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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928829

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#This study aimed to evaluate the correlation between long non-coding RNA (lncRNA)-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and susceptibility to silicosis.@*METHODS@#First, RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) data were comprehensively analyzed in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of eight participants (four silicosis cases and four healthy controls) exposed to silica dust to identify differentially expressed lncRNAs (DE-lncRNAs). The functional SNPs in the identified DE-lncRNAs were then identified using several databases. Finally, the association between functional SNPs and susceptibility to silicosis was evaluated by a two-stage case-control study. The SNPs of 155 silicosis cases and 141 healthy silica-exposed controls were screened by genome-wide association study (GWAS), and the candidate SNPs of 194 silicosis cases and 235 healthy silica-exposed controls were validated by genotyping using the improved Mutiligase Detection Reaction (iMLDR) system.@*RESULTS@#A total of 76 DE-lncRNAs were identified by RNA-seq data analysis (cut-offs: fold change > 2 or fold change < 0.5, P < 0.05), while 127 functional SNPs among those 76 DE-lncRNAs were identified through multiple public databases. Furthermore, five SNPs were found to be significantly correlated with the risk of silicosis by GWAS screening (P < 0.05), while the results of GWAS and iMLDR validation indicated that the variant A allele of rs1814521 was associated with a reduced risk of silicosis (OR = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.62-0.94, P = 0.011).@*CONCLUSION@#The presence of the SNP rs1814521 in the lncRNA ADGRG3 is associated with susceptibility to silicosis. Moreover, ADGRG3 was found to be lowly expressed in silicosis cases. The underlying biological mechanisms by which lncRNA ADGRG3 and rs1814521 regulate the development of silicosis need further study.


Subject(s)
Case-Control Studies , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Genome-Wide Association Study , Humans , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , Silicosis/genetics
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935810

ABSTRACT

Objective: To understand the incidence of pneumoconiosis in the non-coal mining industry in Jiangsu Province, and provide reference for the prevention and control of pneumoconiosis in the non-coal mining industry. Methods: The data of 7019 newly diagnosed pneumoconiosis patients in non-coal mining industry in Jiangsu Province from January 1956 to December 2019 were collected through the Jiangsu Province Pneumoconiosis Follow-up Network Report System, including the gender of the pneumoconiosis patients, the name of the employer and the location, the industry classification of the employer, the duration of dust exposure in dust exposure, the name of occupational pneumoconiosis disease, the date of diagnosis of pneumoconiosis, etc. The collected case data of patients with pneumoconiosis were entered into the statistical software, and the characteristics of the patients' diagnosis time, region and industry were analyzed. Results: The number of confirmed pneumoconiosis patients in the non-coal mining industry in Jiangsu Province was mostly in 2007 (395 cases) , concentrated in Wuxi City (40.96%, 2875/7019) and Suzhou City (27.72%, 1946/7019) . The industries to which the patients belonged were mainly non-metallic mining and dressing (60.95%, 4278/7019) , and the most common type of pneumoconiosis was silicosis (96.40%, 6766/7019) . The patients were mainly stageⅠpneumoconiosis (61.33%, 4305/7019) . There were statistically significant differences in the mean age of diagnosis and the average duration of dust exposure among patients with different pneumoconiosis stages (P<0.01) . The differences in the average diagnosis age and the average duration of dust exposure of patients with different types of pneumoconiosis were statistically significant (P<0.05) , the mean age of diagnosis and the average duration of dust exposure of electric welders were the smallest, which were (44.92±7.74) years old and (17.38±10.15) years, respectively. Conclusion: The regional and industry distribution characteristics of new pneumoconiosis patients in the non-coal mining industry in Jiangsu Province are obvious, and attention should be paid to the treatment of pneumoconiosis patients with young diagnosed age and short duration of dust exposure, as well as the personal protection and health protection of front-line workers such as electric welders who are exposed to productive dust in a short period of time.


Subject(s)
Adult , Coal Mining , Dust , Humans , Middle Aged , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Pneumoconiosis/epidemiology , Silicosis/epidemiology
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935809

ABSTRACT

Objective: To understand the incidence of pneumoconiosis in Ningbo city from 1967 to 2019, and to analyze the distribution characteristics and change trend of pneumoconiosis. Methods: In February 2021, the data of pneumoconiosis patients in Ningbo city from 1967 to 2019 were sorted out. The data from 1967 to 1987 were from historical case files of Zhejiang Center for Disease Control and Prevention, the data from 1988 to 2005 were from the historical case files of Ningbo Center for Disease Control and Prevention, and the data from 2006 to 2019 were from the pneumoconiosis report card in China Disease Prevention and Control Information System; Followed up and supplement relevant information, including basic information, basic information of employers and information related to pneumoconiosis diagnosis, and comprehensively analyze the composition and development trend, population characteristics and industry characteristics of pneumoconiosis. Results: From 1967 to 2019, a total of 1715 cases of pneumoconiosis were reported in Ningbo City, including 1254 cases of stageⅠpneumoconiosis, 258 cases of stageⅡpneumoconiosis, 172 cases of stage Ⅲpneumoconiosis. 1202 cases of silicosis (70.09%) , 296 cases of asbestosis (17.26%) , 40 cases of welder's pneumoconiosis (2.33%) , 32 cases of graphite pneumoconiosis (1.87%) were reported. There were 1296 male cases (75.57%) and 419 female cases (24.43%) were reported. Silicosis (91.15%, 1102/1209) and welder's pneumoconiosis (100.00%, 40/40) were the most common pneumoconiosis in males, while asbestosis (90.24%, 268/297) and graphite pneumoconiosis (87.50%, 28/32) were the most common pneumoconiosis in females. The average age was (49.71±10.90) years old and the average length of service was (10.98±6.96) years. The top three reported pneumoconiosis cases were construction industry (336 cases, 19.59%) , ferrous metal smelting and rolling industry (317 cases, 18.48%) and non-metallic mineral products industry (315 cases, 18.37%) . The top three reported pneumoconiosis cases were 414 cases (24.14%) in Ninghai County, 294 cases (17.14%) in Yuyao City and 272 cases (15.86%) in Yinzhou District. Conclusion: With the development of industries in Ningbo City, government departments should strengthen supervision and management of enterprises involving silica dust and welding fume to curb the high incidence of pneumoconiosis.


Subject(s)
Adult , Asbestosis , China/epidemiology , Female , Graphite , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumoconiosis/epidemiology , Pulmonary Fibrosis , Silicosis/epidemiology
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935805

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the influencing factors of cognitive impairment in patients with silicosis, and to analyze the effect of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) on cognitive function. Methods: In March 2021, 484 silicosis patients from April 2018 to April 2020 were included in the study. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment Scale of Chinese version was used to evaluate their cognitive function, and they were divided into the cognitive impairment group (n=282) and the non cognitive impairment group (n=202) , another 30 healthy persons from body check were served as control group. The concentrations of BDNF were compared between the three groups. And the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was drawed to analyze the value of BDNF in predicting cognitive impairment in silicosis patients. And the logistic regression analysis was used to explore the risk factors of cognitive impairment. Results: The incidence of cognitive impairment in silicosis patients was 58.26% (282/484) . The level of BDNF in the cognitive impairment group[ (10.32±2.11) mg/L] was significantly lower than that in the non cognitive impairment group[ (13.43±3.45) mg/L] (t=-12.27, P<0.001) . The results of ROC curve analysis showed that the area unde the curve of BDNF in predicting cognitive impairment of silicosis patients was 0.763 (95%CI: 0.613-0.874, P=0.024) , the cut off value was 10 mg/L, the sensitivity was 0.88, and the specificity was 0.84. Logistic regression analysis showed that the level of BDNF (≤10 mg/L) , age (≥65 years old) , course of disease (≥5 years) and diabetes mellitus were the risk factors of cognitive impairment in silicosis patients (OR=2.346, 95%CI: 1.654-3.103; OR=1.757, 95%CI: 1.214-1.998; OR=1.346, 95%CI: 1.112-1.564; OR=1.165, 95%CI: 1.102-1.542, P=0.001, 0.012, 0.027, 0.036) . Conclusion: BDNF may be one of the indicator to predict the risk of cognitive impairment in patients with silicosis.


Subject(s)
Aged , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Humans , ROC Curve , Silicosis/complications
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935795

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the incidence characteristics of occupational diseases in Guangzhou from 2010 to 2020, provide scientific basis for formulating occupational disease prevention and control policies. Methods: In January 2021, based on the data of occupational diseases in Guangzhou reported in the Information Monitoring System of Occupational Diseases and Occupational Health, descriptive epidemiological method was used to analyze the types and characteristics of occupational diseases in Guangzhou from 2010 to 2020. Results: A total of 1341 cases of 38 kinds of occupational diseases in 9 categories were reported in the past 11 years. The incidence of occupational pneumoconiosis, occupational otolaryngology and oral diseases and occupational chemical poisoning ranked the top three, accounting for 38.1% (511/1341) , 30.5% (409/1341) and 16.2% (217/1341) of the total cases respectively. The cases of pneumoconiosis in welders and silicosis accounted for 47.7% (244/511) and 34.4% (176/511) of the cases of occupational pneumoconiosis respectively. The cases of noise deafness accounted for 99.8% (408/409) of occupational otorhinolaryngology oral diseases. Acute occupational chemical poisoning cases accounted for 26.7% (58/217) of the occupational chemical poisoning cases, in which dichloroethane poisoning cases ranked the first, accounting for 79.3% (46/58) . Chronic occupational chemical poisoning cases accounted for 73.3% (159/217) of the occupational poisoning cases, in which benzene and lead poisoning cases ranked the top two, accounting for 79.2% (126/159) and 17.6% (28/159) respectively. Conclusion: Pneumoconiosis, silicosis, noise deafness, benzene poisoning, lead poisoning, dichloroethane poisoning should be supervised and managed as key occupational diseases in Guangzhou.


Subject(s)
Benzene , China/epidemiology , Deafness , Ethylene Dichlorides , Humans , Incidence , Lead Poisoning , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Pneumoconiosis/epidemiology , Silicosis
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935775

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of pneumoconiosis in Qinghai Province from 2011 to 2020, and to provide a basis for the formulation of prevention and control strategy. Methods: In April 2021 , the cases of pneumoconiosis were monitored by the Occupational Disease and Health Hazard Factors Monitoring Information System in Qinghai Province from 2011 to 2020. The distribution of pneumoconiosis, the composition of diseases and the working years exposed to dust were analyzed. Results: All 1026 cases of pneumoconiosis were newly diagnosed in Qinghai Province from 2011 to 2020, silicosis and coal worker pneumoconiosis were the main diseases (78.36% ,804/1026). Stage Ⅰ pneumoconiosis were 484 (47.17%,484/1026) cases. 359 (34.99%,359/1026) cases, 315 (30.70%,315/1026) cases and 252 (24.56%, 252/1026) cases had been diagnosed respectively in Xining City, Haidong City and Haixi Prefecture; 628 (61.21%,628/1026) cases and 418 (40.74%, 418/1026) cases engaged in mining industry and large-sized enterprise, respectively. The working years exposed to dust in silicosis cases were shorter than that in coal worker pneumoconiosis and other pneumoconiosis (P <0.05). Conclusion: The pneumoconiosis area and industry focus in Qinghai Province is obvious. The supervision and adninistration of small and micro scale employers should be strengthened to protect the health rights and interests of workers, especially for the key area and industry.


Subject(s)
Anthracosis/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Coal Mining , Dust , Health Services Accessibility , Human Rights , Humans , Pneumoconiosis/epidemiology , Silicosis/epidemiology
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935761

ABSTRACT

Objective: To understand the diagnosis of suspected occupational diseases reported in Guangzhou from 2014 to 2019, so as to provide theoretical basis and technical support for the supervision of suspected occupational disease reports. Methods: By cluster sampling, the suspected occupational disease report card, occupational disease report card and pneumoconiosis report card reported by Guangzhou from January 1, 2014 to December 31, 2019 in the occupational disease and occupational health information monitoring system were collected for matching analysis to understand the diagnosis of suspected occupational disease patients. Results: From 2014 to 2019, a total of 1426 suspected occupational cases in 7 categories and 32 species were reported in Guangzhou. The average number of reported cases per year was about 240. The main diseases of suspected occupational diseases were suspected occupational noise deafness (68.44%, 976/1426) , suspected occupational chronic benzene poisoning (16.48%, 235/1426) , suspected occupational other pneumoconiosis (4.84%, 69/1426) , suspected occupational silicosis (3.23%, 46/1426) and suspected occupational welder pneumoconiosis (1.82%, 26/1426) . The diagnostic rate required to enter the occupational disease diagnostic program is 36.61% (522/1426) , and the diagnostic rate is 59.20% (309/522) . In 2019, the diagnosis rate of suspected occupational diseases was the lowest (23.92%, 61/255) , Huadu District was the lowest (8.33%, 9/108) , suspected occupational pneumoconiosis was the lowest (28.03%, 44/157) , the diagnosis rate of suspected occupational diseases reported by the Centers for Disease control and prevention was the lowest (17.43%, 19/109) , and the diagnosis rate of suspected occupational diseases reported by outpatient treatment was the lowest (22.22%, 2/9) . The suspected occupational diseases reported by institutions outside Guangzhou did not enter the occupational disease diagnosis procedure. Suspected occupational skin diseases, suspected occupational diseases caused by physical factors and suspected occupational tumors were diagnosed, and the diagnosis rate of occupational disease prevention and control institutions was the highest (94.87%, 37/39) . Conclusion: The main types of suspected occupational diseases reported during these six years are noise deafness, chronic benzene poisoning and pneumoconiosis. The overall diagnosis rate and diagnosis rate of suspected occupational diseases are not high. It is suggested to improve the network direct reporting system of suspected occupational diseases and strengthen the follow-up management and supervision of suspected occupational diseases.


Subject(s)
China/epidemiology , Humans , Noise, Occupational , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Physical Examination , Pneumoconiosis/epidemiology , Silicosis
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935752

ABSTRACT

Objective: To study the effect of anti-fibrotic tetrapeptide N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline (Ac-SDKP) on phosphorylated heat shock protein 27 (P-HSP27) and zinc finger family transcriptional repressor 1 (SNAI1) expression to explore the anti-silicosis fibrosis effect of Ac-SDKP. Methods: In December 2014, the rat silicosis animal model was prepared by one-time bronchial infusion of silicon dioxide (SiO(2)) dust. 80 SPF healthy adult Wistar rats were selected, and the rats were divided into 8 groups according to the random number table method, 10 in each group. Model control group for 4 weeks (feeding for 4 weeks) , model control group for 8 weeks (feeding for 8 weeks) : bronchial perfusion with normal saline 1.0 ml per animal. Silicosis model group for 4 weeks (feeding for 4 weeks) and silicosis model group for 8 weeks (feeding for 8 weeks) : bronchial perfusion of 50 mg/ml SiO(2) suspension 1.0 ml per animal. Ac-SDKP administration group for 4 weeks (feeding for 4 weeks) , Ac-SDKP administration group for 8 weeks (feeding for 8 weeks) : Ac-SDKP 800 μg·kg(-1)·d(-1) was administered by intraperitoneal pump. Ac-SDKP preventive treatment group: 48 h after Ac-SDKP 800 μg·kg(-1)·d(-1) administration, bronchial perfusion of SiO(2) suspension 1.0 ml per animal, raised for 8 weeks. Ac-SDKP anti-fibrosis treatment group: after bronchial perfusion of 1.0 ml of SiO(2) suspension for 4 weeks, Ac-SDKP 800 μg·kg(-1)·d(-1) was administered for 4 weeks. Western blotting was used to detect the expression of P-HSP27, SNAI1, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) , and collage typeⅠ and Ⅲ in each group. The expression of P-HSP27 and SNAI1 was detected by immunohistochemistry, and the co-localized expression of P-HSP27 and α-SMA was detected by laser confocal microscopy. Results: Compared with the model control group, the expressions of P-HSP27, SNAI1, α-SMA, and collage typeⅠ and Ⅲ in the silicosis fibrosis area of the rats in the silicosis model group were enhanced, and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05) . After Ac-SDKP intervention, compared with silicosis model group for 8 weeks, the expressions of P-HSP27, SNAI1 α-SMA, and collage typeⅠ and Ⅲ in the Ac-SDKP preventive and anti-fibrosis treatment groups were significantly decreased, and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05) . However, the expressions of P-HSP27 SNAI1, and collage typeⅠ and Ⅲ between the Ac-SDKP administration group and the model control group did not change significantly, and the differences were not statistically significant (P>0.05) . Laser confocal results showed that the positive cells expressing P-HSP27 and α-SMA in the lung tissue of the silicosis model group were more than those in the model control group. Compared with the silicosis model group, the Ac-SDKP prevention and anti-fibrosis treatment groups expressing the positive cells of P-HSP27 and α-SMA decreased. Compared with the model control group for 8 weeks, there were some double-positive cells expressing P-HSP27 and α-SMA in the nodules of the silicosis model group for 8 weeks. Conclusion: Ac-SDKP may play an anti-silicic fibrosis effect by regulating the P-HSP27/SNAI1 pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , HSP27 Heat-Shock Proteins , Oligopeptides , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Silicon Dioxide , Silicosis/metabolism
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935745

ABSTRACT

Objective: In order to find out the prevalence and death of pneumoconiosis in Qingyuan City, to explore the regularity of pneumoconiosis and lay a foundation for the prevention and management of pneumoconiosis. Methods: In August to December 2019, the basic data of pneumoconiosis from 1949 to 2018 were obtained through the monitoring of death causes of residents, occupational disease management system, Guangdong population information system and other means. The reported cases of pneumoconiosis were followed up, and retrospective investigation was conducted to analyze the basic conditions, the length of service exposed to dust, the time of diagnosis, the type of disease, the stage and the combined status of tuberculosis of pneumoconiosis cases. Results: From 1949 to 2018, a total of 466 cases of new pneumoconiosis were reported in Qingyuan City, including 325 cases of death (69.74%) , 114 cases of survival (24.46%) and 27 cases of loss of follow-up (5.80%) . The cases were mainly concentrated in the age group of 40-89 years (80.04%, 373/466) . There were 411 male cases (88.20%) and 7 female cases (1.50%) . The median length of service exposed to dust was 10.7 (6.0, 16.0) years. The diagnosis time of pneumoconiosis cases was mainly from 1949 to 1986 (68.67%, 320/466) , and the death cases were mainly from 1949 to 1986 (82.77%, 269/325) . Silicosis was the main type of pneumoconiosis (398 cases, 85.41%) . 200 cases (42.92%) were diagnosed as stage I pneumoconiosis, 185 cases (39.69%) were stage II pneumoconiosis, 81 cases (17.38%) were stage III pneumoconiosis at the first diagnosis. 102 cases (21.89%) were pneumoconiosis with tuberculosis. The proportion of death and lost follow-up cases diagnosed as stage I pneumoconiosis for the first time was significantly lower than that of survival cases, and the proportion diagnosed as stage II pneumoconiosis and the complication rate of tuberculosis were significantly higher than those of survival cases (χ(2)=15.48, 11.29, 32.73, P<0.001) . Conclusion: Pneumoconiosis in Qingyuan City is mainly silicosis. The number of new cases has been increasing in the past decade, and the prevention and control situation is still severe. The comprehensive prevention and treatment of silica dust should be included in the focus of supervision of government functional departments.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , China/epidemiology , Dust , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Pneumoconiosis/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Silicosis/epidemiology
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935734

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the effect of asiaticoside for fibrosis in lung tissues of rats exposed to silica and to explore its possible mechanism. Methods: 144 SD male rats were randomly divided into control group, model group, positive drug control group, asiaticoside high-dose group, medium-dose group and low-dose group, each group included 24 rats. Rats in the control group were perfused with 1.0 ml of normal saline, and the other groups were given 1.0 ml 50 mg/ml SiO(2) suspension. Gavage of herbal was given from the next day after model establishment, once a day. Rats in the positive drug control group were administration with 30 mg/kg tetrandrine and rats in the low-dose group, medium-dose group and high-dose group were given 20 mg/kg, 40 mg/kg and 60 mg/kg asiaticoside for fibrosis respectively. Rats in the control group and the model group were given 0.9% normal saline. The rats were sacrificed in on the 14th, 28th and 56th day after intragastric administration and collect the lung tissues to detect the content of hydroxyproline, TGF-β(1) and IL-18, observe the pathological changes of the lung tissues by HE and Masson staining and determine the expressions of Col-I, a-SMA, TGF-β in lung tissues by Western Blot. Results: On the 14th day, 28th day and 56th day after model establishment, the lung tissues of rats in the model group showed obvious inflammatory response and accumulation of collagen fibers, and the degree of inflammation and fibrosis increased with time. The intervention of asiaticoside could effectively inhibit the pathological changes of lung tissues. The contents of hydroxyproline, IL-18 and TGF-β1 in lung tissues of model group were higher than those in the control group (P<0.05) , while the level of hydroxyproline, IL-18 and TGF-β1 in asiaticoside groups were significantly decreased, and the difference was statistically signicant (P<0.05) . Compared with the control group, the expression levels of Col-I, TGF-β1and α-SMA in lung tissue of model group were increased (P<0.05) , while the expression level of Col-I, TGF-β1 and α-SMA were decreased after the intervention of asiaticoside, and the difference was statistically signicant (P<0.05) . Conclusion: Asiaticoside can inhibit the increase of Col-I, TGF-β1 and α-SMA content in the SiO(2)-induced lung tissues of rats, reduce the release of TGF-β1 and IL-18 inflammatory factors in lung tissue, and then inhibit the synthesis and deposition of extracellular matrix in rat lung tissue, and improve silicosis fibrosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dust , Lung , Male , Pulmonary Fibrosis/metabolism , Rats , Silicon Dioxide/adverse effects , Silicosis/metabolism , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878324

ABSTRACT

Pneumoconiosis, an interstitial lung disease that occurs from breathing in certain kinds of damaging dust particles, is a major occupational disease in China. Patients diagnosed with occupational pneumoconiosis can avail of free medical treatment, whereas patients without a diagnosis of occupational diseases cannot not claim free medical treatment in most provinces from the government before 2019. This study aimed to analyze the priority of medical facility selection and its influencing factors among patients with pneumoconiosis. A total of 1,037 patients with pneumoconiosis from nine provinces in China were investigated. The health service institutions most frequently selected by the patients were county-level hospitals (37.5%). The main reason for the choice was these hospitals' close distance to the patients' homes (47.3%). The factors for the choice of health care institutions were living in the eastern region (


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , China , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Insurance Coverage , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Pneumoconiosis/therapy , Rural Population , Silicosis , Smoking
13.
Occup. health South. Afr. (Online) ; 18(26): 145-152, 2020.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1268092

ABSTRACT

Background: Current initiatives in southern Africa to medically assess former migrant miners for silicosis and tuberculosis, including statutory and lawsuit derived compensation programmes, require burden of disease information. nObjective: To use clinical information collected on ex-miners examined at the Occupational Health Service Centre (OHSC) in Lesotho, operated under the Tuberculosis in Mining Sector in Southern Africa (TIMS) project, to measure the burden of lung disease and respiratory impairment. Methods: Demographic, occupational and medical history information, chest radiology, spirometry, GeneXpert testing for tuberculosis, and pulse oximetry outcomes were analysed, and descriptive summary measures calculated, in a group of ex-miners examined in 2017 and 2018. Results: The study sample comprised 2 758 Basotho former underground miners, with median age of 62 years and median length of service of 28 years. Among ex-gold miners (n = 2 678), disease prevalence was high: radiological tuberculosis (consistent with previous or current disease) 60.9%, silicosis 42.5%, HIV 30.7%, silicotuberculosis 25.7%, and current active tuberculosis 6.8%. Of those with tuberculosis diagnosed microbiologically, 6.7% had no radiological evidence of tuberculosis and 54.1% did not report cough. Conclusion: The findings have public health and compensation implications. There are large numbers of ex-miners with potentially compensable disease under both the statutory system and a settlement trust set up following litigation. This overlaps with a tuberculosis-HIV co-epidemic which requires screening and treatment for tuberculosis and HIV, and managing a considerable disability and care burden on families and the Lesotho health system. Coordinated planning and substantial resources are needed for these programmes to do justice to their mandates


Subject(s)
Global Burden of Disease , Lesotho , Lung Diseases , Miners , Occupational Diseases , Silicosis , Tuberculosis
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773388

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#Silicosis, caused by inhalation of silica dust, is the most serious occupational disease in China and the aim of present study was to explore the protective effect of Ang (1-7) on silicotic fibrosis and myofibroblast differentiation induced by Ang II.@*METHODS@#HOPE-MED 8050 exposure control apparatus was used to establish the rat silicosis model. Pathological changes and collagen deposition of the lung tissue were examined by H.E. and VG staining, respectively. The localizations of ACE2 and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in the lung were detected by immunohistochemistry. Expression levels of collagen type I, α-SMA, ACE2, and Mas in the lung tissue and fibroblasts were examined by western blot. Levels of ACE2, Ang (1-7), and Ang II in serum were determined by ELISA. Co-localization of ACE2 and α-SMA in fibroblasts was detected by immunofluorescence.@*RESULTS@#Ang (1-7) induced pathological changes and enhanced collagen deposition in vivo. Ang (1-7) decreased the expressions of collagen type I and α-SMA and increased the expressions of ACE2 and Mas in the silicotic rat lung tissue and fibroblasts stimulated by Ang II. Ang (1-7) increased the levels of ACE2 and Ang (1-7) and decreased the level of Ang II in silicotic rat serum. A779 enhanced the protective effect of Ang (1-7) in fibroblasts stimulated by Ang II.@*CONCLUSION@#Ang (1-7) exerted protective effect on silicotic fibrosis and myofibroblast differentiation induced by Ang II by regulating ACE2-Ang (1-7)-Mas axis.


Subject(s)
Actins , Metabolism , Angiotensin I , Blood , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Angiotensin II , Blood , Animals , Animals, Newborn , Cell Differentiation , Cells, Cultured , Collagen Type I , Metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Lung , Metabolism , Pathology , Myofibroblasts , Peptide Fragments , Blood , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A , Metabolism , Rats, Wistar , Silicosis , Metabolism , Pathology
15.
Epidemiology and Health ; : e2019032-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763731

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Tuberculosis (TB) is a global public health problem that causes morbidity and mortality in millions of people per year. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of potential risk factors with TB mortality in Iran. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was performed on 9,151 patients with TB from March 2017 to March 2018 in Iran. Data were gathered from all 429 counties of Iran by the Ministry of Health and Medical Education and Statistical Center of Iran. In this study, a generalized estimating equation-based zero-inflated negative binomial model was used to determine the effect of related factors on TB mortality at the community level. For data analysis, R version 3.4.2 was used with the relevant packages. RESULTS: The risk of mortality from TB was found to increase with the unemployment rate (β


Subject(s)
Body Mass Index , Cross-Sectional Studies , Education, Medical , Family Characteristics , Gastrectomy , HIV , Humans , Iran , Literacy , Malnutrition , Models, Statistical , Mortality , Public Health , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Risk Factors , Silicosis , Statistics as Topic , Tuberculosis , Unemployment , Urbanization
16.
Epidemiology and Health ; : 2019032-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785755

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Tuberculosis (TB) is a global public health problem that causes morbidity and mortality in millions of people per year. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of potential risk factors with TB mortality in Iran.METHODS: This cross-sectional study was performed on 9,151 patients with TB from March 2017 to March 2018 in Iran. Data were gathered from all 429 counties of Iran by the Ministry of Health and Medical Education and Statistical Center of Iran. In this study, a generalized estimating equation-based zero-inflated negative binomial model was used to determine the effect of related factors on TB mortality at the community level. For data analysis, R version 3.4.2 was used with the relevant packages.RESULTS: The risk of mortality from TB was found to increase with the unemployment rate (β


Subject(s)
Body Mass Index , Cross-Sectional Studies , Education, Medical , Family Characteristics , Gastrectomy , HIV , Humans , Iran , Literacy , Malnutrition , Models, Statistical , Mortality , Public Health , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Risk Factors , Silicosis , Statistics as Topic , Tuberculosis , Unemployment , Urbanization
17.
Rev. bras. med. trab ; 16(3): 378-386, out.2018.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-966086

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A relação entre a sílica e o tabaco como potencializadores na geração de fibrose pulmonar não foi ainda bem estabelecida, embora tenham sido postulados alguns mecanismos fisiopatológicos para embasá-la. É necessário reconhecer o papel das diversas células envolvidas na resposta inflamatória, assim como as diversas vias biológicas que participam na gênese. Esses fatores nos motivaram a desenvolver a presente revisão descritiva. Resultados: Cada vez mais evidências sugerem que a inflamação local produzida por exposição à sílica e à fumaça do tabaco pode ser modulada por fatores genéticos, mecanismos epigenéticos, reações autoimunes e hipóxia local, levando à transição epitélio-mesênquima e ao acúmulo de material necrótico no pulmão, o que contribui à perpetuação da inflamação e a uma resposta imunológica inata exagerada nos trabalhadores com silicose fumantes. Conclusão: Comparações diretas de diferentes estudos de mensuração de biomarcadores inflamatórios associados à silicose e ao tabagismo devem ser realizadas com cautela, devido a uma série de possíveis fatores de confusão, como compartimentalização ou interação com as diversas vias biológicas e tipos celulares envolvidos. Convém destacar que para se evitar a ocorrência de dano pulmonar nos trabalhadores expostos à sílica, devem-se melhorar os sistemas de ventilação e reduzir sua exposição. No contexto da cessação do tabagismo, é necessário o uso de componentes psicoterapêuticos, com o fim de evitar o dano pulmonar precocemente


Background: The relationship between silica dust and tobacco smoking as enhancers of pulmonary fibrosis development has not yet been well established. Some pathophysiological mechanisms which might support this relationship were postulated. The role of different cells involved in the inflammatory response, and of different biological pathways needs to be recognized. These facts encouraged us to perform the present descriptive review. Results: Growing evidence suggests that local inflammation induced by exposure to silica dust and tobacco smoking might be modulated by genetic factors, epigenetic mechanisms, autoimmune reactions and local hypoxia, giving rise to the epithelial­mesenchymal transition. These phenomena lead to accumulation of necrotic material in the lungs, which contributes to inflammation's perpetuation and to an exaggerated innate immunological response among workers with silicosis who smoke. Conclusion: Direct comparisons of different measurement studies of inflammatory biomarkers associated with silicosis and tobacco smoking should be performed cautiously due to several possible confounding factors, such as compartmentalization or interaction among the various biological pathways and cell types involved. Ventilation systems should be improved and exposure reduced to prevent lung damage in workers exposed to silica. In regard to smoking cessation, psychotherapy approaches are needed for early prevention of lung damage


Subject(s)
Pulmonary Fibrosis/prevention & control , Silicosis , Tobacco Use Disorder , Biomarkers , Silicon Dioxide/adverse effects
18.
Cienc. Trab ; 20(62): 90-96, ago. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-974653

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Introducción: La silicosis es una enfermedad pulmonar progresiva, irreversible, pero potencialmente prevenible. Conocer la percepción de riesgo en trabajadores expuestos a sílice es necesario para intervenir y reducir la incidencia de silicosis y otras enfermedades relacionadas. El objetivo de este estudio fue validar un Cuestionario de Percepción de Riesgo de Exposición Ocupacional a Sílice (CuPREOS) en trabajadores expuestos, en distintas actividades laborales en Temuco, Chile. Material y método: Una etapa de exploración con enfoque fenomenológico/ naturalista permitió conformar categorías de primer y segundo orden, que concluyó en una primera versión del instrumento. Una segunda etapa incluyó análisis factorial exploratorio y confirmatorio. Resultados: Se develaron dos dimensiones subyacentes: a) evidencia de riesgo, en la que el trabajador manifiesta evaluar señales de alarma y b) ausencia de riesgo, en la que sopesa aspectos que contrarrestan las anteriores. Ambas configuran la estructura conceptual que conforma el CuPREOS de 9 ítems/preguntas, con una confiabilidad de 0.84 (alfa Cronbach). Los indicadores del análisis confirmatorio revelan un buen ajuste del mode lo. Discusión: la percepción de riesgo es un constructo que involucra complejidades sociales y culturales, su medición debe ser sencilla y práctica; su conocimiento permitiría decisiones más efectivas en pre vención e intervención.


Abstract: Introduction: Silicosis is a progressive lung disease, irreversible, but potentially preventable. Knowing the perception of risk in workers exposed to silica is necessary to intervene and reduce the incidence of silicosis and other related diseases. The objective of this study was to validate a Questionnaire of risk perception of occupational expo sure to silica (CuPREOS) in exposed workers, in different work activities in Temuco, Chile. Material and method: A stage of explo ration with phenomenological/naturalist approach allowed to create categories of first and second order, which ended in a first version of the instrument. The second stage included exploratory and con firmatory factor analysis. Results: two underlying dimensions were revealed: a) evidence of risk, in which worker states to evaluate signals of alarm and b) absence of risk, in which he weighs aspects that counteract the previous ones. Both set up the conceptual frame work that sustain the CuPREOS of 9 items/questions, with a reliabil ity of 0.84 (Cronbach alfa). The confirmatory analysis indicators show a good fit of the model. Discussion: the perception of risk is a construct involving social and cultural complexities, its measurement should be simple and practical; its knowledge would enable more effective decision-making in prevention and intervention.


Subject(s)
Humans , Free Silica/adverse effects , Surveys and Questionnaires , Occupational Exposure , Risk Assessment/methods , Perception , Silicosis/etiology , Occupational Risks , Chile , Reproducibility of Results , Risk Factors , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Silicon Dioxide
19.
Rev. am. med. respir ; 18(1): 61-64, mar. 2018. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-897308

ABSTRACT

La neumoconiosis constituye un grupo de enfermedades asociadas con la exposición e inhalación de polvo mineral, de partículas inorgánicas, sílice, berilio, carbón, cobalto, talco, etc. La exposición al polvo de sílice se asocia no sólo con silicosis, sino también con enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica, cáncer de pulmón, insuficiencia renal y riesgo aumentado de tuberculosis pulmonar y enfermedades autoinmunes. Está bien establecida la asociación entre el contacto con el sílice por vía inhalatoria y enfermedades autoinmunes, particularmente en el contexto de una exposición intensa. La exposición al sílice se ha vinculado con un incremento de la síntesis de anticuerpos y complejos inmunes, aún sin la presencia de características clínicas de enfermedad autoinmune. El riesgo de desarrollar esclerosis sistémica, artritis reumatoidea, lupus eritematoso sistémico, dermatomiositis / polimiositis y anticuerpos anticitoplasmáticos del neutrófilo (ANCA) positivos (vasculitis) esta descripto en varios estudios. En paciente que trabajan en canteras con escasas medidas de prevención el desarrollo de silicosis ha llegado ser tan severo que ha requerido trasplante pulmonar; sobre esta base se recomienda seguirlos con un perfil inmunológico como control o estar atentos a otras manifestaciones de autoinmunidad. La esclerosis sistémica es una enfermedad autoinmune definida como un desorden generalizado de la microvasculatura y del tejido conectivo, con engrosamiento y obliteración de los vasos arteriales de piel, pulmón, tracto gastrointestinal, corazón y riñones. Su etiología es desconocida pero probablemente concurren factores endógenos y exógenos. Entre los factores exógenos, la exposición ocupacional juega un rol importante como causa potencial, incluyendo el polvo de sílice, cloruro de vinilo, resina epoxi, bleomicina, hidrocarburos aromáticos, aceites. Excepto el s-lice todos los otros agentes producen cambios reversibles una vez suspendido el contacto con el agente. El polvo de sílice y su inhalación es un factor de riesgo bien reconocido de esclerosis sistémica. Las partículas de cristal de sílice (cuarzo) que miden menos de un micrometro son las más patogénicas ya que al ser inertes pueden permanecer por tiempo indeterminado en el tejido. El antecedente de exposición al polvo de sílice y esclerosis sistémica se conoce como Síndrome de Erasmus.


Subject(s)
Pneumoconiosis , Silicosis , Silicon Dioxide
20.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1268155

ABSTRACT

The switch from analogue to digital radiography formats for surveillance for silicosis and tuberculosis in the South African mining industry raised the question of equivalence of formats for this purpose. As a result, the South African Mine Health and Safety Council (MHSC) sponsored a study, recently published, on the equivalence of digital and analogue radiography in this setting. This commentary aims to provide a summary of the study findings, accompanied by an overview of the practical considerations that arise in the use of digital radiographic surveillance in the South African mining industry. Through a clear understanding of the objectives of surveillance, use of quality and reference standards for hardware and software, and interpretation of digital images, avoidance of common pitfalls, and use of all the clinical and occupational health information on each miner, the contribution of surveillance to identification and control of silicosis and tuberculosis in the mining industry can be maximised


Subject(s)
Occupational Health , Radiology , Silicosis , South Africa
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