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1.
Rev. Bras. Cancerol. (Online) ; 68(1)jan./fev./mar. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1370993

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common among all malignancies. Objective: To describe trends in NMSC mortality rates in Brazil and its macroregions from 2001 to 2018. Method: Adjusted mortality rates stratified by sex were estimated and presented per 100,000 person-years. An autoregressive analysis was implemented to assess temporal trends, annual percent change (APC) and 95% Confidence Intervals (95% CI). Results: There were 27,550 NMSC deaths in Brazil with higher frequency in males (58.1%) and among individuals aged ≥70 years (64.3%). The overall rates were 2.25 (males) and 1.22 (females) per 100,000 person-years. The trends followed an upward direction in Brazil for males (APC: 2.91%; 95% CI: 1.96%; 3.86%) and females (APC: 3.51%; 95% CI: 2.68%; 4.34%). The same occurred in the North Region, in males (APC: 9.75%; 95% CI: 7.68%; 11.86%) and in females (APC: 10.38; 95% CI: 5.77%; 15.21%), as well as in Northeast Region, in males (APC: 9.98%; 95% CI: 5.59%; 14.57%) and in females (APC: 8.34%; 95% CI: 3.29%; 13.64%). Conclusion: NMSC deaths are not rare in Brazil. Upward mortality trends were observed for the whole country and in the North and Northeast regions, which are the closest to the Equator line and also the least developed socioeconomically. A synergism between different types of inequalities and environmental exposure in these macroregions may be promoting an increase in the number of NMSC deaths, a type of cancer which is considered completely preventable


Introdução: O câncer de pele não melanoma (CPNM) é o mais comum entre todas as malignidades. Objetivo: Descrever as tendências da mortalidade por CPNM no Brasil e nas suas Macrorregiões, de 2001 a 2018. Método: As taxas de mortalidade ajustadas por idade e estratificadas por sexo foram apresentadas por 100 mil pessoas-ano. Uma análise autorregressiva foi implementada para avaliar tendências, Mudança Percentual Anual (MPA) e intervalos de confiança de 95% (IC 95%). Resultados: Houve 27.550 óbitos por CPNM no Brasil com maior frequência em homens (58,1%) e entre pessoas de 70 anos e mais (64,3%). As taxas globais foram de 2,25 (homens) e 1,22 (mulheres) por 100 mil pessoas-ano. As tendências seguiram em elevação no Brasil, em homens (MPA: 2,91%; IC95%: 1,96%; 3,86%) e em mulheres (MPA: 3,51%; IC95%: 2,68%; 4,34%). O mesmo ocorreu na Região Norte, em homens (MPA: 9,75%; IC95%: 7,68%; 11,86%) e em mulheres (MPA: 10,38%; IC95%: 5,77%; 15,21%), bem como na Região Nordeste, em homens (MPA: 9,98%; IC95%: 5,59%; 14,57%) e em mulheres (MPA: 8,34%; IC95%: 3,29%; 13,64%). Conclusão: Os óbitos por CPNM não são raridade no Brasil. O país e as Regiões Norte e Nordeste experimentaram taxas com tendência em elevação. Norte e Nordeste são as Regiões mais próximas da Linha do Equador e as menos desenvolvidas socioeconomicamente. Nessas Macrorregiões, um sinergismo entre diferentes tipos de desigualdades e exposições ambientais pode estar promovendo um aumento dos óbitos por esse tipo de câncer considerado totalmente evitável


Introducción: El carcinoma de piel no melanoma (CPNM) es el más común dentre todas las neoplasias malignas. Objetivo: Describir las tendencias de la mortalidad por CPNM en Brasil y sus macrorregiones, de 2001 a 2018. Método: Las tasas de mortalidad ajustadas por edad y estratificadas según sexo fueron presentadas por 100.000 personas-año. Se implementó una análisis autoregresiva para evaluar las tendencias, el porcentaje estimado de cambio anual (PECA) y sus intervalos de confianza del 95% (IC 95%). Resultados: Hubo 27.550 muertes por CPNM en Brasil con mayor frecuencia en hombres (58,1%) y entre personas de edad ≥70 años (64,3%). Las tasas generales fueron 2,25 (hombres) y 1,22 (mujeres) por 100.000 personas-año. Las tendencias continuaron aumentando en Brasil, en hombres (PECA: 2,91%; IC 95%: 1,96%; 3,86%) y en mujeres (PECA: 3,51%; IC 95%: 2,68%; 4,34%). Lo mismo ocurrió en el Norte, en hombres (PECA: 9,75%; IC 95%: 7,68%; 11,86%) y en mujeres (PECA: 10,38%; IC 95%: 5,77%; 15,21%), así como en el Nordeste, en hombres (PECA: 9,98%; IC 95%: 5,59%; 14,57%) y en mujeres (PECA: 8,34%; IC 95%: 3, 29%; 13,64%). Conclusión: Las muertes por CPNM no son una rareza en Brasil. El país y las regiones Norte y Nordeste experimentaron tasas con tendencia ascendente. Las regiones Norte y Nordeste son las más cercanas al Ecuador y también las menos desarrolladas socioeconómicamente. En estas regiones, una sinergia dentre diferentes tipos de desigualdades y exposiciones ambientales puede estar promoviendo un aumento de las muertes por este tipo de cáncer considerado totalmente prevenible. Palabras clave: neoplasias cutáneas/mortalidad


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Skin Neoplasms/mortality , Time Series Studies , Ethical Analysis , Developing Countries
2.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 157(2): 215-219, mar.-abr. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279104

ABSTRACT

Resumen Antecedentes: Los estudios sobre factores pronóstico de melanoma están basados en poblaciones caucásicas, con predominio de melanomas delgados (Breslow < 3 mm). Los pacientes mexicanos muestran predominio de melanomas gruesos (Breslow ≥ 3 mm). Objetivo: Identificar factores asociados al pronóstico de pacientes con melanomas gruesos. Material y métodos: Se analizó la influencia pronóstica de factores clinicopatológicos en 362 melanomas gruesos. Resultados: La mediana de Breslow fue de 7 mm, 271 (74.9 %) pacientes tuvieron melanoma acral y 49 (13.5 %) melanoma nodular. El 56.6 % de los pacientes se encontró en etapa clínica [EC] III), 269 (74.3 %) tenía ulceración y 15 (4.1 %) márgenes positivos. Las variables asociadas con menor supervivencia global [SG] fueron la EC (p < 0.001), Breslow (p = 0.044), ulceración (p = 0.004), mitosis (p < 0.001) y margen < 2 cm (p < 0.001) . En el análisis multivariante los factores que influyen en SG fueron la EC, mitosis y el margen quirúrgico. Conclusiones: En pacientes con melanomas gruesos la SG es influida por un margen positive, mitosis y EC.


Abstract Background: Studies on prognostic factors in melanoma are based on Caucasian populations, with a predominance of thin melanomas (Breslow <3 mm). Mexican patients show a predominance of thick melanomas (Breslow ≥ 3 mm). Objective: To identify factors associated with the prognosis of patients with thick melanomas. Material and methods: The prognostic influence of clinicopathological factors was analyzed in 362 thick melanomas. Results: The Breslow median was 7 mm, 271 (74.9 %) patients had acral melanoma and 49 (13.5 %) nodular melanoma. The 56.6 % of patients were found in clinical stage [CS] III), 269 (74.3 %) had ulceration, and 15 (4.1 %) had positive margins. The variables associated with lower overall survival [OS] were CS (p < 0.001), Breslow (p = 0.044), ulceration (p = 0.004), mitosis (p < 0.001) and margin < 2 cm (p < 0.001). In the multivariate analysis, the factors influencing OS were CD, mitosis, and the surgical margin. Conclusions: In patients with thick melanomas, OS is influenced by a positive margin, mitosis and CS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Skin Neoplasms/mortality , Skin Neoplasms/pathology , Tumor Burden , Melanoma/mortality , Melanoma/pathology , Prognosis , Ulcer/pathology , Margins of Excision , Lymphatic Metastasis , Melanoma/classification , Mexico , Mitosis
3.
An. bras. dermatol ; 95(2): 158-164, Mar.-Apr. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1130841

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: The incidence and mortality of melanoma is increasing in many countries, including Brazil. Survival studies are still scarce in our country, but much needed to know and address this problem better. Objective: To analyze the disease-specific survival of patients with invasive melanoma and to correlate it with clinical and histopathological variables. Methods: Retrospective cohort analysis of 565 cases of invasive melanoma in a tertiary hospital with the objective of testing variables that could be associated with a worse prognosis, such as gender, phototype, thickness, histological type and presence of pre-existing clinical lesion at the site of the tumor. Results: The worst survival rates were significantly associated with thicker tumors (p < 0.001), male sex (p = 0.014), high phototype (p = 0.047), nodular melanoma (p = 0.024) and "de novo" lesions (p = 0.005). When all variables were adjusted for melanoma thickness, male patients (p = 0.011) and "de novo" melanomas (p = 0.025) remained associated with worse survival. Study limitations: Retrospective study of a single tertiary hospital. Conclusions: Although the causes are still unknown, melanoma-specific survival was statistically worse for males and for "de novo" melanomas even after adjustment of tumor thickness.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Skin Neoplasms/mortality , Melanoma/mortality , Skin Neoplasms/pathology , Time Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Proportional Hazards Models , Sex Factors , Retrospective Studies , Age Factors , Disease-Free Survival , Melanoma/pathology , Middle Aged
5.
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 47: e20202460, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1143691

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objectives: to analyze the survival in juvenile melanoma. Methods: retrospective study conducted by hospital record review and cancer records of patients aged 0 to 19 years, with histologically proven melanoma and treated between 1997 and 2017 at the Erasto Gaertner Hospital in Curitiba-PR. Results: the sample comprised 24 patients, female (62.5%), mean 14.14 ± 4.72 years old, with head and neck melanoma (37.5%), chest (25%) and extremities. (20.8%). Signs and symptoms at diagnosis were increased lesion size (25%), bleeding (20.8%) and pruritus (16.6%). There was a Breslow II and IV index and Clark IV level, with a statistical tendency between Breslow IV and death (p = 0.127), and significance between Clark V and death (p = 0.067). Nine (37.5%) patients had metastases, six (25%) with distant metastases died (p = 0.001), five were girls (20.8%). Surgery was the standard treatment and chemotherapy the most used adjuvant (37.5%). The average time between diagnosis and death was 1.3 ± 1.2 years and survival were 3.7 ± 3.2 years. Conclusion: there was a delay in diagnosis, high morbidity and mortality and average survival less than five years.


RESUMO Objetivos: analisar a sobrevida no Melanoma Infantojuvenil. Métodos: estudo retrospectivo realizado mediante revisão de prontuários e registros hospitalares de câncer, de pacientes na faixa etária de 0 a 19 anos, com melanoma comprovado histologicamente e atendidos entre 1997 e 2017 no Hospital Erasto Gaertner em Curitiba-PR. Resultados: amostra composta por 24 pacientes, sexo feminino (62,5%), média de 14,12 ± 4,72 anos de idade, com melanoma em cabeça e pescoço (37,5%), tórax (25%) e extremidades (20,8%). Os sinais e sintomas ao diagnóstico foram aumento do tamanho da lesão (25%), sangramento (20,8%) e prurido (16,6%). Ocorreu Índice de Breslow II e IV e Nível de Clark IV, com tendência estatística entre Breslow IV e óbito (p=0,127) e significância entre Clark V e óbito (p=0,067). Nove (37,5%) pacientes apresentaram metástases, seis (25%) com metástases à distância morreram (p=0,001), cinco eram meninas (20,8%). A cirurgia foi o tratamento padrão e a quimioterapia o adjuvante mais utilizado (37,5%). A média de tempo entre diagnóstico e óbito foi de 1,3 ± 1,2 anos e de sobrevida foi 3,7 ± 3,2 anos. Conclusão: houve atraso no diagnóstico, alta morbimortalidade e média de sobrevida menor do que cinco anos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Skin Neoplasms/mortality , Melanoma/mortality , Prognosis , Survival Analysis , Survival Rate , Retrospective Studies , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant/adverse effects , Sentinel Lymph Node , Head and Neck Neoplasms/surgery , Melanoma/pathology , Melanoma/therapy , Neoplasm Metastasis , Neoplasm Staging
6.
Rev. bras. cancerol ; 66(4): e-07949, 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1123220

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Recentemente, houve crescimento da incidência do câncer de pele. Radiação solar, história familiar, imunossupressão, pele clara e idade constituem fatores de risco da doença. Objetivo: Correlacionar a mortalidade do câncer de pele com variáveis socioeconômicas. Método: Estudo ecológico, utilizando a planilha de dados da incidência de radiação solar do projeto aquecedor solar de baixo custo (ASBC), e indicadores de condições de vida do Censo de 2010. Os dados foram exportados para o SPSS 14.0, para analisar a correlação (coeficiente de correlação de Spearman), e as variáveis foram comparadas. Resultados: Associações estatisticamente significantes ocorreram entre o coeficiente de mortalidade por câncer maligno de pele com a renda familiar média (r=-0,316, p<0,006) indicando que, quanto maior a renda, menor a mortalidade por neoplasia maligna, ocorrendo o mesmo com a proporção de óbitos evitáveis em menores de 4 anos (r=-0,292, p<0,01) e a proporção de mortes evitáveis entre 5 e 74 anos (r=-0,372, p<0,001). A proporção da população ganhando menos de 1/2 salário-mínimo (r=0,232, p<0,05) indica que, quanto maior a proporção populacional com renda inferior a 1/2 salário- -mínimo, maior será a mortalidade por neoplasia maligna, similar à proporção da população ganhando menos de 1/4 de salário-mínimo (r=0,229, p<0,05). Conclusão: Sendo um assunto de saúde pública intimamente relacionado à renda, o câncer de pele ainda carece de ações de prevenção primária e secundária.


Introduction: Recently, there has been an increase in the incidence of skin cancer. Solar radiation, family history, immunosuppression, fair skin and age are risk factors for the disease. Objective: To correlate skin cancer mortality with several socioeconomic variables. Method: An ecological study using the Solar Heating at Affordable (ASBC) Project Solar Radiation Incidence Worksheet, with indicators of living conditions from the 2010 Census. All the collected data were exported to SPSS 14.0, a tool where the correlation (Spearman correlation coefficient) was analyzed and the variables were compared. Results: Statistically significant associations between the mortality coefficient for malignant skin cancer, with mean family income (r=-0.316, p<0.006) were found, indicating that as high the income, lower is the mortality by malignant neoplasm, occurring the same with the proportion of avoidable deaths in children younger than 4 years (r=-0.292, p<0.01) and the proportion of avoidable deaths between 5 and 74 years (r=-0.372, p<0.001). The proportion of the population earning less than ½ minimum wage (r=0.232, p<0.05) indicates that as high the population proportion with income lower than ½ minimum wage, higher will be the mortality by malignant neoplasm, similar to the proportion of the population earning less than » of the minimum wage (r=0.229, p<0.05). Conclusion: Although is a public health issue closely related to income, skin cancer needs initiatives targeted to primary and secondary prevention of the disease.


Introducción: Recientemente, ha habido un aumento en la incidencia de cáncer de piel. La radiación solar, historia familiar, inmunosupresión, piel clara y la edad constituyen los factores de riesgo para esta enfermedad. Objetivo: Correlacionar la mortalidad por cáncer de piel con varias variables socioeconómicas. Método: Se realizo un estudio ecológico usando la base de datos de la incidencia de la radiación solar del proyecto calentador solar de bajo costo (ASBC), adicionando los indicadores del censo de 2010 relativos a las condiciones de vida. Todos los datos recolectados fueron exportados a SPSS 14.0, herramienta que analizó la correlación (coeficiente de correlación de Spearman) y comparar todas las variables de la base de datos. Resultados: Fueran encontró asociaciones estadísticamente significativas entre el coeficiente de mortalidad debido al cáncer maligno de la piel y el ingreso familiar promedio (r=-0,316, p<0,006), lo mismo ocurre con la proporción de muertes prevenibles en niños menores de 4 años de edad (r=-0,292, p<0,01) y la proporción de muertes prevenibles entre 5 y 74 años (r=-0,372, p<0,001). La proporción de la población que gana menos de 1/2 salario mínimo (r=0,232, p<0,05) indica que cuanto mayor es la proporción de la población con ingresos por debajo de 1/2 salario mínimo, mayor es la mortalidad por neoplasia maligna, similar a proporción de la población que gana menos de 1/4 del salario mínimo (r=0,229, p<0,05). Conclusión: A pesar de ser un problema de salud pública y estrechamente relacionado con los ingresos, el cáncer de piel todavía carece de acciones encaminadas a la prevención primaria y secundaria de la enfermedad.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Skin Neoplasms/economics , Income , Skin Neoplasms/mortality , Solar Radiation/adverse effects , Ecological Studies
7.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(4): 1551-1561, abr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001778

ABSTRACT

Abstract Melanoma is the main serious skin cancer, due to its high lethality. This study aimed to make projections and analyze melanoma mortality trends in Brazil. Mortality Information System data were utilized for the period 1998-2012, which were projected until 2032, using the age-period-cohort model, with software R. The analysis of trends was made by Joinpoint regression, with 95% confidence interval, estimating the annual percentage change. It was revealed higher amounts of deaths in men for all regions. Brazilian trends presented reductions in men (APC = -0.4; CI95% = -0.6; -0.1; p < 0.01) and in women (APC = -0.8; CI95% = -0.9; -0.7; p < 0.01). The Midwest region presented increases for both sexes, while the Southeast region presented reducing trends for both sexes. In the North, there was stability for men and increases followed by stability in women, while the South presented reductions in men and stability in women; finally, the Northeast revealed one joinpoint per sex, with an increase followed by stability in men, and stability followed by reducing trends in women. The highest rates of the country were found in the South and Southeast regions, however, with reducing trends throughout time. Higher mortality trends in men were associated with later diagnoses in this group.


Resumo O melanoma é o mais grave câncer de pele, devido à alta letalidade. Este estudo objetiva projetar e analisar tendências da mortalidade por melanoma no Brasil. Os dados são do Sistema de Informação sobre Mortalidade, no período de 1998 a 2012, os quais foram projetados até 2032, usando o modelo idade-período-coorte, no software R . A análise de tendências foi feita pela Regressão loglineal ( Joinpoint regression ), com intervalo de confiança de 95%, para estimar a porcentagem anual de mudança. Revelou-se maior quantitativo de mortes em homens em todas as regiões. As tendências no Brasil apontaram para redução em homens (APC = -0,4; IC95% = -0,6; -0,1; p < 0,01) e em mulheres (APC = -0,8; IC95% = -0,9; -0,7; p < 0,01). A região Centro-oeste teve aumento para os dois sexos, em oposição ao Sudeste, com redução em ambos. No Norte, houve estabilidade em homens, e aumento seguido de estabilidade em mulheres, enquanto o Sul teve redução em homens e estabilidade em mulheres; e, por fim, o Nordeste teve um joinpoint em cada sexo, com aumento seguido de estabilidade em homens; e estabilidade seguida de redução em mulheres. As maiores taxas do país foram no Sul e Sudeste, todavia, com tendência a redução ao longo do tempo. A maior mortalidade em homens foi associada ao diagnóstico mais tardio.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Skin Neoplasms/epidemiology , Melanoma/epidemiology , Skin Neoplasms/mortality , Brazil/epidemiology , Information Systems , Mortality/trends , Sex Distribution , Age Distribution , Forecasting , Melanoma/mortality , Middle Aged
8.
An. bras. dermatol ; 93(5): 680-685, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-949949

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Background: Mycosis fungoides (MF) is the most common subtype of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. TNMB system is the staging method used in MF, and it not only guides therapeutic management, but represents the main prognostic factor. In order to improve the prognostic evaluation, the Cutaneous Lymphoma International Prognostic Index (CLIPi) was proposed. Objective: To evaluate the performance of CLIPi score for prognostic analysis in patients with early stage MF. Methods: This is a retrospective cross-sectional observational study, with exploratory analysis. The outcome variables were disease progression and related death. Results: One hundred and two patients were stratified according to CLIPi score, being the majority classified as low risk. Patients with intermediate or high risk presented disease progression more frequently than those with low risk (PR: 1.2 / p = 0.004 / 95%CI: 1.0 - 1.6). The same did not occur with the variable related death. In addition, survival rates were not consistent with risk stratification. Study Limitations: Small sample and its retrospective analysis. Conclusions: Since CLIPi score was proposed, four other studies that we could consult showed conflicting results, similar to the present study. Further studies are necessary for a recommendation of its use.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Skin Neoplasms/pathology , Mycosis Fungoides/pathology , Prognosis , Skin Neoplasms/mortality , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Survival Rate , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Lymphoma, T-Cell, Cutaneous/mortality , Lymphoma, T-Cell, Cutaneous/pathology , Mycosis Fungoides/mortality , Sezary Syndrome/pathology , Disease Progression , Neoplasm Staging
9.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 136(4): 372-375, July-Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-962742

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT CONTEXT: Malignant melanoma is the third most common cause of cerebral metastases after breast and lung cancer. Despite advances in therapeutic options, the prognosis for patients with cerebral metastases from melanoma remains poor, with a median survival time of six months after diagnosis. CASE REPORT: A 65-year-old woman was diagnosed with a malignant melanoma on the third toe of her left foot.The tumorous spot was excised surgically. However, the melanoma reappeared after one year and skin biopsy confirmed recurrence of malignant melanoma. Investigations showed metastasis to the left pelvic region, left lobe of the liver and right lobe of the lung.The patient then received chemotherapy. Subsequently, the patient was brought to the emergency department with an altered level of consciousness (Glasgow coma scale: 9) and hemiplegia on the right side of her body. Computed tomography scans of the brain revealed hemorrhagic lesions in the parieto-occipital lobes of the brain. Urgent surgical evacuation was done to remove the lesion, following which the patient showed improvement in her score on the Glasgow coma scale and a concomitant decrease in weakness. She was discharged from hospital with full consciousness.The patient died of acute renal failure 14 months after the brain surgery and approximately 4 years after the initial presentation of the case. CONCLUSION: This case outcome is rare and shows the effectiveness of surgery to treat cerebral metastasis from malignant melanoma in a situation with multisystem metastasis already present.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Skin Neoplasms/pathology , Brain Neoplasms/surgery , Toes/pathology , Foot Diseases/pathology , Melanoma/surgery , Prognosis , Skin Neoplasms/mortality , Time Factors , Brain Neoplasms/mortality , Brain Neoplasms/secondary , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Survival Analysis , Fatal Outcome , Melanoma/mortality , Melanoma/pathology
10.
An. bras. dermatol ; 93(3): 373-376, May-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-949874

ABSTRACT

Abstract: BACKGROUND: The incidence of melanoma has been increasing in Brazil and all over the world. Despite improvements in diagnosis and treatment, mortality remains unchanged. OBJECTIVE: To associate clinical and histopathological aspects with the evolution of 136 cases of cutaneous melanoma. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study that analyzed all patients diagnosed with melanoma during the period from 2003 to 2011, with at least 4 years follow up. Archived slides were analyzed to study histopathological variables (Breslow, ulceration, mitoses and histological regression). Medical records were used to retrieve clinical variables (age, sex, localization, time of appearance, diameter) and progression (metastases or death). Association measures were assessed by statistical analysis. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference between groups according to age. Superficial spreading subtype showed lower Breslow (0.5mm) than acral lentiginous and nodular subtypes (2 and 4.6mm respectively), less ulceration and metastases (9.4% against 50 and 70.6%). Nodular subtype had higher mitoses' median (5.0/mm2) than superficial spreading and lentigo maligna (0.0/mm2, for both). Regression was more frequent in superficial spreading and lentigo maligna subtypes. There were only deaths by melanoma in the acral group, however, there were deaths for other reasons in groups superficial spreading one, acral lentiginous one and lentigo maligna two. STUDY LIMITATIONS: Use of medical records as a source of data to the study. CONCLUSIONS: Superficial spreading subtype presents better prognosis indicators. Histological subtype should be considered in follow-up and treatment protocols of patients with cutaneous melanoma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Skin Neoplasms/pathology , Hutchinson's Melanotic Freckle/pathology , Melanoma/pathology , Prognosis , Skin Neoplasms/mortality , Brazil/epidemiology , Survival Rate , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Hutchinson's Melanotic Freckle/mortality , Melanoma/mortality , Neoplasm Invasiveness/pathology
11.
Rev. costarric. salud pública ; 26(2): 142-147, jul.-dic. 2017.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-900886

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: identificar la prevalencia de los cánceres más comunes diagnosticados en el Hospital San Vicente de Paúl, con el fin de lograr estrategias preventivas que puedan ser abarcadas mediante atención integral. Métodos: Se realiza un estudio transversal, mediante la utilización de paquetes estadísticos como Excel 2010, IBM SPSS Statistics 21 e Infostat, con los cuales se generaron medidas de dispersión y de tendencia central así como distribuciones de frecuencia para el análisis de cada una de las variables de interés. Resultados: el 1 % de la población total herediana, se diagnosticó con algún tipo de cáncer, el 77 % corresponde a mujeres, razón hombre mujer de 1: 3,28, el cáncer de mayor incidencia para población masculina es el de piel y el de la femenina es el de útero (TI 105 y 291 por cada 100 000). El cantón de central de Heredia es el que lleva el primer lugar en incidencias seguido de San Rafael. La letalidad general es de un 3 % y la mortalidad general de 3 por cada 10 000, siendo los cánceres gástrico y de colon los de mayor mortalidad. Conclusión: se hace urgente la puesta en práctica de planes y estrategias que nos permitan una eficaz y evidente prevención de los diferentes tipos de cáncer, pues no se debe olvidar que un gran porcentaje son prevenibles, si mantenemos estilos de vida saludables.


Abstract Objective: Identify the prevalence of the most common cancers diagnosed San Vicente de Paul Hospital, in order to achieve preventive strategies that can be covered by comprehensive care. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study using statistical packages such as Excel 2010, IBM SPSS Statistics 21 and Infostat, with which were generated measures of dispersion and central tendency and frequency distributions for the analysis of each of the variables interest. Results: 1 % of the total population of Heredia, was diagnosed with some form of cancer, 77 % are women, male female ratio of 1: 3,28, the higher incidence of cancer is the male population of the skin and is the female uterus (iT 105 and 291 per 100 000). The central canton of Heredia is the leading first in incidents followed by San Rafael. Overall fatality is 3 % and overall mortality of 3 per 10 000, with the gastric and colon cancers the increased mortality. Conclusion: is urgent implementation of plans and strategies that provide effective and clear prevention of different types of cancer, it should not be forgotten that a large percentage are preventable, if we maintain healthy lifestyles.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Skin Neoplasms/mortality , Uterine Neoplasms/mortality , Neoplasms/mortality , Costa Rica/epidemiology
12.
An. bras. dermatol ; 91(4): 437-441, July-Aug. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-792444

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Background: Cutaneous melanoma is a skin cancer with low incidence but high mortality rates. The South region of Brazil has the highest death rates by melanoma per 100,000 inhabitants of the country. Little is known about the spatial distribution of this malignancy in southern Brazil. Objectives: Identify the spatial patterns of deaths from cutaneous melanoma in South region of Brazil, using geoprocessing tools. Methods: This is an ecological and exploratory study of death information by cutaneous melanoma obtained from portal Datasus, for Brazil's southern region, from January 2008 to December 2012. Deaths were separated by gender and rates per 100,000 inhabitants were calculated and used to compile thematic maps, Moran maps and Kernel maps, using TerraView software. It was adopted an alpha = 5%. Results: There were data on 2378 deaths from cutaneous melanoma in the study period. High rates were identified in the northern and littoral regions of Rio Grande do Sul; the northeast of Santa Catarina; and west of Paraná - for the total population, with minor differences detected and indicated regarding gender. The global Moran index presented p-values of 0.03, 0.04 and 0.03, respectively, for male, female and overall deaths. All the micro-regions that showed high priority for intervention were detected in the Rio Grande do Sul. Conclusion: Spatial clusters of micro-regions with high death rates from cutaneous melanoma in South region of Brazil were identified, serving as an important tool for health managers.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Skin Neoplasms/mortality , Melanoma/mortality , Reference Values , Brazil/epidemiology , Cluster Analysis , Sex Factors , Incidence , Sex Distribution , Geographic Information Systems , Spatial Analysis
13.
Rev. cuba. med. mil ; 45(2): 215-220, abr.-jun. 2016. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-960532

ABSTRACT

Se presenta el caso de un hombre de 75 años de edad, de piel negra y con antecedentes de salud hasta hace dos años en que sufre caída y recibe un trauma en la región sacra, donde apareció una lesión pequeña e indolora, la cual meses después aumentó de tamaño. El paciente fue atendido en varios centros asistenciales con el diagnóstico de exulceración traumática. Recibió diversos tratamientos sin mejoría. En el Hospital Militar de Santiago de Cuba se le realizó biopsia de piel cuyo resultado fue carcinoma epidermoide. Constituyó un caso poco frecuente por las características clínicas y la localización de la lesión(AU)


