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Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928031


Based on the Drugdataexpy and the prescription modern application database, this study explored the formulation regularity of ancient and modern prescriptions for the treatment of sinusitis. The Chinese medicinal prescriptions for the treatment of sinusitis with various syndromes were retrieved from the above databases and the corresponding formulation regularity was investigated by frequency analysis, association rule analysis, and factor analysis. Eighty-seven Chinese medicinal prescriptions were included, involving five syndrome types of sinusitis and 160 Chinese medicine, which were mainly effective in releasing exterior, clearing heat, and tonifying deficiency, and acted on the lung meridian due to cold and warm nature and pungent and bitter flavor or on the spleen meridian due to warm nature and pungent flavor. Seventeen core Chinese medicine were screened out by topological data analysis, including Angelicae Dahuricae Radix, Magnoliae Flos, Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Xanthii Fructus, and Scutellariae Radix. Chinese medicine such as Magnoliae Flos, Angelicae Dahuricae Radix, and Xanthii Fructus were commonly used in the treatment of sinusitis of wind-heat in the lung meridian, while the combination of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Magnoliae Flos, Angelicae Dahuricae Radix, Chuanxiong Rhizoma, etc. was the key compatibility in treating sinusitis of dampness-heat in the spleen and stomach. Six common factors were extracted from the factor analysis of the above two syndrome types. The findings indicate that the exterior-releasing, heat-clearing, and deficiency-tonifying Chinese medicine with cold and warm nature and pungent flavor are preferential options for the clinical treatment of sinusitis. Treatment should be based on syndrome differentiation and key therapeutic principles should be followed.

Data Mining , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Meridians , Rhizome , Sinusitis/drug therapy
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927998


The present study evaluated the efficacy and safety of Xiangju Capsules in the treatment of sinusitis. CNKI, Wanfang, VIP, CBM, Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMbase, Web of Science and were systematically searched for randomized controlled trials(RCTs) of Xiangju Capsules in the treatment of sinusitis, and Meta-analysis was performed on the included articles using RevMan 5.3. Twenty-nine articles were included, involving 4 331 cases, including 2 196 cases in the experimental group and 2 135 cases in the control group. Meta-analysis results showed that the conventional therapy combined with Xiangju Capsules showed better significant efficiency(RR=1.30, 95%CI[1.15, 1.47], P<0.000 01), total response rate(RR=1.19, 95%CI[1.16, 1.23], P<0.000 01), and Lund-Mackay scores(MD=-1.23, 95%CI[-1.39,-1.07], P<0.000 01) than conventional therapy alone. The conventional therapy combined with Eucalyptol-limonene-pinene Enteric Soft Capsules and Xiangju Capsules showed better total response rate(RR=1.14, 95%CI[1.07, 1.21], P<0.000 1) and VAS scores than conventional therapy combined with Eucalyptol-limonene-pinene Enteric Soft Capsules(MD_(headache)=-1.29, 95%CI[-1.48,-1.10], P<0.000 01; MD_(congestion)=-1.08, 95%CI[-1.21,-0.95], P<0.000 01; MD_(olfactory dysfunction)=-1.05, 95%CI[-1.23,-0.87], P<0.000 01; MD_(facial disorder)=-1.38, 95%CI[-1.49,-1.27], P<0.000 01). The conventional therapy combined with clarithromycin and Xiangju Capsules displayed a better total response rate(RR=1.15, 95%CI[1.08, 1.21], P<0.000 01) than conventional therapy combined with clarithromycin, while no significant difference was observed in the significant efficiency(RR=1.27, 95%CI[0.98, 1.65], P=0.07). The significant efficiency(RR=2.16, 95%CI[1.47, 3.18], P<0.000 1) and total effective rate(RR=1.48, 95%CI[1.28, 1.72], P<0.000 01) of clarithromycin combined with Xiangju Capsules in patients with sinusitis and CT scores(MD=-1.87, 95%CI[-2.01,-1.74], P<0.000 01) was significantly better than clarithromycin alone. Trial sequential analysis(TSA) showed that the cumulative sample size of the main outcome indicators had met expectations. The main adverse reactions included drowsiness, diarrhea, and abdominal pain, which had no direct relationship with Xiangju Capsules. Based on the available data and methods, the combination of Xiangju Capsules with multiple treatments showed significant efficiency and total response rate in the treatment of sinusitis, and improved CT scores, VAS scores, and Lund-Mackay scores, without serious adverse reactions. The efficacy and safety of Xiangju Capsules in the treatment of sinusitis still need to be verified by a large-sample, well-designed, and internationally standardized clinical trial scheme.

Capsules , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Sinusitis/drug therapy
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 41(4): 187-192, dic. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1366967


La sinusitis micótica alérgica es una enfermedad inflamatoria de la mucosa rinosinusal producida por hongos que pueden aislarse de la cavidad de nasal de individuos sanos. Se produce indirectamente por los hongos que actúan como antígeno y desencadenan una reacción inmunológica mediada por IgE que origina pólipos y una secreción mucosa espesa con detritus e hifas denominada mucina. Su presentación clínica más frecuente es una sinusitis crónica unilateral o bilateral con pólipos. Con menos frecuencia, las sustancias originadas por la desgranulación de los eosinófilos producen remodelación o destrucción ósea y la sinusitis puede simular una neoplasia. Se describe el caso clínico de un paciente que padeció una sinusitis micótica alérgica con destrucción ósea masiva de la base del cráneo y que tuvo extensión intracraneal extradural e intraorbitaria de la enfermedad. Fue tratado con éxito mediante cirugía y corticoides. (AU)

