Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 85
Filter
1.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 37(1): 77-81, feb. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092725

ABSTRACT

Resumen Los episodios de neutropenia febril son cuadros graves, que requieren un estudio etiológico exhaustivo y un inicio rápido de antimicrobianos. Dentro de los posibles microorganismos causales se encuentran los de origen fúngico, los que, dependiendo de su grado de invasión tisular, pueden llegar a presentar una alta mortalidad. Presentamos el caso de un niño con una leucemia mieloide aguda, que tras su quimioterapia de inducción, presentó un episodio de neutropenia febril, con una infección rino-sinusal por Exserohilum rostratum, hongo filamentoso que raramente se asocia a cuadros patológicos. Se inició rápidamente terapia antifúngica, lo cual, asociado a un aseo quirúrgico precoz, lograron una respuesta clínica favorable, sin complicaciones. Luego del seguimiento, y tras recibir profilaxis secundaria durante los episodios de neutropenia, no ha vuelto a presentar nuevas lesiones ni compromiso rino-sinusal.


Abstract The episodes of febrile neutropenia are severe cases that require an exhaustive etiological study and a quick start of antimicrobial agents. Within the possible microorganisms, fungal origins are also found, and depending on its tissue invasion, they can reach a high mortality rate. A case of a pediatric patient who suffered from acute myeloid leukemia is reported, and after his induction chemotherapy, the patient showed an episode of febrile neutropenia, which matches a rhinosinusal infection caused by Exserohilum rostratum, a filamentous fungi that is uncommonly associated with pathological cases. An antifungal therapy and an early surgical treatment were started, which lead to a positive response, without complications to the patient. After the monitoring and receiving secondary prophylaxis during the episodes of neutropenia, the patient hasn't presented new injuries nor rhinosinusal damage.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Ascomycota/isolation & purification , Sinusitis/complications , Sinusitis/microbiology , Sinusitis/drug therapy , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/complications , Mycoses/complications , Mycoses/drug therapy , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Neutropenia/etiology
2.
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 79(2): 221-228, jun. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1014441

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Durante el embarazo ocurren una serie de cambios, como edema y disminución de la actividad ciliar en la mucosa respiratoria alta, que pueden favorecer la aparición de síntomas y patologías del área otorrinolaringológica. La eficacia de los tratamientos farmacológicos en la rinitis del embarazo es pobre. El tratamiento de primera línea de la rinitis alérgica son los corticoides intranasales. Existe evidencia sobre la seguridad en el embarazo para furoato de fluticasona, mometasona y budesonida intranasal. El tratamiento del resfrio común está enfocado en el manejo sintomático, los antinflamatorios no esteroidales están contraindicados. En rinosinusitis aguda bacteriana la amoxicilina es de primera línea. En rinosinusitis crónica el manejo quirúrgico está reservado sólo para las complicaciones. Tanto la otitis media aguda como la amigdalitis aguda deben ser tratadas con antibióticos sólo si se sospecha origen bacteriano, el esquema de primera linea es amoxicilina y en caso de alergias se debe usar cefpodoxime o azitromicina. En caso de otorrea no existe evidencia sobre la seguridad de las gotas de antibióticos ótico durante el embarazo. Múltiples medicamentos utilizados habitualmente en otorrinolaringologia no pueden ser usados durante el embarazo. Se debe privilegiar la seguridad materno fetal, utilizando aquellos medicamentos con seguridad demostrada.


ABSTRACT During pregnancy a series of changes occur, such as edema and decreased ciliary activity in the upper respiratory mucosa, which may favor the appearance of symptoms and pathologies of the otorhinolaryngological area. The efficacy of pharmacological treatments in rhinitis of pregnancy is poor. The first-line treatment of allergic rhinitis is intranasal corticosteroids. There is evidence on safety in pregnancy for fluticasone furoate, mometasone and intranasal budesonide. The treatment of the common cold is focused on symptomatic management, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are contraindicated. In acute bacterial rhinosinusitis, amoxicillin is first-line. In chronic rhino-sinusitis in surgical management is reserved only for complications. Both acute otitis media and acute tonsillitis should be treated with antibiotics only if bacterial origin is suspected, the first-line treatment is amoxicillin, in the case of allergies, cefpodoxime or azithromycin should be used. In case of otorrhea there is no evidence on the safety of otic antibiotic drops during pregnancy. Conclusion: multiple medications commonly used in otorhinolaryngology cannot be used during pregnancy. Maternal and fetal safety should be privileged, using those medications with proven safety.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Otorhinolaryngologic Diseases/drug therapy , Pregnancy Complications/drug therapy , Otitis Media/drug therapy , Sinusitis/drug therapy , Tonsillitis/drug therapy , Rhinitis/drug therapy
3.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 23(1): 101-103, Jan.-Mar. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002176

