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1.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 222-229, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010311

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To determine the role of Tripterygium wilfordii multiglycoside (TGW) in the treatment of psoriatic dermatitis from a cellular immunological perspective.@*METHODS@#Mouse models of psoriatic dermatitis were established by imiquimod (IMQ). Twelve male BALB/c mice were assigned to IMQ or IMQ+TGW groups according to a random number table. Histopathological changes in vivo were assessed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Ratios of immune cells and cytokines in mice, as well as PAM212 cell proliferation in vitro were assessed by flow cytometry. Pro-inflammatory cytokine expression was determined using reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction.@*RESULTS@#TGW significantly ameliorated the severity of IMQ-induced psoriasis-like mouse skin lesions and restrained the activation of CD45+ cells, neutrophils and T lymphocytes (all P<0.01). Moreover, TGW significantly attenuated keratinocytes (KCs) proliferation and downregulated the mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-17A, IL-23, tumor necrosis factor α, and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (P<0.01 or P<0.05). Furthermore, it reduced the number of γ δ T17 cells in skin lesion of mice and draining lymph nodes (P<0.01).@*CONCLUSIONS@#TGW improved psoriasis-like inflammation by inhibiting KCs proliferation, as well as the associated immune cells and cytokine expression. It inhibited IL-17 secretion from γ δ T cells, which improved the immune-inflammatory microenvironment of psoriasis.


Subject(s)
Male , Animals , Mice , Tripterygium , Psoriasis/drug therapy , Keratinocytes , Skin Diseases/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Imiquimod/metabolism , Dermatitis/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Skin/metabolism
2.
An. bras. dermatol ; 90(2): 157-166, Mar-Apr/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741073

ABSTRACT

Today, obesity is considered an epidemic all over the world and it is recognized as one of the major public health problems. Bariatric surgery is considered an appropriate therapeutic option for obesity with progressively increasing demands. The changes resulting from massive weight loss after bariatric surgery are related to numerous complications. This article will present the dermatological alterations that can be found after bariatric surgery. They will be subdivided into dermatoses that are secondary to metabolic and nutritional disorders, those derived from cutaneous structural modifications after major weight loss and the influence the latter may have in improving of certain dermatoses.


Subject(s)
Humans , Skin/pathology , Skin Diseases/etiology , Avitaminosis/complications , Bariatric Surgery/adverse effects , Postoperative Complications , Skin Diseases/metabolism , Weight Loss , Dilatation, Pathologic/etiology , Dilatation, Pathologic/pathology , Metabolic Diseases/complications , Nutrition Disorders/complications
3.
In. Reichenbach, Juan Alberto; Fontana, Silvina Mariel; Gómez, Walter. Pediatría en red. La Plata, Ministerio de Salud, 2015. p.379-386.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-983159
4.
Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol ; 2014 Mar-Apr; 80(2): 106-114
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-154758

ABSTRACT

Pruritus is the most common symptom secondary to skin diseases. Advances in the fi elds of neurobiology, immunology and physiology have made it possible for us to understand and unravel the deeper pathophysiological basis of pruritus. This review aims to update our current understanding of the mechanisms and mediators of pruritus. Special attention is paid to endogenous itch mediators particularly newly identifi ed ones like endovanilloids, opioids, neurotrophins, cannabinoids, proteases and cytokines. Various theories explaining the peripheral encoding of itch are reviewed. Multiple neural pathways including the central itch pathways as well as supraspinal processing of itch and brain areas involved in pruritus are highlighted. Apart from peripheral itch mediators, spinal neural receptors are also involved in control of itch and should form part of the development of a novel antipruritic strategy. Further studies are required to fi ll the lacunae in our current understanding of the pathophysiology of pruritus.


Subject(s)
Humans , Nerve Fibers, Unmyelinated/metabolism , Pruritus/etiology , Pruritus/metabolism , Pruritus/physiopathology , Skin/innervation , Skin/metabolism , Skin Diseases/etiology , Skin Diseases/metabolism , Skin Diseases/physiopathology
5.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 2012 Apr-Jun 55(2): 170-174
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-142215

ABSTRACT

Background: Primary localized cutaneous amyloidosis (PCA) is a relatively rare condition characterized by amyloid deposition in dermis without systemic involvement. Although, histopathological examination of the lesion reveals amorphous eosinophilic deposits in papillary dermis examination of congo red stained slides under polarized light will give definitive diagnosis Aims: To study the clinicopathological features of cutaneous amyloidosis emphasizing the utility of polarized light in diagnosis. Materials and Methods : A clinicopathological study of primary cutaneous amyloidosis over a period of 8 years was undertaken. All the cases, clinically diagnosed and histopathologically proven as cutaneous amyloidosis were stained with congo red and studied under polarized light. Results and Conclusions: Of the 45 cases of clinically suspected amyloidosis, 32 cases were proven histopathologically as primary cutaneous amyloidosis and confirmed by congo red stain under polarized light which showed apple green birefringence. Among the two types of PCA, lichen amyloidosis was the most common variant accounting to 65.63% with pure cases of macular amyloidosis accounting for only 15.63%. Biphasic amyloidosis was seen in 18.75%. Knee was the commonest site of involvement with pruritis being the most common symptom. Histopathologically, the most common findings were hyperkeratosis, irregular acanthosis and expansion of dermal papillae by amyloid deposits showing apple green birefringence under polarized microscope with congo red staining. Although, H and E stain gives a clue for the diagnosis of amyloid nevertheless congo red staining under polarized light forms a very sensitive and definitive method for confirmation.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Amyloidosis/diagnosis , Amyloidosis/metabolism , Amyloidosis/pathology , Clinical Medicine/methods , Congo Red/metabolism , Female , Histocytochemistry/methods , Humans , Male , Microscopy/methods , Middle Aged , Pathology/methods , Retrospective Studies , Skin/pathology , Skin Diseases/diagnosis , Skin Diseases/metabolism , Skin Diseases/pathology , Staining and Labeling/methods
6.
Clinics ; 66(1): 77-82, 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-578600

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To analyze cytokine gene expression in keratinocytes from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). INTRODUCTION: Keratinocytes represent 95 percent of epidermal cells and can secrete several cytokines. METHODS: Keratinocytes were obtained by laser microdissection from 21 patients with SLE (10 discoid and 11 acute lesions) at involved and uninvolved sites. All patients were receiving a low/moderate prednisone dose and 18 were receiving chloroquine diphosphate. IL-2, IL-5, TNF-α and IFN-γ gene expression was evaluated by real-time PCR and expressed as the ratio (R) to a pool of skin samples from 12 healthy volunteers. RESULTS: Heterogeneity in cytokine gene expression was found among patients with SLE. Eighteen of 38 valid SLE samples (47 percent) presented overexpression (R>1) of at least one cytokine. Lesional skin samples tended to show higher cytokine expression than samples from uninvolved skin (p = 0.06). IL-5 and IFN-γ were the most commonly overexpressed cytokines. Samples with cytokine overexpression corresponded to more extensive and severe lesions. Prednisone dose did not differ between samples without cytokine overexpression (15.71±3.45 mg/day) and those with overexpressed cytokines (12.68±5.41 mg/day) (p = 0.216). Samples from all patients not receiving diphosphate chloroquine had at least one overexpressed cytokine. CONCLUSIONS: The heterogeneous keratinocyte cytokine gene expression reflects the complex immunological and inflammatory background in SLE. Patients with severe/extensive skin lesions showed a higher frequency of cytokine gene overexpression. Increased IFN-γ and IL-5 expression suggests that Th1 and Th2 cells are involved in SLE skin inflammation. The possibility that prednisone and antimalarial drugs may have contributed to low cytokine gene expression in some samples cannot be ruled out.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Cytokines/genetics , Gene Expression/genetics , Keratinocytes/metabolism , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/genetics , Skin Diseases/genetics , Cytokines/metabolism , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/metabolism , Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Skin Diseases/metabolism
7.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 293-306, 2006.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-130822

ABSTRACT

Skin, as the outermost organ in the human body, continuously confronts the external environment and serves as a primary defense system. The protective functions of skin include UV-protection, anti-oxidant and antimicrobial functions. In addition to these protections, skin also acts as a sensory organ and the primary regulator of body temperature. Within these important functions, the epidermal permeability barrier, which controls the transcutaneous movement of water and other electrolytes, is probably the most important. This permeability barrier resides in the stratum corneum, a resilient layer composed of corneocytes and stratum corneum intercellular lipids. Since the first realization of the structural and biochemical diversities involved in the stratum corneum, a tremendous amount of work has been performed to elucidate its roles and functions in the skin, and in humans in general. The perturbation of the epidermal permeability barrier, previously speculated to be just a symptom involved in skin diseases, is currently considered to be a primary pathophysiologic factor for many skin diseases. In addition, much of the evidence provides support for the idea that various protective functions in the skin are closely related or even co-regulated. In this review, the recent achievements of skin researchers focusing on the functions of the epidermal permeability barrier and their importance in skin disease, such as atopic dermatitis and psoriasis, are introduced.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Skin Physiological Phenomena , Skin Diseases/metabolism , Skin/metabolism , Permeability
8.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 293-306, 2006.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-130819

ABSTRACT

Skin, as the outermost organ in the human body, continuously confronts the external environment and serves as a primary defense system. The protective functions of skin include UV-protection, anti-oxidant and antimicrobial functions. In addition to these protections, skin also acts as a sensory organ and the primary regulator of body temperature. Within these important functions, the epidermal permeability barrier, which controls the transcutaneous movement of water and other electrolytes, is probably the most important. This permeability barrier resides in the stratum corneum, a resilient layer composed of corneocytes and stratum corneum intercellular lipids. Since the first realization of the structural and biochemical diversities involved in the stratum corneum, a tremendous amount of work has been performed to elucidate its roles and functions in the skin, and in humans in general. The perturbation of the epidermal permeability barrier, previously speculated to be just a symptom involved in skin diseases, is currently considered to be a primary pathophysiologic factor for many skin diseases. In addition, much of the evidence provides support for the idea that various protective functions in the skin are closely related or even co-regulated. In this review, the recent achievements of skin researchers focusing on the functions of the epidermal permeability barrier and their importance in skin disease, such as atopic dermatitis and psoriasis, are introduced.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Skin Physiological Phenomena , Skin Diseases/metabolism , Skin/metabolism , Permeability
9.
J Biosci ; 2005 Mar; 30(2): 253-7
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-110657

ABSTRACT

Metal determination in human tissues is the most common application of biological monitoring for screening, diagnosis and assessment of metal exposures and their risks. Various biopsy-materials may be used. This paper deals with the quantitative determination of Cd, Pb, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, and Zn concentrations in nails of male subjects exposed to these metals along with their respective controls, while working in locomotive, carriage and road ways workshops, and lead battery factories. The levels of Cd, Pb, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu and Zn in fingernails, assayed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, were compared with their respective controls by student 't' test. All the obtained values were correlated to the personal and medical history of the subjects under study. Significantly high levels of Cd, Pb, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu and Zn were present in smokers, compared to nonsmokers. The concentrations of Cd, Pb, Cr, Mn and Fe were not significantly high in vegetarian subjects. It was also observed that there is no contribution of liquor towards nail-metal concentration. Significant correlations were observed between skin disease and Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu; hypertension and Cd, Mn, Cu; mental stress and Cd, Pb, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn; diabetes and Cr, Mn, Ni; chest pain and Pb; respiratory trouble and Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn; tuberculosis and Zn; acidity and Cd; and ophthalmic problems and Mn, Fe, Ni, and Zn.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Alcohol Drinking/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolism , Diet, Vegetarian , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Eye Diseases/metabolism , Humans , Hypertension/metabolism , India , Male , Metals, Heavy/analysis , Nails/chemistry , Occupational Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Railroads , Skin Diseases/metabolism , Smoking/metabolism , Spectrophotometry, Atomic , Stress, Physiological/metabolism , Tuberculosis/metabolism
10.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 2004 Oct; 47(4): 469-73
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-74009

ABSTRACT

Simple trichilemmal cysts or pilar cysts and pilar tumors are relatively rare entities often under-reported by pathologists. The pilar cysts are thought to proliferate and progress to pilar tumors. These pilar tumors can further undergo malignant change. We analyzed 25 pilar cysts and eight pilar tumors, including three with atypia and one malignant pilar tumor, with a view to study the above progression and assess the degree of cell proliferation using the Nucleolar Organizer Regions (AgNORs). There was a progressive increase in the AgNOR count from one dot per nucleus in pilar cysts to 1.5-2 in benign pilar tumors. AgNORs in pilar tumors with atypia (2.8) was more than the benign pilar tumors but were definitely less than the malignant pilar tumors (3.5). The malignant pilar tumor showed bizarre AgNORs and cells with as many as eight to nine AgNORs. Thus AgNOR counts suggested that there is a progressive increase in the degree of cell proliferation and thereby the AgNOR staining from pilar cysts to pilar tumors. This AgNOR staining could also be used to assess the cell proliferation in case of pilar tumors with atypia where it is difficult to rule out malignancy.


Subject(s)
Cell Proliferation , Epidermal Cyst/metabolism , Humans , Nucleolus Organizer Region/metabolism , Skin Diseases/metabolism , Skin Neoplasms/metabolism , Staining and Labeling
11.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 647-654, 2000.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-171773

ABSTRACT

Despite the various responses of human skin to female sex hormones, cellular and subcellular targets and the mechanisms of action of estrogen and progesterone in human skin are not well understood. The detection of estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) in the skin is of great importance to understand the effect of estrogen and progesterone. In primary cultures of human keratinocytes, expression of ER and PR was monitored by immunocytochemistry and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Paraffin embedded skin tissues were stained with monoclonal antibodies to human ER and PR by immunohistochemistry. Cultured human keratinocytes expressed cytoplasmic PR protein and PR mRNA transcripts. By contrast, ER was detected only at the mRNA level. Suprabasal keratinocytes from samples of pruritic urticarial papules, plaques of pregnancy (PUPPP) and psoriasis were stained positively only for PR, while those from samples of erythema nodosum were negative for both ER and PR. Lesional epidermis of PUPPP showed positive PR immunoreactivity, while nonlesional epidermis did not. No other cells in the normal human skin were stained with ER and PR. The present study suggests that by expressing PR human keratinocytes act as targets for progesterone action.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Adolescent , Cells, Cultured , Gene Expression , Immunoenzyme Techniques , Keratinocytes/metabolism , Keratinocytes/cytology , Middle Aged , Receptors, Estrogen/genetics , Receptors, Estrogen/biosynthesis , Receptors, Progesterone/genetics , Receptors, Progesterone/biosynthesis , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sequence Analysis, DNA/methods , Skin/pathology , Skin/metabolism , Skin Diseases/metabolism
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