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1.
Infectio ; 25(4): 289-292, oct.-dic. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1286724

ABSTRACT

Resumen La trombosis de senos venosos cerebrales es un evento infrecuente en la población pediátrica y sus manifestaciones clínicas pueden variar dependiendo de la localización y extensión de la lesión, etiología o grupo etario (1); así mismo, la asociación de esta patología con virus es poco común, sin embargo, se han repor tado casos de trombosis de senos venosos en pacientes adultos con SARS-CoV-2 en relación con los mecanismos de lesión endotelial y respuesta inflamatoria que desencadena mecanismos procoagulantes. A continuación se presenta el primer caso reportado en Colombia de un caso de trombosis venosa cerebral en un lactante previamente sano, que debuta con un cuadro infeccioso gastrointestinal que resuelve y una semana después se presenta con cefalea y paralisis del VI par craneal derecho. Se documentó por angioto mografía trombosis del seno venoso sagital con extensión a senos transversos; los laboratorios fueron negativos para otras causas sistémicas y con prueba de anticuerpos para coronavirus positiva.


Abstract Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis is infrequent in the pediatric population and its clinical manifestations may vary depending on the anatomical location and the extent of the lesion, etiology or age group(1). The association of this pathology with viruses is uncommon, however, cases in adults with SARS-Cov2 have been reported triggered by procoagulant mechanisms due to endothelial injury and inflammatory response. The following article is the first reported case in Colombia of cerebral venous thrombosis in a previously healthy child, who debuted with gastrointestinal infectious disease and a week later with headache and sixth right cranial nerve palsy . The diagnosis of sagittal venous sinus thrombosis with extension to transverse sinuses was documented in a computed tomography angiography; laboratories for systemic diseases were negative and antibodies for coronavirus were positive.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Viruses , Coronavirus , Venous Thrombosis , Cranial Nerve Diseases , Transverse Sinuses , Headache
2.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 139(2): 190-195, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1181008

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Although it is known that the new coronavirus disease (COVID-19), which was first seen in Wuhan, China, in December 2019 and has affected the whole world, mainly targets the respiratory tract, cases of this disease with a wide clinical spectrum are emerging as information is shared. CASE REPORT: We present the case of a pregnant woman who was diagnosed with venous sinus thrombosis after she developed headache and hemiparesis. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) positivity lasted for two weeks after COVID-19 had been diagnosed. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with suspected COVID-19, especially in the presence of causes of hypercoagu- lability and presence of atypical features, venous sinus thrombosis needs to be kept in mind in making the differential diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Venous Thrombosis/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/complications , Headache/etiology , Paresis/etiology , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/diagnostic imaging , China , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Thrombophilia , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis
3.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 91(3): 417-423, jun. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1126181

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Introducción: La trombosis senovenosa cerebral neonatal (TSVC), es una patología rara y generalmente grave, de la cual se conoce poco sobre los mecanismos fisiopatológicos responsables y, aunque controvertido, se ha sugerido que la trombofilia genética, puede desempeñar un rol en la patogénesis. Debido a los temores de un sangrado intracraneal el tratamiento anticoagulante con heparina de bajo peso mole cular es controvertido. Objetivo: presentar un recién nacido con una trombosis senovenosa cerebral neonatal, discutir los factores de riesgo trombofílico, y el manejo con heparina de bajo peso molecu lar de la trombosis venosa cerebral. Caso Clínico: Recién nacido de término que debutó a los 8 días de vida con convulsiones clónicas, rechazo al pecho más hipoactividad motora. La neuroimagen con RM mostró una TSVC involucrando múltiples senos venosos, un infarto hemorrágico talámico dere cho y congestión venosa de la sustancia blanca frontal. El estudio de trombofilia puso de relieve una mutación homocigota del gen MTHFR C677T. El tratamiento con heparina de bajo peso molecular se asoció a repermeabilización del seno sagital superior a los 23 días de iniciada la terapia. Conclusio nes: La presentación clínica de la TSVC en el neonato es inespecífica, probablemente en relación con la extensión y gravedad de la lesión y el desarrollo de complicaciones asociadas, como infartos he morrágicos venosos intraparenquimatosos o hemorragia intraventricular. Estas complicaciones son detectables mediante Ecografia o Resonancia Magnética, y deben hacer sospechar una TSVC. En esta experiencia el tratamiento anticoagulante mostró ser seguro y prevenir la extensión de la trombosis.


Abstract: Introduction: Neonatal cerebral sinovenous thrombosis (CSNT) is a rare and generally serious con dition about which there is little knowledge of the responsible pathophysiological mechanisms and, although controversial, it has been suggested that genetic thrombophilia may play a role in its patho genesis. Out of concern for intracranial bleeding, the anticoagulant treatment with low-molecular- weight heparin is controversial. Objective: To present a case of a newborn with neonatal CSNT, to analyze the thrombophilic risk factors, and the management of cerebral venous thrombosis with low-molecular-weight heparin. Clinical Case: Full-term newborn who presented at eight days of life breastfeeding rejection, clonic seizures, and locomotor hypoactivity. The MRI neuroimaging showed a CSNT involving multiple venous sinuses, a right thalamic hemorrhagic infarction, and venous congestion in frontal white matter. Thrombophilia study highlighted a homozygous MTHFR C677T mutation. Treatment with low-molecular-weight heparin was associated with repermeabilization of the superior sagittal sinus after 23 days of starting therapy. Conclusions: The clinical presentation of CSNT in the neonate is nonspecific, probably related to the extent and severity of the injury and the development of associated complications, such as venous hemorrhagic infarctions and intraparenchymal or intraventricular hemorrhage. These complications are detected through ultrasound or MRI, and they should make us suspect a CSNT. In this experience, the anticoagulant treatment proved to be safe and prevents thrombus propagation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Infant, Newborn , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/diagnosis , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/etiology , Enoxaparin/therapeutic use , Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (NADPH2)/deficiency , Homocystinuria/diagnosis , Muscle Spasticity/diagnosis , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Psychotic Disorders/complications , Psychotic Disorders/diagnosis , Psychotic Disorders/genetics , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/drug therapy , Genetic Markers , Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (NADPH2)/genetics , Homocystinuria/complications , Homocystinuria/genetics , Homozygote , Muscle Spasticity/complications , Muscle Spasticity/genetics , Mutation
4.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 118(2): e166-e169, abr. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1100425

ABSTRACT

La mastoiditis aguda es una infección de las celdillas mastoideas, generalmente, secundaria a la progresión de una otitis media aguda. Las bacterias aisladas con más frecuencia en las mastoiditis son Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes y Staphylococcus aureus. La infección mastoidea puede extenderse por contigüidad, afectar a estructuras vecinas y dar lugar a complicaciones intra- o extracraneales. Las más frecuentes son las intracraneales, entre las que se incluyen la meningitis, el absceso cerebeloso o del lóbulo temporal, el absceso epi- o subdural y la trombosis de senos venosos.Se presenta el caso de una niña de 4 años que desarrolló dos complicaciones intracraneales (absceso epidural y trombosis de senos venosos transverso y sigmoideo) a partir de una mastoiditis aguda producida por Streptococus pyogenes


Acute mastoiditis is an infection that affects the mastoid air-cell system, usually due to the progression of an acute otitis media. The bacteria most frequently isolated in acute mastoiditis are Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. The mastoid infection can extend affecting contiguous structures and producing intra or extracranial complications. The most frequent ones are intracranial complications, including meningitis, temporal lobe or cerebellar abscess, epidural or subdural abscess and venous sinus thrombosis.We present the case of a 4-year-old girl who developed two intracranial complications (intracranial epidural abscess and transverse and sigmoid sinus thrombosis) initiated in an acute mastoiditis produced by Streptococcus pyogenes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child, Preschool , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/diagnostic imaging , Streptococcus pyogenes , Epidural Abscess/diagnostic imaging , Mastoiditis/complications , Mastoiditis/drug therapy , Mastoiditis/diagnostic imaging
5.
In. Verga, Federico; Burghi, Gastón. Encares de paciente crítico. Montevideo, Oficina del Libro FEFMUR, 2020. p.59-75.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1342637
6.
Salud(i)ciencia (Impresa) ; 23(6): 536-542, nov.-dic. 2019. ilus.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1051424