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis (ECRS) is characterized by an eosinophilic inflammation driven by Th2-type cytokines. Glucocorticosteroids are the most common first-line treatment for ECRS with nasal polyps. Objective We have evaluated the long-term treatment with double-dose intranasal corticosteroids in refractory ECRS nasal polyps resistant to the conventional dose and assessed the risk of adverse systemic effects Methods Sixteen subjects were enrolled in this study. All subjects had ECRS after endoscopic sinus surgery that resulted in recurrentmild andmoderate nasal polyps and were undergoing a postoperative follow-up application of mometasone furoate at a dose of 2 sprays (100 μg) in each nostril once a day (200 μg). All the patients were prescribed mometasone furoate, administered at a dose of 2 sprays (100 μg) in each nostril twice a day (400 μg) for 6 months. Results The average scores of the symptoms during the regular dose of intranasal steroid treatment were 5.2 ± 2.2, but 6 months after the high-dose application, they had significantly decreased to 2.5 ± 1.4 (p < 0.05). The polyp size showed an average score of 1.38 during the regular dose which was significantly reduced to 0.43 (p < 0.01) by the double dose. Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) showed normal ranges in all the patients tested. The cortisol plasma concentration was also normal. Conclusion Doubling the dose of the nasal topical spray mometasone furoate might be recommended for the treatment of recurrent nasal polyps in the postoperative follow-up of intractable ECRS. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Sinusitis/drug therapy , Rhinitis/drug therapy , Mometasone Furoate/administration & dosage , Mometasone Furoate/adverse effects , Postoperative Care , Sinusitis/surgery , Administration, Intranasal , Rhinitis/surgery , Nasal Polyps/physiopathology , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/adverse effects , Endoscopy , Nasal Sprays
4.
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 78(2): 157-160, jun. 2018. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-961608

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN El síndrome de Churg-Strauss (SCS) es una vasculitis necrotizante sistémica de etiología desconocida, que afecta vasos sanguíneos de pequeño y mediano tamaño. Característicamente se definen tres estadios: prodrómico, hipereosinofílico y una etapa de vasculitis sistémica. Dentro del prodrómico se encuentran manifestaciones del área otorrinolaringológica, que suelen preceder por años a las manifestaciones propias de las vasculitis. Entre ellas destacan la otitis media crónica, rinitis alérgica y rinosinusitis crónica poliposa. Reportamos el caso de un paciente de sexo masculino de 64 años con poliposis nasosinusal bilateral, con biopsia compatible con SCS, encontrándose en estado prodrómico de la enfermedad. Además, presentamos una revisión de la literatura sobre esta patología.


ABSTRACT Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS) is a necrotizing systemic vasculitis of unknown etiology, which involves small and medium-sized vessels. It is characterized by three stages: prodromic, hypereosinophilic and systemic vasculitis. In the prodromal stage we can find otolaryngological manifestations (including chronic otitis media, allergic rhinitis, chronic rhinosinusitis with polyps) that usually precede the proper manifestations of the vasculitis by years. Here, we report a 64-year old male patient with sinonasal polyps and biopsy compatible with CSS, being in the prodromal stage of the illness. Also, we present a review of this disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Churg-Strauss Syndrome/drug therapy , Churg-Strauss Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Nasal Polyps/complications , Sinusitis/drug therapy , Vasculitis , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Rhinitis/drug therapy , Diagnosis, Differential
5.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 84(3): 265-279, May-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951826

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Bacterial resistance burden has increased in the past years, mainly due to inappropriate antibiotic use. Recently it has become an urgent public health concern due to its impact on the prolongation of hospitalization, an increase of total cost of treatment and mortality associated with infectious disease. Almost half of the antimicrobial prescriptions in outpatient care visits are prescribed for acute upper respiratory infections, especially rhinosinusitis, otitis media, and pharyngotonsillitis. In this context, otorhinolaryngologists play an important role in orienting patients and non-specialists in the utilization of antibiotics rationally and properly in these infections. Objectives: To review the most recent recommendations and guidelines for the use of antibiotics in acute otitis media, acute rhinosinusitis, and pharyngotonsillitis, adapted to our national reality. Methods: A literature review on PubMed database including the medical management in acute otitis media, acute rhinosinusitis, and pharyngotonsillitis, followed by a discussion with a panel of specialists. Results: Antibiotics must be judiciously prescribed in uncomplicated acute upper respiratory tract infections. The severity of clinical presentation and the potential risks for evolution to suppurative and non-suppurative complications must be taken into 'consideration'. Conclusions: Periodic revisions on guidelines and recommendations for treatment of the main acute infections are necessary to orient rationale and appropriate use of antibiotics. Continuous medical education and changes in physicians' and patients' behavior are required to modify the paradigm that all upper respiratory infection needs antibiotic therapy, minimizing the consequences of its inadequate and inappropriate use.


Resumo Introdução: A resistência bacteriana a antibióticos nos processos infecciosos é um fato crescente nos últimos anos, especialmente devido ao seu uso inapropriado. Ao longo dos anos vem se tornando um grave problema de saúde pública devido ao prolongamento do tempo de internação, elevação dos custos de tratamento e aumento da mortalidade relacionada às doenças infecciosas. Quase a metade das prescrições de antibióticos em unidades de pronto atendimento é destinada ao tratamento de alguma infecção de vias aéreas superiores, especialmente rinossinusites, otite média aguda supurada e faringotonsilites agudas, sendo que uma significativa parcela dessas prescrições é inapropriada. Nesse contexto, os otorrinolaringologistas têm um papel fundamental na orientação de pacientes e colegas não especialistas, para o uso adequado e racional de antibióticos frente a essas situações clínicas. Objetivos: Realizar uma revisão das atuais recomendações de utilização de antibióticos nas otites médias, rinossinusites e faringotonsilites agudas adaptadas à realidade nacional. Método: Revisão na base PubMed das principais recomendações internacionais de tratamentos das infecções de vias aéreas superiores, seguido de discussão com um painel de especialistas. Resultados: Os antibióticos devem ser utilizados de maneira criteriosa nas infecções agudas de vias aéreas superiores não complicadas, a depender da gravidade da apresentação clínica e dos potenciais riscos associados de complicações supurativas e não supurativas. Conclusões: Constantes revisões a respeito do tratamento das principais infecções agudas são necessárias para que sejam tomadas medidas coletivas no uso racional e apropriado de antibióticos. Somente com orientação e transformações no comportamento de médicos e pacientes é que haverá mudanças do paradigma de que toda infecção de vias aéreas superiores deva ser tratada com antibióticos, minimizando por consequência os efeitos de seu uso inadequado.


Subject(s)
Humans , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/statistics & numerical data , Inappropriate Prescribing/statistics & numerical data , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Otitis Media/drug therapy , Sinusitis/drug therapy , Pharyngitis/drug therapy , Tonsillitis/drug therapy , Rhinitis/drug therapy , Acute Disease
6.
Medisan ; 22(4)abr. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-894705

ABSTRACT

Se realizó una investigación observacional, descriptiva y transversal de 132 pacientes con afecciones no traumáticas de los senos paranasales, atendidos en el Servicio de Otorrinolaringología del Hospital Provincial Docente Saturnino Lora Torres de Santiago de Cuba, desde enero del 2013 hasta diciembre del 2015, a fin de caracterizarles según variables epidemiológicas, clínicas y tomográficas de interés. En la serie predominaron los afectados de 39-58 años de edad (42,4 por ciento), el hábito de fumar (62,1 por ciento) y las infecciones dentarias (59,1 por ciento) como los principales factores de riesgo, así como los procesos inflamatorios sinusales (62,1 por ciento) que afectaron preferentemente el seno maxilar. Se halló coincidencia entre el diagnóstico definitivo y los signos tomográficos en 66 pacientes, con un coeficiente de Kappa de 0,80.


An observational, descriptive and cross-sectional investigation of 132 patients with non traumatic disorders of the paranasal sinuses, assisted in the Otolaryngology Service of Saturnino Lora Torres Teaching Provincial Hospital in Santiago de Cuba, was carried out from January, 2013 to December, 2015, in order to characterize them according to clinical, epidemiological and tomographic variables of interest. In the series there was a prevalence of the affected patients aged 39-58 (42.4 percent), the smoking habit (62.1 percent) and dental infections (59.1 percent) as the main risk factors, as well as the sinusal inflammatory processes (62.1 percent) that preferably affected the maxillary sinus. There was a coincidence between the definitive diagnosis and the tomographic signs in 66 patients, with a Kappa coefficient of 0.80.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Paranasal Sinuses/injuries , Paranasal Sinus Diseases , Paranasal Sinus Diseases/epidemiology , Sinusitis/drug therapy , Paranasal Sinus Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Observational Study
7.
Medwave ; 18(6): e7294, 2018.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-948441

ABSTRACT

Resumen INTRODUCCIÓN: La rinosinusitis crónica es la inflamación de la mucosa nasosinusal de duración superior a 12 semanas. Se distinguen dos formas clínicas: rinosinusitis crónica con pólipos y sin pólipos. Los pacientes con rinosinusitis crónica con pólipos presentan niveles elevados de interleukina 5, la cual promueve la diferenciación y supervivencia de eosinófilos, por lo que se ha propuesto minimizar su circulación como una nueva estrategia de tratamiento. Sin embargo, no hay claridad respecto a su real efectividad. MÉTODOS: Para responder esta pregunta utilizamos Epistemonikos, la mayor base de datos de revisiones sistemáticas en salud, la cual es mantenida mediante búsquedas en múltiples fuentes de información, incluyendo MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, entre otras. Extrajimos los datos desde las revisiones identificadas, reanalizamos los datos de los estudios primarios, realizamos un metanálisis y preparamos una tabla de resumen de los resultados utilizando el método GRADE. RESULTADOS Y CONCLUSIONES: Identificamos tres revisiones sistemáticas que en conjunto incluyeron tres estudios primarios, todos correspondientes a ensayos aleatorizados. Concluimos que los inhibidores de interleukina 5 podrían disminuir el puntaje de pólipos nasales. Si bien podrían asociarse a efectos adversos, estos serían poco frecuentes y de baja severidad. Sin embargo, la certeza de la evidencia es baja.


Abstract INTRODUCTION: Chronic rhinosinusitis is the inflammation of sinonasal mucosa lasting longer than 12 weeks. Two clinical forms are distinguished: chronic rhinosinusitis with polyps and without polyps. Patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with polyps exhibit high levels of interleukin 5, which promotes differentiation and survival of eosinophils. So, minimizing their circulation has been proposed as a new treatment strategy. However, there is no clarity regarding its real effectiveness. METHODS: To answer this question we used Epistemonikos, the largest database of systematic reviews in health, which is maintained by screening multiple information sources, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, among others. We extracted data from the systematic reviews, reanalyzed data of primary studies, conducted a meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings table using the GRADE approach. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: We identified three systematic reviews included three primary studies overall, all corresponding to randomized trials. We concluded inhibitors of interleukin 5 might decrease nasal polyps score. Although they might be associated with adverse effects, these would be infrequent and of low severity. However, the certainty of the evidence is low.


Subject(s)
Humans , Sinusitis/drug therapy , Rhinitis/drug therapy , Interleukin-5/immunology , Sinusitis/immunology , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Rhinitis/immunology , Nasal Polyps/immunology , Nasal Polyps/drug therapy , Chronic Disease , Databases, Factual , Interleukin-5/antagonists & inhibitors
8.
Medwave ; 18(7)2018.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-966461

ABSTRACT

Resumen INTRODUCCIÓN: La rinosinusitis crónica es una enfermedad inflamatoria crónica de alta prevalencia que compromete la mucosa de la cavidad nasal y senos paranasales. La inmunoglobulina E es un mediador inflamatorio que juega un rol etiopatogénico en esta condición, por lo que se ha planteado que omalizumab, un anticuerpo monoclonal anti-inmunoglobulina E, podría constituir una alternativa de tratamiento. MÉTODOS: Realizamos una búsqueda en Epistemonikos, la mayor base de datos de revisiones sistemáticas en salud, la cual es mantenida mediante el cribado de múltiples fuentes de información, incluyendo MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, entre otras. Extrajimos los datos desde las revisiones identificadas, analizamos los datos de los estudios primarios, realizamos un metanálisis y preparamos una tabla de resumen de los resultados utilizando el método GRADE. RESULTADOS Y CONCLUSIONES: Identificamos cinco revisiones sistemáticas que en conjunto incluyeron cinco estudios primarios, de los cuales dos corresponden a ensayos controlados aleatorizados. Concluimos que en pacientes con rinosinusitis crónica, no está claro si omalizumab lleva a una mejoría en la escala de pólipos nasales, la calidad de vida, el bienestar general o los síntomas nasales porque la certeza de la evidencia es muy baja. Por otra parte, el uso de omalizumab probablemente se asocia a efectos adversos frecuentes.


Abstract INTRODUCTION: Chronic rhinosinusitis is a high prevalence chronic inflammatory disease that involves nasal mucosa and paranasal sinuses. Immunoglobulin E is an inflammatory mediator that plays an etiopathogenic role in this condition, so omalizumab, an anti-immunoglobulin E monoclonal antibody, might be a therapeutic alternative. METHODS: We searched in Epistemonikos, the largest database of systematic reviews in health, which is maintained by screening multiple information sources, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, among others. We extracted data from the systematic reviews, reanalyzed data of primary studies, conducted a meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings table using the GRADE approach. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: We identified five systematic reviews that included five primary studies overall, of which two correspond to randomized trials. We concluded it is not clear whether omalizumab leads to an improvement in the nasal polyps scale, quality of life, general well-being or nasal symptoms in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis, because the certainty of the evidence is very low. On the other hand, omalizumab is probably associated with frequent adverse effects.


Subject(s)
Humans , Sinusitis/drug therapy , Rhinitis/drug therapy , Omalizumab/therapeutic use , Quality of Life , Sinusitis/immunology , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Rhinitis/immunology , Nasal Polyps/immunology , Nasal Polyps/drug therapy , Chronic Disease , Databases, Factual , Anti-Allergic Agents/adverse effects , Anti-Allergic Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Allergic Agents/pharmacology , Omalizumab/adverse effects , Omalizumab/immunology
9.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 83(6): 619-626, Nov.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889326

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Antibiotics are frequently used for the treatment of rhinosinusitis. Concerns have been raised regarding the adverse effects of antibiotics and growing resistance. The lack of development of new antibiotic compounds has increased the necessity for exploration of non-antibiotic compounds that have antibacterial activity. Amlodipine is a non-antibiotic compound with anti-inflammatory activity. Objective: In this study we aimed to investigate the potential role of amlodipine in the treatment of rhinosinusitis by evaluating its effects on tissue oxidative status, mucosal histology and inflammation. Methods: Fifteen adult albino guinea pigs were inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus and treated with saline, cefazolin sodium, or amlodipine for 7 days. The control group was composed by five healthy guinea pigs. Animals were sacrificed after the treatment. Histopathological changes were identified using Hematoxylin-Eosin staining. Inflammation was assessed by Polymorphonuclear Leukocyte infiltration density. Tissue levels of antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, glutathione) and an oxidative product (malondialdehyde) were determined. Results: In rhinosinusitis induced animals, amlodipine reduced loss of cilia, lamina propria edema and collagen deposition compared to placebo (saline) and although not superior to cefazolin, amlodipine decreased polymorphonuclear leukocyte infiltration. The superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione levels were reduced, whereas the malondialdehyde levels were increased significantly in all three-treatment groups compared to the control group. Amlodipine treated group showed significantly increased superoxide dismutase and glutathione levels and decreased malondialdehyde levels compared to all treatment groups. Conclusion: The non-antibiotic compound amlodipine may have a role in acute rhinosinusitis treatment through tissue protective, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms.


Resumo Introdução: Antibióticos são frequentemente usados para o tratamento de rinossinusite. Questões têm sido levantadas sobre os efeitos adversos dos antibióticos e a resistência crescente. A falta de desenvolvimento de novos compostos antibióticos aumentou a necessidade da exploração de compostos não antibióticos que têm atividade antibacteriana. A amlodipina é um composto não antibiótico com atividade anti-inflamatória. Objetivo: O objetivo desse estudo foi investigar o papel potencial da amlodipina no tratamento da rinossinusite, avaliando seus efeitos sobre o estado oxidativo do tecido, histologia da mucosa e inflamação. Método: Quinze cobaias albinas adultas foram inoculadas com Staphylococcus aureus e tratadas com solução salina, cefazolina ou amlodipina durante sete dias. O grupo controle incluiu cinco cobaias saudáveis. Os animais foram sacrificados após o tratamento. Alterações histopatológicas foram identificadas com a coloração de hematoxilina-eosina. A inflamação foi avaliada pela densidade de infiltração de leucócitos polimorfonucleares. Foram determinados os níveis teciduais de antioxidantes (superóxido dismutase, glutationa) e um produto de oxidação (malondialdeído). Resultados: Em animais com rinossinusite induzida, a amlodipina reduziu a perda dos cílios, edema da lâmina própria e deposição de colágeno em comparação com o grupo placebo (solução salina) e embora não seja superior à cefazolina, a amlodipina diminuiu a infiltração de leucócitos polimorfonucleares. Os níveis de atividade da superóxido dismutase e glutationa foram reduzidos, enquanto os níveis de malondialdeído aumentaram significativamente nos três grupos de tratamento em comparação ao grupo controle. O grupo tratado com amlodipina apresentou aumento significante dos níveis de superóxido dismutase e glutationa e diminuição dos níveis de malondialdeído em comparação com todos os grupos de tratamento. Conclusão: O composto não antibiótico amlodipina pode ter um papel no tratamento da rinossinusite aguda através de mecanismos protetores de tecido, antioxidantes e anti-inflamatórios.


Subject(s)
Animals , Sinusitis/drug therapy , Rhinitis/drug therapy , Amlodipine/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Reference Values , Staphylococcus aureus , Superoxide Dismutase/analysis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Random Allocation , Cefazolin/therapeutic use , Cefazolin/pharmacology , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Amlodipine/therapeutic use , Glutathione/analysis , Glutathione/drug effects , Guinea Pigs , Malondialdehyde/analysis , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Nasal Mucosa/drug effects , Nasal Mucosa/pathology
10.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 83(2): 215-227, Mar.-Apr. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839424

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Inflammatory conditions of the nose and paranasal sinuses are very prevalent in the general population, resulting in marked loss of quality of life in affected patients, as well as significant work, leisure, and social activity losses. These patients require specific and specialized treatment. A wide range of oral medications are available. Objective: The present document is aimed to clarify, for professionals treating patients with inflammatory sinonasal diseases, both specialists and general practitioners, specific oral therapies in noninfectious nasal inflammatory conditions. Methods: The methodology used to create this article included the search for the key words: oral corticosteroids, antihistamines, antileukotrienes, rhinitis, rhinosinusitis in the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases in the last 5 years. Since no relevant article was found for the text on the subject of interest in the last 5 years, the search was extended for another 5 years, and so on, according to the authors’ needs. Results: Relevant literature was found regarding the use of antihistamines, antileukotrienes and oral corticosteroids in these conditions. The Brazilian Academy of Rhinology emphasizes, after extensive discussion by the collegiate, key points in the treatment with these drugs. Conclusion: There is support in the literature for the use of these drugs; however, final considerations about the role of each of them have been made.


Resumo Introdução: As afecções inflamatórias do nariz e dos seios paranasais são muito prevalentes na população geral, causam acentuada perda de qualidade de vida dos pacientes afetados, geram perdas significativas das atividades de trabalho, lazer e sociais. Esses pacientes necessitam de tratamento específico e especializado e uma ampla gama de medicações orais está disponível. Objetivo: O presente documento tem por objetivo esclarecer àqueles que tratam das doenças nasossinusais inflamatórias, tanto especialistas quanto generalistas, sobre as terapêuticas orais nas afecções inflamatórias nasais não infecciosas. Método: A metodologia usada para elaboração deste artigo incluiu a busca das palavras chave: corticosteroides orais, anti-histamínicos, antileucotrienos, rinite, rinossinusite nos bancos de dados Medline e Embase nos últimos 5 anos. Como não foi achado artigo relevante para o texto sobre o assunto de interesse nos últimos 5 anos, a busca foi estendida por mais 5 anos, e assim por diante, de acordo com a necessidade dos autores. Resultados: Literatura relevante foi encontrada com relação ao uso dos anti-histamínicos, antileucotrienos e corticosteroides orais nessas afecções. A Academia Brasileira de Rinologia ressalta, após amplo debate do colegiado, pontos-chave no tratamento com esses medicamentos. Conclusão: Há respaldo na literatura para o uso desses medicamentos, entretanto considerações finais acerca do papel de cada deles foram feitas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Sinusitis/drug therapy , Rhinitis/drug therapy , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , Leukotriene Antagonists/administration & dosage , Histamine Antagonists/administration & dosage , Brazil , Acute Disease , Chronic Disease , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/adverse effects , Leukotriene Antagonists/adverse effects , Academies and Institutes , Histamine Antagonists/adverse effects
11.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 82(2): 191-197, Mar.-Apr. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-780980

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is termed difficult-to-treat when patients do not reach acceptable level of control despite adequate surgery, intranasal corticosteroid treatment and up to 2 short courses of systemic antibiotics or corticosteroids in the preceding year. Recently, high-volume corticosteroid nasal irrigations have been recommended for CRS treatment. OBJECTIVE: To assess high-volume budesonide nasal irrigations for difficult-to-treat CRS. METHODS: Prospective uncontrolled intervention trial. Participants were assessed before- and 3 months after nasal irrigation with 1 mg of budesonide in 500 mL of saline solution daily for 2 days. Subjective (satisfactory clinical improvement) and objective (SNOT-22 questionnaire and Lund-Kennedy endoscopic scores) assessments were performed. RESULTS: Sixteen patients were included, and 13 (81.3%) described satisfactory clinical improvement. SNOT-22 mean scores (50.2-29.6; p = 0.006) and Lund-Kennedy mean scores (8.8-5.1; p = 0.01) improved significantly. Individually, 75% of patients improved SNOT-22 scores, and 75% improved Lund-Kennedy scores after high volume budesonide nasal irrigations. CONCLUSION: High-volume corticosteroid nasal irrigations are a good option in difficult-to-treat CRS control of disease, reaching 81.3% success control and significant improvement of SNOT-22 and Lund-Kennedy scores.


RESUMO INTRODUÇÃO: A rinossinusite crônica (RSC) de difícil tratamento é aquela inadequadamente controlada com cirurgia, corticosteroides tópicos em spray e até dois ciclos de medicação sistêmica em um ano. Atualmente, tem sido preconizado o uso de irrigações nasais de corticosteroides em alto volume para seu tratamento. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o uso da terapia tópica de irrigações nasais com budesonida em alto volume nos pacientes com RSC de difícil tratamento. MÉTODO: Estudo prospectivo de intervenção não controlado em RSC de difícil tratamento com 3 meses de terapia tópica de irrigação (1 mg de budesonida diluído em 500 mL de soro fisiológico para ser utilizado em dois dias). Realizada avaliação subjetiva (melhora clínica satisfatória) e objetiva (questionário SNOT-22 e classificação endoscópica de Lund-Kennedy). RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos 16 pacientes, sendo que 13 (81,3%) consideraram sua melhora clínica satisfatória. Houve melhora significante das médias de SNOT-22 (50,2 a 29,6; p = 0,006) e de Lund-Kennedy (8,8 a 5,1; p = 0,01). Individualmente, 75% dos pacientes apresentaram melhora do SNOT-22 e 75%, do Lund-Kennedy. CONCLUSÃO: A terapia tópica de irrigação de alto volume de corticosteroide é uma boa opção no controle clínico dos pacientes com rinossinusite crônica de difícil tratamento, com controle adequado de 81,3% destes pacientes e melhora significante do SNOT-22 e do Lund-Kennedy.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Budesonide/administration & dosage , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Nasal Lavage , Rhinitis/drug therapy , Sinusitis/drug therapy , Chronic Disease , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
12.
Bogotá; IETS; dic. 2014. ilus.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, BRISA | ID: biblio-847177

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la rinosinusitis crónica (RSC) es definida como una inflamación de la mucosa nasal y senos paranasales durante al menos 12 semanas o superior, afecta a todas las edades, pero es más prevalente en la edad adulta. Debido a que la rinosinusitis crónica idiopática es una enfermedad inflamatoria crónica, el manejo médico debe estar dirigido a controlar la inflamación y el manejo de las exacerbaciones. El uso diario de corticosteroides tópicos nasales es la piedra angular en el tratamiento de la rinosinusitis crónica idiopática. Objetivo: examinar la efectividad y seguridad del corticosteroide tópico nasal Mometasona como tratamiento de síntomas relacionado con rinosinusitis crónica idiopática en pacientes niños y adultos. Metodología: se realizó una búsqueda sistemática y exhaustiva de literatura, de revisiones sitemáticas de literatura de alta calidad en los últimos 5 años. Todo el proceso se acogió a los estándares de calidad internacional utilizados por la Colaboración Cochrane. Resultados: de las búsquedas, se obtuvieron 531 referencias, de las que, luego de tamización de título y resumen, se obtuvieron 6 para evaluar en texto completo, y de las cuáles se excluyeron 4, para incluir dos en el análisis de este reporte. Conclusiones: los CEN son más efectivos que el placebo para controlar los síntomas nasales y, adicionalmente, se relacionan con mayor proporción de pacientes con cirugía de senos paranasales que responden al tratamiento. En el caso de pacientes sin cirugía de senos paranasales, no hubo diferencias entre los CEN y el placebo, ni tampoco se encontraron diferencias entre ellos en mejorar la calidad de vida, ni diferencias en la mejoría evaluada con cambios endoscópicos. No hay evidencia de diferencias entre ellos mismos (beclometasona, fluticasona y mometasona), en cuanto a efectividad. No hay evidencia para determinar que beclometasona, fluticasona, mometasona y ciclesonida, son diferentes en cuanto a eventos adversos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Rhinitis/drug therapy , Sinusitis/drug therapy , Administration, Intranasal , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , Biomedical Technology , Chronic Disease , Colombia , Mometasone Furoate/administration & dosage , Treatment Outcome
15.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 79(3): 391-400, maio-jun. 2013. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-675696

ABSTRACT

Opresente documento tem por objetivo esclarecer àqueles que tratam das doenças nasossinusais, tanto especialistas quanto generalistas, sobre as terapêuticas tópicas nasais. Por meio de uma revisão das evidências científicas, a Academia Brasileira de Rinologia vem proporcionar sua visão prática e atualizada sobre as medicações tópicas nasais mais utilizadas, excetuando-se as medicações que possuam antibióticos tópicos na sua formulação.


This documents aims at educating those who treat sinonasal diseases - both general practitioners and specialists - about topical nasal treatments. By means of scientific evidence reviews, the Brazilian Academy of Rhinology provides its practical and updated guidelines on the most utilized topical nasal medication, except for the drugs that have topical antibiotics in their formulas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Administration, Intranasal/methods , Nasal Decongestants/administration & dosage , Nasal Obstruction/drug therapy , Rhinitis/drug therapy , Sinusitis/drug therapy , Steroids/administration & dosage , Academies and Institutes , Brazil , Cromolyn Sodium/administration & dosage , Histamine Antagonists/administration & dosage , Sodium Chloride/administration & dosage
16.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 72(6): 484-494, dic. 2012. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-662158

ABSTRACT

Las infecciones respiratorias altas son la primera causa de prescripción de antibióticos. La faringitis aguda es de origen viral en la mayoría de los casos; los episodios virales pueden diferenciarse de los de origen bacteriano producidos por Streptococcus pyogenes por criterios clínico-epidemiológicos (criterios de Centor), por pruebas diagnósticas rápidas o por el cultivo de fauces. Cuando la etiología es estreptocócica, la droga de elección es penicilina V (cada 12 horas). La otitis media aguda (OMA) es una de las causas más frecuentes de prescripción de antibióticos en niños. Los patógenos principales son Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae no tipable y Moraxella catarrhalis. Los antecedentes, la evaluación clínica junto con la otoscopía permiten establecer el diagnóstico. En niños menores de 2 años se recomienda tratamiento antibiótico precoz al igual que en niños mayores de 2 años con otitis bilateral, otorrea, presencia de comorbilidad o cuadro clínico grave. En la Argentina, debido a los bajos niveles de resistencia de S. pneumoniae a penicilina la droga de elección es amoxicilina; ante falta de respuesta al tratamiento puede utilizarse amoxicilina/clavulánico para cubrir cepas de H. influenzae y de M. catarrhalis productoras de betalactamasas. Las rinosinusitis son virales en la mayoría de los casos y menos del 5% se complican con sinusitis bacteriana. El diagnóstico es clínico y en general no se requieren estudios complementarios. Los patógenos bacterianos implicados son los mismos que causan OMA, por esta razón también se recomienda la amoxicilina como droga de elección.


Upper respiratory tract infections are the most common source of antibiotic prescriptions. Acute pharyngitis is caused mainly by viruses, viral cases can be distinguished from acute streptococcal pharyngitis using Centor clinical epidemiological criteria, by rapid antigen tests or throat culture. Treatment of choice for streptococcal infection is penicillin V given in two daily doses. In children, acute otitis media (AOM) is the infection for which antibiotics are most often prescribed. Predominant causative pathogens include Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae non-type b and Moraxella catarrhalis. Diagnosis is based on history, physical examination and otoscopic exam. Antibiotic treatment should be initiated promptly in all children < 2 years of age, and in older children presenting bilateral AOM, otorrhoea, co-morbidities or severe illness. In Argentina, amoxicillin is the drug of choice given the low penicillin resistance rates for S. pneumoniae. In children who fail amoxicillin therapy, amoxicillin/clavulanate provides better coverage against beta-lactamase producing H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis. Rhinosinusitis is caused mainly by viruses, secondary bacterial complication occurs in less than 5% of cases. Diagnosis is based on physical examination and additional studies are not usually required. Acute bacterial sinusitis is caused by the same pathogens that cause AOM and amoxicillin is the drug of choice.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Otitis Media/drug therapy , Pharyngitis/drug therapy , Rhinitis/drug therapy , Sinusitis/drug therapy , Acute Disease , Argentina , Evidence-Based Medicine
17.
J. bras. med ; 100(4): 41-56, Set.-Out. 2012.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-670540

ABSTRACT

A rinossinusite (RS), uma das afecções mais prevalentes das vias aéreas superiores, caracteriza-se pela inflamação da mucosa do nariz e cavidades paranasais. A classificação das rinossinusites, decorrentes de processos infecciosos virais, bacterianos e fúngicos, vem sendo sistematicamente modificada nos últimos anos, assim como os sinais, sintomas e achados de exames a serem levados em consideração para o diagnóstico. A rinossinusite aguda (RSA), infecciosa por natureza, tem duração de menos de quatro semanas, enquanto a rinossinusite crônica (RSC), com duração de mais de 12 semanas, é considerada multifatorial. Evidências crescentes na literatura mostram que a RSC representa uma resposta imunológica e inflamatória do hospedeiro em adição a uma infecção inicial. O tratamento sintomático e o seguimento compõem a estratégia inicial para pacientes com sintomas leves.