Allergic fungal sinusitis is an inflammatory disease of the rhinosinusal mucosa caused by fungi that can be isolated from the nasal cavity of healthy individuals. The pathology is produced indirectly by the fungus that acts as an antigen and triggers an IgE-mediated allergic reaction that causes polyps and a thick mucous discharge with detritus and hyphae called mucin. Its most common clinical presentation is unilateral or bilateral chronic sinusitis with polyps. Less commonly, substances originated by the degranulation of eosinophils cause bone remodeling or destruction, and sinusitis can simulate a neoplasia. We describe the clinical case of a patient who suffered from allergic fungal sinusitis with massive bone destruction of the skull base and who had intracranial, extradural and intraorbital extension of the disease. He was successfully treated with surgery and corticosteroids.Key words: allergic fungal sinusitis, intracranial extension, endoscopic surgery, transorbital transpalpebral approach. (AU)

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Sinusitis/diagnostic imaging , Skull Base/physiopathology , Rhinitis, Allergic/diagnostic imaging , Invasive Fungal Infections/diagnostic imaging , Curvularia/pathogenicity , Sinusitis/surgery , Sinusitis/drug therapy , Prednisone/administration & dosage , Skull Base/surgery , Budesonide/administration & dosage , Rhinitis, Allergic/surgery , Rhinitis, Allergic/drug therapy , Invasive Fungal Infections/surgery , Invasive Fungal Infections/drug therapy
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 87(3): 260-268, May-Jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285685


Abstract Introduction Chronic rhinosinusitis is currently classified into two types: chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyps and chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps. In the West, approximately 80% of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps cases are characterized by a predominantly eosinophilic cell infiltrate and a Th2 cytokine pattern. Objective To evaluate the effect of Interferon-α on cytokine levels of the eosinophilic nasal polyp cell culture supernatant. Methods Cell cultures were performed based on nasal polypoid tissue samples collected from 13 patients with eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps. Polyps were considered eosinophilic according to the histopathological examination. Cell cultures were stimulated with 3000 IU of interferon-α. Before and after the stimulus, concentrations of Interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor αand IL 2, 4, 6 and 10, using cytometric bead array, were assessed. Results Cell samples from eosinophilic nasal polyps from 13 patients were included in the study. Twenty-four hours after interferon-α stimulation, eosinophilic nasal polyp culture supernatants showed significantly decreased IL-4 concentrations and increase in interferon-γ, IL-10 and IL-6 concentrations compared to controls. There were no significant differences in tumor necrosis factor -α and IL-2 concentrations. Conclusion We demonstrated that interferon-α in vitro alters the pattern of cytokines in cell cultures of eosinophilic nasal polyps. Analysis of these alterations suggests that interferon-α promotes a rebalancing of inflammatory profiles in cell cultures, favoring the expression of Th1 and regulatory cytokines over Th2 cytokines.

Resumo Introdução A rinossinusite crônica, atualmente, é classificada em dois tipos: Rinossinusite Crônica sem Pólipos Nasais (RSCsPN) e Rinossinusite Crônica com Pólipos Nasais (RSCcPN). No Ocidente, cerca de 80% dos casos de RSCcPN caracterizam-se por um infiltrado celular predominantemente eosinofílico e um padrão de citocinas Th2. Objetivo Avaliar o efeito do Interferon-alpha nos níveis de citocinas do sobrenadante de culturas celulares de pólipos nasais eosinofílicos. Método Foram feitas culturas celulares a partir de amostras de tecido polipoide nasal coletadas de 13 pacientes com RSCcPN eosinofílica. Os pólipos eram considerados eosinofílicos segundo exame histopatológico. As culturas celulares foram estimuladas com 3000 UI de IFN-α. Antes e após tal estímulo, foram avaliadas, no sobrenadante das culturas celulares, as concentrações do Interferon-γ (IFN-γ), do Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa (TNF-α) e das Interleucinas (IL) 2, 4, 6 e 10, usou-se o Cytometric Bead Array. Resultados Foram incluídas no estudo amostras celulares dos pólipos nasais eosinofílicos de 13 pacientes. Vinte e quatro horas após o estímulo com IFN-α, os sobrenadantes das culturas dos pólipos nasais eosinofílicos apresentaram, de forma significante, diminuição da concentração de IL-4 e aumento das concentrações de IFN-γ, IL-10 e IL-6, em relação ao controle. Não houve diferença significante nas concentrações de TNF-α e IL-2. Conclusão Demonstramos que o IFN-α, in vitro, altera o padrão de citocinas nas culturas celulares de pólipos nasais eosinofílicos. A análise do conjunto dessas alterações sugere que o IFN-α promove, nas culturas celulares, um rebalanceamento dos perfis inflamatórios, favorece a expressão de citocinas Th1 e regulatórias, em detrimento de citocinas do padrão Th2.

Humans , Sinusitis/drug therapy , Rhinitis/drug therapy , Nasal Polyps , Chronic Disease , Cytokines , Interferon-alpha
Rev. Soc. Bras. Clín. Méd ; 18(3): 165-170, mar 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1361515


Este relato teve como objetivo apresentar um caso de hepatotoxicidade colestática induzida por azatioprina em portadora da síndrome de Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada. À admissão, apresentava icterícia +3/+4, acolia fecal e colúria, além de aumento de marcadores hepáticos, sendo compatível com síndrome colestática, cuja etiologia foi confirmada após exclusão de outras causas possíveis e retirada da azatioprina. A paciente evoluiu, após 1 semana de retirada do fármaco, com diurese livre de coloração menos escura e evacuação presente, sem acolia. Além disso, houve melhora nos exames que precederam a alta hospitalar

This report aimed at presenting a case of azathioprine-induced cholestatic hepatotoxicity in a patient with Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome. On admission, she presented with jaundice +3/+4, acholic feces, and choluria, as well as increased hepatic markers, all consistent with cholestatic syndrome, the etiology of which was confirmed after other possible causes were ruled out and azathioprine was discontinued. After 1 week of the drug discontinuation, the patient progressed with free diuresis of lighter color and defecation, with no acholia. In addition, tests performed before discharge were improved.

Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Azathioprine/toxicity , Azathioprine/therapeutic use , Uveomeningoencephalitic Syndrome/drug therapy , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/diagnosis , Immunosuppressive Agents/toxicity , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Sinusitis/drug therapy , Azathioprine/adverse effects , Thorax/diagnostic imaging , Radiography , Cholestasis, Intrahepatic/diagnosis , Cholestasis, Intrahepatic/blood , Ultrasonography , Pneumonia, Bacterial/drug therapy , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/blood , Goiter, Nodular/diagnostic imaging , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
Rev. chil. infectol ; 37(1): 77-81, feb. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092725


Resumen Los episodios de neutropenia febril son cuadros graves, que requieren un estudio etiológico exhaustivo y un inicio rápido de antimicrobianos. Dentro de los posibles microorganismos causales se encuentran los de origen fúngico, los que, dependiendo de su grado de invasión tisular, pueden llegar a presentar una alta mortalidad. Presentamos el caso de un niño con una leucemia mieloide aguda, que tras su quimioterapia de inducción, presentó un episodio de neutropenia febril, con una infección rino-sinusal por Exserohilum rostratum, hongo filamentoso que raramente se asocia a cuadros patológicos. Se inició rápidamente terapia antifúngica, lo cual, asociado a un aseo quirúrgico precoz, lograron una respuesta clínica favorable, sin complicaciones. Luego del seguimiento, y tras recibir profilaxis secundaria durante los episodios de neutropenia, no ha vuelto a presentar nuevas lesiones ni compromiso rino-sinusal.

Abstract The episodes of febrile neutropenia are severe cases that require an exhaustive etiological study and a quick start of antimicrobial agents. Within the possible microorganisms, fungal origins are also found, and depending on its tissue invasion, they can reach a high mortality rate. A case of a pediatric patient who suffered from acute myeloid leukemia is reported, and after his induction chemotherapy, the patient showed an episode of febrile neutropenia, which matches a rhinosinusal infection caused by Exserohilum rostratum, a filamentous fungi that is uncommonly associated with pathological cases. An antifungal therapy and an early surgical treatment were started, which lead to a positive response, without complications to the patient. After the monitoring and receiving secondary prophylaxis during the episodes of neutropenia, the patient hasn't presented new injuries nor rhinosinusal damage.

Humans , Child , Ascomycota/isolation & purification , Sinusitis/complications , Sinusitis/microbiology , Sinusitis/drug therapy , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/complications , Mycoses/complications , Mycoses/drug therapy , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Neutropenia/etiology
In. Giachetto Larraz, Gustavo A; Pardo Casaretto, Lorena Victoria; Speranza Mourine, María Noelia. Prescripción de antimicrobianos para infecciones frecuentes en pediatría. Montevideo, Bibliomédica, 2020. p.53-89, ilus, tab.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1373293
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 79(2): 221-228, jun. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1014441


RESUMEN Durante el embarazo ocurren una serie de cambios, como edema y disminución de la actividad ciliar en la mucosa respiratoria alta, que pueden favorecer la aparición de síntomas y patologías del área otorrinolaringológica. La eficacia de los tratamientos farmacológicos en la rinitis del embarazo es pobre. El tratamiento de primera línea de la rinitis alérgica son los corticoides intranasales. Existe evidencia sobre la seguridad en el embarazo para furoato de fluticasona, mometasona y budesonida intranasal. El tratamiento del resfrio común está enfocado en el manejo sintomático, los antinflamatorios no esteroidales están contraindicados. En rinosinusitis aguda bacteriana la amoxicilina es de primera línea. En rinosinusitis crónica el manejo quirúrgico está reservado sólo para las complicaciones. Tanto la otitis media aguda como la amigdalitis aguda deben ser tratadas con antibióticos sólo si se sospecha origen bacteriano, el esquema de primera linea es amoxicilina y en caso de alergias se debe usar cefpodoxime o azitromicina. En caso de otorrea no existe evidencia sobre la seguridad de las gotas de antibióticos ótico durante el embarazo. Múltiples medicamentos utilizados habitualmente en otorrinolaringologia no pueden ser usados durante el embarazo. Se debe privilegiar la seguridad materno fetal, utilizando aquellos medicamentos con seguridad demostrada.

ABSTRACT During pregnancy a series of changes occur, such as edema and decreased ciliary activity in the upper respiratory mucosa, which may favor the appearance of symptoms and pathologies of the otorhinolaryngological area. The efficacy of pharmacological treatments in rhinitis of pregnancy is poor. The first-line treatment of allergic rhinitis is intranasal corticosteroids. There is evidence on safety in pregnancy for fluticasone furoate, mometasone and intranasal budesonide. The treatment of the common cold is focused on symptomatic management, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are contraindicated. In acute bacterial rhinosinusitis, amoxicillin is first-line. In chronic rhino-sinusitis in surgical management is reserved only for complications. Both acute otitis media and acute tonsillitis should be treated with antibiotics only if bacterial origin is suspected, the first-line treatment is amoxicillin, in the case of allergies, cefpodoxime or azithromycin should be used. In case of otorrhea there is no evidence on the safety of otic antibiotic drops during pregnancy. Conclusion: multiple medications commonly used in otorhinolaryngology cannot be used during pregnancy. Maternal and fetal safety should be privileged, using those medications with proven safety.

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Otorhinolaryngologic Diseases/drug therapy , Pregnancy Complications/drug therapy , Otitis Media/drug therapy , Sinusitis/drug therapy , Tonsillitis/drug therapy , Rhinitis/drug therapy
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 23(1): 101-103, Jan.-Mar. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002176


Abstract Introduction Eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis (ECRS) is characterized by an eosinophilic inflammation driven by Th2-type cytokines. Glucocorticosteroids are the most common first-line treatment for ECRS with nasal polyps. Objective We have evaluated the long-term treatment with double-dose intranasal corticosteroids in refractory ECRS nasal polyps resistant to the conventional dose and assessed the risk of adverse systemic effects Methods Sixteen subjects were enrolled in this study. All subjects had ECRS after endoscopic sinus surgery that resulted in recurrentmild andmoderate nasal polyps and were undergoing a postoperative follow-up application of mometasone furoate at a dose of 2 sprays (100 μg) in each nostril once a day (200 μg). All the patients were prescribed mometasone furoate, administered at a dose of 2 sprays (100 μg) in each nostril twice a day (400 μg) for 6 months. Results The average scores of the symptoms during the regular dose of intranasal steroid treatment were 5.2 ± 2.2, but 6 months after the high-dose application, they had significantly decreased to 2.5 ± 1.4 (p < 0.05). The polyp size showed an average score of 1.38 during the regular dose which was significantly reduced to 0.43 (p < 0.01) by the double dose. Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) showed normal ranges in all the patients tested. The cortisol plasma concentration was also normal. Conclusion Doubling the dose of the nasal topical spray mometasone furoate might be recommended for the treatment of recurrent nasal polyps in the postoperative follow-up of intractable ECRS. (AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Sinusitis/drug therapy , Rhinitis/drug therapy , Mometasone Furoate/administration & dosage , Mometasone Furoate/adverse effects , Postoperative Care , Sinusitis/surgery , Administration, Intranasal , Rhinitis/surgery , Nasal Polyps/physiopathology , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/adverse effects , Endoscopy , Nasal Sprays
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 78(2): 157-160, jun. 2018. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-961608


RESUMEN El síndrome de Churg-Strauss (SCS) es una vasculitis necrotizante sistémica de etiología desconocida, que afecta vasos sanguíneos de pequeño y mediano tamaño. Característicamente se definen tres estadios: prodrómico, hipereosinofílico y una etapa de vasculitis sistémica. Dentro del prodrómico se encuentran manifestaciones del área otorrinolaringológica, que suelen preceder por años a las manifestaciones propias de las vasculitis. Entre ellas destacan la otitis media crónica, rinitis alérgica y rinosinusitis crónica poliposa. Reportamos el caso de un paciente de sexo masculino de 64 años con poliposis nasosinusal bilateral, con biopsia compatible con SCS, encontrándose en estado prodrómico de la enfermedad. Además, presentamos una revisión de la literatura sobre esta patología.

ABSTRACT Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS) is a necrotizing systemic vasculitis of unknown etiology, which involves small and medium-sized vessels. It is characterized by three stages: prodromic, hypereosinophilic and systemic vasculitis. In the prodromal stage we can find otolaryngological manifestations (including chronic otitis media, allergic rhinitis, chronic rhinosinusitis with polyps) that usually precede the proper manifestations of the vasculitis by years. Here, we report a 64-year old male patient with sinonasal polyps and biopsy compatible with CSS, being in the prodromal stage of the illness. Also, we present a review of this disease.

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Churg-Strauss Syndrome/drug therapy , Churg-Strauss Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Nasal Polyps/complications , Sinusitis/drug therapy , Vasculitis , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Rhinitis/drug therapy , Diagnosis, Differential
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 84(3): 265-279, May-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951826


Abstract Introduction: Bacterial resistance burden has increased in the past years, mainly due to inappropriate antibiotic use. Recently it has become an urgent public health concern due to its impact on the prolongation of hospitalization, an increase of total cost of treatment and mortality associated with infectious disease. Almost half of the antimicrobial prescriptions in outpatient care visits are prescribed for acute upper respiratory infections, especially rhinosinusitis, otitis media, and pharyngotonsillitis. In this context, otorhinolaryngologists play an important role in orienting patients and non-specialists in the utilization of antibiotics rationally and properly in these infections. Objectives: To review the most recent recommendations and guidelines for the use of antibiotics in acute otitis media, acute rhinosinusitis, and pharyngotonsillitis, adapted to our national reality. Methods: A literature review on PubMed database including the medical management in acute otitis media, acute rhinosinusitis, and pharyngotonsillitis, followed by a discussion with a panel of specialists. Results: Antibiotics must be judiciously prescribed in uncomplicated acute upper respiratory tract infections. The severity of clinical presentation and the potential risks for evolution to suppurative and non-suppurative complications must be taken into 'consideration'. Conclusions: Periodic revisions on guidelines and recommendations for treatment of the main acute infections are necessary to orient rationale and appropriate use of antibiotics. Continuous medical education and changes in physicians' and patients' behavior are required to modify the paradigm that all upper respiratory infection needs antibiotic therapy, minimizing the consequences of its inadequate and inappropriate use.

Resumo Introdução: A resistência bacteriana a antibióticos nos processos infecciosos é um fato crescente nos últimos anos, especialmente devido ao seu uso inapropriado. Ao longo dos anos vem se tornando um grave problema de saúde pública devido ao prolongamento do tempo de internação, elevação dos custos de tratamento e aumento da mortalidade relacionada às doenças infecciosas. Quase a metade das prescrições de antibióticos em unidades de pronto atendimento é destinada ao tratamento de alguma infecção de vias aéreas superiores, especialmente rinossinusites, otite média aguda supurada e faringotonsilites agudas, sendo que uma significativa parcela dessas prescrições é inapropriada. Nesse contexto, os otorrinolaringologistas têm um papel fundamental na orientação de pacientes e colegas não especialistas, para o uso adequado e racional de antibióticos frente a essas situações clínicas. Objetivos: Realizar uma revisão das atuais recomendações de utilização de antibióticos nas otites médias, rinossinusites e faringotonsilites agudas adaptadas à realidade nacional. Método: Revisão na base PubMed das principais recomendações internacionais de tratamentos das infecções de vias aéreas superiores, seguido de discussão com um painel de especialistas. Resultados: Os antibióticos devem ser utilizados de maneira criteriosa nas infecções agudas de vias aéreas superiores não complicadas, a depender da gravidade da apresentação clínica e dos potenciais riscos associados de complicações supurativas e não supurativas. Conclusões: Constantes revisões a respeito do tratamento das principais infecções agudas são necessárias para que sejam tomadas medidas coletivas no uso racional e apropriado de antibióticos. Somente com orientação e transformações no comportamento de médicos e pacientes é que haverá mudanças do paradigma de que toda infecção de vias aéreas superiores deva ser tratada com antibióticos, minimizando por consequência os efeitos de seu uso inadequado.

Humans , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/statistics & numerical data , Inappropriate Prescribing/statistics & numerical data , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Otitis Media/drug therapy , Sinusitis/drug therapy , Pharyngitis/drug therapy , Tonsillitis/drug therapy , Rhinitis/drug therapy , Acute Disease
Medisan ; 22(4)abr. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-894705


Se realizó una investigación observacional, descriptiva y transversal de 132 pacientes con afecciones no traumáticas de los senos paranasales, atendidos en el Servicio de Otorrinolaringología del Hospital Provincial Docente Saturnino Lora Torres de Santiago de Cuba, desde enero del 2013 hasta diciembre del 2015, a fin de caracterizarles según variables epidemiológicas, clínicas y tomográficas de interés. En la serie predominaron los afectados de 39-58 años de edad (42,4 por ciento), el hábito de fumar (62,1 por ciento) y las infecciones dentarias (59,1 por ciento) como los principales factores de riesgo, así como los procesos inflamatorios sinusales (62,1 por ciento) que afectaron preferentemente el seno maxilar. Se halló coincidencia entre el diagnóstico definitivo y los signos tomográficos en 66 pacientes, con un coeficiente de Kappa de 0,80.

An observational, descriptive and cross-sectional investigation of 132 patients with non traumatic disorders of the paranasal sinuses, assisted in the Otolaryngology Service of Saturnino Lora Torres Teaching Provincial Hospital in Santiago de Cuba, was carried out from January, 2013 to December, 2015, in order to characterize them according to clinical, epidemiological and tomographic variables of interest. In the series there was a prevalence of the affected patients aged 39-58 (42.4 percent), the smoking habit (62.1 percent) and dental infections (59.1 percent) as the main risk factors, as well as the sinusal inflammatory processes (62.1 percent) that preferably affected the maxillary sinus. There was a coincidence between the definitive diagnosis and the tomographic signs in 66 patients, with a Kappa coefficient of 0.80.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Paranasal Sinuses/injuries , Paranasal Sinus Diseases , Paranasal Sinus Diseases/epidemiology , Sinusitis/drug therapy , Paranasal Sinus Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Observational Study
Medwave ; 18(6): e7294, 2018.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-948441


Resumen INTRODUCCIÓN: La rinosinusitis crónica es la inflamación de la mucosa nasosinusal de duración superior a 12 semanas. Se distinguen dos formas clínicas: rinosinusitis crónica con pólipos y sin pólipos. Los pacientes con rinosinusitis crónica con pólipos presentan niveles elevados de interleukina 5, la cual promueve la diferenciación y supervivencia de eosinófilos, por lo que se ha propuesto minimizar su circulación como una nueva estrategia de tratamiento. Sin embargo, no hay claridad respecto a su real efectividad. MÉTODOS: Para responder esta pregunta utilizamos Epistemonikos, la mayor base de datos de revisiones sistemáticas en salud, la cual es mantenida mediante búsquedas en múltiples fuentes de información, incluyendo MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, entre otras. Extrajimos los datos desde las revisiones identificadas, reanalizamos los datos de los estudios primarios, realizamos un metanálisis y preparamos una tabla de resumen de los resultados utilizando el método GRADE. RESULTADOS Y CONCLUSIONES: Identificamos tres revisiones sistemáticas que en conjunto incluyeron tres estudios primarios, todos correspondientes a ensayos aleatorizados. Concluimos que los inhibidores de interleukina 5 podrían disminuir el puntaje de pólipos nasales. Si bien podrían asociarse a efectos adversos, estos serían poco frecuentes y de baja severidad. Sin embargo, la certeza de la evidencia es baja.

