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Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 33-38, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935467


Objective: To investigate the clinicopathological characteristics and differential diagnosis of pediatric SMARCB1/INI1-deficient poorly differentiated chordoma (PDC) of the skull base. Methods: Five cases of SMARCB1/INI1-deficient PDC were identified in 139 cases of chordoma diagnosed in Sanbo Brain Institute, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China from March 2017 to March 2021. The clinical and imaging data of the 5 PDCs were collected. H&E and immunohistochemical staining, and DNA methylation array were used, and the relevant literatures were reviewed. Results: All 5 PDCs were located at the clivus. The average age of the patients was 6.4 years, ranging from 3 to 16 years. Three patients were female and two were male. Morphologically, in contrast with classical chordomas, they presented as epithelioid or spindle tumor cells organized in sheets or nests, with necrosis, active mitoses, and infiltration into surrounding tissue. All cases showed positivity of CKpan, EMA, vimentin and brachyury (nuclear stain), and loss of nuclear SMARCB1/INI1 expression. S-100 protein expression was not frequent (2/5). Ki-67 proliferative index was high (20%-50%). All cases had over-expressed p53. It was necessary to differentiate SMARCB1/INI1-dificient PDC from SMARCB1/INI1-dificient tumors occurring at skull base of children or the tumors with epithelial and spindle cell morphological features. The 3 PDCs with DNA methylation testing showed the methylation profiles different from the pediatric atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors. They formed an independent methylation profile cluster. The clinical prognosis of the 5 patients was poor, and the overall survival time was 2-17 months. Conclusions: PDC is a special subtype of chordoma, which often affects children and occurs in the clivus. The PDC shares epithelioid or spindle cell morphologic features which are different from the classic chordoma. Besides the typical immunohistochemical profile of chordoma, PDC also has loss of nuclear SMARCB1/INI1 expression and distinct epigenetic characteristics.

Child , Female , Humans , Male , Biomarkers, Tumor/genetics , Chordoma/genetics , Diagnosis, Differential , Prognosis , Rhabdoid Tumor/diagnosis , SMARCB1 Protein/genetics , Skull Base
Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 156-160, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928492


PURPOSE@#Auditory nerve injury is one of the most common nerve injury complications of skull base fractures. However, there is currently a lack of auxiliary examination methods for its direct diagnosis. The purpose of this study was to find a more efficient and accurate means of diagnosis for auditory nerve injury.@*METHODS@#Through retrospectively analyzing the results of brainstem auditory evoked potential (BAEP) and high-resolution CT (HRCT) in 37 patients with hearing impairment following trauma from January 1, 2018 to July 31, 2020, the role of the two inspection methods in the diagnosis of auditory nerve injury was studied. Inclusion criteria were patient had a clear history of trauma and unilateral hearing impairment after trauma; while exclusion criteria were: (1) severe patient with a Glasgow coma scale score ≤5 because these patients were classified as severe head injury and admitted to the intensive care unit, (2) patient in the subacute stage admitted 72 h after trauma, and (3) patient with prior hearing impairment before trauma. According to Goodman's classification of hearing impairment, the patients were divided into low/medium/severe injury groups. In addition, patients were divided into HRCT-positive and negative groups for further investigation with their BAEP results. The positive rates of BEAP for each group were observed, and the results were analyzed by Chi-square test (p < 0.05, regarded as statistical difference).@*RESULTS@#A total of 37 patients were included, including 21 males and 16 females. All of them were hospitalized patients with GCS score of 6-15 at the time of admission. The BAEP positive rate in the medium and severe injury group was 100%, which was significantly higher than that in the low injury group (27.27%) (p < 0.01). The rate of BEAP positivity was significantly higher in the HRCT-positive group (20/30, 66.7%) than in the HRCT-negative group (1/7, 14.3%) (p < 0.05). Twenty patients (54.05%) were both positive for BEAP and HRCT test, and considered to have auditory nerve damage. Six patients (16.22%) were both negative for BEAP and HRCT test, and 10 patients (27.03%) were BAEP-negative but HRCT-positive: all the 16 patients were considered as non-neurological injury. The rest 1 case (2.70%) was BAEP-positive but HRCT-negative, which we speculate may have auditory nerve concussion.@*CONCLUSION@#By way of BAEP combining with skull base HRCT, we may improve the accuracy of the diagnosis of auditory nerve injury. Such a diagnostic strategy may be beneficial to guiding treatment plans and evaluating prognosis.

Female , Humans , Male , Cochlear Nerve , Evoked Potentials, Auditory, Brain Stem/physiology , Hearing Loss , Retrospective Studies , Skull Base/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 41(4): 187-192, dic. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1366967


La sinusitis micótica alérgica es una enfermedad inflamatoria de la mucosa rinosinusal producida por hongos que pueden aislarse de la cavidad de nasal de individuos sanos. Se produce indirectamente por los hongos que actúan como antígeno y desencadenan una reacción inmunológica mediada por IgE que origina pólipos y una secreción mucosa espesa con detritus e hifas denominada mucina. Su presentación clínica más frecuente es una sinusitis crónica unilateral o bilateral con pólipos. Con menos frecuencia, las sustancias originadas por la desgranulación de los eosinófilos producen remodelación o destrucción ósea y la sinusitis puede simular una neoplasia. Se describe el caso clínico de un paciente que padeció una sinusitis micótica alérgica con destrucción ósea masiva de la base del cráneo y que tuvo extensión intracraneal extradural e intraorbitaria de la enfermedad. Fue tratado con éxito mediante cirugía y corticoides. (AU)

Allergic fungal sinusitis is an inflammatory disease of the rhinosinusal mucosa caused by fungi that can be isolated from the nasal cavity of healthy individuals. The pathology is produced indirectly by the fungus that acts as an antigen and triggers an IgE-mediated allergic reaction that causes polyps and a thick mucous discharge with detritus and hyphae called mucin. Its most common clinical presentation is unilateral or bilateral chronic sinusitis with polyps. Less commonly, substances originated by the degranulation of eosinophils cause bone remodeling or destruction, and sinusitis can simulate a neoplasia. We describe the clinical case of a patient who suffered from allergic fungal sinusitis with massive bone destruction of the skull base and who had intracranial, extradural and intraorbital extension of the disease. He was successfully treated with surgery and corticosteroids.Key words: allergic fungal sinusitis, intracranial extension, endoscopic surgery, transorbital transpalpebral approach. (AU)

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Sinusitis/diagnostic imaging , Skull Base/physiopathology , Rhinitis, Allergic/diagnostic imaging , Invasive Fungal Infections/diagnostic imaging , Curvularia/pathogenicity , Sinusitis/surgery , Sinusitis/drug therapy , Prednisone/administration & dosage , Skull Base/surgery , Budesonide/administration & dosage , Rhinitis, Allergic/surgery , Rhinitis, Allergic/drug therapy , Invasive Fungal Infections/surgery , Invasive Fungal Infections/drug therapy
Int. j. morphol ; 39(6): 1669-1672, dic. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385544


SUMMARY: Surgical operations regarding to skull base are challenging and reliable anatomical landmarks are required. There is a lack of knowledge on anatomical variations in this region. The aim of this study was to determine the safe extracranial landmarks for surgical approach to the skull base. In this study, 23 adult dry skulls were evaluated: the age and sex of the specimens were unknown. All measurements were taken from external surface of inferior aspect of the skull by using digital calipers accurate to 0.01 mm. In right and left sides; the distances between the external acoustic meatus (EAM) and the following anatomical landmarks were measured: articular tubercle (AT); anterior margin of squamous suture (ASS); superior margin of squamous suture (SSS); posterior margin of squamous suture (PSS); end point of styloid process (SP); midpoints of pterygomaxillary fissure (PMF); foramen ovale (FO); foramen spinosum (FS); and of carotid canal (CC).The distances of the external acoustic meatus to the anatomical structures on the right and left sides were: EAM-SP; 24.24±3.19 mm, 23.16±3.17 mm; EAM-PMF; 46.56±4.51mm, 46.25±3.96 mm; EAM-FO; 27.57±2.87 mm, 28.70±2.85 mm; EAM-FS; 22.53±3.19 mm, 22.72±3.47 mm; EAM-CC; 17.35±3.56 mm, 17.19±3.39 mm; EAM-AT; 19.31±3.79 mm, 18.95±3.42 mm; EAM-ASS; 43.14±4.80 mm, 46.82±4.61 mm; EAM-SSS; 49.17±4.74 mm, 48.83±3.34 mm and EAM-PSS; 36.15±4.24 mm, 35.39±4.25 mm, respectively. We think that the findings obtained from this study related to external acoustic meatus can be an important reference for surgical anatomy and surgical procedures in skull base.

RESUMEN: Las cirugías relacionadas con la base del cráneo son un desafío, las cuales requieren puntos de referencia anatómicos confiables. Existe una falta de conocimiento sobre las variaciones anatómicas en esta región. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar los puntos de referencia extracraneales seguros para el abordaje quirúrgico de la base del cráneo. En este estudio se evaluaron 23 cráneos secos adultos: se desconocía la edad y el sexo de los ejemplares. Las medidas se tomaron de la superficie externa de la cara inferior del cráneo utilizando calibradores digitales con una precisión de 0,01 mm. En lados derecho e izquierdo se midieron las distancias entre el meato acústico externo (MAE) y los siguientes puntos de referencia anatómicos: tubérculo articular (TA); margen anterior de la sutura escamosa (MASE); margen superior de sutura escamosa (MSSE); margen posterior de sutura escamosa (MPSE); punto final del proceso estiloides (PFPE); puntos medios de la fisura pterigomaxilar (PMFP); foramen oval (FO); foramen espinoso (FE); y del canal carotídeo (CC). Las distancias del meato acústico externo a las estructuras anatómicas de los lados derecho e izquierdo fue- ron: MAE-PFPE; 24,24 ± 3,19 mm, 23,16 ± 3,17 mm; MAE-PMFP; 46,56 ± 4,51 mm, 46,25 ± 3,96 mm; MAE-FO; 27,57 ± 2,87 mm, 28,70 ± 2,85 mm; MAE-FE; 22,53 ± 3,19 mm, 22,72 ± 3,47 mm; MAE-CC; 17,35 ± 3,56 mm, 17,19 ± 3,39 mm; MAE-TA; 19,31 ± 3,79 mm, 18,95 ± 3,42 mm; MAE-MASE; 43,14 ± 4,80 mm, 46,82 ± 4,61 mm; MAE-MSSE; 49,17 ± 4,74 mm, 48,83 ± 3,34 mm y MAE-MPSE; 36,15 ± 4,24 mm, 35,39 ± 4,25 mm, respectivamente. Creemos que los hallazgos obtenidos de este estudio relacionados con el meato acústico externo pueden ser una referencia importante para la anatomía quirúrgica y los procedimientos quirúrgicos en la base del cráneo.

Humans , Adult , Skull Base/anatomy & histology , Ear Canal/anatomy & histology , Anatomic Landmarks
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 87(6): 689-694, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350338


Abstract Introduction: Endoscopic access to the sellar region by videoendoscopy shows a low rate of surgical complications, with findings that indicate risk factors for reducing morbidities during and after the postoperative period. Objective: To evaluate, over a nine-year period, the acquisition of skills by the anterior skull base surgical team, according to the time of elimination of nasal crusts and/or the presence of morbidities in the postoperative follow-up of individuals treated in a tertiary public hospital. Methods: After confirming the diagnosis of skull base pathologies, the individuals in this study underwent endoscopic surgery according to the rostrocaudal or coronal axis. For the skull base reconstruction, the nasoseptal flap (associated or not with fascia lata with thigh fat) or free graft was used; clinical follow-up of individuals occurred for a minimum period of 12 months. To assess the impact of the surgical approach on patient clinical evolution, qualitative data related to smoking, post-nasal discharge, nasal flow, smell, taste, clinical symptoms of headache, cranial paresthesia, comorbidities and postoperative morbidities were obtained. Results: The most frequent diagnosis was pituitary macroadenoma (84.14%). The mean absence of crusts in this cohort was 124.45 days (confidence interval 95% = 119.50-129.39). There was a low cerebrospinal fluid fistula rate (3%). Reconstruction with the nasoseptal flap with a fat graft was an independent variable that recorded the highest mean time for the elimination of nasal crusts (=145 days, confidence interval 95% = 127.32-162.68). Allergic rhinitis and smoking were shown to be the most important and independent variables that increased the mean time to eliminate nasal crusts. Conclusion: The mean time to eliminate nasal crusts did not change over the years during which the procedures were performed, demonstrating the adequate training of the surgical team. Debridement and nasal irrigation with saline solutions should be performed more frequently and effectively in patients with allergic rhinitis, smokers and those who received the nasoseptal flap and fascia lata graft with autologous fat.

Resumo Introdução: O acesso endoscópico à região selar por videoendoscopia demonstra baixo índice de complicações cirúrgicas, com achados que apontam fatores risco para reduzir as morbidades durante e após o período pósoperatório. Objetivo: Avaliar fatores morbidades no seguimento pós-operatório de indivíduos atendidos em um hospital público terciário. Método: Depois de confirmado o diagnóstico de doenças da base do crânio, os indivíduos deste estudo foram submetidos a cirurgia endoscópica conforme o eixo rostrocaudal ou coronal. Para a reconstrução da base do crânio usava-se o retalho nasoseptal (associado ou não à fáscia lata com gordura de coxa) ou enxerto livre; o seguimento clínico dos indivíduos ocorreu por um período mínimo de 12 meses. Para avaliar o impacto da abordagem cirúrgica na evolução clínica dos pacientes foram obtidos os dados qualitativos relativos ao tabagismo, descarga pós-nasal, fluxo nasal, olfato, paladar, sintomas clínicos de dor de cabeça, parestesia craniana, comorbidades e morbidades pós-operatórias. Resultados: O diagnóstico mais frequente foi o macroadenoma hipofisário (84,14%). A média da ausência de crostas nesta coorte foi de 124,45 dias (intervalo de confiança [95% CI] 119,50-129,39). Baixo índice de fístula liquórica (3%). A reconstrução com o retalho nasoseptal com enxerto de gordura apresentou-se com variável independente que necessitou de maior tempo médio para a eliminação de crostas nasais (=145 dias, 95% CI 127,32-162,68). A rinite alérgica e o tabagismo se demonstraram como as variáveis mais importantes e independentes para aumentar o tempo médio de eliminação de crostas nasais. Conclusão: O tempo médio de eliminação de crostas nasais não se alterou ao longo dos anos em que os procedimentos foram feitos. Deve-se fazer com maior frequência e eficácia o debridamento e as irrigações nasais com soluções salinas nos pacientes com rinite alérgica, tabagistas e os que usaram o retalho nasoseptal e enxerto de fáscia lata com gordura autóloga.

Humans , Plastic Surgery Procedures , Postoperative Period , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Morbidity , Treatment Outcome , Skull Base/surgery , Endoscopy , Nasal Septum/surgery
Rev. argent. neurocir ; 35(1): 59-63, mar. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1397688


Introducción: El entrenamiento y la cuidadosa planificación preoperatoria son importantes para el éxito de cualquier procedimiento neuroquirúrgico. Un modelo 3D de una lesión en base de cráneo ha probado ser de especial utilidad en evidenciar la disposición espacial específica del tumor, y sus relaciones, agregando factores que optimizan la planificación quirúrgica. Objetivos: Emular la práctica de Impresión 3D en nuestro medio y analizar su utilidad para la planificación quirúrgica. Presentación del caso: Paciente femenino de 41 años que concurre a la consulta por trastornos endócrinos, campimétricos y cefalea. Al examen paciente estaba lúcida, con pupilas intermedias hipo reactivas, hemianopsia bitemporal, movilizando 4 miembros sin déficit. En RM de cerebro se observa lesión espacio ocupante selar-supraselar con aspecto multilobulado, que invade cisterna interpeduncular y desplaza estructuras del tercer ventrículo. Intervención: La paciente fue sometida a cirugía resectiva por abordaje subfrontal, logrando resección macroscópica completa. Evolucionando posteriormente con GOS 5. Conclusión: La realización de modelos en impresión 3D provee importantes perspectivas para el abordaje a la lesión y constituyen una importante herramienta de bajo costo para neurocirujanos en formación. Destacamos la importancia de la interdisciplinariedad para el arribo a resultados favorables.

Introduction: Effective surgical training and careful preoperative planning are important for success in neurosurgical procedures. As a 3D printed skull base lesion model shows the specific spatial arrangement of a tumor, and its anatomical relations, we believe it could play an important role in surgical planning. Objectives: Emulate the practice of 3D Printing in our environment and analyze its usefulness for surgical planning. Case presentation: 41-year-old female patient who attends the consultation for endocrine, visual field disorders and headache. On examination, the patient was lucid, with hypo reactive intermediate pupils, bitemporal hemianopia, mobilizing 4 extremities without deficit. In MRI of the brain, a selar-suprasellar space-occupying lesion with a multilobed appearance is observed, which invades the interpeduncular cistern and displaces structures of the third ventricle. Intervention: The patient underwent resective surgery through a subfrontal approach, achieving complete macroscopic resection. Evolving later with GOS 5 Conclusion: 3D printing models provide to us important of perspectives for the approach to the lesion and constitute an important low-cost tool for neurosurgeons in training. We highlight the importance of interdisciplinarity for the arrival of favorable results.

Female , Neoplasms , Skull , Skull Base , Neurosurgical Procedures , Planning , Printing, Three-Dimensional , Neurosurgeons , Neurosurgery
Int. j. morphol ; 39(1): 198-204, feb. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385332


SUMMARY: The Pterygospinous foramen and pterygoalar foramen (crotaphitico-buccinatorius) are variant and atavic formations of the skull base and arise respectively from complete or incomplete idiopathic ossifications of the pterygospinous and pterygoalar ligaments. By proximity with areas of relevance for diagnosis and surgery, such as access pathways to the parapharyngeal and retropharyngeal spaces, it is necessary to be aware of these conditions due to the difficulties generated in surgical maneuvers and the promotion of compressive syndromes of mandibular nerve branches. This study was conducted on 45 samples of dry skulls and disarticulated sphenoid bones belonging to the collection of the Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Governador Valadares campus, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Our results indicated a total incidence of complete and incomplete pterygospinous and pterygoalar foramen (crotaphitico- buccinatorius) in 15, 5 % (7 skulls), with a higher incidence for the incomplete form of pterygospinous foramen (Civinini foramen) in 4 skulls (8.8 %), with 3 presenting unilaterally and 3 presenting bilaterally. The pterygoalar foramen (crotaphitico-buccinatorius or Hyrtl) was noted bilaterally in 1 of the skulls (2.2 %). The pterygospinous foramen and pterygoalar foramen are important findings, sometimes incidental, of an area of great anatomical expressiveness and pathological occurrences, besides the indispensable and unclear studies of phylogenetic order.

RESUMEN: El foramen pterigoespinoso y el foramen pterigoalar (crotafítico-buccinatorius) son formaciones variantes y atávicas de la base del cráneo y surgen respectivamente de osificaciones idiopáticas completas o incompletas, de los ligamentos pterigoespinoso y pterigoalar. Debido a la proximidad con áreas de relevancia para el diagnóstico y la cirugía, como las vías de acceso a los espacios parafaríngeo y retrofaríngeo, es necesario conocer estas condiciones por las dificultades que se generan en las maniobras quirúrgicas. Este estudio se realizó en 45 muestras de cráneos secos y huesos esfenoides desarticulados pertenecientes a la colección de la Universidad Federal de Juiz de Fora, campus Governador Valadares, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Nuestros resultados indicaron una incidencia total de foramen pterigoespinoso y pterigoalar completo e incompleto (crotafítico-buccinatorius) en el 15,5 % (7 cráneos), con una mayor incidencia de la forma incompleta de foramen pterigoespinoso (agujero de Civinini) en 4 cráneos (8,8 %), con 3 de presentación unilateral y 3 de presentación bilateral. El foramen pterigoalar (crotaphitico-buccinatorius o Hyrtl) se observó bilateralmente en 1 de los cráneos (2,2 %). El foramen pterigoespinoso y pterigoalar son hallazgos importantes, a veces incidentales, de un área de gran expresividad anatómica y ocurrencias patológicas, además de los estudios indispensables y poco claros de orden filogenético.

Humans , Sphenoid Bone/anatomy & histology , Ligaments/anatomy & histology , Skull Base , Foramen Ovale/anatomy & histology
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942596


Objective: To investigate the treatment method and effect of surgical resection and free flap repair of recurrent malignant tumors of maxillofacial paranasal sinus and skull base. Methods: The clinical data of 9 patients with recurrent maxillofacial paranasal sinus and skull base malignant tumors who underwent surgical resection and free flap repair in the Department of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery of Shandong Provincial Hospital from August 2009 to May 2019 were analyzed retrospectively, including 5 males and 4 females, aged 32-69 years. There were 4 cases of squamous cell carcinoma, 3 cases of adenoid cystic carcinoma, 1 case of myoepithelial carcinoma and 1 case of malignant fibrous histiocytoma. All patients were repaired with anterolateral femoral flap. The treatment process and postoperative effect were analyzed by descriptive statistics. Results: All patients were followed up from 16 months to 6 years. There were 6 cases of recurrence after operation, including 1 case of local recurrence and 5 cases of skull base and craniocerebral recurrence. The median tumor free survival time of recurrent patients was 35 months. Conclusion: Surgical resection and free flap repair can effectively prolong the life of patients with recurrent maxillofacial paranasal sinus and skull base malignant tumors.

Female , Humans , Male , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/surgery , Free Tissue Flaps , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/surgery , Plastic Surgery Procedures , Retrospective Studies , Skull Base/surgery
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942554


Objective: To indicate the clinical features of endoscopic transnasal resection of epidural cholesteatoma at paracentral skull base and to analyze its efficacy. Methods: The total excision rate, postoperative complications and postoperative curative effect of 7 patients (4 males and 3 females, aging from 32 to 63 years old) who underwent middle skull base surgery for epidural cholesteatoma resection under transnasal endoscope at Tianjin Huanhu Hospital between August 2017 and August 2020 were retrospectively reviewed. All patients were followed up for 6 to 36 months. The postoperative MRI, clinical symptoms and recurrence were reviewed. Descriptive statistical methods were used for analysis. Results: Among the 7 patients, there were total resection (complete resection of cyst contents and capsule) in 4 patients, near-total resection (complete resection of cyst contents, incomplete resection of cyst capsule) in 1 patient, and subtotal resection (incomplete resection of cyst contents and capsule) in 2 patients. The clinical symptoms of all patients were improved postoperatively with 1 patient who had no clinical symptoms. One case had postoperative cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea, which was cured after lumbar drainage and nasal iodoform gauge packing. Up to now, 7 patients (including patients with partial resection) had no recurrence. Conclusion: Endoscopic transnasal approaches may be effectively used for resection of epidural cholesteatoma in the paracentral skull base in carefully selected cases.

Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Cholesteatoma , Endoscopy , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Retrospective Studies , Skull Base/surgery
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942453


Objective: By summarizing the technical points and therapeutic outcomes of combing infratemporal fossa approach (IFA) and internal carotid artery (ICA) reconstruction for the colossal skull base tumor invading ICA in petrous bone, the clinical application value was discussed. Methods: Five patients (2 males, 3 females,aging from 27 to 55 years old) who received surgeries between July 2015 and May 2017 for lateral skull base pathology involved petrous ICA using technique combined IFA and pre-reconstruction, were reviewed. Results: Among the five patients, three were paraganglioma of head and neck, one was carotid aneurysms, and one was recurrent adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC). The median tumor size in the largest cross-section was 60 mm × 51 mm (range, 28 mm × 22 mm-72 mm × 58 mm). Complete excision was achieved with IFA and ICA reconstruction. The median blood loss volume was 1 000 ml (range, 600-2 500 ml). Four cases showed no new long-term neurologic sequelae, while one showed hemiplegia due to graft vessel occlusion. Except for the one with ACC having facial nerve cut, others achieved good facial nerve function of HB grade Ⅰ to Ⅱ during 3 to 12 months, follow-up. No tumor recurrence was observed over the median duration of follow-up for above 36 months (range, 36-58 months). Conclusion: For lesions involved superior part of ICA, which is unable to separate from ICA, IFA and ICA reconstruction can achieve complete excision.

Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Carotid Artery, Internal/surgery , Infratemporal Fossa , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Petrous Bone/surgery , Skull Base/surgery , Skull Base Neoplasms/surgery
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942388


Objective: To evaluate the value of Hadad-Bassagasteguy flap (HBF) in endoscopic endonasal approaches (EEA) skull base reconstruction by radioanatomic measurements on CT of the skull base of Chinese adults. The following data in terms of anterior skull base defect and reconstruction, sphenoid platform area and middle skull base defect and reconstruction including sphenoid platform and sella area, clivus area defect and reconstruction, and HBF were collected and assessed. Methods: CT image data of 42 Chinese adults were selected to obtain radioanatomic measurement data related to HBF, anterior skull base defect and reconstruction, middle skull base defect and reconstruction, and defect and reconstruction of clivus area. SPSS 26.0 software was used to analyze the data. Results: The radioanatomic measurement data about HBF and skull base of 42 Chinese adults were obtained. The width of the leading edge of HBF [(37.49±2.86) mm] was 6 mm more than the anterior skull base width at the level of the anterior ethmoidal artery [(30.87±8.61) mm], and the width of the trailing edge of HBF [(42.61±3.95) mm] was also 6 mm more than the anterior skull base width at the level of the sphenoethmoidal junction [(26.79±2.79) mm]. The total length of HBF including the pedicle [(79.68±4.96) mm] was 6 mm more than the length of the anterior skull base reconstruction [(54.06±8.67) mm], and the length of HBF without pedicle [(46.27±3.14)] mm was 6 mm more than the length of anterior skull base defect [(30.87±8.61) mm]. The trailing edge width was 6 mm more than the planum sphenoidal width at the level of the optic strut [(30.87±8.61) mm]. The total length of HBF including the pedicle was 6 mm more than the length of the planum sphenoidal, and the sella reconstruction [(64.44±10.25) mm], also was 6 mm more than the length of the planum sphenoidal reconstruction [(73.61±8.28) mm]. The length of HBF without pedicle was 6 mm more than the length of the planum sphenoidal, and the sella defect [(27.88±3.74) mm], also was 6 mm more than the length of the planum sphenoidal defect [(15.50±3.38) mm]. The width of the leading edge of HBF and the width of the trailing edge were both 6 mm more than the width of clivus reconstruction at the level of the foramen lacerum [(21.68±2.30) mm]. The total length of HBF including pedicles was 6 mm more than the clivus reconstruction length [(67.09±5.44) mm], while the length of HBF without pedicles was also 6 mm more than the clivus defect length [(37.19±3.80) mm]. Conclusions: In this study, the radiosanatomic measurements ensured that HBF could provide sufficient tissue flap for the reconstruction of the anterior skull base and sphenoid plateau and extend the reconstruction area to sella and clivus. Preoperative radiosanatomic measurement can be used to predict the size of HBF required for skull base reconstruction, which provides important guidance for flap harvest.

Adult , Humans , Endoscopy , Nose/surgery , Plastic Surgery Procedures , Skull Base/surgery , Skull Base Neoplasms/surgery , Sphenoid Bone , Surgical Flaps
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942383


Objective: To evaluate the application of combination use of endoscopic endonasal approach combined with the frontotemporal orbitozygomatic approach microscopically in skull base tumor with intra and extra-cranial involvement. Methods: A total of 7 patients (4 males and 3 females, aging from 27 to 65 years old, with a medium age of 48) undergone complicated skull base surgeries via endoscopic endonasal approach combined with the frontotemporal orbitozygomatic approach microscopically from May 2016 to January 2018 were reviewed respectively. The patients included 2 cases of recurrent invasive pituitary adenoma, 3 cases of basal skull meningiomas, 1 case of clivus chondrosarcoma, and 1 case of recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The lesion extensively infiltrated nasal cavity, extending to the paranasal sinus, bilateral cavernous sinus, sellar region, suprasellar, superior clivus, temporal lobe, pterygopalatine fossa, infratemporal fossa and important intracranial vessels. All the 7 patients were treated under general anesthesia by endoscopic endonasal approach combined with frontotemporal orbitozygomatic approach under the microscope. Total excision rate, intraoperative and postoperative complications and postoperative curative effect were observed. All of them were followed up for 6 to 12 months. The Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) was used to evaluate the prognosis. Result: Total tumor removal was performed in 5 cases, subtotal removel in 2 cases. There was no complication during the operation. Postoperative severe complications occurred in 2 cases, including 1 case of cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea and intracranial infection, which was cured by lumbar cistern drainage and intrathecal injection; 1 case occurred oculomotor nerve paralysis, which recovered during follow-up. Postoperative complications occurred in 1 case of trochlear nerve dysfunction, 2 cases of facial numbness, and 1 case of tinnitus. During follow-up, all patients recovered to varying degrees. There was no bleeding and death after the operation. No tumor recurred during the follow-up period. All patients were recovered well with GOS grade Ⅳ-Ⅴ. Conclusions: Endoscopic transnasal approach combined with microscopic frontotemporal orbitozygomatic approach can remove tumors in one stage, reduce surgical complications and improve surgical effect. It has good application prospects and is suitable for excising complex intracranial and extracranial communicating tumors of widely involving sellar, clivus and petrous apex area.

Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Endoscopy , Meningeal Neoplasms , Meningioma , Pterygopalatine Fossa , Retrospective Studies , Skull Base/surgery , Skull Base Neoplasms/surgery
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942382


Objective: To investigate the diagnosis and surgical treatment of patients with soft tissue necrosis of cranial base after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods: The clinical data of 7 NPC patients with soft tissue necrosis but not bone necrosis after radiotherapy were retrospectively analyzed.They were treated in Xiangya Hospital from 2015 to 2019. The clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis were analyzed. The major clinical symptoms of the 7 patients were headache in 7 cases, hearing loss in 7 cases, long-term nasal malodor in 5 cases and epistaxis in 2 cases. All patients underwent high-resolution CT, MR and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) before operation. All cases were treated with extended transnasal endoscopic approach under general anesthesia for resection of necrotic tissue. Five cases had their affected cartilaginous segments of the eustachian tubes partially or completely resected, 7 cases were treated with myringotomy and tube insertion, and 1 case was treated with pansinusectomy. Anti-inflammatory treatment were carried out during the perioperative period. The recovery of patients was observed and recorded through regular follow-up (from 6 months to 3 years) after the operation. Results: Nasopharynx soft tissue lesions can be seen in seven patients with bone cortex integrity by CT, and small bubble shadow can be seen at junction area between skull base soft tissue lesions and skull base bone surface.MR and MRA examination showed extensive inflammatory changes of nasopharynx. Parapharyngeal irregular necrotic cavity was found in 6 cases without central enhancement, demonstrating edema of surrounding soft tissue. The necrotic tissue of all 7 patients was surgically removed. Postoperative pathological examinations confirmed that all of them were necrotic soft and cartilaginous tissue, without tumor recurrence. The symptoms of all patients were significantly alleviated after operation. Headache was cured in 5 cases and relieved in 2 cases. Nasal malodor was cured in 4 cases and alleviated in 1 case. During the follow-up period, 5 patients survived, and 2 patients who had their eustachian tube reserved died. One of them died of nasopharyngeal hemorrhage caused by recurrent nasopharyngeal necrosis 3 months after the operation. Another case died of severe intracranial infection 6 months after operation. Conclusions: The diagnosis of skull base soft tissue necrosis after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma needs comprehensive analysis of radiotherapy history, clinical manifestations and imaging examination. High resolution CT, MR and MRA of skull base are very important for diagnosis. Early active removal of large-scale necrotic lesions under endoscope and partial or total resection of eustachian tube cartilage according to the involvement of eustachian tube cartilage is effective means of controling skull base soft tissue necrosis after radiotherapy. The effective means of necrosis can improve the quality of life of patients.

Humans , Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma , Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms/surgery , Necrosis , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Quality of Life , Retrospective Studies , Skull Base
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942381


Objective: To explore the diagnosis and clinical features of internal carotid artery aneurysm in the skull base. Methods: The data of 15 patients with internal carotid aneurysms in the skull base diagnosed and treated by digital subtraction angiography (DSA) or CT angiography (CTA) in the Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong First Medical University from 1995 to 2017 were collected and analyzed. Among the 15 patients, 12 were males, and 3 were females, aging from 17 to 67 years old, with a median age of 44 years. Thirteen patients were diagnosed by DSA; the other two patients were diagnosed by CTA. Thirteen patients were diagnosed with pseudoaneurysm with the first symptom of epistaxis, in which eight patients underwent head trauma and 5 underwent radiotherapy of skull base tumor. The other two patients were diagnosed with true aneurysm presented headache and cranial nerve disorder. All patients were followed up for 2 to 12 years after treatment to see whether they were cured and survived. Results: Among the eight patients with a history of trauma, five patients were cured by embolization, two patients without embolization died of massive epistaxis, one patient died of progressive cerebral infarction after embolization. Among the five patients with radiotherapy of skull base tumor, one patient died of cerebral infarction after embolization, two patients died out of the hospital due to the recurrence of the primary tumor and intracranial invasion, one patient recovered well after embolization and surgical operation, one patient gave up treatment and died of massive hemorrhage out of hospital. In the other two patients with symptom of headache, one received embolization treatment outside the hospital after receiving mistake operation, and another one gave up treatment and died due to personal reasons. In total, four patients died in hospital, four died out of the hospital, and seven patients survived. Conclusions: Internal carotid artery aneurysm is a high-risk disease of anterior and middle skull base. For patients with epistaxis with a history of trauma and radiotherapy or patients with headaches and cranial nerve disorders, the possibility of the internal carotid artery aneurysm should be considered, in which DSA or CTA examination is essentially required for ensured diagnosis and disease evaluation.. The correct diagnosis and treatment by the otolaryngologist are crucial to the prognosis of the patient.

Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Carotid Artery, Internal/diagnostic imaging , Intracranial Aneurysm/therapy , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Retrospective Studies , Skull Base/diagnostic imaging
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942380


Objective: To evaluate the feasibility of the endoscopic transnasal approach (ETA) and to analyze the outcomes and factors of this surgical technique in the management of the tumor invading the anterior skull base. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on 42 patients (31 males and 11 females, with mean age of 49 years) with sinonasal tumor invading the anterior skull base, who underwent ETA from June 2015 to April 2019 in Eye, Ear, Nose and Throat Hospital of Fudan University. Pathologically, there were 15 cases of squamous carcinoma (14 patients with T4bN0M0 and 1 patient with T4bN1M0) and 27 of olfactory neuroblastomas with Kadish stage C. Anterior skull base reconstruction was performed using the vascular pedicled nasoseptal mucoperiosteal flap and fascia lata. Brain non-contrast-enhanced CT was performed on the first postoperative day to exclude massive pneumocephalus, relevant brain edema and subarachnoid hemorrhage. Sinonasal contrast-enhanced MR was performed to assess the extent of the tumor removal. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to calculate the overall survival (OS) and Cox multivariate regression analysis was used to determine the prognostic factors. Results: The mean duration of the surgery was 452 minutes. Total resection was performed in 36 patients (85.7%), subtotal resection in 2 patients (4.8%) with orbital involvement, partial resection in one patient (2.4%) with injury of the internal carotid artery. One patient (2.4%) underwent the second resection because of the tumor residual, two patients (4.8%) with unsure tumor residual. Mean follow-up was 20 months, with 17 months of median follow-up. One-, two-and three-year overall survival was 86.5%, 76.9% and 64.5%, respectively. For squamous carcinoma, one-, two-and three-year overall survival was 86.2%, 86.2% and 57.4%, respectively. For olfactory neuroblastomas, One-, two-and three-year overall survival was 86.9%, 75.3% and 67.8%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that tumor residual (P=0.001) and recurrence (P<0.01) were independent prognostic factors for survival. Conclusions: The ETA is safe and feasible in selected patients with sinonasal tumor invading the anterior skull base. Tumor residual and recurrence are independent prognostic factors for survival.

Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nasal Cavity , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Nose Neoplasms/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Skull Base/surgery , Skull Base Neoplasms/surgery
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942224


OBJECTIVE@#To establish an animal model with malignant tumor in the skull base-infratemporal region, and to explore the role of iodine staining technique in identifying tumor tissues with Micro-CT data.@*METHODS@#Sedation anesthesia was carried out on 12 BABL/c nude mice using inhaled isoflurane, and then WSU-HN6 cells that cultured and immortalized from human tongue squamous cell carcinoma were injected into the right infratemporal fossa via the submandibular area. The procedure was carried out under ultrasonographic guidance. The nude mice were sacrificed after 3 weeks observation. The head specimens were fixed and scanned by Micro-CT, and repeated scans were performed after staining with 3.75% compound iodine solution. Following decalcification in 20% EDTA for 2-4 weeks, the head specimens were embedded and sectioned. Hematoxylin and eosin staining and Pan-Keratin immunohistochemical staining were carried out. Bright-field microscopy and stereomicroscopy were used to visualize. The Micro-CT data were analyzed using iPlan software (Brainlab).@*RESULTS@#Non-traumatic ultrasonography was used to guide HN-6 cells injection and confirm skull-base tumor formation in all the animals. Ultrasonographic guidance reduced the risk of cervical vessel injury when transferring tumor cells into the skull base space. An obvious asymmetrical appearance was detected via ultrasonography 3 weeks after tumor cell injection. The Micro-CT analysis showed that the bone was obviously damaged on the right side of the skull base, but the soft tissue image was unrecognizable. After four days staining with compound iodine solution, the morphology of the tumor and surrounding soft tissue could be clearly identified. Hematoxylin and eosin staining showed the tumor formation of the right infratemporal fossa region accompanied by bone destruction. Human keratin immunohistochemical staining showed that the tumor tissue originated from human squamous cell carcinoma, and the polynuclear osteoclasts could be seen at the margin of the skull base bone resorption.@*CONCLUSION@#The animal model with malignant tumor in the skull base-infratemporal region could be successfully established via submandibular injection under ultrasound-guidance. Bone changes of the skull were easily observed on Micro-CT, but the tumor counter was not able to be distinguished from surrounding soft tissue. The 3.75% compound iodine staining of the head specimen could help discern the tumor and surrounding soft tissue in more details.

Animals , Mice , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/diagnostic imaging , Infratemporal Fossa , Iodine , Mice, Nude , Skull Base , Staining and Labeling , Tongue Neoplasms , X-Ray Microtomography
Repert. med. cir ; 30(suplemento): 136-141, 2021. ilus., tab.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1361734


Objetivo: desarrollar una máscara que sea reutilizable, esterilizable, fácil de usar y económica para reducir los riesgos de transmisión del COVID-19 durante los procedimientos endoscópicos endonasales. Métodos: modelo diseñado en Autodesk Fusion 360 y Meshmixer, construido con ácido poliláctico (PLA) utilizando una impresora 3D (PRUSA IK3 MK3s, Praga, República Checa) en el laboratorio de Anatomía de la Universidad de los Andes, Bogotá, Colombia. Se ajustaron tres orificios a la mascarilla, uno para el tubo endotraqueal, otro más grande en el medio para la instrumentación quirúrgica que permite la adaptación de una membrana translúcida estéril y el superior para adaptar la punta de la succión y generar un ambiente de presión negativa dentro de la máscara. Se utilizó un colchón de silicona y tres puntos para sujetar tiras y crear un ajuste a la cabeza durante largos períodos sin causar lesiones en la piel. Se realizaron diferentes pruebas, incluida la verificación con luz ultravioleta de la propagación de la fluoresceína después de la perforación ósea, la esterilización química y por calor de la máscara, y la succión de los aerosoles producidos al fumar un cigarrillo electrónico. Ambiente: laboratorio experimental. Resultados: las pruebas demostraron una reducción del efecto aerosol y de la dispersión de las gotas cuando se usa la máscara ventilada. Se consiguió una excelente maniobrabilidad y libertad. Sin embargo, fue limitado en términos de visualización durante la entrada nasal de los instrumentos al cráneo. Conclusiones: los resultados preliminares muestran que esta máscara ventilada permite una barrera quirúrgica para disminuir la transmisión del SARS-COV-2 durante los procedimientos endoscópicos endonasales.

Objective: to develop a reusable, sterilizable, easy- to-use and low-price mask to reduce the risks of COVID-19 transmission during endonasal endoscopic procedures. Methods: a model designed using Autodesk Fusion 360 and Meshier software, made from polylactic acid (PLA) in a 3D printer (PRUSA IK3 MK3s, Prague, Czech Republic) at the anatomy laboratory of Universidad de los Andes, Bogotá, Colombia. It features three ports, one to allow passage of intubation tubing, a larger middle port for surgical tool insertion, which allows fitting a sterile translucent membrane, and an upper port for the suction tube tip to create a negative pressure environment inside the mask. A silicone cushion and three ties secure the mask to the head for long periods of time without skin injuries. Various tests were completed, ultraviolet light verification of fluorescein propagation after bone drilling, chemical and vapor sterilization, and aerosols filtration using smoke produced by an electronic cigarette. Setting: an experimental laboratory. Results: Tests showed the mask decreased aerosol effect and droplet dispersion, and allowed for excellent maneuverability and freedom. However, the mask was limited in terms of visualization during nasal approaches to the skull. Conclusions: preliminary results show that this ventilated mask allows for a surgical barrier for reducing SARS-COV-2 transmission during endonasal endoscopic procedures.

Humans , Male , Skull Base , Endoscopy , Aerosols , SARS-CoV-2 , Masks
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1349481


El quiste dermoide es una lesión congénita poco frecuente, secundario a una regresión incompleta de tejido ectodérmico, y su incidencia es de 1/20 000-40 000 nacidos vivos. Debe realizarse una resección quirúrgica oportuna para prevenir el compromiso intracraneal y/o las complicaciones. El estudio imagenológico determina su extensión. Se han recomendado diferentes enfoques quirúrgicos, los cuales deben cumplir con los cuatro principios de Pollock. El siguiente estudio presenta el caso de un paciente pediátrico, de nueve meses de edad, con un quiste dermoide en la base del cráneo asociado con un trayecto fistuloso a punta nasal. La resonancia magnética nuclear (RMN) contrastada evidenció una masa quística en la región anterior a la crista galli comunicada con el tracto fistuloso a la punta nasal. El paciente fue llevado a cirugía para realizar la resección del quiste mediante rinoplastia externa combinada con abordaje endoscópico transnasal. Los resultados funcionales y estéticos fueron satisfactorios, sin recurrencia. Se evidenció una fístula de líquido cefalorraquídeo intraoperatoria corregida en el mismo tiempo quirúrgico.

The dermoid cyst is a rare congenital lesion, secondary to an incomplete regression of ectodermal tissue. Its incidence is 1/20,000-40,000 live births. Timely surgical resection must be performed to prevent intracranial involvement and/or complications. Imaging study determines its extension. Different surgical approaches have been recommended; all must adhere to Pollock's 4 principles. The following study presents the case of a pediatric patient, 9 months old, with a dermoid cyst at the skull base with a fistulous path to the nasal tip. Contrasted nuclear magnetic resonance revealed a cystic mass in the region anterior to the crista galli communicated with a fistulous tract at the nasal tip. The patient was taken to surgery for cyst resection by external rhinoplasty combined with a transnasal endoscopic approach with satisfactory functional and aesthetic results, without recurrence. A Cerebrospinal fluid fistula was evidenced, as an intraoperative complication, it was corrected in the same surgical time.

Humans , Dermoid Cyst , Child, Preschool , Skull Base , Nasal Cavity
Int. j. morphol ; 38(6): 1566-1570, Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134479


SUMMARY: Since the asymmetry is generally accepted entity which can be detected on human skulls, the goal of this study was to evaluate the presence and degree of skull base asymmetry and analyze it in relation to sex. The study included 60 skulls. Gender identification was estimated according to the external occipital protuberance, mastoid process, supraorbital margin and glabella. The asymmetry was assessed by analyzing the distance from the bilateral foramina (foramen ovale, foramen spinosum, carotid canal, foramen stylomastoideum) to the pharyngeal tubercle. Digital data were processed in the ImageJ software. The skull base asymmetry was found in all samples. Significant difference between the sides was found for the foramen ovale (p=.01). There was no significant difference in the skull base asymmetry with respect to sex. The highest index of asymmetry (7.38 %) was found in carotid canal and the lowest (5.22%) was detected in relation to the foramen stylomastoideum. By comparing the index of asymmetry between the genders significant difference occurs for the carotid canal (p=.02). Skull base asymmetry was confirmed in our study. Oval foramen showed a significant degree of asymmetry. Knowledge of the variability of the skull base is the basis for an clinical and radiological evaluation of its changes.

RESUMEN: Debido a que la asimetría detectada en cráneos humanos es aceptada generalmente, el objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la presencia y el grado de asimetría de la base del cráneo y analizarla en relación con el sexo. En este estudio fueron incluidos 60 cráneos. El sexo fue determinado de acuerdo con la protuberancia occipital externa, el proceso mastoideo, el margen supraorbital y la glabela. La asimetría se evaluó analizando la distancia desde los forámenes bilaterales (foramen oval, foramen espinoso, canal carotídeo, foramen estilomastoideo) hasta el tubérculo faríngeo. Los datos digitales fueron procesados en software ImageJ. La asimetría de la base de cráneo se observó en todas las muestras. Se encontró una diferencia significativa entre los lados para el foramen oval (p = ,01). No hubo diferencias significativas en la asimetría de la base de cráneo con respecto al sexo. El índice más alto de asimetría (7,38%) se encontró en el canal carotídeo y el más bajo (5,22 %) se detectó en relación con el foramen estilomastoideo. Al comparar el índice de asimetría entre los sexos, se produce una diferencia significativa en el canal carotídeo (p = 0,02). La asimetría de la base de cráneo se confirmó en nuestro estudio. El foramen oval mostró un grado significativo de asimetría. El conocimiento de la variabilidad de la base del cráneo es importante durante la evaluación clínica y radiológica.

Humans , Male , Female , Skull Base/anatomy & histology , Facial Asymmetry , Cadaver , Sex Factors , Sex Characteristics , Foramen Ovale
Rev. chil. radiol ; 26(2): 62-71, jun. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1126195


Resumen: La anatomía de la base del cráneo es compleja. Numerosas estructuras neurovasculares vitales pasan a través de múltiples canales y agujeros ubicados en la base del cráneo. Con el avance de la tomografía computarizada (TC) y la resonancia magnética (RM), es posible la localización cada vez más precisa de lesiones y la evaluación de su relación con las estructuras neurovasculares adyacentes. El trayecto de los nervios craneales sigue un recorrido conocido y se transmiten a la cara y cuello por los forámenes de base de cráneo. La tomografía computada y la resonancia magnética son complementarias entre sí y, a menudo, se usan juntas para demostrar la extensión total de la enfermedad. La segunda parte de esta revisión se centra en el estudio radiológico de los nervios craneales.

Abstract: The skull base anatomy is complex. Many vital neurovascular structures course through the skull base canals and foramina. With the advancement of CT and MRI, the localization of lesions has become more precise as their relationship with adjacent neurovascular structures. There is a known course of the cranial nerves as well as their skull base exiting foramina to the head and neck. CT and MRI are complimentary modalities and are often used together to map the full extent of disease. The second article in this review focus on the radiologic study of the cranial nerves.

Humans , Skull Base/innervation , Skull Base/diagnostic imaging , Cranial Nerves/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Cranial Nerves/anatomy & histology