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1.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(1): 55-61, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab, mapas
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1153051

ABSTRACT

The number of domestic animals living with human beings is rapidly increasing in parallel with an enhanced risk of transmission of their parasites and the pathogens they might carry. The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence of hematophagous arthropods infesting domestic animals from Northeastern Brazil and to remark the implications of their occurrence on the epidemiology and control of selected veterinary and human diseases. From January 2017 to April 2019, ectoparasites infesting domestic cats, dogs and horses were collected for their respective hosts and identified. Overall, ectoparasites were sampled from 86 domestic animals, living in different anthropic settings. A total of 401 specimens (344 ticks and 57 fleas) were collected from different hosts [i.e., 10 (2.49%), 96 (23.94%) and 295 (73.57%) from cats, dogs and horses, respectively]. Two flea (i.e., Ctenocephalides canis and Ctenocephalides felis) and 5 tick species (i.e., Amblyomma ovale, Amblyomma sculptum, Dermacentor nitens, Rhipicephalus microplus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato) were identified. This study provides data on the ectoparasite fauna infesting domestic animals from Northeastern Brazil. The diagnosis and treatment of these parasites should not be underestimated, considering the role that hematophagous arthropods display as vectors of pathogens of medical and veterinary concern.(AU)


O número de animais domésticos infestados por ectoparasitos vivendo em estreito contato com seres humanos está aumentando, elevando o risco de infecção pelos patógenos transmitidos por vetores. Objetivou-se neste estudo avaliar a ocorrência de ectoparasitos infestando animais do nordeste do Brasil e discutir as implicações desse parasitismo na epidemiologia e no controle de doenças de importância médico-veterinária. De janeiro de 2017 a abril de 2019, artrópodes foram coletados de gatos, cães e cavalos, e identificados morfologicamente. Ectoparasitos foram removidos de 86 animais infestados provenientes de áreas urbanas e rurais. Foram identificados 401 espécimes (344 carrapatos e 57 pulgas) coletados de diferentes hospedeiros (10 (2,49%), 96 (23,94%) e 295 (73,57%) de gatos, cães e cavalos, respectivamente. Duas espécies de pulgas (Ctenocephalides canis e Ctenocephalides felis) e cinco espécies de carrapatos (Amblyomma ovale, Amblyomma sculptum, Dermacentornitens, Rhipicephalus microplus e Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato) foram identificadas. Este estudo fornece informações sobre a ectofauna de animais domésticos do nordeste do Brasil. Portanto, o diagnóstico e o tratamento desses parasitos não devem ser subestimados, considerando que os artrópodes aqui relatados podem veicular patógenos de importância médico-veterinária.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Cats , Dogs , Ticks , Ectoparasitic Infestations/epidemiology , Siphonaptera , Horses/parasitology , Brazil , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Rhipicephalus , Ctenocephalides , One Health , Amblyomma
2.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 30(1): e015620, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251360

ABSTRACT

Abstract Rickettsia felis is an obligate intracellular bacterium capable of infecting ticks, fleas, lice, and other arthropods. This bacterium is classified as a member of the Transitional Group (TRG) Rickettsia. It is known the evidence of R. felis mutualistic and obligatory relationship with some eukaryote organisms. However, there aren't scientific accounts of R. felis and moths of the order Lepidoptera association. The current work reports the first identification of the bacteria R. felis in Phereoeca sp. For that, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay using gltA, ompA, and ompB genes was used. The nucleotide sequences showed 100% of identity with other Rickettsia felis sequences. The genus-level identification of the moth larvae was performed by morphological taxonomic keys and PCR analysis of the cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene. The nucleotide sequenced showed 94.94% similarity with the species Phereoeca praecox. However, with the low number of sequences deposited in the databases, the species was classified as Phereoeca sp. The results suggest that R. felis may develop in an organism without blood-feeding behavior (Lepidoptera), as it has been demonstrated for booklice (Psocoptera). Further investigation is necessary in order to confirm pathogenic or mutualistic association with moths.


Resumo Rickettsia felis é uma bactéria intracelular obrigatória capaz de infectar carrapatos, pulgas, piolhos e outros artrópodes. Essa bactéria é classificada como um membro do Grupo de Transição (TRG). Há evidência de que R. felis está relacionada a alguns organismos eucariotos em um relacionamento mutualístico e obrigatório. No entanto, nenhum relato científico mostra alguma relação entre R. felis e traças da ordem Lepidoptera. O presente trabalho relata a primeira identificação da bactéria R. felis em Phereoeca sp. Para isso, empregou-se um ensaio de reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR) utilizando-se os genes gltA, ompA e ompB. As sequências nucleotídicas mostraram 100% de identidade com outras sequências de Rickettsia felis. Utilizando-se chaves taxonômicas morfológicas e análise por PCR do gene da citocromo oxidase I (COI) foi feita a identificação em nível de espécie da forma jovem das traças. O nucleotídeo sequenciado mostrou 94,94% de similaridade com a espécie Phereoeca praecox. Entretanto, com o baixo número de sequências depositadas nos bancos de dados, a espécie foi classificada como Phereoeca sp. Os resultados sugerem que R. felis pode se desenvolver em um organismo sem alimentação de sangue (Lepidoptera), assim como tem sido demonstrado para a espécie Liposcelis bostrychophila (Psocoptera). Mais investigações são necessárias para confirmar uma possível associação patogênica ou mutualística com traças.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cats , Rickettsia , Cat Diseases , Rickettsia felis/genetics , Flea Infestations/veterinary , Lepidoptera , Siphonaptera
3.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(4): 760-763, Oct.-Dec. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058003

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a single dose of oral afoxolaner in controlling fleas in cats. Fourteen cats were used. The cats were given identification numbers, housed individually, artificially infested with Ctenocephalides felis felis, and treated (or not) with afoxolaner. Were divided into a treatment group and a control group (n = 7/group), on the basis of the fleas count hours after an infestation applied on Day (one-by-one allocation after ordering by count). At the start of the experimental protocol (designated day 0), the treated group received afoxolaner in a single dose of 2.5 mg/kg and the control group animals received a placebo. All animals were infested with 100 C. felis felis fleas two days before day 0, as well as on days 5, 12, 19, 26, 33, 40, 47, 54, and 63, parasite loads being evaluated at 48 h after each infestation. The efficacy of afoxolaner was 100% on day 2 and remained above 98% until day 42, decreasing to 95.3% by day 63. The findings confirm that a single dose of oral afoxolaner was effective in controlling C. felis felis in cats, and there were no observed adverse events.


Resumo O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar a eficácia de uma dose única de afoxolaner oral no controle de pulgas em gatos. Foram utilizados 14 gatos. Os animais foram identificados, alojados individualmente, infestados artificialmente com C. felis felis e tratados (ou não) com afoxolaner. Foram divididos em um grupo de tratamento e um grupo controle (n = 7/ grupo), com base na contagem de pulgas, horas após a infestação aplicada no dia (alocação de um por um após o período por contagem). No início do protocolo experimental (dia 0), o grupo tratado recebeu afoxolaner em dose inicial de 2,5 mg / kg e os animais do grupo controle receberam um placebo. Todos os animais foram infestados com 100 pulgas C. felis felis dois dias antes do dia 0, assim como nos dias 5, 12, 19, 26, 33, 40, 47, 54 e 63, sendo avaliadas as cargas parasitárias às 48 h após cada infestação. A eficácia do afoxolaner foi de 100% no dia 2 e permaneceu acima de 98% até o dia 42, diminuindo para 95,3% no dia 63. Os resultados confirmam que uma dose única de afoxolaner oral foi eficaz no controle de C. felis felis em gatos, e não houve eventos adversos observados.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Cats , Cat Diseases/parasitology , Flea Infestations/veterinary , Isoxazoles/administration & dosage , Naphthalenes/administration & dosage , Antiparasitic Agents/administration & dosage , Cat Diseases/drug therapy , Case-Control Studies , Treatment Outcome , Flea Infestations/drug therapy , Parasite Load , Siphonaptera
4.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 167-173, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761724

ABSTRACT

Rickettsial infections (Rickettsioses) are the causes of acute fever found in Thailand. It is classified as acute febrile illnesses transmitted by bloodsucking arthropod vectors (tick, flea, and chigger). This research investigated pathogens of scrub typhus in vectors from Bangkaew District, Phatthalung Province. A total of 303 pools of vector samples were ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus, R. microplus, and Haemaphysalis sp.), fleas (Ctenocephalides felis orientis, C. f. felis, and C. canis), and chiggers (Leptotrombidium deliense, Aschoschoengastia indica, Blankaartia acuscutellaris and Walchia disparunguis pingue) collected from reservoir hosts (dogs and rodents). The 17 and 56 kDa gene of Rickettsia causing scrub typhus were found in 29% of ticks and 98% of flea. DNA sequence analysis reveeled the detected strains were R. asembonensis and Rickettsia sp. cf1 and 5.The chiggers, 1%, were infected with Rickettsia strain TA763, a pathogen of scrub typhus.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cats , Arthropod Vectors , Felis , Fever , Orientia tsutsugamushi , Rickettsia , Scrub Typhus , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Siphonaptera , Thailand , Ticks , Trombiculidae
5.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 553-559, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761766

ABSTRACT

The Alataw Pass, near the Ebinur Lake Wetland (northwest of China) and Taldykorgan (east of Kazakhstan), is a natural habitat for wild rodents. To date, little has been done on the surveillance of Bartonella spp. and Wolbachia spp. from fleas in the region. Here we molecularly detected Bartonella spp. and Wolbachia spp. in wild rodent fleas during January and October of 2016 along the Alataw Pass-Kazakhstan border. A total of 1,706 fleas belonging to 10 species were collected from 6 rodent species. Among the 10 flea species, 4 were found to be positive for Wolbachia, and 5 flea species were positive for Bartonella. Molecular analysis indicated that i) B. rochalimae was firstly identified in Xenopsylla gerbilli minax and X. conforms conforms, ii) B. grahamii was firstly identified in X. gerbilli minax, and iii) B. elizabethae was firstly detected in Coptopsylla lamellifer ardua, Paradoxopsyllus repandus, and Nosopsyllus laeviceps laeviceps. Additionally, 3 Wolbachia endosymbionts were firstly found in X. gerbilli minax, X. conforms conforms, P. repandus, and N. laeviceps laeviceps. BLASTn analysis indicated 3 Bartonella species showed genotypic variation. Phylogenetic analysis revealed 3 Wolbachia endosymbionts were clustered into the non-Siphonaptera Wolbachia group. These findings extend our knowledge of the geographical distribution and carriers of B. rochalimae, B. grahamii, B. elizabethae, and Wolbachia spp. In the future, there is a need for China-Kazakhstan cooperation to strengthen the surveillance of flea-borne pathogens in wildlife.


Subject(s)
Bartonella , Ecosystem , Lakes , Rodentia , Siphonaptera , Wetlands , Wolbachia , Xenopsylla
6.
An. bras. dermatol ; 93(5): 759-760, Sept.-Oct. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038280

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Human, dog, and cat fleas, as well as bedbugs, feed by biting their victims, causing acute prurigo, which is aggravated in sensitized victims (papular urticaria). The lesions appear in the classic "breakfast, lunch, and dinner" pattern. There are two main explanations: the parasites "map" the skin area in search of the best places to bite, and their removal when victim scratches, and then reattach to the skin. Treatments aim to control pruritus, as well as hypersensitivity reactions when necessary. Prevention is based on environmental control measures. The "breakfast, lunch, and dinner" sign is a definitive marker for diagnosis and the parasite´s identification and control.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Bedbugs , Flea Infestations/veterinary , Insect Bites and Stings/parasitology , Pruritus/etiology , Photography , Cats/parasitology , Dogs/parasitology , Siphonaptera , Insect Bites and Stings/diagnosis , Insect Bites and Stings/pathology
7.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 61-64, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-168704

ABSTRACT

We described a human case of zoonotic dog tapeworm, Dipylidium caninum (Eucestoda: Dilepidiidae), rarely occurring in China. The mother of a 17 month-old boy noted the appearance of small white and active worms over a month period in her son’s feces, but the boy was asymptomatic except mild diarrhea. We observed 3 tapeworm proglottids resembling cucumber seeds in his stool sample. Microscopically, each proglottid had 2 genital pores, 1 on each lateral edge, and numerous egg capsules in the uterus. The patient was successfully treated with a single oral dose of praziquantel. Adult worms were recovered in the diarrheic stool after praziquantel treatment and purgation. His family had household pet dogs for several years, and he might have acquired the infection by ingestion of infected fleas of his pet dogs. A history of dog or cat pets and flea bites may be important clues to diagnosis of D. caninum infection. The infected pets should also be treated.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Cats , Dogs , Humans , Male , Capsules , Cestoda , Cestode Infections , China , Diagnosis , Diarrhea , Eating , Family Characteristics , Feces , Mothers , Ovum , Praziquantel , Siphonaptera , Uterus
8.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 25(4): 527-530, Sept.-Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-830038

ABSTRACT

Abstract The Siphonaptera are parasitic insects of endothermic animals and Ctenocephalides felis and Pulex irritans are important parasites of dogs. This study evaluated the effect of hair coat length and time of year on the population size of C. felis and P. irritans in naturally infested dogs. Fleas were collected from 14 dogs on a monthly basis for a year (February 2015 to January 2016) at a rural property in Bagé, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The dogs were divided into two groups based on hair coat length: short coat (coat length < 5.0 cm, n= 7) and long coat (coat length > 5.0 cm, n= 7). In total, 2057 fleas were collected, 1541 of which were C. felis (74.91%) and 516 were P. irritans (25.08%). The number of C. felis and P. irritans individuals was significantly affected by hair coat length and time of year. The variation in flea numbers over the study months was higher in long-coated than in short-coated dogs for the two flea species and flea numbers increased with increasing mean monthly temperatures. The results provide a better understanding of behavioral aspects of flea communities in dogs and may help develop control strategies targeting these parasites.


Resumo Sifonápteros são insetos parasitos de animais endotérmicos e Ctenocephalides felis e Pulex irritans são importantes parasitos dos cães. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência da altura da pelagem de cães sobre as espécies de pulgas em diferentes meses do ano. Foram coletadas mensalmente, durante um ano, 10 a 15 pulgas em 14 cães de uma propriedade rural no município de Bagé, RS, Brasil. Os cães foram divididos em dois grupos: “pelo curto” e ”pelo longo”, com 07 cães em cada grupo, com altura da pelagem inferior e superior a 5 cm, respectivamente. Coletou-se 2.057 pulgas, 1.541 (74,91%) C. felis e 516 (25,08%) P. irritans. O número de indivíduos de C. felis e de P. irritans foi influenciado significativamente, pelo comprimento do pelo dos animais e pelos diferentes meses do ano. Houve maior variação do número de indivíduos das duas espécies, durante os meses, em cães de pelos longos e a curva de aumento populacional acompanhou o aumento das temperaturas médias mensais. Os resultados são importantes para o melhor conhecimento de aspectos comportamentais de comunidades de pulgas em cães e para o planejamento de estratégias de controle desses parasitos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Dog Diseases/parasitology , Ectoparasitic Infestations/veterinary , Flea Infestations/veterinary , Animal Fur/parasitology , Brazil , Dogs , Ectoparasitic Infestations/parasitology , Flea Infestations/etiology , Siphonaptera , Animal Fur/anatomy & histology
9.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 36(4): 632-645, dic. 2016. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-950929

ABSTRACT

Resumen La urticaria papular es una enfermedad alérgica causada por la picadura de insectos, la cual predomina en el trópico. El objetivo de esta revisión fue profundizar en sus aspectos epidemiológicos e inmunológicos, particularmente con base en datos publicados en Latinoamérica. Se hizo una revisión no sistemática mediante la búsqueda electrónica de artículos sobre la epidemiología de la urticaria papular, las características entomológicas de los agentes causales y los mecanismos inmunológicos asociados. Según los diversos reportes de centros médicos de Latinoamérica la urticaria papular es frecuente; el único estudio de prevalencia publicado indica que afecta a una cuarta parte de los niños escolares de Bogotá. Hay información sobre la relación causal entre la exposición domiciliaria a la pulga, la pobreza y la urticaria papular en Bogotá, una ciudad representativa de las altitudes andinas. No hay estudios que indaguen directamente sobre los insectos causales en zonas cálidas, aunque se sospecha clínicamente de los mosquitos Aedes aegypti y Culex quinquefasciatus. En cuanto a su patogenia, se destaca la participación de mecanismos celulares que involucran las células colaboradoras Th2, lo cual explica que sea una condición de hipersensibilidad retardada. El papel de la inmunoglobulina E (IgE) en la urticaria papular no está tan claro. Se desconocen los antígenos derivados de los insectos que causan la enfermedad, aunque se plantea que existen moléculas comunes de reacción cruzada entre los insectos, tales como el alérgeno Cte f 2 en la pulga, y sus homólogos en los mosquitos. La urticaria papular es una condición frecuente en Latinoamérica que debe investigarse en profundidad. La caracterización inmunológica de los componentes moleculares que causan esta condición puede resolver interrogantes sobre su etiología y su patogenia.


Abstract Papular urticaria is a chronic allergic reaction induced by insect bites, which is common in the tropics. The objective of this review was to deepen on epidemiological and immunological aspects of this disease, focused on data published in Latin American countries. We conducted a non-systematic review of the literature through electronic search on the epidemiology of papular urticaria, the entomological characteristics of the causative agents and associated immunological mechanisms. Several reports from medical centers suggest that papular urticaria is common in Latin America. Only one epidemiological survey designed to estimate prevalence of papular urticaria has been published, reporting that about a quarter of children under six years of age is affected by this condition in Bogotá. There is evidence on the causal relationship among exposure to indoor fleas, poverty and papular urticaria in Bogotá, a representative city of the Andean altitudes. Information about causal insects in tropical warmer areas is scarce, although from clinical reports Aedes aegypti and Culex quienquefasciatus appear to be the most common. Th2 cellular-mediated mechanisms are involved in its pathogenesis, which explains its delayed hypersensitivity. The role of immunoglobulin E is not clear in this disease. Insect-derived antigens directly involved in papular urticaria etiology are unknown. However, it is possible that common molecules among causal insects mediate cross-reactive reactions, such as Cte f 2 allergen, found in cat fleas, and its counterparts in mosquitoes. Papular urticaria is a frequent disease in Latin America that should be further investigated. Immunological characterization of the molecular components that cause this condition may solve questions about its pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Animals , Cats , Child , Child, Preschool , Dogs , Female , Humans , Male , Young Adult , Urticaria/etiology , Skin Diseases, Vesiculobullous/etiology , Insect Bites and Stings/complications , Poverty , Tropical Climate , Urticaria/immunology , Urticaria/veterinary , Urticaria/epidemiology , Immunoglobulin E/immunology , Allergens/immunology , Cat Diseases/etiology , Cat Diseases/immunology , Skin Diseases, Vesiculobullous/immunology , Skin Diseases, Vesiculobullous/veterinary , Skin Diseases, Vesiculobullous/epidemiology , Immunocompromised Host , Colombia/epidemiology , Th2 Cells/immunology , Insect Proteins/immunology , Cross Reactions , Disease Susceptibility , Dog Diseases/etiology , Dog Diseases/immunology , Siphonaptera , HLA Antigens/genetics , Hypersensitivity, Delayed/etiology , Hypersensitivity, Delayed/epidemiology , Hypersensitivity, Immediate/genetics , Hypersensitivity, Immediate/epidemiology , Insect Bites and Stings/immunology , Insect Bites and Stings/veterinary , Culicidae
10.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 83: e0832014, 2016. ilus, tab, mapas
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1006336

ABSTRACT

The occurrence of the black rat, Rattus rattus , in major Brazilian cities has increased in the recent years. To evaluate if the efforts of public rodent control have been reaching the species in the city of São Paulo, a survey was conducted in flooding areas using live trapping before and after implementation of the control program. Captures were carried out from 2009 to 2011, and animals were evaluated for their risk of zoonosis transmission. The number of R. rattus captured after control did not differ from the number of animals captured before the control program in the Spring/Summer season, but, in the Autumn/Winter season, effective control was observed. Low infestations of Ctenocephalides felis (Siphonaptera) and Echinolaelaps echidninus (Acarina) were observed, and antibodies against Leptospira spp. were detected in just 1 of 65 serum samples. Ten out of 18 serum samples were sororeactive for Vaccinia virus, suggesting contact between R. rattus and the pathogen Calodium hepaticum (= Capillaria hepaticum ) (Nematoda) was found in the liver of 73.4% of captured R. rattus. In conclusion, R. rattus may not be effectively controlled by the rodent Control Program in the city of São Paulo, and represents a threat to human health, justifying permanent environmental management and educational programs.(AU)


A ocorrência do rato de telhado, Rattus rattus , nas grandes cidades brasileiras aumentou nos últimos anos. A fim de investigar se os esforços do controle público de roedores têm atingido essa espécie, foi conduzido um levantamento em áreas com risco de inundação na cidade de São Paulo, com armadilhas para captura viva dos roedores, antes e depois do controle público. O estudo foi realizado entre 2009 e 2011, e os animais capturados foram estudados para identificar seu risco como transmissores de zoonoses. O número de R. rattus capturados após o controle não diferiu entre o número de animais capturados antes do programa de controle, no período de primavera/verão, mas, no período de outono/inverno, foi observada efetividade do controle. Foram registradas infestações baixas de Ctenocephalides felis (Siphonaptera) e Echinolaelaps echidninus (Acarina). Anticorpos contra Leptospira spp. foram detectados em apenas 1 das 65 amostras de soro. Dez entre 18 amostras de soro foram sororeativas para o vírus Vaccinia , sugerindo o contato entre R. rattus e o patógeno Calodium hepaticum (Nematoda) foi encontrado no fígado de 73,4% dos R. rattus capturados. Concluiu-se que R. rattus pode não ser controlado pelas ações propostas pelo Programa de Controle de Roedores na cidade de São Paulo e representa uma ameaça para a saúde humana, justificando permanentes programas de gestão ambiental e programas educacionais.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Rodent Control , Siphonaptera , Acari , Leptospira , Zoonoses
11.
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-875222

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to identify the species of fleas and ticks of Cerdocyon thous from the state of Pernambuco. Animals (n = 20) were examined, with 30% (6/20) ectoparasitized. Fleas (n = 16) and ticks (n = 17) parasitizing free-living crab-eating fox and captive in state of Pernambuco were collected. The fleas were identified as: Pulex irritans and Ctenocephalides felis; and the ticks were: Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato and Amblyomma ovale. The presence of ectoparasites of domestic animals parasitizing C. thous, suggests a close contact of this species to the peridomicile. Furthermore, this is the first report of the occurrence of A. ovale in C. thous in northeastern Brazil.(AU)


Objetivou-se identificar as espécies de pulgas e carrapatos de Cerdocyon thous provenientes do estado Pernambuco. Foram examinados 20 animais, estando 30% (6/20) ectoparasitados. Foram coletadas 16 pulgas e 17 carrapatos em cachorros-do-mato de vida livre e de cativeiro no estado de Pernambuco. As pulgas foram identificadas como: Pulex irritans e Ctenocephalides felis; e os carrapatos foram: Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato e Amblyomma ovale. A presença de ectoparasitos de animais domésticos parasitando C. thous, sugere a aproximação de indivíduos desta espécie ao peridomicílio. Além disso, este é o primeiro relato da ocorrência de A. ovale em C. thous no nordeste brasileiro.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Ctenocephalides/parasitology , Ectoparasitic Infestations/veterinary , Rhipicephalus sanguineus/parasitology , Animals, Wild/parasitology , Siphonaptera/parasitology , Ticks/parasitology
12.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 57(2): 129-132, Mar-Apr/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-744731

ABSTRACT

Rickettsia typhi is the causal agent of murine typhus; a worldwide zoonotic and vector-borne infectious disease, commonly associated with the presence of domestic and wild rodents. Human cases of murine typhus in the state of Yucatán are frequent. However, there is no evidence of the presence of Rickettsia typhi in mammals or vectors in Yucatán. The presence of Rickettsia in rodents and their ectoparasites was evaluated in a small municipality of Yucatán using the conventional polymerase chain reaction technique and sequencing. The study only identified the presence of Rickettsia typhi in blood samples obtained from Rattus rattus and it reported, for the first time, the presence of R. felis in the flea Polygenis odiosus collected from Ototylomys phyllotis rodent. Additionally, Rickettsia felis was detected in the ectoparasite Ctenocephalides felis fleas parasitizing the wild rodent Peromyscus yucatanicus. This study’s results contributed to a better knowledge of Rickettsia epidemiology in Yucatán.


Rickettsia typhi es el agente causal del tifo murino; una enfermedad zoonótica transmitida por vector mundialmente distribuida, comúnmente asociada con la presencia de roedores domésticos y silvestres. Los casos humanos de tifo murino en el Estado de Yucatán son frecuentes. Sin embargo, no existe evidencia de la presencia de Rickettsia typhi en mamíferos o vectores en Yucatán. En la búsqueda de vectores y reservorios de Rickettsia typhi, evaluamos la presencia de bacterias del género Rickettsia en roedores y sus ectoparásitos de un pequeño municipio del estado de Yucatán por medio de técnicas de PCR convencional y secuenciación de ADN. Se identificó la presencia de Rickettsia typhi en muestras de sangre obtenidas de Rattus rattus y reportamos por primera vez la presencia de Rickettsia felis en la pulga Polygenis odiosus colectado de Ototylomys phyllotis. Complementariamente, Rickettsia felis fue detectado en la pulga Ctenocephalides felis parasitando al roedor Peromyscus yucatanicus. No se identificó especie de Rickettsia en las muestras de sangre de O. phyllotis y P. yucatanicus analizados. Nuestros resultados contribuyen también en el conocimiento de ciclo de vida biológico del género Rickettsia.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Rickettsia felis/isolation & purification , Rickettsia typhi/isolation & purification , Rodentia/microbiology , Siphonaptera/microbiology , Disease Vectors , Mexico , Muridae , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Parasites/microbiology , Typhus, Endemic Flea-Borne/transmission
13.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2015. xv,50 p. ilus, tab, mapas.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-774271

