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Säo Paulo med. j ; 139(2): 186-189, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1181004


ABSTRACT CONTEXT: Various skin manifestations have been reported in coronavirus disease. It may be difficult to determine the etiology of these lesions in view of the increased frequency of handwashing during the pandemic, along with occurrences of irritant contact dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis due to disinfectant use; usage of herbal medicine and supplements to strengthen the immune system; and urticarial or maculopapular drug eruptions due to COVID-19 treatment. The variety of associated skin manifestations seen with COVID-19 makes it challenging to identify virus-specific skin manifestations. Petechiae, purpura, acrocyanosis and necrotic and non-necrotic purpura, which can be considered as manifestations of vascular involvement on the skin, have been reported. CASE REPORT: Here, we report a case of eruptive cherry angiomas, which was thought to have developed due to COVID-19, with a papulovesicular rash on distal extremities that progressed over time to reticular purpura. CONCLUSION: The case presented had a papulovesicular rash at the onset, which evolved to retiform purpura, and eruptive cherry angiomas were observed. It should be kept in mind that dermatological signs may vary in patients with COVID-19.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Purpura/virology , Skin/virology , Skin Diseases, Viral/virology , Exanthema/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Hemangioma/virology , Skin/drug effects , Skin/pathology , Treatment Outcome , Skin Diseases, Viral/diagnosis , Skin Diseases, Viral/therapy , COVID-19 Testing , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/therapy
Int. j. morphol ; 38(6): 1535-1538, Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134473


SUMMARY: Human skin melanin was stained using the Fontana's silver nitrate method and Schmorl method. The results showed that, in the Fontana's silver nitrate method, melanin and silver-bound cells were black and other tissues were red. When stained using the Schmorl method, effects on melanin differed based on whether the nuclei were stained. When the nucleus was stained, melanin appeared blue-black or blue-green, and other tissue structures were purple. When the nucleus was not stained, melanin was orange and other structures were pink. Comparing the two staining methods, we concluded that Fontana's silver nitrate method takes a long time; in contrast, the Schmorl method showed two different types of results depending on whether the nucleus was stained, and it takes less time than Fontana staining, so we here consider the Schmorl method more suitable for special staining of melanin than Fontana's silver nitrate method.

RESUMEN: La melanina de la piel humana se tiñó utilizando el método del nitrato de plata de Fontana y el método Schmorl. Los resultados mostraron que, en el método del nitrato de plata de Fontana, la melanina y las células unidas a plata eran negras y otros tejidos eran rojos. Cuando se tiñó con el método de Schmorl, los efectos sobre la melanina difirieron en función de si se tiñeron los núcleos. Cuando se tiñó el núcleo, la melanina apareció de color azul-negro o azul-verde, y otras estructuras de tejido fueron de color púrpura. Cuando el núcleo no estaba teñido, la melanina era naranja y otras estructuras eran rosadas. Al comparar los dos métodos de tinción, llegamos a la conclusión de que el método del nitrato de plata de Fontana lleva mucho tiempo; por el contrario, el método Schmorl mostró dos tipos diferentes de resultados dependiendo de si el núcleo estaba teñido, y lleva menos tiempo que la tinción de Fontana, por lo que aquí consideramos que el método Schmorl es más adecuado para la tinción especial de melanina que el método del nitrato de plata de Fontana.

Humans , Silver Nitrate , Skin/drug effects , Staining and Labeling/methods , Melanins
Gac. méd. Méx ; 156(5): 426-431, sep.-oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249941


Resumen Introducción: El jabón para el aseo cutáneo es de empleo común entre la población, sin embargo, es posible que cause daño a las células de la piel y modifique la barrera cutánea. Objetivo: Determinar el efecto citotóxico de los jabones en queratinocitos cultivados in vitro y correlacionarlo con la irritación clínica. Método: Se realizó una encuesta para conocer los jabones comerciales más utilizados y su cantidad; posteriormente, se evaluó su citotoxicidad en cultivos de queratinocitos humanos mediante el método de resazurina. Los jabones con mayor y menor citotoxicidad se aplicaron en piel de voluntarios sanos para evaluar su efecto en la barrera cutánea mediante ensayos de colorimetría y pérdida transepidérmica de agua. Resultados: De los jabones analizados, 37 % demostró ser tóxico para los queratinocitos in vitro. El jabón con mayor toxicidad indujo el mayor índice de eritema y pérdida transepidérmica de agua, en comparación con el jabón menos tóxico y el vehículo empleado como solución control. Conclusión: Los jabones comercializados para el aseo cutáneo pueden incluir ingredientes químicos que dañan los queratinocitos humanos y causan irritación subclínica de la barrera cutánea. Su utilización puede agravar dermatosis preexistentes, generar dermatitis xerósica o de contacto irritativa y causar atrofia y dermatoporosis.