ABSTRACT

Cobalamin C (CblC) deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations of the MMACHC gene that results in impaired synthesis of the methylcobalamin and adenosylcobalamin co-factors. This brings an impaired conversion of dietary cobalamin and therefore dysfunction of two key enzymes generating hyperhomocysteinemia, hypometionimemia and methylmalonic aciduria. It is the most common intracellular metabolism disorder of cobalamin. The early clinical form is the most frequent disorder and appears as a multisystemic disease with developmental delay, failure to thrive, and ocular, renal and hematological involvement during the first year of life. The thromboembolic events are associated with small vessel involvement, generating thrombotic microangiopathy responsible for renal involvement and pulmonary thromboembolism. The late-onset form is characterized by leukoencephalopathy, psychiatric disorders, subacute degeneration of the spinal cord, and thromboembolic events of medium to large vessels. The treatment currently available increases the survival of the patient and improves growth, neurological manifestations, biochemical, hematological profile and hydrocephalus. We present the neonatal debut of a case of CblC deficiency that appeared as a multisystem disease with initial neurological, ocular and hematological manifestations. The onset of symptoms was acute, a characteristic that is not frequent in CblC. The patient started treatment early, but in an unsatisfactory fashion, which led to increased neurological deterioration. Due to MRI images performed during the evolution of his condition, a superior and transverse sagittal sinus thrombosis, a rare manifestation of the disease, was observed.


La deficiencia de cobalamina C (CblC) es un defecto autosómico recesivo causado por la mutación del gen MMACHC, que resulta en la síntesis alterada de los cofactores metilcobalamina y adenosilcobalamina. Esto trae aparejado una disfunción de dos enzimas claves, lo cual genera hiperhomocisteinemia, hipometionimemia y aciduria metilmalónica. La presentación clínica de la deficiencia de CblC es heterogénea, y varía desde las formas de inicio temprano graves y potencialmente mortales, hasta los fenotipos más leves de inicio tardío. La forma clínica temprana es la más frecuente y se manifiesta como una enfermedad multisistémica, con restricción del desarrollo, restricción del crecimiento y alteraciones oculares, renales y hematológicas durante el primer año de vida. Las manifestaciones tromboembólicas están asociadas con el compromiso de pequeños vasos, lo que causa microangiopatía trombótica, responsable de compromiso renal y de tromboembolismo pulmonar. La forma tardía se caracteriza por leucoencefalopatía, trastornos psiquiátricos, degeneración subaguda de la médula espinal y eventos tromboembólicos de medianos o grandes vasos. El tratamiento disponible actualmente aumenta la supervivencia de la enfermedad y mejora el crecimiento, las manifestaciones neurológicas, el perfil bioquímico y hematológico y la hidrocefalia. Presentamos el debut neonatal de un caso de deficiencia de CblC que se manifestó con compromiso inicial neurológico, ocular y hematológico. El comienzo de los síntomas fue agudo, característica que no es frecuente en la deficiencia de CblC. El tratamiento se inició tempranamente, pero en forma insatisfactoria, con evolución de deterioro neurológico. En la evolución de su enfermedad en las imágenes de resonancia magnética, se puso de manifiesto trombosis de los senos sagital superior y transversos, una rara manifestación de la deficiencia de CblC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial , Vitamin B 12 , Vitamin B 12 Deficiency , Venous Thrombosis , Hyperhomocysteinemia , Pediatrics
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786528

ABSTRACT

Since the implementation of conjugate Haemophilus influenzae serotype b (Hib) vaccine, the rate of infections caused by Hib has dramatically decreased, and the proportion of infections caused by non-type b H. influenzae has increased. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) is rare; however, it should be considered as a potential complication of bacterial meningitis. Herein, we report about a child who developed CVST after being diagnosed with H. influenzae serotype f meningitis.


Subject(s)
Bacteremia , Central Nervous System Infections , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Child , Haemophilus influenzae type b , Haemophilus influenzae , Haemophilus , Humans , Influenza, Human , Meningitis , Meningitis, Bacterial , Meningitis, Haemophilus , Sepsis , Serogroup , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785319

ABSTRACT

Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVT) is a rare cerebrovascular condition accounting for 0.5–1% of all types of strokes in the general population. Hyperthyroidism is associated with procoagulant and antifibrinolytic activity, thereby precipitating a hypercoagulable state that predisposes to CVT. We report the case of a 31-year-old Korean man with massive CVT and diagnosis of concomitant Graves' disease at admission. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment of CVT are important to improve prognosis; therefore, CVT should be considered in the differential diagnosis in all patients with hyperthyroidism presenting with neurological symptoms.


Subject(s)
Adult , Diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Early Diagnosis , Graves Disease , Humans , Hyperthyroidism , Intracranial Thrombosis , Prognosis , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial , Stroke , Thyrotoxicosis
9.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766858

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We report two patients diagnosed with a sinus thrombosis with papillary edema. CASE SUMMARY: Case 1 was a 27-year-old male who presented with complaints of headache and vomiting for 2 months and blurred vision in both eyes. The best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 1.0 in the right eye and 1.0 in the left eye. A visual field (VF) examination revealed a binocular peripheral VF defect and optical coherence tomography (OCT) and a fundus examination indicated optic disc swelling in both eyes. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed no specific finding but magnetic resonance venography revealed filling defect signs in the transverse sinus and a cerebrospinal fluid examination indicated elevated intracranial pressure (ICP). Case 2 was a 54-year-old female who came to our hospital with suspicion of bilateral optic disc swelling. The BCVA was 0.9 in the right eye and 1.0 in the left eye. A VF examination revealed an inferior-temporal VF defect and blind spot enlargement in the right eye. OCT and a fundus examination showed optic disc swelling in both eyes. Brain MRI showed no specific finding but magnetic resonance venography revealed a decrease in blood flow in the transverse sinus, sigmoid sinus. A cerebrospinal fluid examination indicated elevated ICP. CONCLUSIONS: In the case of optic disc swelling in both eyes, a secondary cause of ICP elevation and the possibility of optic disc swelling due to sinus thrombosis should be considered, and brain MRI and venography are needed to distinguish these possibilities.


Subject(s)
Adult , Brain , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Colon, Sigmoid , Edema , Female , Headache , Humans , Intracranial Hypertension , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Optic Disk , Optic Nerve Diseases , Papilledema , Phlebography , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial , Telescopes , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Visual Acuity , Visual Fields , Vomiting
10.
Repert. med. cir ; 28(2): 121-125, 2019. Il., fotos, tablas
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1010215

ABSTRACT

La enfermedad cerebrovascular es un problema de salud pública mundial, considerada dentro de las primeras causas de mortalidad. La trombosis venosa cerebral (TVC) es una de sus patologías, que a pesar de ser infrecuente puede llevar a severas complicaciones en el paciente. Es por eso que se presentan dos casos de infartos bitalámicos secundarios a trombosis venosa cerebral profunda, con hallazgos clínicos e imagenológicos inusuales que hicieron aún más difícil su diagnóstico. Debido a las diferentes funciones que posee el tálamo además de la infrecuencia de la trombosis venosa cerebral profunda, la presentación clínica sigue siendo atípica y es usual que se consideren otros diagnósticos al inicio del evento, por lo tanto, consideramos importante proyectar estudios con muestras de mayor tamaño para definir con claridad la clínica y los hallazgos radiológicos de esta patología.


Cerebrovascular disease is a global public health problem and is a major cause of mortality. Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is an uncommon but serious type of cerebrovascular disease. Thus, we report two cases of bilateral thalamic infarcts secondary to deep cerebral venous thrombosis presenting with unusual clinical and radiological features which made diagnosis more difficult. The functional complexity of the thalamus and the uncommon presentation of deep cerebral venous thrombosis lead to atypical clinical manifestations hence various conditions are considered in the differential diagnosis at onset of the event. Therefore, we emphasize the importance of conducting future studies with a larger sample size in order to further elucidate the clinical and radiological characteristics of this condition.


Subject(s)
Humans , Stroke , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial , Thalamus , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Angiography , Cerebral Infarction
11.
Rev. Soc. Colomb. Oftalmol ; 52(2): 117-122, 2019. ilus., tab.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1094902

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la trombosis de senos venosos (TSV) en niños, sin factores de riesgo es una patología rara pero potencialmente fatal. La cefalea es el síntoma principal y muy pocos pacientes se presentan sin este. El papiledema como hallazgo inicial se presenta sólo en el 9% de los pacientes. Presentamos el caso de una menor de 13 años, sin factores de riesgo para TSV, cuya manifestación inicial fue el papiledema en ausencia de cefalea. Objetivo: describir el caso clínico de una paciente menor de edad sin comorbilidades, factores de riesgo ni cefalea, con papiledema como única manifestación de TSV. Diseño de estudio: reporte de caso. Resumen del caso: menor de 13 años, sin antecedentes, con cuadro clínico de 12 horas de evolución de dolor en ojo derecho de instauración progresiva, tipo punzada, asociado a visión doble y un episodio emético. Al examen físico con agudeza visual (AV) 20/20 en ambos ojos, con papiledema; sin hallazgos positivos al examen neurológico ni en otros sistemas. Conclusión: La TSV en pacientes pediátricos sin factores de riesgo ni cefalea es rara. El papiledema es uno de los hallazgos principales de esta patología y en pocas ocasiones es la manifestación inicial. Es importante conocer los síntomas y signos oft almológicos de la TSV, ya que pueden ser el único hallazgo en esta patología.