ABSTRACT

A Febre Maculosa (FM) é uma zoonose re-emergente transmitida por artrópodes com distribuição mundial, que apresentam conexão de morbi-mortalidade àquelas espécies de riquétsias encontradas em uma determinada área. O presente estudo teve o objetivo de analisar a circulação de bactérias do gênero Rickettsia na região do Maciço de Baturité,Estado do Ceará, região Nordeste do Brasil, buscando apoiar as ações de saúde na região. A área de estudo se caracteriza pela presença de fragmentos florestais e uma complexa formação vegetal fazendo parte do Complexo Mata Atlântica, no interior do Bioma Caatinga.Reações em cadeia da polimerase foram realizadas para a detecção de fragmentos de DNA dos genes gltA e ompA de bactérias do gênero Rickettsia. Aferiu-se a Frequência Mínima de Vetores Infectados (FMVI). A partir de ações de vigilância de ambiente e investigações de casos para FM, 1727 espécimes de potenciais vetores de riquétsias foram coletados à partirde 12 espécies de hospedeiros vertebrados que totalizaram 260 indivíduos. 887 espécimes de potenciais vetores foram submetidos à PCR, dos quais 35 foram positivos ao menos paraum dos genes analisados. Treze amostras positivas para ambos os genes foram sequenciadas. A análise filogenética, verificou a presença de quatro espécies de riquétsias,sendo três pertencentes ao Grupo Febre Maculosa (GFM): Rickettsia sp. strain Atlanticrainforest, que apresenta elevada relação filogenética com R. parkeri, R. peacokii e R.philipii. Essa riquétsia do GFM foi verificada infectando Amblyomma ovale e Rhipicephalussanguineus, com FMVI de 11.65 por cento e 3.17 por cento, respectivamente. Esses artrópodes infectadosestavam parasitando cães provenientes dos municípios de Aratuba e Mulungu, o primeiromunicípio com casos confirmados, e o segundo ainda sem casos confirmados de FM.Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae infectando Amblyomma parvum, parasitando animaissilvestres no município de Redenção, ainda sem casos confirmados de FM...


Spotted Fever (SF) are reemerging arthropod-borne zoonosis with worlwide distribution, featuringmorbidity and mortality rates connected to those Rickettsiae species found in a specific area. Thepresente study aims to analyse Rickettsiae circulation in the Maciço de Baturité Region, Ceará State,Northeastern Brazil, seeking support health actions in the region. The study field features forestfragments and a complex plant formation, resembling itself to the Atlantic rainforest complex, withinthe semi-arid brazilian biome (Caatinga). Polymerase chain reaction was performed to detect gltA andompA DNA rickettsial gene fragments. Minimum Infected Vectors Frequency (MIVF) was performed.From government actions of environmental monitoring and investigations of SF human cases, 1727Rickettsiae potential vectors specimens from were collected from 12 different vertebrate hosts, whichadd up to 260 subjects. It was performed PCR to 887 Rickettsiae potential vectors specimens, inwhich 35 were positive, at least for one of the analyzed genes. Thirteen positive samples for bothrickettsial genes were sequenced. The phylogenetic analysis performed verified that there were fourdifferent rickettsial species, in which three belonged to Spotted Fever Group (SFG): Rickettsia sp.strain Atlantic rainforest, which is highly related to R. parkeri, R. peacokii and R. philipii. This SFGRickettsiae was infecting Amblyomma ovale and Rhipicephalus sanguineus tick species, whichshowed MIVF of 11.65 percent and 3.17 percent, respectively. These positive arthropods were parasiting dogsfrom the municipality of Aratuba and Mulungu, where the first municipality features confirmed humancases, and the late has no confirmed SF human cases yet. Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae wasfound infecting Amblyomma parvum ticks, which was found parasiting wild animals in the municipalityof Redenção, still with absence of SF human cases...


Subject(s)
Animals , Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever/epidemiology , Rickettsia , Siphonaptera , Ticks
14.
Epidemiology and Health ; : e2015050-2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-721123

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Earthquakes are one the most common natural disasters that lead to increased mortality and morbidity from transmissible diseases, partially because the rodents displaced by an earthquake can lead to an increased rate of disease transmission. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of plague and tularemia in rodents in the earthquake zones in southeastern Iran. METHODS: In April 2013, a research team was dispatched to explore the possible presence of diseases in rodents displaced by a recent earthquake magnitude 7.7 around the cities of Khash and Saravan in Sistan and Baluchestan Province. Rodents were trapped near and in the earthquake zone, in a location where an outbreak of tularemia was reported in 2007. Rodent serums were tested for a serological survey using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: In the 13 areas that were studied, nine rodents were caught over a total of 200 trap-days. Forty-eight fleas and 10 ticks were obtained from the rodents. The ticks were from the Hyalomma genus and the fleas were from the Xenopsylla genus. All the trapped rodents were Tatera indica. Serological results were negative for plague, but the serum agglutination test was positive for tularemia in one of the rodents. Tatera indica has never been previously documented to be involved in the transmission of tularemia. CONCLUSIONS: No evidence of the plague cycle was found in the rodents of the area, but evidence was found of tularemia infection in rodents, as demonstrated by a positive serological test for tularemia in one rodent.


Subject(s)
Agglutination Tests , Disasters , Earthquakes , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Iran , Mortality , Plague , Prevalence , Rodentia , Serologic Tests , Siphonaptera , Ticks , Tularemia , Xenopsylla
16.
In. Lemos, Elba R. Sampaio de; D'Andrea, Paulo Sergio. Trabalho de campo com animais: procedimentos, riscos e biossegurança. Rio de Janeiro, FIOCRUZ, 2014. p.137-141, ilus.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-762443
17.
Rev. MVZ Córdoba ; 18(supl.1): 3738-3742, dic. 2013. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: lil-701789

ABSTRACT

Objetivo. Identificar especies de ectoparásitos encontrados parasitando naturalmente un Oso melero, el cual fue encontrado muriendo en una vía cercana al pueblo de Bobare, estado Lara, Venezuela. Materiales y métodos. Al ingresar el animal a la sala de anatomía del DCV-UCLA para ser sometido a la técnica de taxidermia, se procedió a revisar a través de la palpación toda la superficie corporal del Oso, con la finalidad de tomar muestras de ectoparásitos presentes en el hospedador; los especímenes encontrados fueron colocados en un envase de vidrio conservados en alcohol isopropílico y posteriormente fueron llevados al Laboratorio de Parasitología Veterinaria del DCV-UCLA para su identificación taxonómica. Los ectoparásitos fueron observados en lupa estereoscópica y clasificados con ayuda de claves taxonómicas. Resultados. Se identificaron dos especies de artrópodos infestando naturalmente el Oso Melero, de las cuales se encuentra una garrapata macho clasificada como Amblyomma nodosum; y una pulga hembra identificada como Pulex irritans. Conclusiones. Estos artrópodos se han reportado parasitando naturalmente algunas especies de mamíferos, dentro de los cuales el Oso Melero se ha visto afectado por la acción de estos ectoparásitos; en Venezuela es el primer reporte de Pulex irritans afectando esta especie animal.


Objectives. Identify species of ectoparasites found naturally parasitizing an anteater, which was found dying on the roadside close to Bobare Village, State of Lara, Venezuela. Materials and methods. A dead anteater was brought to the anatomy Lab of the Decanato de Ciencias Veterinarias (DCV), Universidad Centroccidental “Lisandro Alvarado” (UCLA) for taxidermic purposes. First, all the skin and hairy areas of the animal were manually checked looking for ectoparasites; secondly, all detected specimens were collected, and placed in vials containing a solution of isopropilic alcohol 70°. Following this procedure, the vials were taken to the Veterinary Parasitology Laboratory at DCV-UCLA to accomplish the taxonomic identification under a stereoscopic microscope, and with taxonomic keys. Results. Two specimens of arthropods were found, the first one was a male tick identified as Amblyomma nodosum, and the other one was a female flea of the genera Pulex irritans Conclusions. These ectoparasites have been reported as natural parasites of other mammals, and among them the anteaters have been often found parasitized by these arthropods. In Venezuela this is the first case of a Pulex irritans infecting Tamandua tetradactyla.


Subject(s)
Ticks , Siphonaptera , Xenarthra
18.
Epidemiol. serv. saúde ; 22(2): 285-294, 2013. mapas, tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-682081

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: conhecer os sifonápteros responsáveis pelas infestações de animais domésticos e de domicílios na área urbana do município de Uberlândia, Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil, e os aspectos epidemiológicos dessas parasitoses. Métodos: estudo transversal com dados secundários obtidos dos formulários do Centro de Controle de Zoonoses, referentes aos atendimentos de infestações por pulgas, no período 2007-2010. Resultados: dos 1.284 espécimes encontrados em 305 domicílios, 99,7 por cento eram pertencentes à espécie Ctenocephalides felis felis; as infestações ocorreram predominantemente em animais (57,1 por cento), seguidas pelas mistas em seres humanos e animais (33,1 por cento); os locais mais infestados foram os abrigos dos animais no peridomicílio (83,3 por cento), principalmente em locais não pavimentados (62,0 por cento); houve aumento na ocorrência de infestações nos meses de agosto e setembro, período mais seco do ano. Conclusão: as infestações por C. felis estiveram relacionadas a condições higiênicas precárias, a presença de anexos no peridomicílio e ao tipo de solo no ambiente.


Objective: to study flea infestations in domestic animals and households in the urban area of Uberlândia-MG and their epidemiological aspects. Methods: cross-sectional study of secondary data obtained from Zoonotic Disease Control Centre records on flea infestation domiciliary visits between 2007 and 2010. Results: 99.7 per cent of the 1,284 specimens found in 305 households were Ctenocephalides felis felis. Infestations occurred mainly in animals (57.1 per cent), followed by mixed infestations in humans and animals (33.1 per cent). Animal kennels in areas close to the households were the most infested sites (83.3 per cent) predominantly in unpaved places (62.0 per cent). Increased infestation occurred in August and September, this being the driest period of the year. Conclusion: the data indicate that C. felis infestations are related to poor hygienic conditions, presence of outbuildings and also type of soil in the environment.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cats , Dogs , Animals, Domestic , Cross-Sectional Studies , Epidemiology , Siphonaptera
19.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 1096-1100, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-320899

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To understand the community structure of Rhombomys opimus parasitic fleas in the natural plague focus in Junggar Basin, so as to explain the relationship between the community structure and the prevalence of animal plague in this area.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The body fleas of R.opimus which were collected in 2005-2010 from the Junggar Basin was analysed by community ecology method, an each clustered flea community was compared with information of pathogenic and serological indicators of animal plague epidemic by statistic method.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The community structure of R. opimus parasitic fleas included 19 species and was very complicated, with only 3 were identified as 'common' species but the others belonged to 'rare' species. Both the average richness and diversity of flea community were higher, as 1.66 and 1.5556, with dominance not obvious (0.332) and the homogeneity as moderate (0.5283). The community structure of R. opimus parasitic fleas could be changed by the following factors as: the rates of flea parasitic/flea index and the proportions of main fleas etc. The flea community could be divided into 5 clusters according to the above said elements. All these data showed that the fleas of R. opimus parasitic fleas possess the nature of multi-parasitism.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The community of R. opimus parasitic fleas existed heterogeneous of geographic region, and this phenomenon associated with the animal plague epidemic strength.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Biota , China , Epidemiology , Gerbillinae , Parasitology , Plague , Epidemiology , Siphonaptera
20.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 32(2): 189-195, abr.-jun. 2012. mapas, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-656827

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Los ectoparásitos son los principales vectores de rickettsiosis. En Panamá se tienen escasos datos sobre los artrópodos que pudieran considerarse vectores o reservorios. Objetivos. Presentar datos sobre la presencia de Rickettsia spp. en ectoparásitos de fauna silvestre y animales domésticos en la Reserva Natural Privada Cerro Chucantí y poblados vecinos. Materiales y métodos. Se revisaron 9 personas, 95 mamíferos domésticos y 48 silvestres. Los animales domésticos se examinaron con anuencia del propietario, mientras que la fauna silvestre se capturó con trampas Sherman y Tomahawk. Se extrajeron 21 especies de ectoparásitos: pulgas, piojos, garrapatas y otros ácaros, los cuales se preservaron en etanol al 95 %. Se extrajo material genético de garrapatas y pulgas para ser analizado por técnicas moleculares en la detección de Rickettsia spp. Resultados. Se practicaron 425 reacciones de PCR, de las cuales, 270 resultaron negativas y 155 positivas. De las positivas, 86 amplificaron para el gen gltA (55 % de las positivas); de estos también amplificaron 41 (26 %) para ompA. Se encontró material genético de Rickettsia amblyommii, en garrapatas de caballos (Amblyomma cajennense, Dermacentor nitens), de perros (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) y ninfas de Amblyomma recolectadas en el bosque. Además, se detectó ADN de R. felis en pulgas Ctenocephalides felis de perros. Conclusiones. Se pudo detectar la presencia de R. amblyommii y R. felis en garrapatas y pulgas de animales domésticos de los poblados cercanos a Cerro Chucantí, aun cuando no se pudo encontrar material genético de Rickettsia en ectoparásitos de la fauna silvestre.


Introduction. Ectoparasites are the main vectors of rickettsiosis. In Panama, however, limited data are available concerning the arthropod species that serve as vectors or reservoirs. Objectives. Data are presented concerning the presence of Rickettsia in ectoparasites of wildlife and domestic animals in the Cerro Chucantí private nature reserve and in neighboring villages. Materials and methods. Nine humans, 95 domestic mammals and 48 wild mammals were examined. Twenty-one species of ectoparasites were obtained, including fleas, lice, ticks and mites. These were preserved in 95% ethanol. Later, the DNA was extracted from the ticks and fleas and analyzed by molecular techniques to detect presence of Rickettsia. Results. Of a total of 425 PCR reactions, 270 were positive for Rickettsia and 155 negative. Among the positive samples, 86 PCR amplified for the gltA gene (55% of positives) and 41 of these also amplified the ompA gene. DNA of Rickettsiaamblyommii was found in horses ticks (Amblyomma cajennense, Dermacentor nitens), dogs ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) and free living nymphs in the forest. Additionally, DNA of R. felis was found in fleas from dogs Ctenocephalides felis. Conclusions. The presence of R. amblyommii and R. felis was detected in ticks and fleas of domestic animals in villages near Cerro Chucanti; however no Rickettsia DNA was found in ectoparasites of non-domestic wildlife.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cats , Cattle , Dogs , Female , Humans , Male , Animals, Domestic/microbiology , Animals, Wild/microbiology , Arthropod Vectors/microbiology , Disease Reservoirs/microbiology , Ectoparasitic Infestations/parasitology , Ectoparasitic Infestations/veterinary , Mammals/microbiology , Rickettsia/isolation & purification , Cat Diseases/parasitology , Cattle Diseases/parasitology , DNA, Bacterial/analysis , Dog Diseases/parasitology , Ectoparasitic Infestations/microbiology , Genes, Bacterial , Horses , Horse Diseases/parasitology , Larva , Mites/microbiology , Panama , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Phthiraptera/microbiology , Sheep , Species Specificity , Sheep Diseases/parasitology , Siphonaptera/microbiology , Trees , Ticks/growth & development , Ticks/microbiology
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