Abstract Introduction: The use of soap for skin cleansing is common among the population. However, it is possible that it causes damage to skin cells and disrupts the skin barrier. Objective: To determine the cytotoxic effect of soaps on in vitro-cultured keratinocytes and to correlate it with clinical irritation. Method: A survey was conducted to find out the most widely used commercial soaps and their number. Subsequently, their cytotoxicity was evaluated in human keratinocyte cultures using the resazurin assay. The soaps with the highest and lowest cytotoxicity were applied to the skin of healthy volunteers to assess their effect on the skin barrier using colorimetry and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) assays. Results: Of the analyzed soaps, 37 % were shown to be toxic to keratinocytes in vitro. The soap with the highest toxicity induced the highest rate of erythema and TEWL, in comparison with the least toxic soap and the vehicle used as the control solution. Conclusion: Soaps marketed for skin cleansing can contain chemical ingredients that damage human keratinocytes and cause skin barrier subclinical irritation. Their use can worsen preexisting dermatoses, generate xerotic or irritant contact dermatitis, and cause atrophy and dermatoporosis.

Humans , Soaps/adverse effects , Keratinocytes/drug effects , Skin Irritancy Tests , Irritants/adverse effects , Skin/drug effects , Soaps/chemistry , Body Water , Cells, Cultured , Dermatitis, Irritant/etiology , Colorimetry , Erythema/chemically induced , Healthy Volunteers , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
An. bras. dermatol ; 95(2): 221-237, Mar.-Apr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1130848


Abstract With the development of new cancer therapies, systemic toxicity profile and effects on survival achieved an important improvement. However, a constellation of toxicities has emerged, even more remarkably, cutaneous adverse events. This report, developed by a board of Brazilian experts in oncodermatology, aims to establish a guideline for the dermatological care of oncologic patients. When possible, evidence-based recommendations were made, but in many cases, when strong evidence was not available, a consensus was reached, based on some data supporting therapies combined with personal experiences.

Humans , Skin Diseases/chemically induced , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/etiology , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects , Skin/drug effects , Risk Factors , Administration, Topical , Neoplasms/complications
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e17560, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285514


Urea's thermal instability and burning on sensitive skin can cause problems for cosmetic formulations. To overcome these drawbacks, urea was incorporated into ordered mesoporous silica (SBA-15). SBA-15 was synthesized using tetraethyl orthosilicate and Pluronic® P123 in an acid medium. Urea (20 wt.%) was incorporated into calcined SBA-15 by the incipient wetness impregnation method. Several techniques were used to characterize the samples. Skin hydration and transepidermal water loss were measured using Corneometer® CM 825 PC and Tewameter® 300 TM. Results showed that the structural properties of SBA-15Urea were similar to pure SBA-15, indicating that SBA-15 remained structured even after urea incorporation. Nitrogen physisorption data showed the volume and surface area of the pores in SBA-15Urea were much lower than those in SBA-15, demonstrating that urea was deposited inside the mesopores. In vivo moisturization studies revealed that SBA-15Urea was not able to reduce transepidermal water loss compared to the other products and control, while forming a non-occlusive surface film on the skin. We conclude that incorporation of urea in the pores of the inorganic SBA-15 matrix is a promising approach to enhancing its stability and providing a prolonged moisturizing effect.

Urea/analysis , Silicon Dioxide/administration & dosage , Skin/drug effects , Control , Fluid Therapy/adverse effects
Int. j. morphol ; 37(3): 1073-1078, Sept. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012398