Rhinosinusitis, one of the most prevalent diseases of the upper airway, characterized by inflammation of the nasal mucosa and paranasal cavities. The classification of rhinosinusitis, due to infectious processes viral, bacterial, fungal, has been systematically modified in recent years, as well as the signs, symptoms and findings of tests to be considered for the diagnosis. The acute rhinosinusitis, infectious in nature, lasts less than four weeks, while chronic rhinosinuisitis, lasting more than 12 weeks in considered multifactorial. Mounting evidence in the literature show that CSR represents an immune and inflammatory response of the host in addition to an initial infection. Symptomatic treatment and follow up the initial strategy for patients with mild symptoms.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Rhinitis/diagnosis , Rhinitis/drug therapy , Sinusitis/diagnosis , Sinusitis/drug therapy , Acute Disease , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Chronic Disease , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , Respiratory Tract Infections/complications , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Nasal Polyps/therapy , Paranasal Sinuses , Paranasal Sinuses , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
19.
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 69(2): 169-184, ago. 2009. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-554742

ABSTRACT

La rinosinusitis crónica (RSC) es actualmente una de las patologías crónicas de mayor prevalencia en nuestra sociedad. Se distinguen dos formas clínicas: la RSC con pólipos (RSCCP) y la RSC sin pólipos (RSCSP). Es considerada, en términos generales, como una inflamación de la cavidad nasal y senos paranasales de una duración superior a 12 semanas. En la actualidad, los posibles mecanismos fisiopatológicos involucrados ubican al componente inflamatorio como entidad central en su etiología. La relación entre inflamación y poliposis nasal es aún objeto de gran debate. Existen distintos tratamientos médicos con evidencia científica de diferentes niveles de calidad, dentro de los cuales se encuentran antibióticos, corticoides, lavados nasales y antileucotrienos. El uso de macrólidos en bajas dosis y por períodos prolongados de tiempo surge como una eficaz alternativa tanto en el control de síntomas como de parßmetros objetivos, principalmente en pacientes con RSCSP. Este artículo efectúa una exposición respecto al tratamiento médico actualmente disponible, su eficacia y evidencia científica, tanto para la RSCP como para la RSCSP.


Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is currently one of the most prevalent chronic pathologies in Chile. Two forms are distinguishable: Polyp CRS and non-polyp CRS. CRS is condidered, generally speaking, an inflammation of the nasal cavities and paranasal sinuses lasting longer than 12 weeks. Current possible physiopathological mechanisms involved establish inflammation as a central entity in CRS etiology. The relationship between inflammation and nasal polyposis is still a matter of great debate. Several treatment options are available, supported by heterogeneous scientific evidence; among these are antibiotics, corticoids, nasal rinses and antileucotriens. Prolonged treatment with low-dose macrolides treatment has become a good alternative, effectively controlling both symptoms and objective parameters, mainly in non-polyp CRS. This article reviews the CRS medical treatment currently available, its efficacy and the scientific evidence supporting it, both for the polyp and non-polyp types.


Subject(s)
Humans , Rhinitis/therapy , Sinusitis/therapy , Anti-Asthmatic Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Leukotriene Antagonists/therapeutic use , Chronic Disease , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Nasal Polyps/therapy , Rhinitis/drug therapy , Sinusitis/drug therapy , Therapeutic Irrigation
20.
University of Aden Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences. 2009; 13 (2): 383-389
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-108528

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to study the comparative characteristics of the treatment of patients, with allergic rhinosinusities, by different methods of nonspecific desensitization. A prospective study was conducted on 945 patients, with allergic rhinosinusities, who were referred to the ENT Outpatient Department in Al-Gamhoria Teaching Hospital in Aden. The total study patients were 945, 341 males and 604 females [64%] who were fpllowed up during a period of 18 months. We have divided all patients into 10 groups. Simple schemes of treatment were set according to the table in the text with the symbols A to L. In this study, the best results of recovery and improvement were obtained first by applying G scheme [0.5 cc Hydrocortisone], the second by applying H scheme [introduction: 1 cc hydrocortisone up to 10 times], the third by applying A scheme [Antistine-privine, Sodium chromogllucate [nasal drops], Piritone, Calcistin, Incidal, Calcium gluconate and vitamin c]. We concluded that optimal treatment protocol is still lacking in our country. Regular studies must be performed to monitor the methods of treatment and to set newer modalities of treatment, especially in this area of hot climate and high humidity


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Sinusitis/drug therapy , Treatment Outcome , Prospective Studies
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL