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1.
São Paulo; s.n; 20220601. 73 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1370752

ABSTRACT

O carcinoma secretório em glândula salivar é uma neoplasia recentemente descrita que tem os mesmos aspectos morfológicos, imuno-histoquímicos e genéticos do carcinoma secretório de origem mamária. O carcinoma secretório tem características celulares reminiscentes de uma célula secretora lactacional, isto é, um citoplasma vacuolado repleto de gotas lipídicas e um material secretado, por vezes de forma apócrina, que pode lembrar o leite. Mais recentemente, algum nível de diferenciação lactacional foi sugerida no carcinoma secretório de origem salivar. O objetivo do estudo foi verificar se existe uma diferenciação do tipo lactacional em carcinomas secretórios de origem salivar, comparando a outros tipos de carcinomas salivares mais comuns. Foram realizadas reações imuno-histoquímicas para as seguintes proteínas: receptores hormonais (receptor de prolactina e receptor do hormônio do crescimento), proteínas associadas ao produto de secreção da glândula mamária lactacional (mucina-1 (MUC-1), MUC4, globulina de gordura 1 do leite humano, lactoferrina) e proteínas associadas à via Akt-mTOR (PTEN, p-Akt, p-mTOR, p4EBP1, eIF4E, pS6). A maioria dos casos de carcinoma secretório foi negativa para receptor de prolactina e de hormônio do crescimento. Lactoferrina foi positiva em todos os grupos tumorais, porém somente em carcinoma secretório observou-se um padrão de marcação intensa, difuso tanto em célula como em secreção. Todos os casos de carcinoma secretório foram positivos para globulina de gordura do tipo 1, porém o mesmo padrão de marcação foi observado em outros tumores. A maioria dos casos de carcinoma secretório foram positivos para MUC1 e MUC4. Nenhum caso de carcinoma secretório foi positivo para Akt, mas PTEN foi difusamente expresso em 57,1% dos casos. mTOR foi expresso em mais da metade dos casos de carcinoma secretório e dos outros tumores salivares. Entre as proteínas à jusante de mTOR, somente eIF4E demonstrou alta expressão no grupo de estudo. A expressão de marcadores lactacionais não é exclusiva do carcinoma secretório, porém a expressão de lactoferrina é distinta neste grupo de tumores quando comparado aos demais tumores salivares estudados.


Subject(s)
Salivary Proteins and Peptides , Lactation , Salivary Gland Neoplasms , Signal Transduction
2.
São Paulo; s.n; 20220601. 73 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1370757

ABSTRACT

O carcinoma secretório em glândula salivar é uma neoplasia recentemente descrita que tem os mesmos aspectos morfológicos, imuno-histoquímicos e genéticos do carcinoma secretório de origem mamária. O carcinoma secretório tem características celulares reminiscentes de uma célula secretora lactacional, isto é, um citoplasma vacuolado repleto de gotas lipídicas e um material secretado, por vezes de forma apócrina, que pode lembrar o leite. Mais recentemente, algum nível de diferenciação lactacional foi sugerida no carcinoma secretório de origem salivar. O objetivo do estudo foi verificar se existe uma diferenciação do tipo lactacional em carcinomas secretórios de origem salivar, comparando a outros tipos de carcinomas salivares mais comuns. Foram realizadas reações imuno-histoquímicas para as seguintes proteínas: receptores hormonais (receptor de prolactina e receptor do hormônio do crescimento), proteínas associadas ao produto de secreção da glândula mamária lactacional (mucina-1 (MUC-1), MUC4, globulina de gordura 1 do leite humano, lactoferrina) e proteínas associadas à via Akt-mTOR (PTEN, p-Akt, p-mTOR, p4EBP1, eIF4E, pS6). A maioria dos casos de carcinoma secretório foi negativa para receptor de prolactina e de hormônio do crescimento. Lactoferrina foi positiva em todos os grupos tumorais, porém somente em carcinoma secretório observou-se um padrão de marcação intensa, difuso tanto em célula como em secreção. Todos os casos de carcinoma secretório foram positivos para globulina de gordura do tipo 1, porém o mesmo padrão de marcação foi observado em outros tumores. A maioria dos casos de carcinoma secretório foram positivos para MUC1 e MUC4. Nenhum caso de carcinoma secretório foi positivo para Akt, mas PTEN foi difusamente expresso em 57,1% dos casos. mTOR foi expresso em mais da metade dos casos de carcinoma secretório e dos outros tumores salivares. Entre as proteínas à jusante de mTOR, somente eIF4E demonstrou alta expressão no grupo de estudo. A expressão de marcadores lactacionais não é exclusiva do carcinoma secretório, porém a expressão de lactoferrina é distinta neste grupo de tumores quando comparado aos demais tumores salivares estudados.


Subject(s)
Salivary Proteins and Peptides , Lactation , Signal Transduction
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928709

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of Rheb1 in the development of mouse megakaryocyte-erythroid progenitor cells and its related mechanism.@*METHODS@#Rheb1 was specifically knocked-out in the hematopoietic system of Vav1-Cre;Rheb1fl/fl mice(Rheb1Δ/Δ mice). Flow cytometry was used to detect the percentage of red blood cells in peripheral blood and erythroid cells in bone marrow in Vav1-Cre;Rheb1fl/fl mice and control mice. The CFC assay was used to detect the differentiation ability of Rheb1 KO megakaryocyte-erythroid progenitor cells and control cells. Real-time fluorescence quantification PCR was used to detect the relative expression of PU.1,GATA-1,GATA-2,CEBPα and CEBPβ of Rheb1 KO megakaryocyte-erythroid progenitor cells and control cells. Rapamycin was added to the culture medium, and it was used to detect the changes in cloning ability of megakaryocyte-erythroid progenitor cells from wild-type mice in vitro.@*RESULTS@#After Rheb1 was knocked out, the development and stress response ability of megakaryocyte-erythroid progenitor cells in mice were weaken and the differentiation ability of megakaryocyte-erythroid progenitor cells in vitro was weaken. Moreover, the expression of GATA-1 of megakaryocyte-erythroid progenitor cells was decreased. Further, rapamycin could inhibit the differentiative capacity of megakaryocyte-erythroid progenitor cells in vitro.@*CONCLUSION@#Rheb1 can regulate the development of megakaryocyte-erythroid progenitor cells probably through the mTOR signaling pathway in mice.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Differentiation , Erythrocytes , Flow Cytometry , Megakaryocyte-Erythroid Progenitor Cells , Megakaryocytes , Mice , Signal Transduction
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928689

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of celastrol on the proliferation and apoptosis of human multiple myeloma (MM) cell lines, reveal the relationship between IRAK4/ERK/p38 signaling pathway and celastrol regulating the proliferation and apoptosis of H929 and ARP-1 cells, and explore whether celastrol combined with bortezomib has synergistic effect. @*METHODS@#CCK-8 method was used to detect the viability of MM cell lines H929 and ARP-1 treated by different concentrations of celastrol, bortezomib, and their combination, and the synergistic effect was determined by Kim's formula. The apoptosis rate of H929 cells and necrosis rate of ARP-1 were detected by Annexin V/PI method. The expression of key proteins and apoptosis proteins in IRAK4/ERK/p38 signaling pathway were detected by Western blot. @*RESULTS@#Celastrol could significantly inhibit the proliferation of H929 and ARP-1 cells (r=0.9018, r=0.9244) and induce apoptosis in a time-dependent manner. Compared with the control group, celastrol could significantly up-regulate the expression of PARP and cleaved caspase-3 while down-regulate the expression of p-IRAK4, p-ERK, and p-p38 in H929 and ARP-1 cells. Celastrol and bortezomib alone inhibited the proliferation of H929 and ARP-1 cells. Compared with celastrol and bortezomib alone, their combination had lower cell survival rate and higher apoptosis rate (P<0.05). @*CONCLUSION@#Celastrol can inhibit the proliferation and promote the apoptosis of H929 and ARP-1 cells, which may be related to inhibiting the phosphorylation of IRAK4 and blocking the activation of IRAK4/ERK/p38 signaling pathway. Celastrol combined with bortezomib has synergistic effect, which can more effectively inhibit the proliferation and induce apoptosis of H929 and ARP-1 cells.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Bortezomib/pharmacology , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Humans , Interleukin-1 Receptor-Associated Kinases , Multiple Myeloma , Pentacyclic Triterpenes , Signal Transduction
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928677

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the drug resistant related FOXO3/Bcl-6 signaling pathway in K562/G cell line and its related microRNA(miRNA) mechanisms.@*METHODS@#The drug resistance potency of imatinib on K562/G was detected by MTT assay. The expression of FOXO3 and Bcl-6 proteins in K562 and K562/G cells was detected by Western blot. Real-time PCR (RT-PCR) was used to detect the expression of FOXO3 and Bcl-6 mRNA. The miRNA expression profiling in K562 and K562/G cells was analyzed by microarray technique, and the miRNA targeted to FOXO/Bcl-6 signaling pathway was identified.@*RESULTS@#The expression of FOXO3 and Bcl-6 protein was significantly increased in K562/G cells as compared with that in K562 cells (P<0.01), the expression level of Bcl-6 mRNA showed no increase in K562/G cells. However, FOXO3 mRNA was up-regulated in K562/G cells (P<0.05). MiRNA microarray results showed that 109 miRNAs were expressed differentially in K562 and K562/G cells. The expression of 81 miRNAs were up-regulated while 28 miRNAs were down-regulated. Through reverse prediction by bioinformatics, miR-6718-5p, miR-5195-5p, miR-4711-3p, miR-4763-5p, miR-4664-5p and miR-3176 were related to FOXO/Bcl-6 signaling pathway.@*CONCLUSION@#The FOXO3/Bcl-6 signaling pathway contributes to imatinib resistance in K562/G cell line, and the miRNA expression profiles showed significant differences between K562/G and K562 cells.


Subject(s)
Forkhead Box Protein O3/genetics , Humans , Imatinib Mesylate/pharmacology , K562 Cells , MicroRNAs/genetics , RNA, Messenger , Signal Transduction
6.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 238-242, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928542

ABSTRACT

Cilium, an organelle with a unique proteome and organization, protruding from the cell surface, generally serves as a force generator and signaling compartment. During ciliogenesis, ciliary proteins are synthesized in cytoplasm and transported into cilia by intraflagellar transport (IFT) particles, where the inner counterparts undergo reverse trafficking. The homeostasis of IFT plays a key role in cilial structure assembly and signaling transduction. Much progress has been made on the mechanisms and functions of IFT; however, recent studies have revealed the involvement of IFT particle subunits in organogenesis and spermatogenesis. In this review, we discuss new concepts concerning the molecular functions of IFT protein IFT25 and how its interactions with other IFT particle subunits are involved in mammalian development and fertility.


Subject(s)
Animals , Biological Transport , Carrier Proteins/metabolism , Cilia/metabolism , Flagella/metabolism , Male , Mammals/metabolism , Organogenesis , Proteins/metabolism , Signal Transduction
7.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 90-96, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928514

ABSTRACT

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors γ (PPARγ) is a master regulator that controls energy metabolism and cell fate. PPARγ2, a PPARγ isoform, is highly expressed in the normal prostate but expressed at lower levels in prostate cancer tissues. In the present study, PC3 and LNCaP cells were used to examine the benefits of restoring PPARγ2 activity. PPARγ2 was overexpressed in PC3 and LNCaP cells, and cell proliferation and migration were detected. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining was used to detect pathological changes. The genes regulated by PPARγ2 overexpression were detected by microarray analysis. The restoration of PPARγ2 in PC3 and LNCaP cells inhibited cell proliferation and migration. PC3-PPARγ2 tissue recombinants showed necrosis in cancerous regions and leukocyte infiltration in the surrounding stroma by H&E staining. We found higher mixed lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL) and lower microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) expression in cancer tissues compared to controls by immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining. Microarray analysis showed that PPARγ2 gain of function in PC3 cells resulted in the reprogramming of lipid- and energy metabolism-associated signaling pathways. These data indicate that PPARγ2 exerts a crucial tumor-suppressive effect by triggering necrosis and an inflammatory reaction in human prostate cancer.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Proliferation , Humans , Male , Mice , PC-3 Cells , PPAR gamma/genetics , Prostatic Neoplasms/genetics , Signal Transduction , Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928327

ABSTRACT

As an important exercise and energy metabolism organ of the human body, the normal maintenance of skeletal muscle mass is essential for the body to perform normal physiological functions. The autophagy-lysosome (AL) pathway is a physiological or pathological mechanism that is ubiquitous in normal and diseased cells. It plays a key role in the maintaining of protein balance, removing damaged organelles, and the stability of internal environment. The smooth progress of the autophagy process needs to go through multiple steps, which are completed under the coordinated action of multiple factors. Autophagy maintains the muscle homeostasis of a healthy body by removing cell components such as damaged myofibrils and isolated cytoplasmic proteins. Autophagy could also provide the initial energy required for cell proliferation, promote muscle regeneration and remodeling after injury. At the same time, autophagy disorder is also an important cause of age-related skeletal muscle atrophy. Autophagy could affect the response of skeletal muscle to exercise, and increasing the level of basic autophagy is beneficial to improve the adaptive response of skeletal muscle to exercise. This article summarizes the role and pathways of autophagy in the maintenance of skeletal muscle quality, in order to provide effective rehabilitation strategies for clinical prevention and treatment of muscle atrophy.


Subject(s)
Autophagy/physiology , Exercise/physiology , Humans , Muscle, Skeletal/pathology , Muscular Atrophy/pathology , Signal Transduction
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928293

ABSTRACT

Spinal cord injury is a severe central nervous system disease, which will cause a series of complex pathophysiological changes and activate a variety of signaling pathways including Notch signaling. Studies have evidenced that activation of the Notch signaling pathway is not conducive to nerve repair and symptom improvement after spinal cord injury. Its mechanisms include inhibiting neuronal differentiation and axon regeneration, promoting reactive astrocyte proliferation, promoting M1 macrophage polarization and the release of proinflammatory factors, and inhibiting angiogenesis. Therefore, it has become a promising therapeutic strategy to inhibit Notch signal as a target in the treatment of spinal cord injury. In recent years, some researchers have used drugs, cell transplantation or genetic modification to regulate Notch signaling, which can promote the recovery of nerve function after spinal cord injury, thereby providing new treatment strategies for the treatment of spinal cord injury. This article will summarize the mechanism of Notch signaling pathway in spinal cord injury, and at the same time review the research progress in the treatment of spinal cord injury by modulating Notch signaling pathway in recent years, so as to provide new research ideas for further exploring new strategies for spinal cord injury.


Subject(s)
Axons/metabolism , Cell Transplantation , Humans , Nerve Regeneration , Signal Transduction/genetics , Spinal Cord/metabolism , Spinal Cord Injuries/metabolism
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928161

ABSTRACT

Dachaihu Decoction is a classical Chinese herbal prescription that is effective in harmonizing lesser yang and purging internal accumulated heat. At present, it has been widely used in clinical practice, and the resulting outcomes are satisfactory. However, its quality indicators and action mechanism are still not clear. Therefore, this paper explored the efficacy markers of Dachaihu Decoction and its action mechanism based on literature mining, molecular biology, and network pharmacology, so as to better control its quality and ensure its clinical efficacy. The efficacy markers of Dachaihu Decoction were predicted and analyzed according to the "five principles" for Q-markers of Chinese herbs. Then the anti-inflammatory activity of the efficacy markers of Dachaihu Decoction was evaluated with Griess reagent after the establishment of RAW264.7 cell inflammation model in vitro with lipopolysaccharide(LPS). The potential targets of efficacy markers were predicted by Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform(TCMSP), ChEMBL, and SwissTargetPrediction, followed by the construction of the protein-protein interaction(PPI) network of the efficacy markers of Dachaihu Decoction. Topological, GO, and KEGG enrichment analysis was carried out to construct the "key target-signaling pathway-biological process" network, thus elucidating the action mechanism of the efficacy markers of Dachaihu Decoction. Saikosaponin B_2, baicalin, baicalein, wogonoside, neohesperidin, naringin, hesperidin, and paeoniflorin were considered as the potential efficacy markers of Dachaihu Decoction. The anti-inflammatory activity evaluation showed that the potential efficacy markers effectively inhibited the release of NO, exhibiting good anti-inflammatory activities. As demonstrated by network pharmacology, the efficacy markers of Dachaihu Decoction regulated the inflammatory response by acting on MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways, the carbohydrate metabolism by HIF-1 and PI3 K-AKT signaling pathways, and the lipid metabolism by AMPK and PI3 K-AKT signaling pathways. This study discovered the efficacy markers of Dachaihu Decoction based on literature mining combined with molecular biological experiments and explored its action mechanism at the molecular level based on network pharmacology, which would provide reference for the quality control of Dachaihu Decoction and scientific basis for its clinical application.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Molecular Docking Simulation , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt , Signal Transduction
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928160

ABSTRACT

The present study explored the anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombotic mechanism of Jingfang Granules on tail thrombosis induced by carrageenan in mice. Thirty-two male ICR mice were randomly divided into a control group, a model group, a Jingfang Granules group, and a positive drug(aspirin) group, with eight mice in each group. The thrombosis model was induced by intraperitoneal injection of carrageenan(45 mg·kg~(-1)) combined with low-temperature stimulation, and the mice were treated with drugs for 7 days before modeling. Twenty-four hours after modeling, blood was detected for four blood coagulation indices in each group. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) was used to detect the activity of plasma interleukin-6(IL-6), interleukin-1β(IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), and other inflammatory factors. The tails of mice in each group were cut off to observe tail lesions and measure the length of the thrombus. The protein expression and phosphorylation level of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2(ERK1/2) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase(p38 MAPK) in spleen tissues were detected by Western blot. The results showed that dark red thrombus appeared in the tails of mice in each group. The length of the black part accounted for about 40% of the total tail in the model group. Additionally, the model group showed prolonged prothrombin time(PT), increased fibrinogen(FIB) content, and shortened activated partial thromboplastin time(APTT). Compared with the model group, the groups with drug intervention displayed shortened black parts in the tail and improved four blood coagulation indices(P<0.05). As revealed by ELISA, the expression levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in the mouse plasma were significantly up-regulated in the model group, and those in the groups with drug intervention were reduced as compared with the model group(P<0.05). As demonstrated by Western blot, the protein expression and phosphorylation levels of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK in the spleen tissues were significantly elevated in the model group, while those in the Jingfang Granules group were down-regulated as compared with the model group with a significant difference. Jingfang Granules can inhibit tail thrombosis of mice caused by carrageenan presumedly by inhibiting the activation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK signaling pathways.


Subject(s)
Animals , Carrageenan/adverse effects , Interleukin-6/metabolism , MAP Kinase Signaling System , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred ICR , Signal Transduction , Thrombosis/drug therapy , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928148