Considerando los avances en las investigaciones que relacionan los efectos terapéuticos de la miel en el proceso de cicatrización de heridas, la presente investigación tuvo como objetivo evaluar y comparar cualitativamente, a través de una análisis morfológico, la respuesta tisular local entre sutura convencional coadyuvada con Ulmoplus® y sin Ulmoplus® en el cierre de la incisión de piel de conejo. Se utilizaron 10 conejos adultos, divididos en grupo S (sutura) y grupo S+U (sutura más Ulmoplus®). Se les realizó una incisión de 10 mm de largo, en la región anterior de la pierna, a través de la epidermis y dermis, hasta llegar a la fascia profunda que cubría al músculo tibial anterior. Posteriormente, solo al grupo S+U se le aplicó Ulmoplus®. Luego, en ambos grupos, la incisión fue suturada con dos puntos intradérmicos de ácido poliglicólico (vicryl 2/0). Después de 10 días post incisión fueron tomadas las biopsias de la piel y procesadas para su observación en microscopio de luz. El estudio se llevó a cabo considerando las recomendaciones de la Guía para el Cuidado y Uso de Animales de Laboratorio. Ambos grupos presentaron una incisión cerrada al día 10, con características microscópicas propias de una fase proliferativa. No obstante, el grupo S+U mostró una cicatriz de menor longitud y de aspecto más plano, cuya epidermis estaba mejor organizada y era de menor grosor, con células basales diferenciadas. A nivel dérmico se observó contracción de la herida, evidenciándose una zona cicatrizal de menor tamaño. Ulmoplus®, es una buena alternativa como coadyuvante en el proceso de cierre de heridas quirúrgicas utilizando sutura convencional, ya que acelera el proceso de cicatrización y permite mejores resultados estéticos de la cicatriz.

Considering the advances in research that relate honey therapeutic effects in wound healing process, the present investigation aimed to evaluate and compare qualitatively, through morphological analysis, the local tissue response between conventional suture with Ulmoplus ® and without Ulmoplus ® in the closure of the rabbit skin incision. We used 10 adult rabbits, divided into group S (suture) and group S + U (suture plus Ulmoplus®). An 10 mm long incision was made in the anterior region of the leg, passing through epidermis and dermis, until reaching the deep fascia that covered the anterior tibial muscle. Subsequently, only the S + U group was given Ulmoplus®. Then, in both groups, the incision was sutured with two intradermal points of polyglycolic acid (vicryl 2/0). After 10 days post incision, biopsies of the skin were taken and processed for observation in a light microscope. The study was carried out considering the recommendations of the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. Both groups had a closed incision at day 10 with microscopic characteristics of a proliferative phase. However, the S + U group showed a scar of shorter length and flatter appearance, whose epidermis was more organized and thinner, with differentiated basal cells. At the dermal level, wound contraction was observed, evidencing a smaller scar area. Ulmoplus®, as a coadjuvant in closing surgical wounds process using conventional suture is a good alternative, since it accelerates the healing process and allows better aesthetic results of the scar.

Animals , Rabbits , Skin/drug effects , Wound Healing/drug effects , Suture Techniques , Honey , Skin/ultrastructure , Wound Closure Techniques , Dermatologic Surgical Procedures , Surgical Wound
Acta cir. bras ; 34(7): e201900701, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038120


Abstract Purpose: To compare the use of new cyanoacrylate surgical adhesive associated with macroporous tapes in cutaneous synthesis. Methods: Male Wistar rats with a longitudinal incision of 4cm were used on the back, divided into four groups: GI used octyl-cyanoacrylate (Dermabond®), GII used N-2-butylcyanoacrylate, GIII used octyl-cyanoacrylate and macroporous tape and GIV used N-2-butyl cyanoacrylate and macroporous tape. On the fourteenth day, the rats were submitted to euthanasia, were divided in two parts, and a layer of skin subcutaneous tissue through an area of operative healing was removed. One part was submitted to the study of rupture strength with the use of tensiometer, and in the other part histological examination was performed. Results: No force test was similar between groups I and II, being different from groups III and IV (P <0.001), which were identical to each other (P> 0.05). The units were compared among the studied groups, and they were different with the use of macroporous tapes (P> 0.05). Conclusions: The purpose of macroporous tapes is associated with CA adhesives in cutaneous tissues that provide more resistant scars. The use of a combination of macroporous tapes leads to complete re-epithelialization, without provoking foreign body reaction, has hemostatic properties and does not cause an absorptive reaction.

Animals , Male , Rats , Skin/drug effects , Surgical Wound Dehiscence/prevention & control , Tissue Adhesives/pharmacology , Wound Healing/physiology , Enbucrilate/pharmacology , Suture Techniques , Rats, Wistar
Acta cir. bras ; 33(11): 1000-1015, Nov. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973480


Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the effects and mechanisms of andiroba-based emulsion (ABE) topical treatment on full-thickness cutaneous wounds in rats. Methods: The wounds were harvested on days 3, 7, 15, and 20 post-surgery. Wound contraction rate, quantitative immunohistochemistry [macrophages, myofibroblasts, capillaries, collagens (col) I and III, transforming growth factor β3β (TGFβ3)], and tensile strength were assessed. Results: Treated wounds were smaller, contracted earlier and had increased angiogenesis, fewer CD68+ and M2 macrophages on days 7 and 15, but higher on day 20. Myofibroblasts appeared on days 3 to 7 in untreated wounds and on days 7 to 15 in treated wounds. TGFβ3 levels were higher in the treated wounds, less dense collagen fibers, lower col I/III ratios and a higher tensile strength. Conclusion: These results demonstrate the important anti-inflammatory role of treatment and the associated modulation of macrophages, myofibroblasts, and TGFβ3 levels. Collagen fibers in the treated wounds were more organized and less dense, similar to unwounded skin, which likely contributed to the higher tensile strength.

Animals , Male , Skin/drug effects , Wound Healing/drug effects , Plant Oils/pharmacology , Meliaceae/chemistry , Transforming Growth Factor beta3/drug effects , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Skin/pathology , Administration, Cutaneous , Immunohistochemistry , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Wistar , Collagen Type I/analysis , Collagen Type III/analysis , Emulsions , Extracellular Matrix/drug effects , Transforming Growth Factor beta3/analysis , Myofibroblasts/drug effects
An. bras. dermatol ; 93(3): 362-367, May-June 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-949880


Abstract: BACKGROUND: Internal malignancies such as breast cancer, as well as their treatment can often result in skin changes. OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of dermatological complaints in patients who are undergoing oncological treatment for breast cancer in a hospital in Tubarão, Santa Catarina, Brazil. METHODS: Observational, cross-sectional study, from October 2015 to February 2016 in which 152 patients with the diagnosis of breast cancer, undergoing treatment with chemotherapy, radiotherapy, hormone therapy and/or surgery, were interviewed and completed a research protocol developed by the author. RESULTS: The treatment of breast cancer was associated with dermatological complaints in 94.1% of the interviewed, being with hair loss the most frequent, present in 79.6% of the sample, followed by nail changes (56%). Patients with lighter skin phototypes (I, II and III) had a lower risk (p=0.045) of developing skin changes when compared to darker phototypes. Radiation therapy (p=0.011) and oncological surgery (pFisher=0.004) were statistically significant when related to skin changes. STUDY LIMITATIONS: Inherent to the design of the study, as well as recall bias. CONCLUSIONS: It was found that most patients diagnosed with breast cancer showed dermatologic manifestations during the proposed cancer treatment. Patients undergoing radiotherapy and surgery showed skin changes with greater statistical significance.

Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Skin Diseases/epidemiology , Breast Neoplasms/therapy , Skin/drug effects , Skin/radiation effects , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hormones/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use
An. bras. dermatol ; 93(2): 233-237, Mar.-Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887191


Abstract: Background: Several dermatoses are mediated by histamine, such as urticaria, angioedema, and papular urticaria. There are no Brazilian studies comparing the potency of antihistamines. Objectives: To evaluate the tolerability and efficacy of the main commercial brand and generic H1 antihistamines, regarding the suppression of the wheal and flare to the histamine test. Methods: A quasi-experimental, open study with 10 healthy adults submitted to the histamine test on the ventral aspect of the forearms. After 20 minutes, wheal and flares were measured. The tests were performed after two hours of intake of dexchlorpheniramine, hydroxyzine, levocetirizine, fexofenadine, cetirizine, loratadine, ebastine, desloratadine, epinastine and rupatadine, as well as generics of loratadine, cetirizine and fexofenadine. Results: All antihistamines presented a reduction in the wheal compared to the control (p <0.02), as well as in the flare, except for rupatadine (p = 0.70). In the internal comparison, cetirizine, fexofenadine, epinastine, levocetirizine, dexchlorpheniramine and hydroxyzine were the most potent, with no difference between them (p > 0.1). As for halo, cetirizine, epinastine, hydroxyzine and fexofenadine were the most potent, with no difference between them (p > 0.1). The most common adverse effect was drowsiness, which was more prevalent among first-generation drugs (p < 0.01). Generic loratadine, fexofenadine and cetirizine halos were higher than their controls (p <0.03).. Study limitations: A single-center study evaluating only aspects related to histamine. Conclusions: Brazilian commercial antihistamines presented different profiles of inhibition of wheal and flares in the histamine test, as well as adverse effects. Generic loratadine, fexofenadine and cetirizine presented larger flares than brand drugs.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Skin/drug effects , Vasodilation/drug effects , Capillary Permeability/drug effects , Histamine , Anti-Allergic Agents/pharmacology , Histamine H1 Antagonists/pharmacology , Reference Values , Skin/immunology , Time Factors , Brazil , Skin Tests/methods , Reproducibility of Results , Drug Hypersensitivity , Non-Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
An. bras. dermatol ; 92(3): 367-374, May-June 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886951