Background: venous sinus thrombosis (VST) in children, without risk factors, is a rare but potentially fatal pathology. Headache is the main symptom and only few patients present without it. Papilledema as an initial finding occurs only in 9% of patients. We present the case of a 13 years old girl, without risk factors for VST, with papilledema as initial manifestation in the absence of headache. Objective: to describe a clinical case of with venous sinus thrombosis without comorbidities or risk factors, who had papilledema as first symptom. Study design: case report and literature review. Case summary: 13 years old girl, without medical history, with a clinical picture of 12 hours of right eye progressive pain, prick type, associated with double vision and an emetic episode. Physical examination with visual acuity (VA) 20/20 in both eyes and papilledema; without positive findings in the neurological examination or in other systems. Conclusion: venous sinus thrombosis in pediatric patients without risk factors or headache is rare. Papilledema is one of the main fi ndings of this pathology and in few cases it is the initial manifestation. It is important to know the symptoms and ophthalmological signs of VST because it could be the only finding in this pathology.


Subject(s)
Papilledema/diagnostic imaging , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/diagnosis , Eye Diseases , Neurologic Manifestations
12.
J. bras. nefrol ; 40(4): 418-422, Out.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-984577

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Complications are rare in pediatric cases of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (NS). Thromboembolism ranks among the most uncommon and difficult complications to diagnose, particularly in the first episode of NS, since clinical signs might be unspecific. This report describes the case of a 5-year-old girl with NS for the first time presenting with severe hypoalbuminemia (< 2g/dL). The patient responded poorly to therapy with corticosteroids. On day 8 of hospitalization she started having headaches and vomiting; she did not present hemodynamic alterations, fever or exanthems, and her neurological parameters were normal. The patient was suspected for intracranial hypertension, and computed tomography scans revealed she had cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST). She was started on anticoagulants and showed clinical signs of improvement. The patient had no evident prothrombotic risk factors. She had three other episodes since she was diagnosed, one in which her plasma antithrombin level was low. Although antithrombin levels were normal in her first episode, she was tested after the resolution of proteinuria. The low levels of antithrombin seen in the first recurrence might have mirrored the initial drop in plasma antithrombin levels, an idea supported by the severe hypoalbuminemia she had when diagnosed. This severe manifestation of acquired thrombophilia might be in the origin of CVST. This report presents a rare case of thromboembolic complication in a pediatric patient with NS. The patient progressed well since she was started on anticoagulants. Although she did not present any evident risk factors at first, the development of her case indicated that severe acquired thrombophilia might have worked as the pathophysiological mechanism leading to CVST.


RESUMO A Síndrome Nefrótica (SN) idiopática em crianças pode, raramente, complicar-se. O tromboembolismo é uma das complicações mais raras, principalmente no primeiro episódio, e de diagnóstico mais difícil, uma vez que a clínica pode ser inespecífica. Descrevemos o caso de uma criança de 5 anos com episódio inaugural de SN, destacando-se hipoalbuminemia inicial grave (< 2g/dL). Apresentou fraca resposta inicial à corticoterapia e, após 8 dias de internamento, iniciou quadro de cefaleias e vômitos, sem alterações hemodinâmicas, sem febre, sem exantema e com exame neurológico normal. Perante a suspeita de hipertensão intracraniana, foi realizada TC-CE, que mostrou trombose venosa cerebral (TVC). Foi então iniciada terapêutica anticoagulante com posterior boa evolução clínica. Trata-se de uma criança sem fatores de risco pró-trombóticos evidentes. Desde o diagnóstico, teve 3 recaídas, uma das quais com níveis baixos de antitrombina, que no episódio inaugural eram normais, apesar de avaliados já numa fase não proteinúrica. Suspeita-se, assim, que esse déficit plasmático em antitrombina na recaída poderá mimetizar a queda plasmática inicial, hipótese também apoiada pela hipoalbuminemia grave ao diagnóstico. Esta trombofília grave adquirida poderá ter sido mecanismo etiológico para a trombose venosa cerebral. O interesse deste caso prende-se com a raridade de complicações tromboembólicas na SN Pediátrica, ainda mais raras no episódio inaugural. Nesse caso, a boa evolução foi possível após a associação da terapêutica anticoagulante. Embora sem fatores de risco iniciais evidentes, a evolução do caso permitiu a suspeita de uma trombofília adquirida grave como mecanismo fisiopatológico do tromboembolismo cerebral.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child, Preschool , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/etiology , Nephrotic Syndrome/complications
13.
Med. infant ; 25(4): 303-310, diciembre 2018. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-970470