The case of a 75-year-old black man with a health history is presented in this paper. Two years ago he suffered a fall and was injured traumatized in the sacral region, with a small, painless lesion, which increased in size months later. This patient was treated in several care centers with the diagnosis of traumatic exulceration. He received various treatments with no improvement. A skin biopsy was performed at Santiago de Cuba Military Hospital, the result was epidermoid carcinoma. It was a rare case due to the clinical characteristics and location of the lesion(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Skin Neoplasms/mortality , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/diagnosis
14.
Invest. clín ; 55(3): 227-237, sep. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-780158

ABSTRACT

Diversos agentes infecciosos interfieren en la progresión del cáncer. En esta investigación se estudió el efecto de la infección o inmunización con Trypanosoma cruzi (Tc) sobre el desarrollo del melanoma maligno. Se utilizaron 258 ratones machos C57BL/6 divididos en 5 grupos melanoma: melanoma control, melanoma Tc inmunizado, melanoma Tc agudo, melanoma Tc crónico y melanoma Tc infectado; 3 grupos controles: control sano, control Tc agudo, control Tc crónico. 100.000 células de melanoma B16-BL6 fueron inoculados vía intramuscular a los grupos melanoma; 3 ó 20 tripomastigotes/g de peso fueron inoculados vía intraperitoneal a los grupos Tc crónicos o Tc agudos previo a la inoculación del melanoma, respectivamente, el grupo melanoma Tc inmunizado fue inoculado con 30.000 epimastigotes fijados en formol y suspendidos en adyuvante completo de Freund, y el grupo melanoma Tc infectado fue inoculado con células de melanoma obtenidas de ratones melanoma Tc agudo. Se evaluó volumen tumoral, supervivencia, parasitemia e histopatología tumoral. Los grupos melanoma Tc: agudo, crónico y melanoma infectado, respectivamente, mostraron una disminución significativa del desarrollo tumoral y de la supervivencia al ser comparados con los grupos melanoma control e inmunizado. Los estudios histopatológicos mostraron áreas de necrosis asociadas con depósitos de melanina, degeneración citopática tumoral y amastigotes intracelulares contenidos en vacuolas parasitofóricas. En conclusión, Tc inhibe el desarrollo tumoral del melanoma maligno y aumenta la supervivencia de ratones C57BL/6, fenómeno que podría estar relacionado con la capacidad invasiva tumoral del parásito y a la respuesta inmune generada.


Some infectious pathogens have the capacity to affect cancer progression. In the present paper we studied the effect of infection or immunization with Trypanosoma cruzi (Tc) against malignant melanoma development. We worked on 258 C57BL/6 male mice divided in five melanoma groups: control melanoma, melanoma Tc acutely infected, melanoma Tc chronically infected, melanoma Tc immunized and infected melanoma; and three control groups: healthy, Tc acutely infected and Tc chronically infected. 100.000 B16-BL6 melanoma cells were inoculated in the thigh of melanoma groups; 3 or 20 trypomastigotes/g were inoculated intraperitoneally in chronic or acute Tc groups, before the melanoma injection, respectively; melanoma Tc immunized were subcutaneously inoculated with 30.000 formaldehide-fixed epimastigotes diluted in complete Freund´s adjuvant and the infected melanoma group was inoculated with melanoma cells obtained from melanoma Tc acutely infected mice. We evaluated survival, parasitemia, tumor volume and tumor histopathology. Results showed that in mice infected with Tc, the tumor development and survival were significantly lower as compared with control melanoma and melanoma Tc immunized. Histopathologically, the tumor displayed necrosis areas with melanin deposits, cytopathic degeneration and amastigotes in parasitophorous vacuoles. In conclusion, Tc inhibits the development of malignant melanoma, increasing C57BL/6 survival, a phenomena that could be related to the parasite tumoral invasive capacity, its ability to produce melanoma cell lysis and to induce a robust immune response.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Chagas Disease/immunology , Melanoma/immunology , Melanoma/mortality , Skin Neoplasms/immunology , Skin Neoplasms/mortality , Chagas Disease/complications , Melanoma/complications , Survival Rate , Skin Neoplasms/complications
16.
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 40(2): 127-129, mar.-abr. 2013.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-676366

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: verificar se há alguma relação entre o estado histopatológico do linfonodo sentinela, a recorrência e a mortalidade decorrente do melanoma espesso em pacientes submetidos à BLS ao longo de um seguimento significante. MÉTODOS: Oitenta e seis pacientes portadores de melanoma espesso submetidos à BLS foram selecionados de um banco de dados prospectivo. A linfocintilografia, o mapeamento linfático e a detecção gama intraoperatória foram realizados em todos pacientes. O linfonodo sentinela (LS) foi analisado por HE e por imunoistoquímica. Linfadenectomia total foi indicada para os pacientes com LS positivo. O estado histopatológico do LS foi relacionado à taxa de recorrência e de mortalidade por melanoma. RESULTADOS: Cento e sessenta e seis LS foram retirados dos 86 pacientes. As idades variaram de 18 a 73 anos. Havia 47 mulheres e 39 homens. Micrometástases foram encontradas em 44 pacientes. Quarenta e dois pacientes foram submetidos à linfadenectomia total. Sete pacientes tiveram outro linfonodo positivo. Entre os 44 pacientes com LS positivo houve 20 recorrências e 15 mortes. Houve 18 recidivas e 12 mortes no grupo de LS negativo. A espessura de Breslow não apresentou correlação com o estado histopatológico do LS. O estado histopatológico do LS não interferiu nas taxas de recorrência e de mortalidade (teste de Fisher, p=1.00). A mediana de seguimento foi 69 meses. CONCLUSÃO: Considerando a falta de evidência de benefício, a BLS não deve ser indicada para pacientes com melanoma espesso fora de estudos clínicos.


OBJECTIVE: To ascertain whether there is any relationship between the state of the sentinel lymph node histopathology, recurrence and mortality from thick melanoma in patients undergoing SLNB over a long follow-up. METHODS: Eighty-six patients with thick melanoma undergoing SLNB were selected from a prospective database. Lymphoscintigraphy, lymphatic mapping and intraoperative gamma probe detection were performed in all patients. The sentinel lymph node (SLN) was analyzed by HE and immunohistochemistry. Complete lymphadenectomy was indicated for patients with positive sentinel node. The histopathological SLN status was related to the rate of recurrence and mortality from melanoma. RESULTS: One hundred and sixty-six SLNs were taken from the 86 patients. Ages ranged from 18 to 73 years. There were 47 women and 39 men. Micrometastases were found in 44 patients. Forty-two patients underwent complete lymphadenectomy. Seven other patients had positive lymph node. Among the 44 patients with positive sentinel node, there were 20 recurrences and 15 deaths. There were 18 recurrences and 12 deaths in the group with negative SLN. The Breslow thickness was not correlated with the histopathological SLN status. The histopathological SLN status did not affect the rates of recurrence and mortality (Fisher test, p = 1.00). The median follow-up was 69 months. CONCLUSION: Considering the lack of evidence of benefit, SLNB should not be indicated for patients with thick melanoma outside of clinical studies.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Melanoma/pathology , Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy , Skin Neoplasms/pathology , Follow-Up Studies , Melanoma/mortality , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Survival Rate , Skin Neoplasms/mortality
17.
Dermatol. argent ; 18(1): 30-35, ene.-feb. 2012. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-724299

ABSTRACT

Objetivos. Conocer y comparar en la Argentina, en los jóvenes y adultos, la mortalidad por melanoma cutáneo (MC) y las características de casos incidentes para aportar información útil en el diseño y evaluación de acciones de prevención. Diseño. descriptivo y retrospectivo. Métodos. Se consideraron para el estudio: los jóvenes < 30 años (J) y adultos > 74 años (AM). Los datos de las defunciones para el cálculo de tasas de mortalidad en los períodos 1981-89, 90-98 y 99-07 fueron proporcionados por la Dirección de Estadísticas e Información de Salud del Ministerio de Salud. La información sobre los casos incidentes se obtuvieron del Registro Argentino de Melanoma Cutáneo (RAMC) para el período enero 2002- diciembre 2009. De ellos se estudió la localización, el espesor de Breslow y el tipo histológico.Resultados. En los sucesivos períodos las muertes por MC en J de ambos sexos fue 97, 93 y 123, y en AM 416, 654 y 1.307, respectivamente. En los AM las tasas de mortalidad aumentaron en el tiempo, y fueron siempre menores para las mujeres que para losvarones (varones: 6,3 muertes por MC promedio por cada 100.000 individuos por año en 81-89 a 13,4/100.000 99-07; mujeres: 4,4/100.000 81-89 a 7,5/100.000 en 99-07). El RAMC registró 4.100 casos, 258 fueron en J y 665 en AM. Fueron mujeres el 63% en J y el 47% en AM (p< 0,05). En las mujeres, el 56% de los MC en J y el 36% en AM tuvieron Breslow ≤ 1,00 mm (p< 0,004). En las mujeres predominaron las lesiones en piernas (el 43,4% en J y el 42,2% en AM), mientras que en los hombres fueron el 19,8% y el 12,4% respectivamente (p< 0,005). Conclusión. En las mujeres jóvenes, el menor espesor de Breslow al momento del diagnóstico y las menores tasas de mortalidad por MC con menor incremento temporal de las mismas podrían ser reflejo de una mayor influencia de las acciones de prevención y una mayor atención del propio cuerpo y de la salud por parte del género femenino. Cabe esperar que la continuidad de las actividades del ...


Objectives. To compare mortality rates and main features of cutaneous malignant melanoma(CMM) between two age groups in Argentina (young and elderly patients), in order to increaseknowledge as well as improve planning and preventive actions for this disease.Study design. descriptive and retrospective.Methods. Group J was defined as patients younger than 30 years of age and Group AM patientsover 74 years old. Death reports for periods 1981-89 / 90-98 / 99-07 were provided by theDepartment of Statistics of the Health Ministry and incident cases between 2002 and December2009 by the Argentine Registry of Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma (RAMC). Tumor location,Breslow thickness index and histopathology characteristics were analyzed for all cases.Results. For successive periods, the total number of CMM-associated deaths for both gendersin Group J was 97, 93 and 123 respectively; while these figures were for Group AM 416, 654 and1,307 respectively. On older patients an increase in mortality rates was observed over elapsedtime, being always lower for women than for men (mortality rates for men were 6.3 /100,000population per year during the period of 1981-1989 and 13.4/100,000 between the years1999-2007. Mortality rates for women were: 4.4/100,000 during 1981-1989 and 7.5/100,000and in 1999-2007). RAMC registered 4,100 new cases, of which 258 belonged to Group J and665 to Group AM. Women comprised 63% on group J and 47% on group AM (p<0, 05). Womencomprised 56% of CMM in Group J and 36% on Group AM, having a Breslow tumor thickness≤ 1.00mm (p<0,004). Primary tumors located on lower limbs were more frequently observedamong women (43.4% and 42.2% for Group J and AM respectively), whereas on men this was19.8% and 12.4%, respectively (p<0,005)...


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Female , Aged , Melanoma/epidemiology , Melanoma/mortality , Argentina/epidemiology , Databases, Factual , Skin Neoplasms/epidemiology , Skin Neoplasms/mortality , Records
18.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 31(1): 1-8, ene. 2012. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-618461

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Analizar la concentración de arsénico en agua recolectada en localidades de la provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina, y su relación epidemiológica con factores de susceptibilidad y patologías asociadas. MÉTODOS: Se cuantificó la concentración de arsénico en 152 muestras provenientes de 52 localidades de Buenos Aires durante el período 2003-2008 mediante generación de hidruros-espectrofotometría de absorción atómica. Se construyó un índice compuesto de salud (ICS) considerando el contenido de arsénico, el porcentaje de hogares con necesidades básicas insatisfechas (NBI) y el de viviendas sin acceso al agua de red. A partir del ICS se definieron zonas de riesgo que fueron asociadas con la mortalidad por tumores malignos relacionados con el arsénico. RESULTADOS: Las concentraciones de arsénico se ubicaron en un rango amplio, desde 0,3 hasta 187 µg/L, con una mediana de 40 µg/L. El 82 por ciento de las muestras presentaron niveles de arsénico superiores al valor límite aceptable de 10 µg/L, y más de la mitad de ellas provenían de agua de red. La mortalidad promedio (defunciones/100 000 habitantes) por tumores en los departamentos estudiados fue mayor en los varones que en las mujeres: vías respiratorias (310 frente a 76), vías urinarias (44 frente a 11) y piel (21 frente a 11), respectivamente. Las regiones de mayor concentración de arsénico y pobreza, junto con la falta de agua de red, presentaron un riesgo relativo incrementado de 2 a 4 veces. CONCLUSIONES: La caracterización realizada a través del índice compuesto de salud sintetizó el riesgo sanitario de la exposición al arsénico de la población con niveles de carencia socioeconómica de una amplia región de la provincia de Buenos Aires.


OBJECTIVE: To analyze the concentration of arsenic in water collected in localities of the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina, and the epidemiological relationship of that concentration to factors of susceptibility and associated pathologies. METHODS: In 152 samples from 52 localities of Buenos Aires from 2003-2008, the concentration of arsenic was quantified through the generation of hydride spectrophotometry of atomic absorption. A composite index of health (CIH) was constructed using the content of arsenic and the percentages of households with unmet basic needs and dwellings without access to the potable water. Through the CIH, risk areas associated with mortality from malignant neoplasms related to arsenic were defined. RESULTS: Concentrations of arsenic spanned a broad range from 0.3 to 187 mg/L, with a median of 40 mg/L. Of the samples, 82 percent presented levels of arsenic higher than the acceptable limit of 10 mg/L, and more than half of those came from households with potable water connections. In the departments studied, the average mortality (deaths/100 000 inhabitants) from tumors was greater in men than in women: respiratory tract (310 versus 76), urinary tract (44 versus 11), and skin (21 versus 11), respectively. The regions with greater concentrations of arsenic and of poverty, together with the lack of potable water connections, had a two-to-four times greater risk. CONCLUSIONS: The findings from the composite index of health summarized the health risk from exposure to arsenic for lower socioeconomic levels of the population for a broad area of the province of Buenos Aires.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Arsenic/analysis , Drinking Water/analysis , Environmental Exposure , Vulnerable Populations , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis , Argentina/epidemiology , Arsenic/toxicity , Housing , Poverty , Risk , Respiratory Tract Neoplasms/mortality , Spectrophotometry, Atomic , Skin Neoplasms/mortality , Urologic Neoplasms/mortality , Water Pollutants, Chemical/toxicity , Water Supply/analysis
19.
Rev. chil. dermatol ; 28(4): 411-417, 2012. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-774868

ABSTRACT

La mortalidad por cáncer de piel (MCP) en Chile está en aumento. Los factores de riesgo asociados, como la exposición a radiación ultravioleta (RUV), también lo han hecho, conforme la población ha ido envejeciendo. El propósito de este trabajo es caracterizar la MCP en nuestro país durante el año 2009.Se trata de un estudio descriptivo que recoge la información de la base de datos de mortalidad del Departamento de Estadísticas e Información en Salud del Ministerio de Salud. Los datos muestran que el mayor número de defunciones por cáncer de piel en Chile se produce por cáncer no melanoma (CNM) más que por cáncer melanoma (CMM). También destacan diferencias significativas en variables como edad (más jóvenes en CMM), nivel educacional (mayor proporción de estudios medios y superiores en CMM) y localización geográfica (latitud sur entre paralelos 43° y 54° en CMM). La localización anatómica también fue distinta: extremidades inferiores en CMM y cabeza y cuello para CNM. Con el propósito de frenar el aumento en la MCP se sugiere reforzar la educación en todos los niveles para disminuir la exposición a RUV y fomentar una detección más precoz de lesiones sospechosas con el fin de generar consultas más oportunas.


Mortality due to skin cancer (MSC) is increasing in Chile. Risk factors like sun exposure (SE) are increasing either, mainly because the population is getting older. The purpose of this work is to characterize the skin cancer mortality (SCM) during 2009 in Chile. This is a descriptive study that obtained data from the Annals of Mortality, from the Statistics and Health Data Department of the Health Ministry. Data shows that the majority of SCM is due to non-melanoma cancer (NMC) versus melanoma cancer (MMC) There are significant differences in age (younger), place of residence (43° and 54° latitude south) and education (better) between CMM and CNM. Remarkable differences were either founded to the anatomic localization: low extremities in MMC versus head and neck in NMC. To diminish the MSC we suggest to emphasize responsible sun exposure and to promote early detection of suspicious lesions to achieve earlier medical consultation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Female , Middle Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Skin Neoplasms/mortality , Age and Sex Distribution , Cross-Sectional Studies , Chile/epidemiology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Melanoma/mortality , Life Expectancy , Socioeconomic Factors
20.
Medisan ; 14(6)20-jul.28-ago. 2010. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-585253

ABSTRACT

Actualmente existe una elevada mortalidad y morbilidad por cáncer de piel, lo cual representa un grave problema que va en aumento; por tal razón, en el presente estudio se revisó la bibliografía especializada sobre algunos aspectos de interés, tales como: interacción de las radiaciones solares sobre esta parte del organismo, efectos beneficiosos y perjudiciales, respuestas cutáneas normales y anormales, relación entre el cáncer de piel y las radiaciones ultravioletas, así como medidas de protección solar, las cuales permitirán mantener una piel sana y saludable.


Currently, there is a high mortality and morbidity due to skin cancer, which represents an increasingly serious problem. Therefore, this study reviewed the specialized literature on some aspects of interest such as interaction of solar radiations on this part of the body, beneficial and harmful effects, normal and abnormal skin responses, relationship between skin cancer and ultraviolet radiations, as well as sun protection measures, which will allow us to maintain a healthy skin.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Skin Neoplasms/mortality , Skin Neoplasms/epidemiology , Ultraviolet Rays , Sunscreening Agents
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