Abstract Free radicals are unstable chemical species, highly reactive, being formed by cellular entities of different tissues. Increased production of these species without proper effective action of endogenous and exogenous antioxidant systems, generates a condition of oxidative stress, potentially provider of skin disorders that extend from functional impairments (skin cancer, dermatitis, chronic and acute inflammatory processes) even aesthetic character, with the destruction of structural proteins and cellular changes with the appearance of stains, marks and lines of expressions and other signs inherent to the intrinsic and extrinsic skin aging process. The antioxidants are chemical substances commonly used in clinical practice for topical application and may contribute in the fight against the radical species responsible for many skin damage. This paper summarized the main evidence of the benefits brought by the topical application of antioxidants in the skin, considering the amplitude of the indicative performance of antioxidant activity by in vitro and ex-vivo tests as well as in vivo tests. It is recognized that a breadth of product performance tests should be explored to truly identify the effectiveness of antioxidant products for an anti-aging effect.

Humans , Skin/drug effects , Skin Diseases/drug therapy , Skin Aging/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Antioxidants/administration & dosage
An. bras. dermatol ; 91(5,supl.1): 76-78, Sept.-Oct. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-837916


Abstract Cutaneous reactions associated with interferons (IFNs) treatment are either localized or generalized. The most common presentation of localized reactions at IFNs injection site is usually an erythematous patch or plaque. Local leukocytoclastic vasculitis presenting with cutaneous necrosis is extremely rare. We report a 19-year-old man with hepatitis B who had local leukocytoclastic vasculitis induced by interferon-gama injection at the injection site. After changing the injection sites and using the combined treatment of prednisone and colchicine, the previous lesion healed and no other cutaneous lesion occurred. We also made a mini review of such cases.

Humans , Male , Young Adult , Skin/pathology , Interferon-gamma/adverse effects , Vasculitis, Leukocytoclastic, Cutaneous/chemically induced , Skin/drug effects , Prednisone/therapeutic use , Colchicine/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Vasculitis, Leukocytoclastic, Cutaneous/pathology , Vasculitis, Leukocytoclastic, Cutaneous/drug therapy , Erythema/chemically induced , Erythema/pathology , Injections, Subcutaneous/adverse effects , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Necrosis/chemically induced , Necrosis/pathology
An. bras. dermatol ; 91(5,supl.1): 26-28, Sept.-Oct. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-837962


Abstract Chemical leukoderma occurs due to the toxic effect of a variety of chemical agents. Mechanisms include either destruction or inhibition of melanocytes. We report two male patients (36 and 51 years old) who presented with multiple hypopigmented macules and patches on the neck, wrist, and legs after exposure to dimethyl sulfate in a chemical industry. Physical examination revealed irregular depigmentation macules with sharp edges and clear hyperpigmentation around the lesions. History of repeated exposure to a chemical agent can help the clinical diagnosis of chemical leukoderma. This diagnosis is very important for prognosis and therapeutic management of the disease.

Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Sulfuric Acid Esters/toxicity , Hypopigmentation/chemically induced , Hypopigmentation/pathology , Dermatitis, Occupational/etiology , Dermatitis, Occupational/pathology , Skin/drug effects , Skin/pathology , Hyperpigmentation/chemically induced , Hyperpigmentation/pathology , Melanocytes/drug effects , Melanocytes/pathology
Int. j. morphol ; 34(3): 918-922, Sept. 2016. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828963