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La trombosis de senos venosos cerebrales (TSVC) es infrecuente en pediatría. Está asociada a condiciones como infecciones, deshidratación, fallo renal, traumatismo de cráneo, neoplasias, trastornos hematológicos, etc. Cefalea, vómitos, alteración del sensorio y hemiparesia son los síntomas más frecuentes. El diagnóstico es confirmado por TC con angio y/o RM con angio. La anticoagulación es el tratamiento de elección. Los pacientes suelen evolucionar favorablemente. Materiales y Métodos: Estudio descriptivo observacional de pacientes con TSVC atendidos en el Hospital Garrahan desde 2010 a 2017. Las variables registradas fueron: edad, sexo; manifestaciones clínicas, factores de riesgo; estudios diagnósticos, tratamiento y evolución. Resultados: Se describen 34 pacientes con TSVC. Los adolescentes fueron el grupo mayor. La cefalea fue el síntoma más frecuente. Angio TC, RM y/o angio RM confirmaron el diagnóstico; los senos transverso, sagital superior y sigmoideo fueron los más comprometidos. 21 pacientes tenían patología oncológica y 14 procesos infecciosos. El tratamiento de elección fue la anticoagulación. Tuvieron buena evolución el 82%. Conclusiones: Debemos sospechar esta entidad en dos grupos: el primero formado por lactantes y pre-escolares con patología infecciosa; y un segundo integrado por escolares y adolescentes con patología oncológica, especialmente aquellos que reciben L-ASA.Es importante resaltar el valor de la TC y angio TC para hacer diagnóstico oportuno, resultando accesible las 24 horas en el hospital


Introduction: Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) is uncommon in children. CVST is associated with conditions, such as infections, dehydration, renal failure, head trauma, cancer, and hematological disorders. Headache, vomiting, sensory alterations, and hemiparesis are the most common symptoms. Diagnosis is confirmed by angio CT and/or MRA. Anticoagulation is the treatment of choice. Outcome is generally good. Material and Methods: An observational, descriptive study of patients with CVST seen at Garrahan Hospital between 2010 and 2017. The following variables were recorded: age, sex; clinical manifestations, risk factors; diagnostic studies, treatment, and outcome. Results: 34 patients with CVST were studied. Most patients were adolescents. Headache was the most common symptom. Angio CT, MRI, and/or MRA confirmed the diagnosis; the transverse, superior sagittal, and sigmoid sinuses were most frequently affected. Of the patients, 21 had oncological disease and 14 infections. Anticoagulation was the treatment of choice. Outcome was good in 82%. Conclusions: CVST should be suspected in the following two groups: A first group consisting of infants and preschool children with infections and a second group of school-age children and adolescents with cancer, especially those receiving L-ASA. It is important to highlight the role of CT and angio CT for early diagnosis as the study is available day and night at the hospital.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/complications , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/diagnosis , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/diagnostic imaging , Vomiting/etiology , Cerebral Veins/diagnostic imaging , Headache/etiology , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/drug therapy , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Prospective Studies , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use
14.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 76(8): 507-511, Aug. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950575

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) is a syndrome that was unknown until the advent of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). It is a cause of orthostatic headache, which remains underdiagnosed and, rarely, can result in several complications including dural venous sinus thrombosis, subdural hematoma and subarachnoid hemorrhage. Some of these complications are potentially life-threatening and should be recognized promptly, mainly by imaging studies. We reviewed the MRI of nine patients with SIH and describe the complications observed in three of these patients. Two of them had subdural hematoma and one had a dural venous sinus thrombosis detected by computed tomography and MRI. We concluded that MRI findings are of great importance in the diagnosis of SIH and its complications, which often influence the clinical-surgical treatment of the patient.


RESUMO Hipotensão Intracraniana Espontânea (HIE) é uma síndrome desconhecida até o advento das imagens de Ressonância Magnética (RM). É uma causa de cefaleia ortostática que permanece subdiagnosticada e raramente resulta em complicações, como trombose de seios venosos durais, hematoma subdural e hemorragia subaracnoidea. Algumas dessas complicações são potencialmente ameaçadoras à vida e devem ser prontamente reconhecidas pelos estudos de imagem. Nós revisamos as RM de 9 pacientes com HIE e descrevemos as complicações observadas em 3 casos. Dois deles tiveram hematoma subdural e um teve trombose de seio venoso dural detectados por tomografia computadorizada e RM. Concluímos que achados de RM são de grande importância no diagnóstico de HIE e suas complicações, frequentemente influenciando o tratamento clínico-cirúrgico do paciente.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Intracranial Hypotension/complications , Intracranial Hypotension/diagnostic imaging , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/etiology , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/diagnostic imaging , Hematoma, Subdural, Intracranial/etiology , Hematoma, Subdural, Intracranial/diagnostic imaging , Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak/etiology , Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak/diagnostic imaging , Computed Tomography Angiography/methods , Headache/etiology
15.
Acta neurol. colomb ; 34(2): 129-131, abr.-jun. 2018. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-949622

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La trombosis venosa cerebral (TVC) representa el 0,5 % de todos los eventos vasculares cerebrales a nivel mundial; es una entidad compleja y de difícil diagnóstico, dada la variabilidad en el modo de presentación, el pronóstico y la diversidad de condiciones médicas que la originan. Ocurre por obstrucción del drenaje venoso cerebral. Su principal manifestación en lactantes y niños son las convulsiones. Este es el caso de una TVC por déficit de proteína S en un paciente pediátrico, el objetivo de este caso es destacar la importancia de la sospecha e identificación temprana de la enfermedad, así como la búsqueda del factor desencadenante. La TVC es una entidad grave, es potencialmente tratable y su pronóstico dependerá de la oportunidad del diagnóstico e intervención.


SUMMARY Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis represents 0.5 % of all cases worldwide. Is a complex pathology cause the variability in presentation mode, prognosis and different medical conditions that cause it. The cause is the obstruction of cerebral venous drainage, the main manifestation in infants and children are seizures. This is the case of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis in a pediatric patient with protein S deficiency, the goal of this case is to recognize the importance of suspicion and early identification of the disease and the search of the trigger. The cerebral venous sinus thrombosis is a serious entity, but potentially treatable and prognosis depend on the timing of diagnosis and intervention.


Subject(s)
Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial , Protein S , Thrombophilia , Cranial Sinuses
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715445

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the incidence, characteristics, and variations of the falcine sinus with contrast-enhanced three-dimentional (3D) thin-section magnetic resonance (MR) images. MATERIALS AND METHODS: retrospective review identified 1531 patients (745 males and 786 females, 2 months to 85 years) who underwent cranial MR imaging including T1-weighted imaging, T2-weighted imaging, T2-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion recovery, contrast-enhanced 3D thin-section sagittal scans, and MR venography, from June 2014 to January 2016. The incidence, characteristics of the falcine sinus, and coexisted intracranial lesions were confirmed by two neuroradiologists. RESULTS: Falcine sinuses were identified in 81 (38 males and 43 females) cases (5.3%, 81/1531, 5 months to 76 years of age) with calibers ranging from 2.3 mm to 17.0 mm. Three major forms of falcine sinuses were defined: arch-like (n = 47), stick-like (n = 22), and bifurcated (n = 12). Persistent falcine sinuses were found in 57 cases, among which 3 cases showed complicated cerebral anomalies, and 2 cases showed smaller straight sinuses. Recanalization of falcine sinuses were found in 24 cases, including 17 cases with tumor compression, 6 cases with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, and one case with hypertrophic meningitis. CONCLUSION: Falcine sinus is not as rare as has been reported previously. Most falcine sinuses are not associated with congenital cerebral abnormalities. Diseases that cause increased pressure in the venous sinus may lead to recanalization of falcine sinus. Illustrating the characteristics of falcine sinus may prompt a more comprehensive understanding and diagnosis of associated diseases, and avoid potential surgical damage in the future.


Subject(s)
Diagnosis , Female , Humans , Incidence , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Meningitis , Phlebography , Retrospective Studies , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717709

ABSTRACT

Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) is a rare disease. Early diagnosis and treatment are important, as CVST is potentially fatal. Pregnancy and puerperium are known risk factors for CVST. Here, we report the case of a patient who developed superior sagittal sinus thrombosis after a normal vaginal delivery. A 20-year-old woman presented with a headache and seizures two days after a normal vaginal delivery. Initially, brain computed tomography (CT) showed a subarachnoid hemorrhage in the right parietal lobe and sylvian fissure, together with mild cerebral edema. CT angiography revealed superior sagittal sinus thrombosis. Multiple micro-infarctions were seen on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance images. An intravenous infusion of heparin and mannitol was administered immediately. Two days after treatment initiation, the patient showed sudden neurological deterioration, with left-sided hemiplegia. Brain CT showed moderate brain edema and hemorrhagic densities. Emergency decompressive craniectomy was performed, and heparin was re-administered on post-operative day (POD) 1. On POD 9, the patient's mental state improved from stupor to drowsy, but the left-sided hemiplegia persisted. CT angiography showed that the superior sinus thrombosis had decreased. Superior sagittal sinus thrombosis is an uncommon complication, with an unfavorable outcome, after delivery. Timely diagnosis and treatment are important for preventing neurological deterioration.


Subject(s)
Angiography , Brain , Brain Edema , Cerebral Infarction , Decompressive Craniectomy , Diagnosis , Early Diagnosis , Emergencies , Female , Headache , Hemiplegia , Heparin , Humans , Infusions, Intravenous , Mannitol , Parietal Lobe , Postpartum Period , Pregnancy , Rare Diseases , Risk Factors , Seizures , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial , Stupor , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage , Superior Sagittal Sinus , Thrombosis , Young Adult
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717093

ABSTRACT

Dural sinus thrombosis (DST), or cerebral venous thrombosis, is an uncommon cause of stroke. It has a variable presentation, and the symptoms and signs can be non-specific. The diagnosis of DST can be difficult to make and is often delayed or missed. Computed tomography venography or magnetic resonance venography are the typical imaging modalities used to diagnose DST. However, computed tomography venography and magnetic resonance venography both have limitation for emergency department patients. In this article, we report the use of point-of-care ultrasound to facilitate the diagnosis of DST.


Subject(s)
Diagnosis , Diagnostic Imaging , Emergencies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Phlebography , Point-of-Care Systems , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial , Stroke , Thrombosis , Ultrasonography , Venous Thrombosis
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-772815

ABSTRACT

Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) is a rare condition in early pregnancy. A 22-year-old Chinese woman at 10 weeks of pregnancy requested induced abortion and was diagnosed as CVST for a severe headache accompanying with nausea and vomiting. The patient was treated successfully with anticoagulation, followed by amniocentesis, and finally succeeded in induction of labor safely. The diagnosis, treatment and prognosis for this rare condition are discussed in this paper.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Labor, Induced , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Trimester, Second , Prognosis , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial , Diagnosis , Diagnostic Imaging , Drug Therapy , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Young Adult
20.
Acta neurol. colomb ; 33(4): 279-285, oct.-dic. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-886460

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La trombosis venosa cerebral (TVC) es una entidad poco frecuente y potencialmente devastadora que se presenta con mayor frecuencia en adultos jóvenes, especialmente en mujeres. La TVC representa el 0,5 % a 1 % de todos los ACV, su amplio espectro clínico la convierte en un desafío diagnóstico, especialmente en aquellos casos de mujeres jóvenes sin factores protrombóticos conocidos que debutan con cefalea como único síntoma. La TVC puede ocasionar isquemia o infartos talámicos y gangliobasales bilaterales con delirio y deterioro del estado de conciencia, en especial cuando hay compromiso del sistema venoso profundo. El diagnóstico se confirma con resonancia magnética cerebral (RM) y venografía por resonancia. La anticoagulación sigue siendo la piedra angular del tratamiento; sin embargo, los pacientes que no responden a terapia médica intensiva pueden beneficiarse de la trombectomía endovascular mecánica (TEM). A continuación presentamos el caso clínico de una paciente de 29 años con una isquemia talámica y gangliobasal bilateral secundaria a trombosis venosa cerebral que fue llevada a trombectomía endovascular mecánica.


SUMMARY Thrombosis of the dural sinus and/or cerebral veins (CVT) is a rare but potentially devastating type of stroke that tends to occur in young adults, especially women. CVT represents about 0.5% of all strokes and can be challenging to diagnose because headache, rather than focal neurologic symptoms, is the prominent feature. However, some patients (especially those with deep cerebral venous occlusion) may present with bilateral thalamic or basal infarction and often will have decreased level of consciousness and rapid neurologic deterioration. The diagnosis of CVT is confirmed with MRI and magnetic resonance venogram (MRV). The mainstay of acute management is anticoagulation. However, some patients do not respond to medical therapy and these might benefit from endovascular mechanical thrombectomy. We present the case of a 29 year old female patient with bilateral thalamic and gangliobasal ischemia secondary to CVT, who was treated with anticoagulation and endovascular mechanical thombectomy.


Subject(s)
Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial , Thalamus , Basal Ganglia , Warfarin , Heparin , Thrombectomy
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