Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 190
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 10(1): 1-6, 01/jan./2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1370924


Objective: to evaluate the molecular interaction of silibinin with the targets ALS3 and SAP5. Methodology: Molecular docking protocols were conducted to analyze the binding interaction of silibinin with ALS3 and SAP5. Results: Eleven interactions of ALS3 with silibinin and four with fluconazole were found, while six interactions were observed of SAP5 with silibinin and four with fluconazole. Conclusion: Molecular docking between silibinin and ALS3 identified important interactions, but no significant interactions were observed with SAP5, even though silibinin can exhibit affinity and interactions with other SAP5 sites.

Objetivo: Avaliar a interação molecular da silibinina com os alvos ALS3 e SAP5. Metodologia: Protocolos de docking molecular foram conduzidos para analisar a interação de ligação da silibinina com ALS3 e SAP5. Resultados: Foram encontradas onze interações de ALS3 com silibinina e quatro com fluconazol, enquanto seis interações foram observadas de SAP5 com silibinina e quatro com fluconazol. Conclusão: Docking molecular entre silibinina e ALS3 identificou interações importantes, mas não foram observadas interações significativas com SAP5, embora a silibinina possa apresentar afinidade e interações com outros sítios SAP5.

Candida albicans , Silymarin , Proteins , Invasive Fungal Infections
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e20160, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1403723


Abstract Pharmacokinetic studies were carried out in male and female rats to quantify silymarin as silybin (A+B) after the oral administration of various silymarin formulations combined with three bioenhancers, namely, lysergol, piperine, and fulvic acid, and compared with plain silymarin formulation (control). A non-compartmental analysis, model independent analysis, was utilized, and various pharmacokinetic parameters (C max, T max, and AUC 0-t) were calculated individually for each treatment group, and the values were expressed as mean ± SEM (n = 6). Plasma samples obtained from the rats were analyzed for the concentration of silymarin through a validated RP-HPLC method and on the basis of data generated from the pharmacokinetic studies. Results indicated that the bioenhancers augmented pharmacokinetic parameters and bioavailability increased 2.4-14.5-fold in all the formulations compared with the control. The current work envisages the development of an industrially viable product that can be further subjected to clinical trials and scientifically supports the development of silymarin as a contemporary therapeutic agent with enhanced bioavailability and medicinal values.

Animals , Male , Female , Rats , Silymarin/analysis , Silymarin/agonists , Acids/adverse effects , Biological Availability , Administration, Oral , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e20561, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1403739


Abstract Liver ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury is a major clinical trouble encountered in clinical practice. This study aimed to examine the therapeutic effects of silymarin (SM) plus glutathione (GSH) on hepatic IR injury using a rat model of liver IR. Fifty male rats were randomly divided into five groups, each consisting of 10 rats as follows: Sham, IR, SM-IR, GSH-IR and SM plus GSH-IR. All groups except sham were subjected to 30-min ischemia and 24-h reperfusion. The treated groups received 100 mg/kg of SM, GSH and a mixture of SM plus GSH, 60 min prior to the IR. After a period of 24 h, blood and liver samples were collected for biochemical and histopathological evaluations. Pretreatment with SM, GSH and SM plus GSH before hepatic IR significantly decreased IR-induced elevations of aminotransferases, and significantly reduced the histopathological damage scores of the liver in the late phase of IR injury. Moreover, SM plus GSH treatment prior to liver IR significantly suppressed inflammatory process and oxidative stress as demonstrated by attenuations in tumor necrosis factor-α, myeloperoxidase and the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances. These findings suggest that administration of SM plus GSH prior to liver IR may protect the liver parenchyma from the effects of an IR injury

Animals , Male , Rats , Silymarin/adverse effects , Reperfusion Injury/pathology , Disease Prevention , Glutathione/adverse effects , Ischemia/pathology , Wounds and Injuries , Therapeutic Uses
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927916


The present study explored the effect of co-amorphous technology in improving the dissolution rate and stability of silybin based on the puerarin-silybin co-amorphous system prepared by the spray-drying method. Solid-state characterization was carried out by powder X-ray diffraction(PXRD), polarizing microscopy(PLM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FT-IR), differential scanning calorimetry(DSC), etc. Saturated powder dissolution, intrinsic dissolution rate, moisture absorption, and stability were further investigated. The results showed that puerarin and silybin formed a co-amorphous system at a single glass transition temperature which was higher than that of any crude drug. The intrinsic dissolution rate and supersaturated powder dissolution of silybin in the co-amorphous system were higher than those of the crude drug and amorphous system. The co-amorphous system kept stable for as long as three months under the condition of 40 ℃, 75% relative humidity, which was longer than that of the single amorphous silybin. Therefore, the co-amorphous technology could significantly improve the dissolution and stability of silybin.

Calorimetry, Differential Scanning , Desiccation , Drug Compounding/methods , Drug Stability , Silymarin , Solubility , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Technology , X-Ray Diffraction
Int. j. morphol ; 39(2): 407-415, abr. 2021. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385337


SUMMARY: Amiodarone (AMD), an orally powerful antidysrhythmic medication that has caused hepatotoxicity on long-term administration, is commonly used across the world. Silymarin ameliorative effects (SLM); this research elucidated the magnitude of the damage to the liver tissue in AMD. We divided 24 albino rats evenly into four groups given daily doses by gastric tube for eight weeks as follows; the 1st group acted as a control group; the 2nd group received SLM; the 3rd group received AMD; and the 4th group received AMD parallel to SLM. Liver tissues prepared for light, electron microscopic and serum samples screened for biomarkers (I)liver injury enzymes, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST); (II) oxidative and antioxidant stress, malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD); and (III) inflammatory markers, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). The findings showed that AMD caused hepatic histological changes that included congestion of the blood vessels, leucocytic infiltration and cytoplasmic vacuolation. Ultrastructural degeneration of the mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum swelling, nuclear pyknosis and increased fat droplets and lysosomes were observed. The biochemical findings showed an increase in the AMD group's ALT and AST activities. The group of rats treated with AMD and SLM, increased the improvements in histology and ultrastructure, while the ALT and AST levels were reduced. Our findings collectively agreed that SLM has a protective impact on AMD hepatotoxicity which can be due to its antioxidant properties.

RESUMEN: La amiodarona (AMD) es un fuerte medicamento antiarrítmico administrado por vía oral que ha causado hepatotoxicidad en la administración a largo plazo utilizado con frecuencia en todo el mundo. Efectos de mejora de la silimarina (SLM); esta investigación analizó la magnitud del daño al tejido hepático en la DMAE. Dividimos 24 ratas albinas de manera uniforme en cuatro grupos que recibieron dosis diarias por sonda gástrica durante ocho semanas de la siguiente manera; el primer grupo fue designado como grupo control; el segundo grupo recibió SLM; el tercer grupo recibió AMD; y el cuarto grupo recibió AMD en paralelo a SLM. Se prepararon tejidos hepáticos para muestras de suero, microscopía de luz y electrónica y se analizaron para biomarcadores (I) enzimas de daño hepático, alanina aminotransferasa (ALT) y aspartato aminotransferasa (AST); (II) estrés oxidativo y antioxidante, malondialdehído (MDA) y superóxido dismutasa (SOD); y (III) marcadores inflamatorios, factor de necrosis tumoral alfa (TNF-a) e interleucina-6 (IL-6). Los hallazgos mostraron que la DMAE genera cambios histológicos hepáticos que incluyen congestión de los vasos sanguíneos, infiltración leucocítica y vacuolación citoplásmica. Se observó una degeneración ultraestructural de las mitocondrias, aumento del retículo endoplásmico, picnosis nuclear y aumento de gotitas de grasa y lisosomas. Los hallazgos bioquímicos mostraron un aumento en las actividades de ALT y AST del grupo AMD. El grupo de ratas tratadas con AMD y SLM, aumentó las mejoras en histología y ultraestructura, mientras que se redujeron los niveles de ALT y AST. Nuestros hallazgos coincidieron colectivamente en que SLM tiene un impacto protector sobre la hepatotoxicidad de AMD debido a sus propiedades antioxidantes.

Animals , Female , Rats , Silymarin/administration & dosage , Protective Agents/administration & dosage , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/drug therapy , Amiodarone/toxicity , Liver/drug effects , Aspartate Aminotransferases/analysis , Rats, Inbred Strains , Silymarin/pharmacology , Superoxide Dismutase , Microscopy, Electron , Interleukin-6 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Oxidative Stress , Protective Agents/pharmacology , Alanine Transaminase/analysis , Liver/enzymology , Liver/ultrastructure , Malondialdehyde , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/toxicity
Acta cir. bras ; 36(9): e360904, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345023