ABSTRACT

This study aims to investigate the mechanism of the Tibetan medicine Ershiwuwei Shanhu Pills(ESP) in improving scopolamine-induced learning and memory impairment in mice based on Keap1/Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway. ICR mice were randomized into blank group, model group, low-dose(200 mg·kg~(-1)), medium-dose(400 mg·kg~(-1)), and high-dose(800 mg·kg~(-1)) ESP groups, and donepezil hydrochloride group. The learning and memory impairment was induced in mice by intraperitoneal injection of scopola-mine. The learning and memory abilities of mice were detected by Morris water maze test, and the damage of hippocampal neurons and cortical neurons was detected based on Nissl staining. The expression of neuron specific nuclear protein(NeuN) in hippocampus and cortex of mice was determined by immunofluorescence assay, and the content of acetylcholine(Ach) and the activity of acetylcholines-terase(AchE) in hippocampus of mice by kits. Moreover, the content of superoxide dismutase(SOD), malondialdehyde(MDA), catalase(CAT), and total antioxidant capacity(T-AOC) in serum of mice was detected. The content of Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1(Keap1), nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2(Nrf2), and heme oxygenase 1(HO-1) in hippocampus was determined by Western blot. The results showed that there were significant differences in the trajectory map of mice among different groups in the behavioral experiment. Moreover, the latency of ESP groups decreased significantly compared with that in the model group. The hippocampal neurons in the high-dose ESP group were significantly more than those in the model group and the cortical neurons in the high-dose and medium-dose ESP groups were significantly more than those in the model group. The expression of NeuN in the model group was significantly decreased compared with that in the blank group, and the expression in the ESP groups was significantly higher than that in the model group. The AchE activity and MDA level were significantly decreased, and Ach content and levels of SOD, CAT, and T-AOC in the ESP groups were significantly increased in the ESP groups compared with those in the model group. The expression of Keap1 in the model group was significantly increased compared with that in the blank group, and the Keap1 expression increased insignificantly in ESP groups compared with that in the model group. The expression of Nrf2 and HO-1 was significantly lower in the model group than in the blank group, and the expression was significantly higher in the medium-dose ESP group than in the model group. In conclusion, ESP protected mice against the scopolamine-induced learning and memory impairment by regulating the Keap1/Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Kelch-Like ECH-Associated Protein 1/metabolism , Medicine, Tibetan Traditional , Mice , Mice, Inbred ICR , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Plant Extracts , Scopolamine/adverse effects , Signal Transduction , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928147

ABSTRACT

The present study investigated the mechanism of the Tibetan patent medicine Ershiwuwei Shanhu Pills(ESP) in alleviating Alzheimer's disease in mice via Akt/mTOR/GSK-3β signaling pathway. BALB/c mice were randomly assigned into a blank control group, a model group, low(200 mg·kg~(-1)), medium(400 mg·kg~(-1)) and high(800 mg·kg~(-1)) dose groups of ESP, and donepezil hydrochloride group. Except the blank control group, the other groups were given 20 mg·kg~(-1) aluminum chloride by gavage and 120 mg·kg~(-1) D-galactose by intraperitoneal injection for 56 days to establish Alzheimer's disease model. Morris water maze was used to detect the learning and memory ability of mice. The level of p-tau protein in mouse hippocampus and the levels of superoxide dismutase(SOD), malondialdehyde(MDA), catalase(CAT), and total antioxidant capacity(T-AOC) in hippocampus and serum were detected. Hematoxylin-eosin staining and Nissl staining were performed for the pathological observation of whole brain in mice. TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling(TUNEL) staining was employed for the observation of apoptosis in mouse cortex. Western blot was adopted to detect the protein levels of p-mTOR, p-Akt, and GSK-3β in the hippocampus. Compared with the model group, the ESP groups showcased alleviated pathological damage of the whole brain, decreased TUNEL positive cells, reduced level of p-tau protein in hippocampus, and risen SOD, CAT, and T-AOC levels and declined MDA level in hippocampus and serum. Furthermore, the ESP groups had up-regulated protein levels of p-mTOR and p-Akt while down-regulated protein level of GSK-3β in hippocampus. Therefore, ESP can alleviate the learning and memory decline and oxidative damage in mice with Alzheimer's disease induced by D-galactose combined with aluminum chloride, which may be related to Akt/mTOR/GSK-3β signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Aluminum Chloride/adverse effects , Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy , Animals , Galactose/metabolism , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 beta/metabolism , Hippocampus/metabolism , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Plant Extracts , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , tau Proteins
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928144

ABSTRACT

The present study investigated the mechanism of the Tibetan medicine Ershiwuwei Songshi Pills(ESP) against the liver injury induced by acetaminophen(APAP) in mice based on the kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1(Keap1)/nuclear transcription factor E2 related factor 2(Nrf2) and Toll-like receptor 4(TLR4)/nuclear factor-kappa B(NF-κB) p65 signaling pathways. Kunming mice were randomly divided into a blank control group, a model group, an N-acetyl-L-cysteine(NAC) group, and high-(400 mg·kg~(-1)), medium-(200 mg·kg~(-1)), and low-dose(100 mg·kg~(-1)) ESP groups. After 14 days of continuous administration, except for those in the control group, the mice were intraperitoneally injected with 200 mg·kg~(-1) APAP. After 12 h, the serum and liver tissues of mice were collected. Hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining was performed on pathological sections of the liver, and the levels of aspartate aminotransferase(AST) and alanine aminotransferase(ALT) in the serum and the levels of glutathione(GSH), malondialdehyde(MDA), superoxide dismutase(SOD), catalase(CAT), myeloperoxidase(MPO), and total antioxidant capacity(T-AOC) in liver tissue homogenate were detected to observe and analyze the protective effect of ESP on APAP-induced liver injury in mice. The serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha(TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta(IL-1β), and interleukin-6(IL-6) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA). The protein expression of Nrf2, Keap1, TLR4, and NF-κB p65 in the liver was determined by Western blot. Quantitative real-time was used to determine the mRNA expression of glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit(GCLC), glutamate-cysteine ligase regulatory subunit(GCLM), heme oxygenase-1(HO-1), and NAD(P)H dehydrogenase quinone 1(NQO-1) in the liver to explore the mechanism of ESP in improving APAP-induced liver damage in mice. As revealed by results, compared with the model group, the ESP groups showed improved liver pathological damage, decreased ALT and AST levels in the serum and MDA and MPO content in the liver, increased GSH, SOD, CAT, and T-AOC in the liver, reduced TNF-α and IL-6 levels in the serum, down-regulated expression of Keap1 in the liver cytoplasm and NF-κB p65 in the liver nucleus, up-regulated expression of Nrf2 in the liver nucleus, insignificant change in TLR4 expression, and elevated relative mRNA expression levels of antioxidant genes GCLC, GCLM, HO-1, and NQO-1. ESP can reduce the oxidative damage and inflammation caused by APAP, and the mechanism may be related to the Keap1/Nrf2 signaling pathway and the signal transduction factors on the TLR4/NF-κB p65 pathway.


Subject(s)
Acetaminophen/toxicity , Animals , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Glutamate-Cysteine Ligase/pharmacology , Glutathione , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Kelch-Like ECH-Associated Protein 1/metabolism , Liver , Medicine, Tibetan Traditional , Mice , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928133

ABSTRACT

Neuropathic pain is one of the common complications of diabetes. Tetrahydropalmatine(THP) is a main active component of Corydalis Rhizoma with excellent anti-inflammatory and pain-alleviating properties. This study aims to investigate the therapeutic effect of THP on diabetic neuropathic pain(DNP) and the underlying mechanism. High-fat and high-sugar diet(4 weeks) and streptozotocin(STZ, 35 mg·kg~(-1), single intraperitoneal injection) were employed to induce type-2 DNP in rats. Moreover, lipopolysaccharide(LPS) was used to induce the activation of BV2 microglia in vitro to establish an inflammatory cellular model. Fasting blood glucose(FBG) was measured by a blood glucose meter. Mechanical withdrawal threshold(MWT) was assessed with von Frey filaments, and thermal withdrawal latency(TWL) with hot plate apparatus. The protein expression levels of OX42, inducible nitric oxide synthase(iNOS), CD206, p38, and p-p38 were determined by Western blot, the fluorescence expression levels of OX42 and p-p38 in the dorsal horn of the rat spinal cord by immunofluorescence, the mRNA content of p38 and OX42 in rat spinal cord tissue by qRT-PCR, and levels of nitric oxide(NO), interleukin-1β(IL-1β), interleukin-6(IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), interleukin-10(IL-10), and serum fasting insulin(FINS) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA). RESULTS:: showed that the mo-del group demonstrated significant decrease in MWT and TWL, with pain symptoms. THP significantly improved the MWT and TWL of DNP rats, inhibited the activation of microglia and p38 MAPK signaling pathway in rat spinal cord, and ameliorated its inflammatory response. Meanwhile, THP promoted the change of LPS-induced BV2 microglia from the pro-inflammatory M1 phenotype to the anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype, suppressed the activation of the p38 MAPK signaling pathway, decreased the expression levels of inflammatory factors NO, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α, and increased the expression level of anti-inflammatory factor IL-10. The findings suggested that THP can significantly ameliorate the pain symptoms of DNP rats possibly by inhibiting the inflammatory response caused by M1 polarization of microglia via the p38 MAPK pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Berberine Alkaloids , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetic Neuropathies/genetics , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Microglia , Neuralgia/metabolism , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Signal Transduction , Spinal Cord/metabolism , Streptozocin/therapeutic use , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928131

ABSTRACT

This study aims to explore the effect of butyl alcohol extract of Baitouweng Decoction(BAEB) on vulvovaginal candidiasis(VVC) in mice and to clarify the mechanism from Toll-like receptors(TLRs)/MyD88 and Dectin-1/Syk signal pathways and NLRP3 inflammasome. To be specific, female KM mice were randomized into control group(i.g., normal saline), model group, fluco-nazole group(i.g., 20 mg·kg~(-1)), and low-dose, medium-dose, and high-dose BAEB groups(i.g., 20, 40, and 80 mg·kg~(-1), respectively). VVC was induced in mice except the control group. After the modeling, administration began and lasted 7 days. The ge-neral conditions and body weight of mice were recorded every day. On the 1 st, 3 rd, 7 th, and 14 th after vaginal infection by Candida albicans, the fungal load in the vaginal lavage fluid of the mice was measured with the plate method, and the morphology of C. albicans in vaginal lavage fluid was observed based on Gram staining. After the mice were killed, vaginal tissues were subjected to hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining and periodic acid-Schiff(PAS) staining for vaginal histopathological analysis. The content of cytokines in vaginal lavage fluid, such as interleukin(IL)-1β, IL-18, tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), IL-6, and S100 a8, was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA), and content of reactive oxygen species(ROS) in vaginal tissues by tissue ROS detection kit. The protein expression of NLRP3, ASC, caspase-1, Dectin-1, Syk, MyD88, TLR2, TLR4, and nuclear factor-κB(NF-κB) in vaginal tissues was detected by Western blot, and the levels and distribution of NLRP3, Dectin-1, Syk, MyD88, TLR2, and TLR4 in vaginal tissues were determined with the immunohistochemical method. The results show that BAEB can improve the general conditions of VVC mice, reduce the fungal load and C. albicans hyphae in vaginal secretion, decrease ROS content in vaginal tissues and content of cytokines in vaginal lavage fluid, and down-regulate the expression of NLRP3, ASC, caspase-1, Dectin-1, Syk, MyD88, TLR2, TLR4, and NF-κB in vaginal tissues. The above results indicate that BAEB exerts therapeutic effect on VVC mice by down-regulating the key proteins in the TLRs/MyD88 and Dectin-1/Syk signal pathways and NLRP3 inflammasome.


Subject(s)
1-Butanol/therapeutic use , Animals , Candida albicans , Candidiasis, Vulvovaginal/drug therapy , Caspase 1/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Female , Humans , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Mice , Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Toll-Like Receptor 2/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928128

ABSTRACT

The present study investigated the therapeutic effect and mechanism of Di'ao Xinxuekang(DXXK) on non-alcoholic steatohepatitis(NASH) in mice. Sixty-five C57 BL/6 J mice were randomly divided into a normal group and an experimental group for model induction with the high-fat diet for 16 weeks. Then the mice in the experimental group were randomly divided into a model group, an atorvastatin group(4 mg·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)), and high-(200 mg·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)), medium-(60 mg·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)), and low-dose(20 mg·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)) DXXK groups, with 10 mice in each group. Drugs were administered by gavage for eight weeks. Serum lipid, liver lipid, serum alanine aminotransferase(ALT), aspartate aminotransferase(AST), malondialdehyde(MDA), superoxide dismutase(SOD), and glutathione reductase(GSH-Px) were determined. Interleukin-1β(IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA). The liver index was calculated. The liver pathological change and lipid accumulation were observed by HE and oil red O staining. The liver ultrastructure was observed by the transmission electron microscope. The mRNA and protein expression of nuclear factor-erythroid 2 related factor 2(Nrf2) and heme oxygenase-1(HO-1) was detected by real-time fluorescence-based quantitative PCR and Western blot, respectively. The results showed that compared with the normal group, the model group displayed serum lipid and liver lipid metabolism disorders, elevated transaminase, lipid deposition, steatosis, and inflammation, suggesting that the NASH model in mice was properly induced. Compared with the model group, the DXXK groups showed decreased serum lipid, liver lipid, ALT, AST, MDA, IL-1β, and TNF-α, increased SOD and GSH-Px, alleviated hepatic steatosis, ballooning, and inflammation, and up-regulated Nrf2 and HO-1 gene and protein expression. In conclusion, DXXK can significantly alleviate NASH in mice, which is related to the inhibition of oxidative stress and inflammatory damage by up-regulating the Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Inflammation/metabolism , Lipids , Liver , Mice , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Signal Transduction , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928120

ABSTRACT

In recent years, liver fibrosis has become a hotspot in the field of liver diseases. MicroRNA(miRNA)-mediated Nod-like receptor pyrin domain containing 3(NLRP3) inflammasome activation is pivotal in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis. The present study mainly discussed the role of miRNA-mediated NLRP3 inflammasome activation in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis. Different miRNA molecules regulated liver fibrosis by mediating NLRP3 inflammasome activation, including miRNA-350-3 p(miR-350-3 p)/interleukin-6(IL-6)-mediated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3(STAT3)/c-myc signaling pathway, miR-148 a-induced autophagy and apoptosis of hepatic stellate cells via hedgehog signaling pathway, miR-155-mediated NLRP3 inflammasome by the negative feedback of the suppressor of cytokine signaling-1(SOCS-1), miR-181 a-mediated downstream NLRP3 inflammatory pathway activation through mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase(MEK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase(ERK)/nuclear transcription factor κB(NF-κB) inflammatory pathway, miR-21-promoted expression of NF-κB and NLRP3 of RAW264.7 cells in mice by inhibiting tumor necrosis factor-α inducible protein 3(A20), and miR-20 b-promoted expression of IL-1β and IL-18 by activating NLRP3 signaling pathway. Additionally, the anti-liver fibrosis mechanism of different active components in Chinese medicines(such as Curcumae Rhizoma, Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Aurantii Fructus, Polygoni Cuspidati Rhizoma et Radix, Moutan Cortex, Paeoniae Radix Alba, Epimedii Folium, and Cinnamomi Cortex) was also explored based on the anti-liver fibrosis effect of miRNA-mediated NLRP3 inflammasome activation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Hedgehog Proteins , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Interleukin-6 , Liver Cirrhosis/metabolism , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Mice , MicroRNAs/genetics , NF-kappa B/metabolism , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc/metabolism , Signal Transduction
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928091

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the effects of geniposide(GP) on the expression of prokineticin(PK2) and prokineticin receptor 1(PKR1) in db/db mice with diabetic nephropathy(DN), so as to explore how the PK2 signaling pathway participated in the pathological changes of DN and whether GP exerted the therapeutic effect through this signaling pathway. Male mice were randomly divided into four groups, namely db/m, db/db, db/db+GP, and db/m+GP groups, with five in each group. The mice in the db/db+GP and db/m+GP groups were gavaged with 150 mg·kg~(-1) GP for eight successive weeks. Afterwards, all the mice were sacrificed and the renal tissues were embedded. The morphological changes in glomerulus and renal tubules were observed by Masson and PAS staining. The expression levels of PK2, PKR1, and Wilm's Tumor Protein 1(WT_1) in podocytes were detected by immunohistochemistry, and the protein expression levels of PK2 and PKR1 in mouse kidney by Western blot. The morphological results showed serious glomerular and tubular fibrosis(Masson), high glomerular and tubular injury score(PAS), increased glomerular mesangial matrix, thickened basement membrane, exfoliated brush border of renal tubules, decreased WT_1 in glomerular podocytes, and massive loss of podocytes in the db/db group. After administration with GP, the glomerular and tubular fibrosis was alleviated, accompanied by improved glomerular basement membrane and renal tubule brush edge, and up-regulated WT_1. As revealed by further protein detection, in the db/db group, the expression levels of PK2 and PKR1 and p-Akt/Akt ratio declined, whereas the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 rose. Ho-wever, PKR2 and p-ERK/ERK ratio did not change significantly. After administration with GP, the PK2 and PKR1 expression was elevated, and p-Akt/Akt ratio was increased. There was no obvious change in PKR2, Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, or p-ERK/ERK ratio. All these have demonstrated that GP improves the renal damage in DN mice, and PK2/PKR1 signaling pathway may be involved in such protection, which has provided reference for clinical treatment of DN with GP.


Subject(s)
Animals , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetic Nephropathies/genetics , Iridoids , Kidney , Male , Mice , Signal Transduction
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928021

ABSTRACT

This study explored the protective effect of atractylenolide Ⅰ(AO-Ⅰ) against acetaminophen(APAP)-induced acute liver injury(ALI) in mice and its underlying mechanism. C57 BL/6 J mice were randomly divided into a control group, an APAP group(500 mg·kg~(-1)), a low-dose combination group(500 mg·kg~(-1) APAP + 60 mg·kg~(-1) AO-Ⅰ), and a high-dose combination group(500 mg·kg~(-1) APAP + 120 mg·kg~(-1) AO-Ⅰ). ALI was induced by intraperitoneal injection of APAP(500 mg·kg~(-1)). AO-Ⅰ by intragastric administration was performed 2 hours before APAP treatment, and the control group received the same dose of solvent by intragastric administration or intraperitoneal injection. The protective effect of AO-Ⅰ against APAP-induced ALI was evaluated by detecting alanine aminotransferase(ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase(AST) levels in the plasma and H&E staining in liver tissues of mice. The malondialdehyde(MDA) and glutathione(GSH) content and catalase(CAT) activity in mouse liver tissues were detected to evaluate the effect of AO-Ⅰ on APAP-induced oxidative stress in the liver. The proteins in the liver p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase(p38 MAPK), c-jun N-terminal kinase(JNK), and nuclear factor kappa-B p65(NF-κB p65) signaling pathways were measured by Western blot, and the liver inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β(IL-1β) and interleukin-6(IL-6) were detected by real-time PCR. Compared with the APAP group, the combination groups showed reduced APAP-induced ALT level and liver MDA content, potentiated liver CAT activity, and elevated GSH content. Mechanistically, AO-Ⅰ treatment significantly inhibited APAP-up-regulated MAPK phosphorylation and NF-κB p65, and significantly reduced the transcriptional activities of IL-1β and IL-6, downstream targets of NF-κB p65. AO-Ⅰ can improve APAP-induced ALI and the underlying mechanism is related to the inhibition of the MAPK/NF-κB p65 signaling pathway in APAP-challenged mice.


Subject(s)
Acetaminophen/adverse effects , Animals , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/drug therapy , Lactones , Mice , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Sesquiterpenes , Signal Transduction
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