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Chronic rhinosinusitis is the inflammation of sinonasal mucosa lasting longer than 12 weeks. Two clinical forms are distinguished: chronic rhinosinusitis with polyps and without polyps. Patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with polyps exhibit high levels of interleukin 5, which promotes differentiation and survival of eosinophils. So, minimizing their circulation has been proposed as a new treatment strategy. However, there is no clarity regarding its real effectiveness. METHODS: To answer this question we used Epistemonikos, the largest database of systematic reviews in health, which is maintained by screening multiple information sources, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, among others. We extracted data from the systematic reviews, reanalyzed data of primary studies, conducted a meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings table using the GRADE approach. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: We identified three systematic reviews included three primary studies overall, all corresponding to randomized trials. We concluded inhibitors of interleukin 5 might decrease nasal polyps score. Although they might be associated with adverse effects, these would be infrequent and of low severity. However, the certainty of the evidence is low.

Humans , Sinusitis/drug therapy , Rhinitis/drug therapy , Interleukin-5/immunology , Sinusitis/immunology , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Rhinitis/immunology , Nasal Polyps/immunology , Nasal Polyps/drug therapy , Chronic Disease , Databases, Factual , Interleukin-5/antagonists & inhibitors
Medwave ; 18(7)2018.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-966461


Resumen INTRODUCCIÓN: La rinosinusitis crónica es una enfermedad inflamatoria crónica de alta prevalencia que compromete la mucosa de la cavidad nasal y senos paranasales. La inmunoglobulina E es un mediador inflamatorio que juega un rol etiopatogénico en esta condición, por lo que se ha planteado que omalizumab, un anticuerpo monoclonal anti-inmunoglobulina E, podría constituir una alternativa de tratamiento. MÉTODOS: Realizamos una búsqueda en Epistemonikos, la mayor base de datos de revisiones sistemáticas en salud, la cual es mantenida mediante el cribado de múltiples fuentes de información, incluyendo MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, entre otras. Extrajimos los datos desde las revisiones identificadas, analizamos los datos de los estudios primarios, realizamos un metanálisis y preparamos una tabla de resumen de los resultados utilizando el método GRADE. RESULTADOS Y CONCLUSIONES: Identificamos cinco revisiones sistemáticas que en conjunto incluyeron cinco estudios primarios, de los cuales dos corresponden a ensayos controlados aleatorizados. Concluimos que en pacientes con rinosinusitis crónica, no está claro si omalizumab lleva a una mejoría en la escala de pólipos nasales, la calidad de vida, el bienestar general o los síntomas nasales porque la certeza de la evidencia es muy baja. Por otra parte, el uso de omalizumab probablemente se asocia a efectos adversos frecuentes.

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Chronic rhinosinusitis is a high prevalence chronic inflammatory disease that involves nasal mucosa and paranasal sinuses. Immunoglobulin E is an inflammatory mediator that plays an etiopathogenic role in this condition, so omalizumab, an anti-immunoglobulin E monoclonal antibody, might be a therapeutic alternative. METHODS: We searched in Epistemonikos, the largest database of systematic reviews in health, which is maintained by screening multiple information sources, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, among others. We extracted data from the systematic reviews, reanalyzed data of primary studies, conducted a meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings table using the GRADE approach. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: We identified five systematic reviews that included five primary studies overall, of which two correspond to randomized trials. We concluded it is not clear whether omalizumab leads to an improvement in the nasal polyps scale, quality of life, general well-being or nasal symptoms in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis, because the certainty of the evidence is very low. On the other hand, omalizumab is probably associated with frequent adverse effects.

Humans , Sinusitis/drug therapy , Rhinitis/drug therapy , Omalizumab/therapeutic use , Quality of Life , Sinusitis/immunology , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Rhinitis/immunology , Nasal Polyps/immunology , Nasal Polyps/drug therapy , Chronic Disease , Databases, Factual , Anti-Allergic Agents/adverse effects , Anti-Allergic Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Allergic Agents/pharmacology , Omalizumab/adverse effects , Omalizumab/immunology
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 83(6): 619-626, Nov.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889326


Abstract Introduction: Antibiotics are frequently used for the treatment of rhinosinusitis. Concerns have been raised regarding the adverse effects of antibiotics and growing resistance. The lack of development of new antibiotic compounds has increased the necessity for exploration of non-antibiotic compounds that have antibacterial activity. Amlodipine is a non-antibiotic compound with anti-inflammatory activity. Objective: In this study we aimed to investigate the potential role of amlodipine in the treatment of rhinosinusitis by evaluating its effects on tissue oxidative status, mucosal histology and inflammation. Methods: Fifteen adult albino guinea pigs were inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus and treated with saline, cefazolin sodium, or amlodipine for 7 days. The control group was composed by five healthy guinea pigs. Animals were sacrificed after the treatment. Histopathological changes were identified using Hematoxylin-Eosin staining. Inflammation was assessed by Polymorphonuclear Leukocyte infiltration density. Tissue levels of antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, glutathione) and an oxidative product (malondialdehyde) were determined. Results: In rhinosinusitis induced animals, amlodipine reduced loss of cilia, lamina propria edema and collagen deposition compared to placebo (saline) and although not superior to cefazolin, amlodipine decreased polymorphonuclear leukocyte infiltration. The superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione levels were reduced, whereas the malondialdehyde levels were increased significantly in all three-treatment groups compared to the control group. Amlodipine treated group showed significantly increased superoxide dismutase and glutathione levels and decreased malondialdehyde levels compared to all treatment groups. Conclusion: The non-antibiotic compound amlodipine may have a role in acute rhinosinusitis treatment through tissue protective, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms.

Resumo Introdução: Antibióticos são frequentemente usados para o tratamento de rinossinusite. Questões têm sido levantadas sobre os efeitos adversos dos antibióticos e a resistência crescente. A falta de desenvolvimento de novos compostos antibióticos aumentou a necessidade da exploração de compostos não antibióticos que têm atividade antibacteriana. A amlodipina é um composto não antibiótico com atividade anti-inflamatória. Objetivo: O objetivo desse estudo foi investigar o papel potencial da amlodipina no tratamento da rinossinusite, avaliando seus efeitos sobre o estado oxidativo do tecido, histologia da mucosa e inflamação. Método: Quinze cobaias albinas adultas foram inoculadas com Staphylococcus aureus e tratadas com solução salina, cefazolina ou amlodipina durante sete dias. O grupo controle incluiu cinco cobaias saudáveis. Os animais foram sacrificados após o tratamento. Alterações histopatológicas foram identificadas com a coloração de hematoxilina-eosina. A inflamação foi avaliada pela densidade de infiltração de leucócitos polimorfonucleares. Foram determinados os níveis teciduais de antioxidantes (superóxido dismutase, glutationa) e um produto de oxidação (malondialdeído). Resultados: Em animais com rinossinusite induzida, a amlodipina reduziu a perda dos cílios, edema da lâmina própria e deposição de colágeno em comparação com o grupo placebo (solução salina) e embora não seja superior à cefazolina, a amlodipina diminuiu a infiltração de leucócitos polimorfonucleares. Os níveis de atividade da superóxido dismutase e glutationa foram reduzidos, enquanto os níveis de malondialdeído aumentaram significativamente nos três grupos de tratamento em comparação ao grupo controle. O grupo tratado com amlodipina apresentou aumento significante dos níveis de superóxido dismutase e glutationa e diminuição dos níveis de malondialdeído em comparação com todos os grupos de tratamento. Conclusão: O composto não antibiótico amlodipina pode ter um papel no tratamento da rinossinusite aguda através de mecanismos protetores de tecido, antioxidantes e anti-inflamatórios.

Animals , Sinusitis/drug therapy , Rhinitis/drug therapy , Amlodipine/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Reference Values , Staphylococcus aureus , Superoxide Dismutase/analysis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Random Allocation , Cefazolin/therapeutic use , Cefazolin/pharmacology , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Amlodipine/therapeutic use , Glutathione/analysis , Glutathione/drug effects , Guinea Pigs , Malondialdehyde/analysis , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Nasal Mucosa/drug effects , Nasal Mucosa/pathology
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 83(2): 215-227, Mar.-Apr. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839424


Abstract Introduction: Inflammatory conditions of the nose and paranasal sinuses are very prevalent in the general population, resulting in marked loss of quality of life in affected patients, as well as significant work, leisure, and social activity losses. These patients require specific and specialized treatment. A wide range of oral medications are available. Objective: The present document is aimed to clarify, for professionals treating patients with inflammatory sinonasal diseases, both specialists and general practitioners, specific oral therapies in noninfectious nasal inflammatory conditions. Methods: The methodology used to create this article included the search for the key words: oral corticosteroids, antihistamines, antileukotrienes, rhinitis, rhinosinusitis in the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases in the last 5 years. Since no relevant article was found for the text on the subject of interest in the last 5 years, the search was extended for another 5 years, and so on, according to the authors’ needs. Results: Relevant literature was found regarding the use of antihistamines, antileukotrienes and oral corticosteroids in these conditions. The Brazilian Academy of Rhinology emphasizes, after extensive discussion by the collegiate, key points in the treatment with these drugs. Conclusion: There is support in the literature for the use of these drugs; however, final considerations about the role of each of them have been made.

Resumo Introdução: As afecções inflamatórias do nariz e dos seios paranasais são muito prevalentes na população geral, causam acentuada perda de qualidade de vida dos pacientes afetados, geram perdas significativas das atividades de trabalho, lazer e sociais. Esses pacientes necessitam de tratamento específico e especializado e uma ampla gama de medicações orais está disponível. Objetivo: O presente documento tem por objetivo esclarecer àqueles que tratam das doenças nasossinusais inflamatórias, tanto especialistas quanto generalistas, sobre as terapêuticas orais nas afecções inflamatórias nasais não infecciosas. Método: A metodologia usada para elaboração deste artigo incluiu a busca das palavras chave: corticosteroides orais, anti-histamínicos, antileucotrienos, rinite, rinossinusite nos bancos de dados Medline e Embase nos últimos 5 anos. Como não foi achado artigo relevante para o texto sobre o assunto de interesse nos últimos 5 anos, a busca foi estendida por mais 5 anos, e assim por diante, de acordo com a necessidade dos autores. Resultados: Literatura relevante foi encontrada com relação ao uso dos anti-histamínicos, antileucotrienos e corticosteroides orais nessas afecções. A Academia Brasileira de Rinologia ressalta, após amplo debate do colegiado, pontos-chave no tratamento com esses medicamentos. Conclusão: Há respaldo na literatura para o uso desses medicamentos, entretanto considerações finais acerca do papel de cada deles foram feitas.

Humans , Sinusitis/drug therapy , Rhinitis/drug therapy , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , Leukotriene Antagonists/administration & dosage , Histamine Antagonists/administration & dosage , Brazil , Acute Disease , Chronic Disease , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/adverse effects , Leukotriene Antagonists/adverse effects , Academies and Institutes , Histamine Antagonists/adverse effects
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 82(2): 191-197, Mar.-Apr. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-780980


ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is termed difficult-to-treat when patients do not reach acceptable level of control despite adequate surgery, intranasal corticosteroid treatment and up to 2 short courses of systemic antibiotics or corticosteroids in the preceding year. Recently, high-volume corticosteroid nasal irrigations have been recommended for CRS treatment. OBJECTIVE: To assess high-volume budesonide nasal irrigations for difficult-to-treat CRS. METHODS: Prospective uncontrolled intervention trial. Participants were assessed before- and 3 months after nasal irrigation with 1 mg of budesonide in 500 mL of saline solution daily for 2 days. Subjective (satisfactory clinical improvement) and objective (SNOT-22 questionnaire and Lund-Kennedy endoscopic scores) assessments were performed. RESULTS: Sixteen patients were included, and 13 (81.3%) described satisfactory clinical improvement. SNOT-22 mean scores (50.2-29.6; p = 0.006) and Lund-Kennedy mean scores (8.8-5.1; p = 0.01) improved significantly. Individually, 75% of patients improved SNOT-22 scores, and 75% improved Lund-Kennedy scores after high volume budesonide nasal irrigations. CONCLUSION: High-volume corticosteroid nasal irrigations are a good option in difficult-to-treat CRS control of disease, reaching 81.3% success control and significant improvement of SNOT-22 and Lund-Kennedy scores.

RESUMO INTRODUÇÃO: A rinossinusite crônica (RSC) de difícil tratamento é aquela inadequadamente controlada com cirurgia, corticosteroides tópicos em spray e até dois ciclos de medicação sistêmica em um ano. Atualmente, tem sido preconizado o uso de irrigações nasais de corticosteroides em alto volume para seu tratamento. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o uso da terapia tópica de irrigações nasais com budesonida em alto volume nos pacientes com RSC de difícil tratamento. MÉTODO: Estudo prospectivo de intervenção não controlado em RSC de difícil tratamento com 3 meses de terapia tópica de irrigação (1 mg de budesonida diluído em 500 mL de soro fisiológico para ser utilizado em dois dias). Realizada avaliação subjetiva (melhora clínica satisfatória) e objetiva (questionário SNOT-22 e classificação endoscópica de Lund-Kennedy). RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos 16 pacientes, sendo que 13 (81,3%) consideraram sua melhora clínica satisfatória. Houve melhora significante das médias de SNOT-22 (50,2 a 29,6; p = 0,006) e de Lund-Kennedy (8,8 a 5,1; p = 0,01). Individualmente, 75% dos pacientes apresentaram melhora do SNOT-22 e 75%, do Lund-Kennedy. CONCLUSÃO: A terapia tópica de irrigação de alto volume de corticosteroide é uma boa opção no controle clínico dos pacientes com rinossinusite crônica de difícil tratamento, com controle adequado de 81,3% destes pacientes e melhora significante do SNOT-22 e do Lund-Kennedy.

Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Budesonide/administration & dosage , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Nasal Lavage , Rhinitis/drug therapy , Sinusitis/drug therapy , Chronic Disease , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
Bogotá; IETS; dic. 2014. ilus.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, BRISA | ID: biblio-847177


Introducción: la rinosinusitis crónica (RSC) es definida como una inflamación de la mucosa nasal y senos paranasales durante al menos 12 semanas o superior, afecta a todas las edades, pero es más prevalente en la edad adulta. Debido a que la rinosinusitis crónica idiopática es una enfermedad inflamatoria crónica, el manejo médico debe estar dirigido a controlar la inflamación y el manejo de las exacerbaciones. El uso diario de corticosteroides tópicos nasales es la piedra angular en el tratamiento de la rinosinusitis crónica idiopática. Objetivo: examinar la efectividad y seguridad del corticosteroide tópico nasal Mometasona como tratamiento de síntomas relacionado con rinosinusitis crónica idiopática en pacientes niños y adultos. Metodología: se realizó una búsqueda sistemática y exhaustiva de literatura, de revisiones sitemáticas de literatura de alta calidad en los últimos 5 años. Todo el proceso se acogió a los estándares de calidad internacional utilizados por la Colaboración Cochrane. Resultados: de las búsquedas, se obtuvieron 531 referencias, de las que, luego de tamización de título y resumen, se obtuvieron 6 para evaluar en texto completo, y de las cuáles se excluyeron 4, para incluir dos en el análisis de este reporte. Conclusiones: los CEN son más efectivos que el placebo para controlar los síntomas nasales y, adicionalmente, se relacionan con mayor proporción de pacientes con cirugía de senos paranasales que responden al tratamiento. En el caso de pacientes sin cirugía de senos paranasales, no hubo diferencias entre los CEN y el placebo, ni tampoco se encontraron diferencias entre ellos en mejorar la calidad de vida, ni diferencias en la mejoría evaluada con cambios endoscópicos. No hay evidencia de diferencias entre ellos mismos (beclometasona, fluticasona y mometasona), en cuanto a efectividad. No hay evidencia para determinar que beclometasona, fluticasona, mometasona y ciclesonida, son diferentes en cuanto a eventos adversos.

Humans , Rhinitis/drug therapy , Sinusitis/drug therapy , Administration, Intranasal , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , Biomedical Technology , Chronic Disease , Colombia , Mometasone Furoate/administration & dosage , Treatment Outcome