ABSTRACT Purpose: The protective effect of silibinin on kidney and lung parenchyma during hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) is explored. Methods: Sixty-three Wistar rats were separated into three groups: sham; control (45 min IRI); and silibinin (200 μL silibinin administration after 45 min of ischemia and before reperfusion). Immunohistochemistry and real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) were used to evaluate the expression levels of MMP2, MMP3, MMP9, and TIMP2 on kidney and lung. Results: Comparing sham vs. control groups, confirmed that hepatic IRI increased both renal and lung MMP2, MMP3, MMP9 and TIMP2 expressions starting at 180 min (p<0.001). Comparison of the control vs. silibinin groups showed a statistically significant decrease in the expression levels of MMP2, MMP3, and MMP9 and increase of TIMP2 in kidney and lung parenchyma. The starting point of this decrease was at 120 min after reperfusion, both for kidney and lung parameters, and it was statistically significant at 240 min (p<0.001) for kidney, while silibinin showed a peak of lung protection at 180 min after hepatic reperfusion (p<0.001). Conclusions: Hepatic IRI causes distant kidney and lung damage, while a statistically significant protective action, both on kidney and lung parenchyma, is conveyed by the intravenous administration of silibinin.

Animals , Rats , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Reperfusion Injury/drug therapy , Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 , Rats, Wistar , Matrix Metalloproteinase 3 , Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-2 , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 , Silymarin , Ischemia , Kidney , Liver Diseases , Lung
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879012


To evaluate the effects of Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate(HPMCAS MF) on absorption of silybin(SLB) from supersaturable self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system which was pre-prepared at the early stage experiment. The cell toxicity of self-emulsifying preparation was evaluated by the MTT method, and the in vitro membrane permeability and absorption promoting effect of the self-emulsifying preparation were evaluated by establishing a Caco-2 cell monolayer model. The in vivo and in vitro supersaturation correlation was evaluated via the blood concentration of SLB. The results of MTT showed that the concentration of the preparation below 2 mg·mL~(-1)(C_(SLB) 100 μg·mL~(-1)) was not toxic to Caco-2 cells, and the addition of polymer had no significant effect on Caco-2 cells viability. As compared with the solution group, the transport results showed that the P_(app)(AP→BL) of the self-emulsifying preparation had a very significant increase; the transport rate of silybin can be reduced by polymer in 0-30 min; however, there was no difference in supersaturated transport between supersaturated SLB self-nanoemulsion drug delivery system(SLB-SSNEDDS) and SLB self-nanoemulsion drug delivery system(SLB-SNEDDS) within 2 hours. As compared with SLB suspension, pharmacokinetic parameters showed that the blood concentration of both SLB-SNEDDS and SLB-SSNEDDS groups were significantly increased, and C_(max) was 5.25 times and 9.69 times respectively of that in SLB suspension group, with a relative bioavailability of 578.45% and 1 139.44% respectively. C_(max) and relative bioavailability of SLB-SSNEDDS were 1.85 times and 197% of those of SLB-SNEDDS, respectively. Therefore, on the one hand, SSNEDDS can increase the solubility of SLB in gastrointestinal tract by maintaining stability of SLB supersaturation state; on the other hand, the osmotic transport process of SLB was regulated through the composition of its preparations, and both of them could jointly promote the transport and absorption of SLB to improve the oral bioavailability of SLB.

Humans , Administration, Oral , Biological Availability , Caco-2 Cells , Drug Delivery Systems , Emulsions , Methylcellulose/analogs & derivatives , Nanoparticles , Particle Size , Silymarin , Solubility
Int. j. morphol ; 38(6): 1767-1778, Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134510


SUMMARY: Acrylamide (ACR) is a cytotoxic and carcinogenic material. It is a product of a Maillard reaction during the cooking of many types of fried fast food, e.g. potato chip fries, and chicken nuggets. ACR has a severe toxic effect on different body organs. This study investigates the hepatotoxic effect of ACR, and the protective effect of ascorbic acid and silymarin. For this purpose, forty adult, male, albino rats were divided into four groups and received the following treatments for fourteen days: Group I: (the control) normal saline; Group II: ACR only; Group III: ACR and ascorbic acid; and Group IV: ACR and silymarin. Under a light microscope, the liver from rats treated with ACR only presented disturbed liver architecture, degenerated hepatocytes, reduced glycogen contents, congested central vein, and increased collagen fibres with areas of fibrosis. Immunohistochemical examination revealed an increased mean number of CD68-, and α-SMA-positive cells. This indicates the presence of large numbers of stellate macrophages (Kupffer cells) and Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). The combination of ACR with either ascorbic acid or silymarin resulted in less hepatic degeneration, less fibrosis and fewer CD68 and α-SMA positive cells compared to the ACR only group. In conclusion, treatment with silymarin or ascorbic acid along with ACR appears to alleviate ACR-induced hepatotoxicity with more protection in silymarin treated rats.

RESUMEN: La acrilamida (ACR) es un material citotóxico y cancerígeno. Es producto de la reacción de Maillard durante la cocción de muchos tipos de comida rápida y frita, por ejemplo: papas fritas y nuggets de pollo. ACR tiene un efecto tóxico severo en diferentes órganos del cuerpo. Este estudio investigó el efecto hepatotóxico del ACR y el efecto protector del ácido ascórbico y la silimarina. Con este fin, cuarenta ratas albinas machos adultas se dividieron en cuatro grupos y recibieron los siguientes tratamientos durante catorce días: Grupo I (control), solución salina normal; Grupo II, solo ACR; Grupo III, ACR y ácido ascórbico; y Grupo IV, ACR y silimarina. Bajo microscopio óptico, el hígado de ratas tratadas con ACR solo presentó alteración de su arquitectura, entre ellos hepatocitos degenerados, contenido reducido de glucógeno, vena central congestionada y aumento de fibras de colágeno con áreas de fibrosis. El examen inmunohistoquímico reveló un aumento del número medio de células CD68 y α-SMA positivas. Esto indica la presencia de un gran número de macrófagos estrellados (células de Kupffer) y células estrelladas hepáticas (HSC). La combinación de ACR con ácido ascórbico o silimarina resultó en menos degeneración hepática, menos fibrosis y menos células positivas para CD68 y α-SMA en comparación con el grupo de ACR solo. En conclusión, el tratamiento con silimarina o ácido ascórbico junto con ACR parece aliviar la hepatotoxicidad inducida por ACR.

Animals , Male , Rats , Ascorbic Acid/pharmacology , Silymarin/pharmacology , Acrylamide/toxicity , Liver/drug effects , Immunohistochemistry , Antigens, CD/analysis , Actins/analysis , Hepatocytes , Hepatic Stellate Cells , Liver/metabolism , Liver/pathology
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(4): 1248-1257, July-Aug. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1131497


Bidens pilosa L. is a medicinal plant popularly used for treatment of liver diseases. In this study, the dry extract of aerial parts of Bidens pilosa and Silymarin, a phytocomplex obtained from the Silybum marianum fruits and marketed as hepatoprotective, were tested in dogs experimentally acutely intoxicated with carbon tetrachloride. The liver activity was evaluated by hematological and biochemical profiles, and histological and ultrasound analyzes. It was observed that the lowest serum activities of ALT and serum concentrations of total bilirubin occurred in the groups treated with the dry extract of Bidens pilosa, while only decreased serum concentrations of total bilirubin occurred in the group treated with Silymarin. Best liver recovery was also observed for the dry extract of B. pilosa at a 400mg/Kg dose by ultrasonography. This study showed that the dry extract of Bidens pilosa acted more efficiently in the treatment of acute toxic hepatitis induced in dogs than Silymarin.(AU)

Bidens pilosa L. é uma planta medicinal utilizada popularmente para tratamento de doenças hepáticas. Neste trabalho, o extrato seco das partes aéreas da Bidens pilosa e a silimarina, um fitocomplexo obtido dos frutos da Silybum marianum e comercializado como hepatoprotetor, foram testados em cães intoxicados experimentalmente de forma aguda com tetracloreto de carbono. A atividade hepática foi avaliada por meio dos perfis hematológico e bioquímico, análises histológica e ultrassonográfica. Observou-se que, nos grupos tratados com o extrato seco da Bidens pilosa, ocorreram as menores atividades séricas da ALT e de concentrações séricas de bilirrubina total, enquanto no grupo tratado com silimarina, ocorreu apenas diminuição de concentrações séricas de bilirrubina total. Melhor recuperação hepática também foi verificada para o extrato seco de B. pilosa na dose de 400mg/kg por ultrassonografia. Este estudo evidenciou que o extrato seco da Bidens pilosa atuou de forma mais eficiente no tratamento da hepatite aguda tóxica induzida em cães do que a silimarina.(AU)

Animals , Dogs , Carbon Tetrachloride Poisoning/therapy , Carbon Tetrachloride Poisoning/veterinary , Bidens/chemistry , Hepatitis, Animal/therapy , Plants, Medicinal , Silymarin/therapeutic use
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 62: e19170754, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055383


Abstract The aim of the present research was to develop a silymarin-laden PVP-nanocontainer providing ameliorated aqueous solubility and dissolution of the drug. Several silymarin-laden formulations were formed with varying quantities of PVP and SDS via the solvent evaporation method using the electrospraying technique. The influence of the hydrophilic carriers on solubility and dissolution was explored. The solid-state characterization was carried out by particle-size analysis, PXRD, DSC, FTIR and SEM. All of the formulations demonstrated better solubility and dissolution than did silymarin plain powder. Both the SDS and PVP had positive effects on solubility and dissolution of silymarin in the aqueous media. An increased solubility was attained as the drug/PVP ratio was 1/4; however, further increase in PVP did not provide significant improvement. In particular, a nanocontainer formulation prepared with silymarin, PVP and SDS (1/4/0.5, w/w/w) exhibited the best solubility (26432.76 ± 1749.00 μg/mL) and an excellent dissolution (~92 % in 20 min) than did silymarin plain powder. Also, it demonstrated similar dissolution profiles compared to a commercial product; therefore, might be bioequivalent to the commercial product (f 1 = 3 and f 2 = 69). Moreover, cumulative undersize distribution values as represented by X10, X50 and X90 were 201 ± 21.01 nm, 488 ± 36.05 nm and 392 ± 48.10 nm, respectively. The drug existed in the amorphous state in the PVP-nanocontainers with no strong chemical bonding with other excipients. Thus, this formulation might be used for more effective administration of silymarin via the oral route.

Silymarin/administration & dosage , Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization , Dissolution , Nanoparticles
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761790


Hydrogen sulfide is well-known to exhibit anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective activities, and also has protective effects in the liver. This study aimed to examine the protective effect of hydrogen sulfide in rats with hepatic encephalopathy, which was induced by mild bile duct ligation. In this rat model, bile ducts were mildly ligated for 26 days. Rats were treated for the final 5 days with sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS). NaHS (25 µmol/kg), 0.5% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, or silymarin (100 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally once per day for 5 consecutive days. Mild bile duct ligation caused hepatotoxicity and inflammation in rats. Intraperitoneal NaHS administration reduced levels of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, which are indicators of liver disease, compared to levels in the control mild bile duct ligation group. Levels of ammonia, a major causative factor of hepatic encephalopathy, were also significantly decreased. Malondialdehyde, myeloperoxidase, catalase, and tumor necrosis factor-α levels were measured to confirm antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. N-Methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors with neurotoxic activity were assessed for subunit NMDA receptor subtype 2B. Based on these data, NaHS is suggested to exhibit hepatoprotective effects and guard against neurotoxicity through antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions.

Animals , Rats , Alanine Transaminase , Ammonia , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Bile Ducts , Carboxymethylcellulose Sodium , Catalase , Hepatic Encephalopathy , Hydrogen Sulfide , Inflammation , Ligation , Liver , Liver Diseases , Malondialdehyde , Models, Animal , N-Methylaspartate , Necrosis , Peroxidase , Silymarin , Sodium
Int. j. morphol ; 36(2): 661-669, jun. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-954169


Thioacetamide (TAA) is one of the common fungicidal agents that induce liver injury varying from inflammation, necrosis, and fibrosis to cirrhosis. Many recent studies reported the beneficial effect of probiotics and silymarin on hepatotoxicity regardless the causative agents. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the ameliorative role of probiotics and/or silymarin on TAA induced hepatotoxicity in rats via histological, and immunohistochemical methods. Twenty five male albino rats were used for this experiment and were divided into five groups (n=5 rats/group); group I acts as negative control, group II was orally administrated distilled water for six weeks, then injected with TAA (200 mg/kg b.wt./ 5 ml physiological saline/ I.P.) twice a week for another six weeks, group III was treated with probiotics at a dose of 135 mg/ kg b.wt. orally in drinking water daily for six weeks, then injected with TAA (dosage of group II), twice weekly for another six weeks, group IV was treated with silymarin at a dose of 200 mg/ kg b.wt orally 4 times per week for six weeks, then injected with TAA (dosage of group II), twice weekly for another six weeks and group V was treated with combination of both probiotics and silymarin, at the same dosage in groups III and IV respectively then injected with TAA (dosage of group II), twice weekly for another six weeks. Histologically, TAA induced hepatocytes degeneration, inflammatory cells infiltration, and pseudolobular parenchyma as well as, high apoptosis and low proliferation rates that were proved by immunohistochemical staining for caspase 3 and ki-67 respectively. Probiotics and/or silymarin improved the histological feature of hepatocytes, reduced apoptosis and stimulated proliferation. Based on these results, we concluded that the use of probiotics and silymarin combination ameliorates the hepatotoxic effect of TAA in rats more than the use of probiotics or silymarin alone.

La tioacetamida (TAA) es uno de los agentes fungicidas más comunes que inducen lesiones hepáticas que varían desde inflamación, necrosis y fibrosis hasta cirrosis. Muchos estudios recientes informaron el efecto beneficioso de los probióticos y la silimarina sobre la hepatotoxicidad independientemente de los agentes causantes. Por lo tanto, el presente estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar el papel paliativo de los probióticos y / o silimarina en la hepatotoxicidad inducida por TAA en ratas a través de métodos histológicos e inmunohistoquímicos. Para este experimento se usaron veinticinco ratas albinas y se dividieron en cinco grupos (n = 5 ratas / grupo); el grupo I se usó como control negativo; en el grupo II se administró por vía oral agua destilada durante seis semanas y luego se inyectó TAA (200 mg / kg b.wt./ 5 ml solución salina fisiológica / IP) dos veces por semana durante otras seis semanas; el grupo III se trató con probióticos, dosis diaria de 135 mg / kg b.wt. por vía oral en agua potable, durante seis semanas y luego fue inyectado con TAA (dosis del grupo II), dos veces por semana durante otras seis semanas; el grupo IV se trató con silimarina, con una dosis de 200 mg / kg b.wt por vía oral 4 veces por semana durante seis semanas, luego se inyectó TAA (dosificación del grupo II), dos veces por semana durante otras seis semanas; y el grupo V, se trató con una combinación de ambos probióticos y silimarina con la misma dosis que en los grupos III y IV, respectivamente, luego fueron inyectados con TAA (dosificación del grupo II), dos veces por semana durante otras seis semanas. Histológicamente, la TAA indujo la degeneración de los hepatocitos, la infiltración de células inflamatorias y el parénquima pseudolobular, así como también una apoptosis alta y tasas de proliferación bajas que se probaron mediante tinción inmunohistoquímica para caspasa 3 y ki-67, respectivamente. Los probióticos y / o la silimarina mejoraron la característica histológica de los hepatocitos, redujeron la apoptosis y estimularon la proliferación. En base a estos resultados, concluimos que el uso de la combinación de probióticos y silimarina mejora el efecto hepatotóxico del TAA en ratas más que el uso de probióticos o silimarina individualmente.

Animals , Male , Rats , Silymarin/administration & dosage , Thioacetamide/toxicity , Probiotics/administration & dosage , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/drug therapy , Immunohistochemistry , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/pathology , Liver/drug effects
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 54(1): e17529, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951902


Abstract The present study aimed to investigate the protective effects of silymarin (SMN), an antioxidant, on methotrexate (MTX)-induced damage in rat testes. Thirty-two Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups (n = 8): control, MTX (20 mg/kg, i.p. on days 1 and 5), SMN (200 mg/kg, orally), and MTX + SMN (20 mg/kg, i.p. on days 1 and 5 and SMN 200 mg/kg orally) groups. At the end of the 6-week trial period, histopathological, immunohistochemical, biochemical, and spermatological analyses were performed on testes tissues. Histopathologically, MTX-induced damage, including depletion of germ cell and loos of spermatozoa, was significantly improved with SMN treatment. Immunohistochemically, the immunoreactivity of glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx1) and manganese superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) were detected more intensely in the MTX + SMN group than in the MTX group. Biochemical examinations revealed that SMN supplementation decreased the lipid peroxidation and increased enzymatic antioxidants in the SMN-treated rats. Spermatologically, significant differences were found in the density, motility, dead-to-live sperm ratio, and abnormal sperm rate in the MTX + SMN group compared to the MTX group. In conclusion, SMN seems to have protective effects as an antioxidant against MTX-induced damage in rat testes.

Animals , Male , Rats , Silymarin/adverse effects , Testis/abnormalities , Protective Agents/analysis , Methotrexate/analysis
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 54(3): e17596, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974416


Citral is a small molecule present in various citrus species, with reported anti-hyperlipidemic and anti-inflammation effects. Here, the effect of intraperitoneal (IP) administration of citral is evaluated in a mouse model of non-alcoholic steatosis. Male NMRI mice were divided into the following groups (n = 12): normal control group (NC) receiving a normal diet; high-fat emulsion group (HF) receiving high fat diet for four weeks; positive control group (C+) receiving HF diet for four weeks and then shifted to normal diet with IP-administered silymarin (80 mg/kg) for four weeks; sham group receiving HF diet for four weeks and then shifted to normal diet for four weeks; and EC1, EC2, and EC3 groups receiving HF diet for four weeks and then shifted to normal diet with IP-administered citral doses of 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg, respectively. HF diet resulted in steatohepatitis with impaired lipid profile, high glucose levels and insulin resistance, impaired liver enzymes, antioxidants, adiponectin and leptin levels, decreased PPARα level, and fibrosis in the liver tissue. Upon treatment with citral, improvement in condition was observed in a dose-dependent manner-both at histological level and in the serum of treated animals. and the PPARα level was also increased.

Animals , Male , Rats , Gene Expression/physiology , PPAR gamma/analysis , End Stage Liver Disease/diagnosis , Silymarin/pharmacology , Citrus , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/diagnosis
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741613


Silymarin is the standardized extract from Silybum marianum which consists mainly of flavonoids and polyphenols. It is highly regarded for its hepatoprotective ability. Silybin B is a flavonolignan and one of the active components of silymarin. The content of silybin B in various parts of S. marianum was analyzed by HPLC-UV. Results show that the extract of seeds contain the highest amount of silybin B (7.434 mg/g DW). The petioles of S. marianum showed a low content of silybin B. This study revealed that seeds of S. marianum contain high amount of silybin B and could be a good source of the compound.

Flavonoids , Milk Thistle , Polyphenols , Silymarin
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739679


Cirsium japonicum belongs to the Asteraceae or Compositae family and is a medicinal plant in Asia that has a variety of effects, including tumour inhibition, improved immunity with flavones, and antidiabetic and hepatoprotective effects. Silymarin is synthesized by 4-coumaroyl-CoA via both the flavonoid and phenylpropanoid pathways to produce the immediate precursors taxifolin and coniferyl alcohol. Then, the oxidative radicalization of taxifolin and coniferyl alcohol produces silymarin. We identified the expression of genes related to the synthesis of silymarin in C. japonicum in three different tissues, namely, flowers, leaves, and roots, through RNA sequencing. We obtained 51,133 unigenes from transcriptome sequencing by de novo assembly using Trinity v2.1.1, TransDecoder v2.0.1, and CD-HIT v4.6 software. The differentially expressed gene analysis revealed that the expression of genes related to the flavonoid pathway was higher in the flowers, whereas the phenylpropanoid pathway was more highly expressed in the roots. In this study, we established a global transcriptome dataset for C. japonicum. The data shall not only be useful to focus more deeply on the genes related to product medicinal metabolite including flavolignan but also to study the functional genomics for genetic engineering of C. japonicum.

Humans , Asia , Asteraceae , Cirsium , Dataset , Estrone , Flavones , Flowers , Gene Expression Profiling , Genetic Engineering , Genomics , Plants, Medicinal , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Silymarin , Transcriptome
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713617


The liver is an essential organ for the detoxification of exogenous xenobiotics, drugs and toxic substances. The incidence rate of non-alcoholic liver injury increases due to dietary habit change and drug use increase. Our previous study demonstrated that Ecklonia stolonifera (ES) formulation has hepatoprotective effect against alcohol-induced liver injury in rat and tacrine-induced hepatotoxicity in HepG2 cells. This present study was designated to elucidate hepatoprotective effects of ES formulation against carbon tetrachloride (CCl₄)-induced liver injury in Sprague Dawley rat. Sixty rats were randomly divided into six groups. The rats were treated orally with ES formulation and silymarin (served as positive control, only 100 mg/kg/day) at a dose of 50, 100, or 200 mg/kg/day for 21 days. Seven days after treatment, liver injury was induced by intraperitoneal injection of CCl₄ (1.5 ml/kg, twice a week for 14 days). The administration of CCl₄ exhibited significant elevation of hepatic enzymes (like AST and ALT), and decrease of antioxidant related enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase) and glutathione. Then, it leaded to DNA damages (8-oxo-2′-deoxyguanosine) and lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde). Administration of ES formulation inhibited imbalance of above factors compared to CCl₄ induced rat in a dose dependent manner. Real time PCR analysis indicates that CYP2E1 was upregulated in CCl₄ induced rat. However, increased gene expression was compromised by ES formulation treatment. These findings suggests that ES formulation could protect hepatotoxicity caused by CCl₄ via two pathways: elevation of antioxidant enzymes and normalization of CYP2E1 enzyme.

Animals , Rats , Carbon Tetrachloride , Cytochrome P-450 CYP2E1 , DNA Damage , Feeding Behavior , Gene Expression , Glutathione , Glutathione Peroxidase , Hep G2 Cells , Incidence , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Lipid Peroxidation , Liver , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Silymarin , Xenobiotics
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715162


PURPOSE: This study was conducted to evaluate the clinical efficacy of pharmacologic treatment of amatoxin poisoning patients. METHODS: Literature was accessed through PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane library, KoreaMed, KISS and KMBASE. Studies relevant to human use of pharmacologic therapy including silymarin, penicillin and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) for amanita poisoning were included. Case reports, letters, editorials and papers with insufficient information were excluded. Comparison of clinical outcomes (especially mortality and liver transplantation rate) in each study was analyzed. RESULTS: The final analysis included 13 retrospective studies. None of these studies showed direct comparisons of individual agents. Among 12 studies comparing silymarin vs penicillin, eight showed clinical superiority of silymarin. Among eight studies comparing silymarin with NAC, six showed clinical superiority of silymarin. Among seven studies of NAC vs penicillin, five showed clinical superiority of NAC. CONCLUSION: This systematic review suggested that clinical superiority of various pharmacological agents used to treat amatoxin poisoning is debatable. Nevertheless, the available evidence suggests it is reasonable to consider combinations of multiple agents for patients with amanita poisoning. Further studies are required to establish a treatment regimen for amanita poisoning.

Humans , Acetylcysteine , Amanita , Liver Transplantation , Mortality , Penicillins , Poisoning , Retrospective Studies , Silymarin , Treatment Outcome
Int. j. morphol ; 35(2): 723-732, June 2017. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893046


Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a) and interleukin (IL)-6, are prominent mediators of inflammation and have been confirmed to be elevated in at least a subgroup of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). In this study, the effects of Silymarin (SLM) on the expression TNF-a, IL-6, CRP and symptoms of PCOS were studied. In this research, PCOS was induced by injection of Estradiol Valerate. PCOS rats were divided into control and experimental groups received intraperitoneal injection SLM extract daily. After syndrome induction, ovaries were collected for histological and immunohistochemical evaluations. Serum IL-6 was detected by the ELISA kit. The results indicated the significant reduction in inflammatory markers and significant changes follicular layers thickness in the treatment group as compared with control. It can be concluded that having anti-inflammatory substances, Silymarin is effective in symptoms of this syndrome and metabolic syndrome.

El factor de necrosis tumoral alfa (TNF-a) y la interleucina (IL) -6 son mediadores prominentes de la inflamación y se ha confirmado que están elevados en al menos un subgrupo de mujeres con síndrome de ovario poliquístico (SOP). En este estudio se estudiaron los efectos de Silymarin (SLM) en la expresión TNF-a, IL-6, PCR y síntomas de SOP. El SOP fue inducido por inyección de valerato de estradiol. Las ratas SOP se dividieron en grupos control y los grupos experimentales recibieron diariamente un extracto de SLM por inyección intraperitoneal. Después de la inducción del síndrome, los ovarios se analizaron mediante histología e inmunohistoquímica. Se detectó IL-6 en suero mediante el kit ELISA. Los resultados indicaron una reducción significativa en los marcadores inflamatorios y cambios significativos en el espesor de las capas foliculares en el grupo de tratamiento en comparación con el control. Se puede concluir que con sustancias anti-inflamatorias, Silymarin es eficaz en los síntomas de este síndrome y el síndrome metabólico.

Animals , Female , Rats , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/metabolism , Silymarin/pharmacology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Inflammation , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Rats, Wistar , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/drug effects
Acta cir. bras ; 32(6): 407-417, June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886210


Abstract Purpose: To investigate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effeicacies of Silybum marianum's (silymarin, S) on University of Wisconsin (UW) and histidinetryptophan-ketoglutarate (HTK) preservation solutions. Methods: Thirty two Wistar albino adult male rats were used. Group 1: UW group, Group 2: UW + Silymarin group(S), Group 3: HTK group, Group 4: HTK + silymarin group (S), respectively. Silymarin was enforced intraperitoneally before the surgery. Biopsies were enforced in 0, 6 and 12.hours to investigate. Results: Biochemical parameters examined in alanine aminotransferase (ALT), furthermore superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and malondialdehyde (MDA) in rats were also evaluated. Detected histopathological changings were substantially declining in the groups that received silymarin, cellular damage was decreased significantly in HTK + Silymarin group, according to other groups. It has been identified as the most effective group was HTK + silymarin group in evaluation of ALT, electron microscopic results, also decreased MDA and elevated in SOD, and CAT activity. Caspase 3 analysis showed a substantial lower apoptosis ratio in the silymarin groups than in the non-performed groups (p<0.05). Conclusion: Histidinetryptophan-ketoglutarate+silymarin group provides better hepatoprotection than other groups, by decreasing the hepatic pathologic damage, delayed changes that arise under cold ischemic terms.

Animals , Male , Rats , Silymarin/therapeutic use , Organ Preservation Solutions , Protective Agents/therapeutic use , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/drug therapy , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Potassium Chloride , Procaine , Raffinose , Immunohistochemistry , Adenosine , Allopurinol , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal , Glucose , Glutathione , Insulin , Mannitol