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1.
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 48: e20202581, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155375

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Understanding the cause, severity, and elapsed time for the restoration of the functions of maxillofacial injuries can contribute to the establishment of clinical priorities aiming at effective treatment and further prevention of facial trauma. The objective of this study was to understand the factors associated with the restoration of mastication, ocular, and nasal functions in the face of trauma victims, estimating their recovery time after surgical treatment. We analyzed 114 medical records of patients treated at the Hospital Montenegro, who attended follow-up consultations for up to 180 days. For analysis of the recovery time, we performed survival analysis, followed by COX analysis. We observed that half of the patients recovered their functions within 20 days. The average time for recovery from trauma in the zygomatic-orbital-malar-nasal complex was 11 days, and in the maxillary-mandibular complex, 21 days (HR: 1.5 [0.99 2.3], p = 0.055). Although functional reestablishment has reached high rates after the surgical approach, it is necessary to analyze the failing cases, as well as the economic impacts and the prevention strategies associated with facial trauma, to improve the service to the population.


RESUMO O entendimento da causa, da gravidade e do tempo decorrido para o restabelecimento das funções de lesões maxilofaciais pode contribuir para o estabelecimento de prioridades clínicas objetivando o efetivo tratamento e prevenção dos traumatismos de face. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi compreender quais os fatores associados ao restabelecimento das funções mastigatórias, oculares e nasais em vítimas de trauma de face, estimando o tempo para recuperação das funções, após o tratamento cirúrgico. Foram analisados 114 prontuários de pacientes atendidos no Hospital de Montenegro que compareceram às consultas de acompanhamento por até 180 dias. Para a análise do tempo para a recuperação, foi realizada a análise de sobrevida, seguida da análise de COX. Observou-se que metade dos pacientes recuperaram as funções em até 20 dias, sendo que o tempo médio para recuperação dos traumas no complexo zigomático-orbitário-malar-nasal foi de 11 dias e do complexo maxilo - mandibular de 21 dias (HR: 1,5 (0,99 - 2,3) p=0,055). Embora o restabelecimento das funções tenha atingido taxas elevadas após abordagem cirúrgicas, faz-se necessária a análise dos casos de insucessos bem como os impactos econômicos e as estratégias de prevenção associados aos traumas de face a fim de qualificar o serviço prestado à população.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Orbital Fractures/surgery , Skull Fractures/surgery , Zygomatic Fractures/surgery , Facial Bones/injuries , Fracture Fixation, Internal , Mandibular Fractures/surgery , Maxillary Fractures/surgery , Nasal Bone/surgery , Orbital Fractures/etiology , Orbital Fractures/epidemiology , Skull Fractures/etiology , Skull Fractures/epidemiology , Zygomatic Fractures/etiology , Zygomatic Fractures/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Survival Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Recovery of Function , Facial Bones/surgery , Mandibular Fractures/etiology , Mandibular Fractures/epidemiology , Maxillary Fractures/etiology , Maxillary Fractures/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Nasal Bone/injuries
2.
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 48: e20213024, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1351524

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: to evaluate the clinical-epidemiological characteristics, treatment, and evolution of patients with occipital condyle fracture (OCF) at one of the largest referral trauma centers in Latin America. Methods: this was a retrospective observational study of OCF identified from trauma cases admitted between December 2011 and December 2019 by the neurosurgery team at a Type 3 trauma center. Results: a total of twenty-eight occipital condyle fractures were identified in twenty-six patients. The incidence was less than 0.2% per year and more common in male patients (4:1 ratio) involved in traffic accidents. The mean age was 42.08 years. Anderson and Montesano type II and Tuli type 1 were the most frequent (67.9% and 89.3%, respectively) and no case presented C0-C1-C2 instability. All patients were treated with a cervical collar for 3 to 6 months. About 65% of the patients exhibited good progression (Glasgow Outcome Scale equal to 4), and the severity of traumatic brain injury was the main determinant for negative outcomes. Conclusion: the findings of this study are in accordance with available literature data. The use of external stabilization with a cervical collar is reinforced for the treatment of stable lesions, even when these are bilateral. Assessment of the patients' follow-up results in the studied sample may contribute with useful information for the treatment of occipital condyle fractures.


RESUMO Objetivo: avaliar o perfil clínico-epidemiológico, o tratamento e a evolução de pacientes com fraturas do côndilo occipital (FCO) em um dos maiores centros especializados em trauma na América Latina. Método: este é um estudo observacional retrospectivo de FCO identificadas em casos de trauma que foram atendidos no período de Dezembro de 2011 a Dezembro de 2019 pela equipe de trauma de centro de trauma Tipo 3. Resultados: um total de vinte e oito fraturas do côndilo occipital foram identificadas em 26 pacientes. A incidência foi inferior a 0.2% ao ano e mais comum em pacientes do sexo masculino (proporção 4:1) envolvidos em acidentes de trânsito. A idade média foi de 42.08 anos. O Tipo II de Anderson e Montesano e o Tipo 1 de Tuli foram os mais frequentes (67.9% e 89.3%, respectivamente) e nenhum caso teve instabilidades C0C1C2. Todos os pacientes foram tratados com colar cervical por período de 3 a 6 meses. Cerca de 65% dos pacientes apresentaram boa evolução (Escala de Resultados de Glasgow maior ou igual a 4), e a gravidade da lesão cerebral foi o principal determinante para os resultados negativos. Conclusão: os achados deste estudo são similares a dados disponíveis na literatura. O uso de colar cervical para estabilização externa é reforçado para o tratamento de lesões estáveis, mesmo quando bilaterais. A avaliação dos resultados do acompanhamento dos pacientes na amostra estudada pode contribuir com informações úteis para o tratamento de fraturas de côndilo occipital.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Skull Fractures , Trauma Centers , Referral and Consultation , Retrospective Studies , Occipital Bone
3.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 14(4): 590-595, dic. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134544

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: Las fracturas panfaciales son aquellas que afectan de forma simultánea al tejido óseo de dos o más tercios del rostro. El manejo inicial de estos pacientes es resolver o estabilizar las urgencias médico - quirúrgicas que puedan presentar, debido a que la gran mayoría de estas fracturas están asociadas a traumatismos de alta energía cinética, las que determinan la presencia de lesiones concomitantes que pueden comprometer la vida del paciente. El tratamiento quirúrgico de las fracturas panfaciales puede abarcar desde la intervención quirúrgica inicial de control de daños, estabilización, reducción y fijación quirúrgica de los segmentos fracturados mediante osteosíntesis hasta intervenciones mediatas para la reconstrucción de los tejidos afectados por el traumatismo. Para el tratamiento de las fracturas panfaciales existe una sistemática quirúrgica que tiene por objeto contener y/o minimizar daños agudos y permitir una reducción morfológica y funcional. Reportamos un caso clínico de fractura panfacial cuyo tratamiento siguió esta sistemática terapeútica.


ABSTRACT: Panfacial fractures affect bone tissue in two or more thirds of the face simultaneously. The initial management of these patients is to resolve or stabilize the medical-surgical emergencies that they may present. Most of these fractures are associated to trauma of high kinetic energy, which determine the presence of concomitant inju- ries that can compromise the life of the patient. The surgical treatment of panfacial fractures may include from the initial surgical intervention of damage control, stabilization, reduction and surgical fixation of fractured segments through osteosynthesis, to mediate the reconstruction of tissues affected by the trauma. For the treatment of panfacial fractures there is a surgical approach that aims to contain and/or minimize acute damage and allow for morphological and functional reduction. We report a clinical case of panfacial fracture whose treatment followed this therapeutic approach.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Young Adult , Skull Fractures , Facial Injuries/surgery , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Facial Bones
4.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 14(2): 167-171, June 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090670

ABSTRACT

The naso-orbito-ethmoidal region is composed of delicate bones and when fractured may result in significant aesthetic-functional impairment. Diagnosis through clinical and imaging findings is extremely important for surgical planning. This study aims to report a case of type III fracture of the naso-orbito-ethmoidal region. Patient D.R.S., female, 13 years old, attended the emergency department of Hospital dos Fornecedores de Cana de Piracicaba (HFCP) - SP with complaint of pain in the fronto-nasal region and respiratory distress after trauma in face of baseball bat. Physical examination showed edema and short blunt injury in the region of the nasal dorsum and frontal region, bilateral periorbital hematoma, hyposphagma in right eye and traumatic telecanthus. When analyzing the computed tomography, it was observed fracture of the nasal bones, also affecting the medial wall of the orbit. The procedure was osteosynthesis of the fractures and reconstruction of the nasal dorsum. The fracture traces were exposed from coronal access, reduction of fractures and use of calvarial bone graft for nasal dorsum reconstruction. The fracture and the graft were fixed with plates of 1,6mm. Postoperative computed tomography analysis showed good graft positioning, but there was still a slight sinking of the left lateral wall of the nose. In a second moment another surgical intervention was done to reduce this wall and an internal containment device was installed. Currently the patient is in a state of observation and a follow-up period of 665 days. In cases of complex nasoorbito-ethmoidal fractures early diagnosis and treatment is essential to minimize sequelae and provide a better aesthetic and functional result.


La región etmoidal nasoorbital está compuesta de huesos delicados y, cuando se fractura, puede provocar una lesión estética-funcional significativa. El diagnóstico mediante hallazgos clínicos y de imagen es de suma importancia para la planificación quirúrgica. El paciente D.R.S., mujer, 13 años, leucoderma, asistió al servicio de emergencia del Hospital de Proveedores de Caña de Azúcar de Piracicaba quejándose de dolor en la región frontal-nasal y dificultad para respirar después de un traumatismo en la cara con un palo. El examen físico reveló edema y lesión contundente en el dorso nasal y la región frontal, hematoma periorbitario bilateral, hiposfagma del ojo derecho y telecanto traumático. Al analizar la tomografía computarizada se observó fractura de los huesosnasales en libro abierto, afectando también la pared medial de la órbita. El enfoque aplicado fue la osteosíntesis de fracturas y la reconstrucción del dorso nasal. Los rastros de fractura se expusieron del abordaje coronal, se redujeron las fracturas y se usaron injertos de casquete para reconstruir el dorso nasal. La fractura y el injerto se fijaron con placas de sistema de 1,6 mm y se realizó la cantopexia de los ligamentos cantales mediales. Se requirió cirugía reparadora secundaria para la corrección de la pared lateral de la nariz, que persistió en el postoperatorio. Actualmente el paciente se encuentra en un estado de conservación y período de seguimiento de 665 días. En casos de fracturas nasoorbitales-etmoidales complejas, el diagnóstico y el tratamiento tempranos son esenciales para minimizar las secuelas y proporcionar un mejor resultado estético y funcional.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Skull Fractures/surgery , Ethmoid Bone/surgery , Open Fracture Reduction/methods , Nasal Bone/surgery , Orbital Fractures/surgery , Skull Fractures/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Ethmoid Bone/injuries , Fracture Fixation , Nasal Bone/injuries
5.
Rev. Odontol. Araçatuba (Impr.) ; 40(3): 45-48, set.-dez. 2019. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1102227

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: O presente estudo consiste em relatar o caso clínico de um paciente com fratura panfacial e abordagem cirúrgica de emergência para realização de fixação interna rígida e sua reabilitação. Descrição do Caso: Paciente do gênero masculino, 46 anos, vítima de acidente automobilístico, deu entrada no serviço de emergência do Hospital Geral do Estado da Bahia (HGE-BA) cursando com múltiplas fraturas em face. Foi planejada abordagem, sob anestesia geral e intubação orotraqueal com derivação submentual, em razão de fratura de base anterior de crânio, fratura dos ossos próprios nasais e necessidade de bloqueio maxilomandibular no transcirúrgico. Paciente acompanhado no pós-operatório, evoluindo com projeção facial satisfatória, oclusão estável, boa permeabilidade nasal e sem deformidade dentofacial. Conclusão: As fraturas panfacias são desafiadoras, e seu planejamento cirúrgico deve ser estabelecido visando o posicionamento adequado dos fragmentos fraturados e a preservação das estruturas anatômicas faciais, devolvendo função e garantindo o mínimo de sequelas para o paciente(AU)


Purpose: The present study consists in reporting the clinical case of a patient with panfacial fracture, with an emergency surgical approach to perform rigid internal fixation for patient rehabilitation. Case description: A 46-year-old male patient, victim of an automobile accident, was admitted to the emergency department of the Hospital Geral do Estado da Bahia (HGE-BA), attending multiple fractures in the face. The approach was planned under general anesthesia and orotracheal intubation with submental shunt, due to anterior skull fracture, fracture of the nasal bones and the need for maxillomandibular block in the trans-surgical. Patient followed postoperatively, evolving with satisfactory facial projection, stable occlusion, good nasal permeability, and no dentofacial deformity. Conclusions: Panfacial fractures are challenging, and their surgical planning must be established aiming at the adequate positioning of fractured fragments and preservation of facial anatomical structures, restoring function and ensuring a minimum of sequelae for the patient(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Skull Fractures , Facial Bones/injuries , Facial Injuries , Facial Injuries/surgery , Fracture Fixation
7.
West Afr. j. radiol ; 26(2): 94-99, 2019.
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1273553

ABSTRACT

Background: Commercial motorcycling is a common means of transportation in Nigeria, and motorcycle road traffic accidents (MCRTAs) are commonly associated with multiple skull fractures. Cranial computed tomography (CT) scan is the standard imaging modality of patients with head injury. Aim: The aim of this study is to describe the pattern of skull fractures on cranial CT scan in patients with head injury following MCRTA. Patients and Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, between June and October 2016. Noncontrast cranial CT scan was performed on 190 patients who presented with head injury following MCRTAs. Results: Over half (n = 59.8%) of the patients were within the ages of 20­39 years with a mean age of 33 ± 14.37 years. A total of 183 patients did not use crash helmet at the time of accident, out of which 168 (n = 88.4%) sustained skull fractures. Six different skull fracture patterns were identified on cranial CT scan of these patients. The most common fracture pattern seen was the combined calvarial, facial, and base of skull fractures representing 22.1% while the least fracture pattern was the base of skull fracture (n = 4.7%). Most of the patients with calvarial fractures were without helmet at the time of injury (n = 98.3%) compared to 1.7% of patients who wore helmet at the time of injury. This was statistically significant (P = 0.040). Conclusion: This study further underscores the usefulness of cranial CT scan in identifying and evaluating patients with skull fractures following MCRTA in our environment, thus guiding proper medical and surgical management of such patients in a low-resource setting


Subject(s)
Accidents, Traffic , Motorcycles , Nigeria , Skull Fractures , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Transportation
8.
SA j. radiol ; 23(1): 1-7, 2019. ilus
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1271355

ABSTRACT

Background: Basal skull fractures (BSFs) have been reported to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the literature, particularly in young male patients. However, there are limited data available on the aetiology, prevalence and patterns of such observed in South Africa. Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence and pattern of BSF in head injury patients referred to Dr George Mukhari Academic Hospital, Gauteng, South Africa. Methods: Patients of all ages with head injuries were considered for the study, and those who met the inclusion criteria were scanned using a 128-slice multidetector helical computed tomography (CT) machine after obtaining consent. Data were prospectively obtained over a 6-month period, interpreted on an advanced workstation by two readers and statistically analysed. Results: The prevalence of BSF in this study was found to be 15.2%. The majority of patients (80.5%) were under 40 years old, with a male to female ratio of 3:1. The most common aetiology of BSF was assault, which accounted for 46% of cases. The middle cranial fossa was the most frequently fractured compartment, while the petrous bone was the most commonly fractured bone. There was a statistically significant association between head injury severity and BSF, and between the number of fracture lines and associated signs of BSF (p < 0.001). The sensitivity of clinical signs in predicting BSF was 31%, while specificity was 89.3% (p = 0.004). Conclusion: The prevalence and pattern of BSF found were consistent with data from previously published studies, although, dissimilarly, assault was found to be the most common aetiology in this study


Subject(s)
Patients , Prevalence , Skull Fractures/etiology , South Africa
9.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766845

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the types and clinical features of neurological diseases after head trauma. METHODS: From March 2010 to December 2018, a total of 177 patients were enrolled in this study. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical features of neurological ophthalmic diagnoses and frequencies, the types of head injuries, and the prognoses. RESULTS: Cranial nerve palsy was the most common (n = 63, 35.6%), followed by traumatic optic neuropathy (n = 45, 25.4%), followed by optic disc deficiency, ipsilateral visual field defect, Nystagmus, skewing, ocular muscle paralysis between nuclei, and Terson syndrome. Neuro-ophthalmic deficits occurred in relatively strong traumas accompanied by intracranial hemorrhage or skull fracture. However, convergence insufficiency and decompensated phoria occurred in relatively weak trauma such as concussion. The prognoses of the diseases were poor (p < 0.05) for traumatic optic neuropathies and visual field defects. The prognoses of neurological diseases were poor if accompanied by intracranial hemorrhages or skull fractures (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: After head trauma, various neuro-ophthalmic diseases can occur. The prognosis may differ depending on the type of the disease, and the strength of the trauma may affect the prognosis.


Subject(s)
Cranial Nerve Diseases , Craniocerebral Trauma , Diagnosis , Head , Humans , Intracranial Hemorrhages , Ocular Motility Disorders , Optic Nerve Injuries , Paralysis , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Skull Fractures , Strabismus , Visual Fields
10.
Singapore medical journal ; : 110-118, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777546

ABSTRACT

Since the first use of the flexible fibreoptic bronchoscope, a plethora of new airway equipment has become available. It is essential for clinicians to understand the role and limitations of the available equipment to make appropriate choices. The recent 4th National Audit Project conducted in the United Kingdom found that poor judgement with inappropriate choice of equipment was a contributory factor in airway morbidity and mortality. Given the many modern airway adjuncts that are available, we aimed to define the role of flexible fibreoptic intubation in decision-making and management of anticipated and unanticipated difficult airways. We also reviewed the recent literature regarding the role of flexible fibreoptic intubation in specific patient groups who may present with difficult intubation, and concluded that the flexible fibrescope maintains its important role in difficult airway management.


Subject(s)
Airway Management , Methods , Airway Obstruction , Anesthesia , Methods , Bronchoscopy , Methods , Equipment Design , Fiber Optic Technology , Humans , Intubation, Intratracheal , Methods , Laryngoscopes , Manikins , Obesity , Respiratory System , Skull Fractures
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759977

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Forehead deformities are often caused by lack of treatment or incorrect restoration of the frontal buttress, so the underlying frontal buttress should be restored to its previous position to ensure that the previous forehead contour is restored in cases of complex depressed skull fractures. However, since brain injuries from skull fractures could have fatal consequences, the clinical concern in primary surgery has been to save the patient's life, and cosmetic concerns have always been secondary. We retrospectively reviewed fronto-orbital fracture patients who underwent primary restoration with primary bone fragments or an alloplastic implant and compared the surgical outcomes of autologous bone (group 1) and artificial materials (group 2). METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted of 47 patients with fronto-orbital fractures between March 2012 and January 2018. The patients underwent primary reconstruction with primary bone fragments or an alloplastic implant. The surgical results were evaluated by the incidence of infection and cosmetic satisfaction of patients. RESULTS: Infections occurred in one patient (5%) in group 1 and in two patients (15.3%) in group 2, which was not a statistically significant difference. In contrast, at 6 months after surgery, patient satisfaction showed a statistically significant between-group difference (group 1: 4.32 points, group 2: 3.54 points, p=0.001). CONCLUSION: Primary reconstruction using fractured bone fragments is an effective and preferable method that could result in better surgical outcomes than restoration using an alloplastic implant.


Subject(s)
Brain Injuries , Congenital Abnormalities , Forehead , Frontal Sinus , Humans , Incidence , Methods , Patient Satisfaction , Retrospective Studies , Skull Fracture, Depressed , Skull Fractures
12.
Odovtos (En línea) ; 20(1): 33-39, Jan.-Apr. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1091435

ABSTRACT

Abstract The surgical management of firearm injuries to the zygomaticomaxillary complex is a topic that needs to be addressed with much care. The complications that can arise during treatment, as well as the potential residual problems that can appear, lead to the need of recognizing these injuries as a maxillofacial treatment challenge. The infraorbital zone is the second most common area of injury in the face, accounting for up to 45% of midfacial fractures. The case presented is of a 54 year old man affected by the backward firing of a gun rifle that caused an oblique impaction towards the posterior lateral inferior side of the infraorbital complex. He was rapidly stabilized with an antibiotic and analgesic scheme, yet presented the following: a comminute fracture of the orbit floor with consequent communication towards the maxillary sinus, a non-displacing fracture of the frontomalar suture, a non-displacing fracture of the zygomatic arch and a lesion with loss of osseous tissue in the petrous region of the temporal bone. Rigid fixation followed stabilization, and the area was covered with a titanium mesh. Occasional tinnitus and photopsia were reported by the patient upon return, yet all other evaluated factors were in order. There have been different forms of management described in the literature, and it is recognized that each patient has different needs, therefore each case must be closely evaluated, so it is approached in the most appropriate manner.


Resumen El manejo quirúrgico de las lesiones por armas de fuego al complejo cigomaticomaxilar representa una situación compleja en la práctica maxilofacial que debe ser abordada con extrema cautela, debido a las complicaciones que pueden surgir durante el tratamiento y los potenciales problemas residuales. La zona infraorbitaria es la segunda área más común de lesiones en la cara, representando hasta 45% de las fracturas mediocraneales. El presente caso es de un masculino de 54 años de edad, que sufrió trauma ocasionado por la parte trasera de un rifle de caza que causó un impacto en sentido oblicuo hacia el lado lateral inferior del complejo infraorbitario. El paciente fue estabilizado con esquema antibiótico y analgésico, el diagnóstico fue: fractura cominuta del piso de la órbita, con consecuente comunicación al seno maxilar, fractura no desplazada de la sutura frontomalar, fractura no desplazada del arco cigomático, y lesión con pérdida de tejido óseo en la región petrosa del hueso temporal. El tratamiento quirúrgico consistió en reducción de las fracturas y fijación rígida de las estructuras. Al control post operatorio el paciente refirió acufenos y fotopsia ocasional, no presentando otras alteraciones. Se ha descrito en la literatura diferentes abordajes para el manejo de estos traumatismos, sin embargo cada caso debe ser individualizado y evaluado de forma minuciosa para que éste, sea el adecuado.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Skull Fractures/complications , Wounds, Gunshot/complications , Zygoma/surgery , Mandibular Fractures/complications
13.
CoDAS ; 30(1): e20170063, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-890823

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose To study the intraoperative findings in case of early and delayed decompression of facial nerve paralysis and compare their results. Methods Retrospective data analysis of 23 cases of longitudinal temporal bone fracture with House-Brackmann grade V and VI facial nerve paralysis. All cases were thoroughly evaluated and underwent facial nerve decompression through the transmastoid approach. All cases were under regular follow-up till the date of manuscript submission. Results Clinical improvement of the facial nerve function was observed for early vs. delayed facial nerve decompression. In the early decompression group, facial nerve function improved to grade II in eight cases (80%) and grade III in two cases (20%), whereas in the delayed decompression group it improved to grade II in one case (7.70%), grade III in four cases (30.76%), grade IV in seven cases (53.84%), and grade V in one case (7.70%). Conclusions Early decompression of facial nerve provides better results than delayed decompression because it enables early expansion of the nerve.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Facial Nerve Injuries/surgery , Facial Paralysis/surgery , Skull Fractures/surgery , Skull Fractures/physiopathology , Temporal Bone/surgery , Temporal Bone/injuries , Retrospective Studies , Decompression, Surgical/methods , Facial Nerve Injuries/diagnostic imaging , Facial Paralysis/diagnostic imaging , Time-to-Treatment , Middle Aged
14.
S. Afr. j. surg. (Online) ; 56(3): 38-42, 2018. ilus
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1271026

ABSTRACT

Background: Cranial vault defects can pose a significant problem for neurosurgeons where autologous bone is no longer available for cranioplasty. Numerous materials exist to create implants which include polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and titanium. A technique using 3-dimensional CT scan reconstruction of a cranial defect and creating a silicon mould which can be autoclaved in theatre to create a PMMA implant was developed. Objectives: The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy, cosmetic result, safety and cost-effectiveness of this procedure and compare this to existing techniques.Methods: An ambispective study was performed in patients requiring cranioplasty with a custom made implant. Patients were assessed for risk factors and cosmetic outcome, surgical technique was described and complications and cost compared to existing literature between 2010 and 2016.Results: Thirty retrospective and 30 consecutive prospective patients were recruited into the study. Overall sepsis rate was 8.3%. All septic cases had superficial sepsis of which 2 grafts were removed due to cerebrospinal fluid leakage resulting in wound breakdown. A 100% accurate implant to defect ratio was achieved leading to a high satisfaction rate. Average cost was 5 times cheaper than the closest market related product.Conclusion: Patient specific moulds using PMMA to create custom implants are safe, have excellent cosmetic results and are a very cost-effective option to manage cranial defects. Accurate planning strategies for large craniotomies, where bone will potentially be discarded, add to surgical effectiveness and cost-saving to the patient


Subject(s)
Patients , Polymethyl Methacrylate , Skull Fractures , South Africa
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713925

ABSTRACT

We report a case involving the development of a delayed acute subdural hematoma (ASDH) after trauma, with the absence of any abnormal radiological and clinical findings at initial examination. A 54-year-old male visited the emergency department after a minor trauma. The patient only complained of mild headache after head injury. He presented no abnormal findings on neurological examination, and brain computed tomography (CT) did not show any intracranial lesion or skull fractures. However, he developed seizure with disorientation eight hours after trauma, and ASDH with midline shift was found during a follow-up CT. He recovered without neurological deficits after immediate primary care and admission to the neurosurgery department. On serial follow-up CT images, a gradually increasing mass effect of hematoma was detected, and removed by craniotomy. The patient recovered without neurologic deficits.


Subject(s)
Brain , Brain Injuries , Craniocerebral Trauma , Craniotomy , Decompression, Surgical , Emergency Service, Hospital , Follow-Up Studies , Headache , Hematoma , Hematoma, Subdural, Acute , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neurologic Examination , Neurologic Manifestations , Neurosurgery , Primary Health Care , Seizures , Skull Fractures
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718955

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Subgaleal hemorrhage (SGH) is a rare but potentially fatal condition in newborns; however, few studies have reported on this condition. We aimed to identify the clinical characteristics and prognostic factors of SGH. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 20 neonates diagnosed with SGH between January 2000 and June 2017. Enrolled neonates were clinically diagnosed when they had tender fluctuant scalp swelling that crossed the suture lines. RESULTS: Among 20 neonates with SGH, 12 were boys and 7 were girls; median hospitalization duration was 9.7±6.9 days. Fourteen neonates (70%) were born via vacuum-assisted vaginal delivery, and 4 via vacuum-assisted cesarean section. Of the neonates enrolled, half of them initially showed unstable vital signs, including apnea, desaturation, and cyanosis. Ten neonates had acidosis and 3 had asphyxia (pH < 7.0). Intracranial lesions associated with SGH were observed in 15 neonates (75%), including subdural hemorrhage (50%), subarachnoid hemorrhage (15%), intraventricular hemorrhage (5%), cerebral infarct (15%), skull fracture (30%), and cephalohematoma (20%). Twelve neonates (60%) required transfusion, 5 (25%) had seizures, and 3 (15%) died. Eight neonates (40%) had hyperbilirubinemia (mean total bilirubin, 13.1±7.4). The mean follow-up period was 8.4±7.5 months. At follow-up, 10 neonates (58.8%) were healthy with normal development, whereas 7 (41.2%) had neurological deficits. CONCLUSION: The morbidity rate was 41.2% due to severe metabolic acidosis. Anemia, hyperbilirubinemia, low Apgar scores, and subdural hemorrhage did not affect the prognosis. The long-term outcomes of neonates with SGH are generally good. Only arterial blood pH was significantly associated with death.


Subject(s)
Acidosis , Anemia , Apnea , Asphyxia , Bilirubin , Cesarean Section , Cyanosis , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hematoma, Subdural , Hemorrhage , Hospitalization , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Hyperbilirubinemia , Infant, Newborn , Medical Records , Pregnancy , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Scalp , Seizures , Skull Fractures , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage , Sutures , Vacuum Extraction, Obstetrical , Vital Signs
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717711

ABSTRACT

The rapid spontaneous resolution of an acute epidural hematoma (EDH) has rarely been reported. A possible mechanism of spontaneous resolution is egress of the hematoma into the subgaleal space through a skull fracture. We report a case of rapid redistribution of an acute EDH in a 37-year-old man who had a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor of the skull and who slipped and fell when going to the bathroom. A huge EDH without a skull fracture developed in the left parieto-occipital area. The acute EDH was completely alleviated and a newly developed intracerebral hematoma was found on a brain computed tomography scan that was acquired the day after the trauma. Given these findings, a fractured skull and increased pressure in the intradural area may have been the mechanisms underlying the redistribution of the hematoma.


Subject(s)
Adult , Brain , Hematoma , Humans , Neurofibromatoses , Peripheral Nerves , Skull Fractures , Skull
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717570

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Falling is a common cause of head injury in preschool aged children. We investigated the characteristics of mild head injuries caused by falling and the association between body weight and occurrence of traumatic brain injuries (TBI). METHODS: This retrospective observational study was conducted on head-injured preschool-aged children that visited the emergency department from January 2012 to December 2015. Characteristics such as age, sex, weight, free fall height, floor type, and presence of TBI, as defined as cerebral hemorrhage or skull fracture, were investigated. We calculated body weight percentiles by calibrating age and weight and categorized them into four quartile ranges. We grouped all included cases into two groups according to the presence of TBI. The characteristics of the two groups were compared by using chi-square test, and the association with TBI was investigated by using binomial logistic regression. RESULTS: A total of 701 children were included, and TBI was observed in 95 children. Children with TBI were younger. The proportion of children with TBI was higher in the third and fourth quartiles of the body weight group as well as according to soft floor and fall from high height (≥1 m). The odds of soft floor being associated with TBI was higher than the odds for hard floor (odds ratio, 2.734; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.597–4.680). The odds of high height (≥1 m) being associated with TBI was higher than that for low height (odds ratio, 2.306; 95% CI, 1.155–4.601), and the odds ratio for the weight percentile group was 1.228 (95% CI, 1.005–1.499). CONCLUSION: Prevalence of TBI after falling in preschool-aged children might be associated with high fall-height and body weight quartiles.


Subject(s)
Accidental Falls , Body Weight , Brain Injuries , Cerebral Hemorrhage , Child , Child, Preschool , Craniocerebral Trauma , Emergency Service, Hospital , Head , Humans , Logistic Models , Observational Study , Odds Ratio , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Skull Fractures
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717475

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to reinterpret the neurodevelopmental prognostic factors that are associated with birth head injury by performing a long-term follow-up. METHODS: Seventy-three neonates with head injuries were retrospectively analyzed after a duration of 10.0±7.3 years to determine the correlations between perinatal factors, including gender, head circumference, gestational age, body weight, and mode of delivery, and head injury factors from radiologic imaging with social, fine motor, language, and motor developmental quotients. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant difference between perinatal factors and head injury factors with respect to head circumference, body weight, gestational age, mode of delivery, Apgar scores at 1 min, cephalohematoma, subdural hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and hypoxic injury, but no direct correlation by regression analysis was observed between perinatal factors and developmental quotients. Of the head injury factors, falx hemorrhage showed a significant indirect relationship with the language and motor developmental quotients. Mode of delivery, subgaleal hematoma, cephalohematoma, greenstick skull fracture, epidural hemorrhage (EDH), tentorial hemorrhage, brain swelling, and hypoxic injury showed an indirect relationship with social development. CONCLUSION: In terms of perinatal factors and head injury factors, mode of delivery, subgaleal hematoma, cephalohematoma, greenstick skull fracture, EDH, tentorial hemorrhage, falx hemorrhage, brain swelling, and hypoxic injury displayed an indirect relationship with long-term development, and therefore these factors require particular attention for perinatal care.


Subject(s)
Birth Injuries , Body Weight , Craniocerebral Trauma , Follow-Up Studies , Gestational Age , Head , Hematoma , Hematoma, Subdural , Hemorrhage , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Intracranial Hemorrhages , Parturition , Perinatal Care , Retrospective Studies , Skull Fractures , Social Change , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741539

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Fractures of the orbital wall are mainly caused by traffic accidents, assaults, and falls and generally occur in men aged between 20 and 40 years. Complications that may occur after an orbital fracture include diplopia and decreased visual acuity due to changes in orbital volume, ocular depression due to changes in orbital floor height, and exophthalmos. If surgery is delayed too long, tissue adhesion will occur, making it difficult to improve ophthalmologic symptoms. Thus, early diagnosis and treatment are important. Fractures of the superior orbital wall are often accompanied by skull fractures. Most of these patients are unable to perform an early ocular evaluation due to neurosurgery and treatment. These patients are more likely to show tissue adhesion, making it difficult to properly dissect the tissue for wall reconstruction during surgery. CASE PRESENTATION: This report details a case of superior orbital wall reconstruction using superior orbital rim osteotomy in a patient with a superior orbital wall fracture involving severe tissue adhesion. Three months after reconstruction, there were no significant complications. CONCLUSION: In a patient with a superior orbital wall fracture, our procedure is helpful in securing the visual field and in delamination of the surrounding tissue.


Subject(s)
Accidental Falls , Accidents, Traffic , Depression , Diplopia , Early Diagnosis , Exophthalmos , Humans , Male , Neurosurgery , Orbit , Orbital Fractures , Osteotomy , Skull Fractures , Tissue Adhesions , Visual Acuity , Visual Fields
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