Lead acetate is a chemical compound. Sources of human exposure to this metal include many foods, drinking water and dust. The aim of this study was to determine the immunohistochemical and histopathological changes on the face skin after lead acetate application. Wistar Albino rats (180-200 g body weight) were divided into a controlled and lead acetate-exposed group. Rats received lead acetate at 500 ppm in their drinking water for 60 days. Both groups were fed with the same standard food, but lead acetate was added to the drinking water. During the experimental period, blood samples were drawn from the abdominal aorta of the anesthetised animals. At the end of exposure, body weight and blood lead levels were measured. Sections of rat facial skin were examined histopathological and immunohistochemical. In the group treated with lead acetate, minimal to slight multifocal hydropic degeneration of basal cell layer, depending on the thinning of the epidermis, the cellular degeneration in the dermis and a increase in the number of necrotic cells was observed in sebaceous glands of the hair follicle hemorrhage. The immunohistochemical results of the present work demonstrated an increase in Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunoreactivity in skin specimens from lead acetate treated animals. Vimentin immunoreactivity was very dense in hair follicle of the subepidermal region. It was also strongly stained around the myoepithelial cells surrounding sebaceous and stromal cells.

El acetato de plomo es un compuesto químico. Las fuentes de exposición humana a este metal incluyen una gran variedad de alimentos, agua potable y el polvo. El objetivo fue determinar los cambios inmunohistoquímicos e histopatológicos en la piel de la cara después de la aplicación de acetato de plomo en ratas Wistar albinas (180 a 200 g de peso corporal) las que fueron divididas en un grupo control y otro expuesto al acetato de plomo. Las ratas expuestas recibieron acetato de plomo en dosis de 500 ppm en el agua que bebían durante 60 días. Ambos grupos fueron alimentados con el mismo pellet estándar. Durante el período experimental, se extrajeron muestras de sangre desde la parte abdominal de la aorta con los animales anestesiados. Al final de la exposición, se midió el peso corporal y los niveles de plomo en la sangre. Secciones de piel de la cara se examinaron y estudiaron con procediminetos histopatológicos e inmunohistoquímicos. En el grupo expuesto, se observó una degeneracion hidrópica multifocal desde mínima a ligera de la capa de células basales; dependiendo del adelgazamiento de la epidermis, se observó degeneración celular en la dermis y un aumento en el número de células necróticas en las glándulas sebáceas de folículos pilosos hemorrágicos. Los resultados inmunohistoquímicos demostraron un aumento de inmunoreactividad al antígeno nuclear de células en proliferación (PCNA) en las muestras de piel de los animales tratados con acetato de plomo. La inmunoreactividad a vimentina fue muy densa en los folículos pilosos de la región subepidermal. También se observó una fuerte tinción alrededor de las células mioepiteliales que rodean las células sebáceas y estromales.

Animals , Rats , Organometallic Compounds/administration & dosage , Skin/drug effects , Skin/pathology , Immunohistochemistry , Rats, Wistar
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 52(1): 69-76, Jan.-Mar. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-789089


ABSTRACT Aiming to alter and/or improve permeation of active compounds in the skin, many strategies have been developed, including biophysical methods. One of the physical absorption techniques, currently known as Cryo Laser Phoresis (CLP), consists of an apparatus that emits radiation on polar or nonpolar molecules of the active substance, resulting in faster penetration when in comparison to the standard topical application. The goal of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of a method that proposes to increase cutaneous permeation of diclofenac sodium by using CLP technique. The influence on permeation was evaluated ex vivo, using Franz cell and human skin obtained from cosmetic surgery. The results were evaluated using statistical methods and data exploratory analysis: clusters, k-means and Principal Component Analysis. The results showed a larger increase in the concentration of diclofenac sodium in the dermis with the use of laser. In all samples (with or without laser application) it was observed that skin surface showed an amount of diclofenac sodium and that there was no active passage to the receptor liquid, suggesting that diclofenac sodium was not absorbed. These results indicate that CLP, when used under the conditions described in this study, is able to increase diclofenac sodium penetration and its retention into deeper layers.

RESUMO No sentido de alterar e/ou melhorar a penetração de substâncias na pele, diversas estratégias têm sido desenvolvidas, variando desde a aplicação de novos veículos e ativos encapsulados, até equipamentos que atuam por métodos biofísicos. Uma das técnicas de absorção física, atualmente conhecida como Crio Laser Forese (CLF), consiste em um aparato que emite radiação sobre moléculas polares ou apolares da substância ativa, tornando sua penetração mais rápida, se comparada à administração tópica comum. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficácia de um método que propõe aumentar a permeação cutânea do diclofenaco de sódio incorporado a um gel, por meio do uso da CLF. A influência sobre a permeação foi avaliada ex vivo, utilizando célula de Franz e pele humana obtida de cirurgia plástica. Os resultados foram balizados mediante aplicação de métodos estatísticos e análise exploratória de dados: clusters, k-means e Análise por Componentes Principais. Os resultados demonstraram aumento na concentração do diclofenaco de sódio na derme com o uso do laser. Em todas as amostras (com ou sem aplicação de laser), observou-se, uma quantidade de diclofenaco de sódio na superfície da pele e que não houve passagem de ativo para o líquido do receptor, sugerindo que o diclofenaco de sódio não foi absorvido. Estes resultados indicam que CLF usada sob as condições descritas neste estudo é capaz de aumentar a penetração do diclofenaco de sódio e sua retenção em camadas mais profundas da pele.

Diclofenac/pharmacokinetics , Lasers/statistics & numerical data , Dermatologic Agents/pharmacokinetics , Skin/drug effects
Int. j. morphol ; 33(4): 1563-1568, Dec. 2015. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-772355


Recent advances in the fields of biomaterials and nanotechnology have allowed the development of advanced nanoparticles for biomedical applications. Despite a vast number of nanostructures such as liposomes, solid­lipid nanocapsules, polymeric and hybrid lipid­polymer nanoparticles have been studied as carriers for drug delivery for different pathologies with remarkable promising results; the use of polymeric nanoparticles in dermocosmetic still has not been widely explored. The evolution of cosmetic into the care skin and dermatology represents novel technological challenges. Also, the increasing knowledge about normal skin physiology and advances in nanotechnology provide an attractive environment for the creation of innovative dermocosmetic formulations. In this work, we discuss the state of the art of polymeric nanoparticles formulated for dermocosmetics, its mechanisms of action, and diffusion into the skin.

Los recientes avances en el campo de los biomateriales y la nanotecnología han permitido el desarrollo de nanopartículas avanzadas para aplicaciones biomédicas. A pesar de que un gran número de nanoestructuras tales como liposomas, nanocápsulas lípido-sólidas, nanopartículas poliméricas y lípido-polímero híbridas han sido estudiadas como vehículos para la administración de fármacos en diferentes patologías con notables resultados prometedores, el uso de nanopartículas poliméricas en dermocosmética todavía no ha sido ampliamente explorado. La evolución de la cosmética en el cuidado de la piel y la dermatología nos enfrentan a nuevos retos tecnológicos. Además, el aumento de los conocimientos sobre la fisiología de la piel normal y los avances en la nanotecnología proporcionan un entorno atractivo para la creación de formulaciones dermocosméticas innovadoras. En este trabajo se discute el estado del arte de las nanopartículas poliméricas desarrolladas para dermocosmética, sus mecanismos de acción y la difusión en la piel.

Cosmetics/pharmacokinetics , Dermatology/trends , Nanotechnology/trends , Polymers/pharmacokinetics , Skin/drug effects , Cosmetic Techniques/trends , Drug Delivery Systems , Skin/anatomy & histology , Technology, Pharmaceutical
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(4): 1111-1118, Oct.-Dec. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-769642


Abstract In the present work, twelve bacilli were isolated from four different regions of human skin from Bela population of Nagpur district, India. The isolated bacilli were identified by their morphological, cultural and biochemical characteristics. Seven isolates were Gram negative rods, out of which five were belong to genus Pseudomonas. Three among the five Gram positive isolates were identified as Dermabactor and the remaining two Bacillus. Their antimicrobial susceptibility profile was determined by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. The isolates showed resistance to several currently used broad-spectrum antibiotics. The Dermabactor genus was resistant to vancomycin, although it was earlier reported to be susceptible. Imipenem was found to be the most effective antibiotic for Pseudomonas while nalidixic acid, ampicillin and tetracycline were ineffective. Isolates of Bacillus displayed resistance to the extended spectrum antibiotics cephalosporin and ceftazidime. Imipenem, carbenicillin and ticarcillin were found to be the most effective antibiotics as all the investigated isolates were susceptible to them. Antibiotic resistance may be due to the overuse or misuse of antibiotics during the treatment, or following constant exposure to antibiotic-containing cosmetic formulations.

Adolescent/classification , Adolescent/drug effects , Adolescent/genetics , Adolescent/isolation & purification , Adolescent/microbiology , Adolescent/pharmacology , Adult/classification , Adult/drug effects , Adult/genetics , Adult/isolation & purification , Adult/microbiology , Adult/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/classification , Anti-Bacterial Agents/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/genetics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/isolation & purification , Anti-Bacterial Agents/microbiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacillus/classification , Bacillus/drug effects , Bacillus/genetics , Bacillus/isolation & purification , Bacillus/microbiology , Bacillus/pharmacology , Female/classification , Female/drug effects , Female/genetics , Female/isolation & purification , Female/microbiology , Female/pharmacology , Healthy Volunteers/classification , Healthy Volunteers/drug effects , Healthy Volunteers/genetics , Healthy Volunteers/isolation & purification , Healthy Volunteers/microbiology , Healthy Volunteers/pharmacology , Humans/classification , Humans/drug effects , Humans/genetics , Humans/isolation & purification , Humans/microbiology , Humans/pharmacology , Male/classification , Male/drug effects , Male/genetics , Male/isolation & purification , Male/microbiology , Male/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/classification , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/drug effects , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/isolation & purification , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/microbiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/pharmacology , Middle Aged/classification , Middle Aged/drug effects , Middle Aged/genetics , Middle Aged/isolation & purification , Middle Aged/microbiology , Middle Aged/pharmacology , Skin/classification , Skin/drug effects , Skin/genetics , Skin/isolation & purification , Skin/microbiology , Skin/pharmacology , Young Adult/classification , Young Adult/drug effects , Young Adult/genetics , Young Adult/isolation & purification , Young Adult/microbiology , Young Adult/pharmacology
Acta cir. bras ; 30(9): 586-592, Sep. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-761491


PURPOSE:To investigate the efficacy of a 10% gel of unripe banana (Musa sapientum) peel in treating surgical wounds in rats.METHODS:A longitudinal, prospective, randomized triple-blind study was conducted with 60 Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus albinus) weighing approximately 400g. The animals were randomly divided into: control group (treated with gel containing no active ingredient) and study group (treated with 10% gel of unripe banana peel). The gel was applied every three days to a 4x4-cm surgical wound created on the back of each animal (day 0) in both groups. Tissue samples were collected for histological analysis on days 14, 21 and 28.RESULTS:On day 14, more extensive vascular proliferation (p=0.023), presence of mononuclear cells (p=0.000), fibroblast proliferation (p=0.012), re-epithelialization (p=0.000), and decreased presence of polymorphonuclear cells (p=0.010) were observed in the study group than in controls. No significant between-group difference in the presence of polymorphonuclear cells was found on day 21. Fibroblast proliferation was significantly greater (p=0.006) in the study group than in the control group on day 28.CONCLUSION:The 10% gel of unripe banana peel showed anti-inflammatory activity and stimulated wound healing in rat skin when compared with a gel containing no active ingredient.

Animals , Male , Musa/chemistry , Phytotherapy/methods , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Wound Healing/drug effects , Wounds and Injuries/drug therapy , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Fibroblasts/drug effects , Gels/administration & dosage , Prospective Studies , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Skin/drug effects , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
Acta cir. bras ; 30(9): 593-597, Sep. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-761492


PURPOSE:To compare histologically the action of Mitomycin C and that of Clobetasol propionate for surgical wound healing in rats.METHODS:A circular skin fragment was surgically removed from 57 Wistar rats. Twenty-two animals were treated with Mitomycin C with topical medication in a single dose, 22 with Clobetasol propionate with a cream medication once a day for 15 days and 13 did not receive any medication. The animals were euthanized 30 and 60 days, and the scars subjected to histological examination.RESULTS: The histological analysis on the samples did not show statistically significant differences regarding the quantities of fibroblasts, fibrocytes and vascular proliferation in the three groups, in the evaluations after 30 and 60 days. In the treated groups with Mitomycin C and Clobetasol there was a decrease in collagen concentration over the 30-day period and an increase in collagen concentration over the 60-day period, in comparison with the control group.CONCLUSIONS: The actions of Mitomycin C and Clobetasol were equivalent and not interfere in fibroplasias and in angiogenesis. Both drugs initially cause a decrease in collagen over a 30-day period and an increase over a 60-day period, demonstrating a delay in the wound healing.

Animals , Male , Alkylating Agents/therapeutic use , Clobetasol/therapeutic use , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Mitomycin/therapeutic use , Wound Healing/drug effects , Administration, Topical , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Collagen/analysis , Collagen/drug effects , Fibroblasts/drug effects , Rats, Wistar , Reproducibility of Results , Skin/drug effects , Skin/pathology , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome