996. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-216267

ABSTRACT

Las lesiones presentes en el paciente politraumatizado y las alteraciones fisiopatológicas que pueden ocasionar hacen necesaria una cuidadosa evaluación de las mismas, de las regiones anatómicas involucradas, de la extensión del traumatismo, de la existencia de enfermedades preexistentes, de la presencia de drogas adictivas, y otras situaciones, a fin de poder realizar un diagnóstico presuntivo de las situaciones críticas que se susciten bajo condiciones de anestesia. Según su frecuencia, las lesiones orgánicas se distribuyen 34 por ciento en las extremidades, 32 por ciento en cabeza y cuello, 25 por ciento en tórax y 15 por ciento en abdomen. Los traumatismos de tórax revisten gravedad de por sí, pues se asocian frecuentemente con traumatismos de columna cervical y/o abdomen, pudiendo ser cerrados o penetrantes. Las lesiones asociadas con hipotensión arterial persistente son la contusión miocárdica, el neumotórax hipertensivo, el taponamiento cardíaco, el embolismo gaseoso y la lesión coronaria con infarto agudo de miocardio. Descartado lo anterior, deben buscarse sitios de sangrado o causas metabólicas, alérgicas o la presencia de sepsis. Las alteraciones en la oxigenación del paciente politraumatizado bajo anestesia pueden deberse a hipoventilación, alteraciones del intercambio gaseoso, problemas hemodinámicos, o intoxicaciones. La coagulopatía que se puede presentar podría tener su causa en la hipotermia que éstos pacientes presentan frecuentemente, por la exposición a ambientes fríos, transfusiones masivas, y/o dilución de los factores de la coagulación por la reposición inicial de líquidos. La hipotermia se relaciona con el índice de severidad lesional, el volumen de líquidos infundidos, la edad del paciente, la presencia de drogas (tóxicos, alcohol, etc.) y estación del año, siendo fundamental su monitoreo y tratamiento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Abdominal Injuries , Anesthesia , Intraoperative Complications , Thoracic Injuries , Multiple Trauma/diagnosis , Multiple Trauma/physiopathology , Multiple Trauma/therapy , Accidents, Traffic/mortality , Alcoholism , Emergencies , Hemodynamics , Hypotension/complications , Hypothermia/complications , Pulmonary Gas Exchange , Shock, Hemorrhagic/complications , Substance-Related Disorders
17.
In. Vivaldi Cichero, Ennio; Hernández Poblete, Glenn. Síndrome de shock: aspectos históricos, hemodinámicos, bioquímicos y clínicos. Santiago de Chile, Universidad de Concepción. Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, mar. 1995. p.51-69, ilus.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-173375
18.
Acta méd. peru ; 16(4): 260-2, oct.-dic. 1992. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIPECS | ID: lil-117560

ABSTRACT

Durante el año de 1989 fueron admitidos 209 pacientes en el Area de Pacientes Graves de Emergencia. Cuarenta y ocho (23 por ciento) ingresaron a nuestra área luego de un procedimiento quirúrgico mayor de emergencia con la finalidad de recibir terapia activa y/o monitoreo post-operatorio. El tiempo promedio de estancia fue 8 (1-20) días. La edad promedio 48 (16-76) años y treinta y siete (77 por ciento) fueron hombres. El puntaje APACHE II promedio fue 17 (15-20) y el TISS promedio 26 (24-33). Fallecieron 15 (31 por ciento) enfermos. La categoría diagnóstica más frecuente fue: shock hemorrágico-hipovolémico en 13 casos, sepsis post-operatoria en 10 y craneotomía en 9 entre otras. La población post-operada constituye la cuarta parte del global manejado en esta área con un tiempo de hospitalización prolongado. Esta es una situación sui géneris que requiere corrección a corto plazo. Se recomienda que los enfermos sometidos a un procedimiento quirúrgico de emergencia como los referidos no deberían hacer el post-operatorio en una sala de hospitalización de emergencia


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Postoperative Care/trends , Shock, Hemorrhagic/complications , Emergency Medical Services/trends , Peru , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Shock/complications , Shock/mortality
20.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-34637

ABSTRACT

Pediatric patients with fever and haemorrhage were studied in Jakarta, Indonesia between May 1973 and January 1974. Eighty-one of 104 demonstrated unequivocable evidence of dengue with clinical findings similar to those reported associated with dengue haemorrhagic fever in Thailand. The majority of patients had extremely high antibody titers against dengue measured by both hemagglutination-inhibition and by plaque reduction neutralization tests and all four types of dengue virus were isolated. Eight of the patients died.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Dengue/complications , Dengue Virus/isolation & purification , Female , Hemorrhage/complications , Humans , Indonesia , Infant , Male , Shock, Hemorrhagic/complications
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