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J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 10(1): 1-4, 01/jan./2022.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1369163


Introduction: One of the challenges of maxillofacial surgery is the rehabilitation of patients with severe bone loss, using implant-supported prostheses. This challenge is based on the small remaining bone structure, and on the need to reconstruct the structure for the rehabilitation with autogenous or exogenous grafts. Case report: We report the case of a patient with severe maxillary atrophy, where a skullcap graft was performed associated with implant placement and prosthetic completion 14 months after the start of treatment. Final considerations: We demonstrate clinical safety for the use of extraoral grafts without complications, representing a good alternative treatment for this group of patients.

Introdução: um dos desafios da cirurgia bucomaxilofacial é a reabilitação de pacientes com perda óssea severa, utilizando próteses implantossuportadas. Este desafio baseia-se na pequena estrutura óssea remanescente e na necessidade de reconstrução da estrutura para a reabilitação com enxertos autógenos ou exógenos. Relato de caso: Relatamos o caso de um paciente com atrofia maxilar grave, onde foi realizado enxerto de calota craniana associado à instalação de implante, com finalização protética 14 meses após o início do tratamento. Consideracoes finais: Demonstramos segurança clínica para o uso de enxertos extrabucais sem complicações, representando uma boa alternativa de tratamento para este grupo de pacientes.

Mandible , Patients , Prostheses and Implants , Atrophy , Skull , Surgery, Oral , Jaw, Edentulous
Braz. j. oral sci ; 20: e210624, jan.-dez. 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1254431


Sex is one of the first features to be diagnosed in human identification, composing, with age, ancestry and stature, the so called "big four". Aim: The present study aimed to metrically analyze the sexual dimorphism in skulls of known age and sex from Rio Grande do Sul ­ Brazil. Methods: This was a crosssectional study of metrical analysis, which used a sample comprised of 209 human skulls (106 male and 103 female) older than 22 years old at the time of death, undamaged and without signs of trauma or abnormalities. The point nasion and the most superior points on the zygomaticotemporal sutures from each side were connected forming a triangle. This area was calculated using Heron's formula, and the results were submitted for statistical analysis. Results: All measurements showed significant values for sexual dimorphism. Through the area of the triangle, it was possible to determine sex with an accuracy of 83.97% for males and 83.50% for females. Conclusion: This simple method requires only a caliper, and still can be reliable for forensic human identification. It must be diffused and tested on other samples, and can be used as a good and inexpensive tool for experts in day-to-day practice

Skull , Sex Characteristics , Forensic Anthropology , Sex Determination by Skeleton
Braz. j. oral sci ; 20: e218796, jan.-dez. 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1254745


Forensic physical anthropometry allows the determination of animal species and estimates sex, ancestry, age and height. Aim: To analyze the effectiveness of a cranioscopic/ morphological evaluation for sex estimation with a sample of the Brazilian mixed-race population by conducting a qualitative visual assessment without prior knowledge of sex. Methods: This is a blind cross-sectional study that evaluated 30 cranial characteristics of 192 skulls with mandible, 108 male and 84 female individuals, aged 22 to 97 years, from the Osteological and Tomographic Biobank. The qualitative characteristics were classified and compared to the actual sex information of the Biobank database. The statistical analysis was used to calculate de Cohen's kappa coefficient, total percentage of agreement, sensitivity and specificity of visual sex classification. Results: Of the 30 cranial variables analyzed, 15 presented moderate degree of agreement, achieving value of Kappa test between 0.41­0.60: Glabella (Gl), Angle and lines (At), Mental eminence (Em), Mandible size (Tm), Cranial base (Bc), Mouth depth (Pb), Nasal aperture (Anl), Supraorbital region (Rs), Orbits (Orb), Mastoid processes (Pm), Alveolar arches (Aa), Zygomatic arch (Az), Orbital edge (Bo), Supraorbital protuberances (Pts), and Supramastoid crests and rugosity (Crsm). The Facial physiognomy (Ff) presented substantial reliability (0.61-0.80) with 89.8% sensitivity for male sex and 70.2% specificity. Conclusions: Cranial morphological characteristics present sexual dimorphism; however, in this study only 15 variables showed moderate degree of agreement and can be used in sex estimation. Only one variable (Ff) 81.2% total agreement with substantial reliability. Quantitative methods can be associated for safe sex estimation

Skull , Sex Characteristics , Forensic Anthropology , Mandible
Infectio ; 25(4): 293-295, oct.-dic. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1286725


Resumen La trombosis venosa cerebral (TVC) es una presentación clínica poco común del tromboembolismo venoso caracterizada por cefalea, crisis convulsivas, déficits neurológicos focales y papiledema. El diagnóstico es confirmado con Tomografía axial computarizada (TAC) de cráneo y Resonancia magnética nuclear (RMN) cerebral. La TVC tiene una relación importante con el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH), ya que los pacientes VIH positivos cursan con hiperviscosidad san guínea, alteraciones de factores anticoagulantes endógenos y riesgo de sobreinfección, entre otros; que predisponen a estados protrombóticos y lesión vascular como lo es la TVC. El tratamiento de la TVC es terapia anticoagulante, por lo general se utiliza heparina no fraccionada o heparina de bajo peso molecular para la fase aguda y anticoagulantes orales como la warfarina para el mantenimiento posterior. Reportamos el primer caso documentado de TVC en un paciente VIH positivo en Colombia.

Abstract Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a rare clinical presentation of venous thromboembolism characterized by headache, seizures, neurological deficits and papi lledema. The diagnosis is confirmed using computed tomography scan (CT scan) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain. CVT has an important relationship with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) given that HIV-positive patients may present with blood hyperviscosity, irregular levels of endogenous anticoagulation factors and risk of sepsis among others, that predispose to prothrombotic states and vascular injury such as CVT. The treatment of CVT is anticoagulant therapy, generally unfractionated heparin or low molecular weight heparin for the early phase and oral anticoagulants such as warfarin for the late phase. This case reports the first documented case of CVT in an HIV positive patient in Colombia.

Humans , Male , Adult , Venous Thromboembolism , Skull , Brain , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , HIV , Headache , Hepatitis B
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(4): 861-867, Jul.-Aug. 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285260


The aim of this study was to evaluate the anatomical structures of the skulls of peccaries to establish the basis for their clinical study and future preclinical research. Ten skulls of adult peccaries were subjected to tomographic examination. The data obtained were processed via three-dimensional image reconstruction software (3D images). The reconstructions obtained from the neurocranium of the studied specimens allowed the identification and description of the following structures: nasal bone, frontal bone, parietal bones, incisor bone, maxillary bone, zygomatic bone, temporal bone, palatal bone, occipital bone, vomer bone, pterygoid bone, sphenoid bone, paranasal sinuses and orbit. Computed tomography proved to be an important diagnostic tool in the investigation of the skull of this species, allowing the acquisition of anatomical values not yet documented for the species in the literature.(AU)

O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar as estruturas anatômicas dos crânios de catetos, a fim de se estabelecerem as bases para seu estudo clínico e futuras pesquisas pré-clínicas. Dez crânios de catetos adultos foram submetidos a exame tomográfico. Os dados obtidos foram introduzidos em um software de reconstrução de imagens tridimensionais (imagens em 3D). As reconstruções obtidas do neurocrânio dos espécimes estudados permitiram a identificação e a descrição das seguintes estruturas: osso nasal, osso frontal, ossos parietais, osso incisivo, osso maxilar, osso zigomático, osso temporal, osso palatino, osso occipital, osso vômer, osso pterigoide, osso esfenoide, seios paranasais e órbita. A tomografia computadorizada mostrou-se como uma ferramenta diagnóstica importante na investigação do crânio dessa espécie, permitindo a aquisição de valores anatômicos ainda não documentados para a espécie na literatura.(AU)

Animals , Artiodactyla/anatomy & histology , Skull/anatomy & histology , Skull/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/veterinary , Imaging, Three-Dimensional/veterinary , Printing, Three-Dimensional
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 79(5): 437-446, May 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278401


ABSTRACT Background: Intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring has been used for decades in management of various neurological conditions. The gold standard for measuring ICP is a ventricular catheter connected to an external strain gauge, which is an invasive system associated with a number of complications. Despite its limitations, no noninvasive ICP monitoring (niICP) method fulfilling the technical requirements for replacing invasive techniques has yet been developed, not even in cases requiring only ICP monitoring without cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage. Objectives: Here, we review the current methods for niICP monitoring. Methods: The different methods and approaches were grouped according to the mechanism used for detecting elevated ICP or its associated consequences. Results: The main approaches reviewed here were: physical examination, brain imaging (magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography), indirect ICP estimation techniques (fundoscopy, tympanic membrane displacement, skull elasticity, optic nerve sheath ultrasound), cerebral blood flow evaluation (transcranial Doppler, ophthalmic artery Doppler), metabolic changes measurements (near-infrared spectroscopy) and neurophysiological studies (electroencephalogram, visual evoked potential, otoacoustic emissions). Conclusion: In terms of accuracy, reliability and therapeutic options, intraventricular catheter systems still remain the gold standard method. However, with advances in technology, noninvasive monitoring methods have become more relevant. Further evidence is needed before noninvasive methods for ICP monitoring or estimation become a more widespread alternative to invasive techniques.

RESUMO Introdução: O uso da monitorização da pressão intracraniana (PIC, em sua sigla em inglês) é adotado há décadas no manejo de diversas condições neurológicas. O padrão ouro atual é a monitorização invasiva intraventricular, que está relacionada a inúmeras complicações. Apesar dessas limitações, até o momento nenhum método de monitorização não invasiva (niPIC, em sua sigla em inglês) conseguiu substituir a técnica invasiva. Objetivos: Revisar os métodos não invasivos de monitorização da PIC. Métodos: As diferentes modalidades e abordagens foram agrupadas de acordo com o mecanismo utilizado para detectar elevação da PIC ou suas consequências. Resultados: As técnicas descritas foram: o exame físico, neuroimagem (tomografia computadorizada e ressonância magnética de crânio), estimativas indiretas da PIC (fundoscopia, deslocamento da membrana timpânica, elasticidade craniana), avaliação do fluxo cerebral (doppler transcraniano e doppler da artéria oftálmica), alterações metabólicas (Espectroscopia próxima do infravermelho) e estudos neurofisiológicos (eletroencefalograma, potencial evocado visual e emissões otoacústicas). Conclusão: Considerando a acurácia, confiabilidade e opções terapêuticas, o sistema de cateteres intraventricular ainda permanece como padrão ouro. No entanto, com os avanços tecnológicos, os métodos não invasivos têm se tornados mais relevantes. Mais evidências são necessárias antes que essas modalidades de monitorização ou estimativas não invasivas se tornem uma alternativa mais robusta às técnicas invasivas.

Humans , Intracranial Pressure , Intracranial Hypertension , Skull , Reproducibility of Results , Evoked Potentials, Visual
Rev. Bras. Odontol. Leg. RBOL ; 8(1): [55-65], 20210427.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1281476


Buscou-se estimar o sexo por meio de medidas lineares obtidas em 200 tomografias computadorizadas (TCs) de crânios e mandíbulas do Biobanco Osteológico e Tomográfico da Faculdade de Odontologia de Piracicaba. Foram realizadas sete medidas lineares (parede posterior da sela turca à espinha nasal anterior; parede posterior da sela turca ao zígio direito; parede posterior da sela turca ao zígio esquerdo; zígio direito ao zígio esquerdo; forame infra-orbitário direito ao forame infra-orbitário esquerdo; forame infra-orbitário esquerdo à espinha nasal anterior e; forame infra-orbitário direito à espinha nasal anterior) utilizando o software OnDemand3D™. Para calibração foi usado o Teste estatístico ICC (coeficiente de correlação intraclasse), segundo Szklo e Nieto (2000) e a análise dos dados utilizou o teste de Kolmogorov-Smirnov, teste t, o teste de Pearson e uma regressão logística pelo método de Stepwise-Forward (Wald) e teste de Shapiro-Wilke e Levene para analisar a distribuição e a igualdade de variâncias das variáveis, respectivamente. Os resultados mostraram que as medidas realizadas apresentaram dimorfismo, exceto a medida forame infra-orbitário direito ao forame infra-orbitário esquerdo. Foi possível criar um modelo de regressão logística [Logito Almeida=36.560+(-0.088*PPST-ENA)+(-0.233*ZD-ZE)+0.140*FIO E-FIO D+(-0.194*FIOE-ENA)], este resulta em 79.1% de sensibilidade, 84.4% de especificidade e 82.0% de acurácia. Concluiu-se que o modelo de regressão logística obtido permite a estimativa do sexo em TCs de brasileiros, podendo ser utilizado como metodologia auxiliar no processo de identificação humana.

Humans , Male , Female , Skull , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Sex Characteristics , Forensic Anthropology
Rev. argent. radiol ; 85(2): 33-40, abr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1288197


Resumen Objetivo: Evaluar la diferencia del trazado cefalométrico manual con el digital en radiografías laterales de cráneo. Materiales y métodos: Inicialmente se realizó un piloto para calibrar al investigador principal, en donde se analizaron 10 radiografías pertenecientes a cinco pacientes del Servicio de Radiología del Centro Odontológico de nuestra institución para evaluar la concordancia entre los dos evaluadores y establecer el tamaño de la muestra. Finalmente, se analizaron 78 radiografías cefalométricas de 39 pacientes, en las que se realizó el trazado cefalométrico de Steiner manual y digital. Esas radiografías se analizaron en una escala 1:1 y posteriormente se evaluó la diferencia de las mediciones mediante el análisis univariado, se determinó en mediana e intervalo intercuartil por separado. En el análisis bivariado, se aplicó la prueba de signo de rangos de Wilcoxon y muestras pareadas para determinar la diferencia de las mediciones cefalométricas de Steiner entre el tipo del análisis cefalométrico. El nivel de significancia se fijó en p < 0,05 y confiabilidad al 95%, respectivamente. Resultados: No hubo diferencia significativa en la mayoría de las mediciones hechas de manera manual y digital, siendo el ángulo interincisal la única medición angular en la cual hubo diferencia significativa al obtener un resultado de p = 0,002. Mientras tanto, en las mediciones lineales, la única medición en la que hubo diferencia significativa fue en el segmento incisivo inferior - NB con p = 0,005. Conclusión: No se encuentran diferencias significativas entre el trazado cefalométrico manual y el digital. No obstante, es importante tener en cuenta que la muestra o población evaluada es reducida para definir conclusiones.

Abstract Objective: To evaluate the difference of the manual cephalometric tracing with the digital tracing on lateral cranial radiographs. Materials and Methods: Initially, a pilot study was carried out to calibrate the principal investigator, where 10 radiographs belonging to 5 patients of the Radiology Service of the Dental Center, were analyzed to evaluate the intraclass concordance between the two evaluators. To establish the size of the sample, finally, 78 cephalometric radiographs of 39 patients were analyzed, in which the manual and digital Steiner cephalometric tracing was performed. These radiographs were analyzed on a 1: 1 scale and then the difference of the measurements was evaluated using the univariate analysis, which was determined in the median and interquartile range, separately. In the bivariate analysis, the Wilcoxon rank sign test and paired samples were applied to determine the difference of Steiner's cephalometric measurements between the cephalometric analysis type. The level of significance was set at p < 0.05 and 95% reliability, respectively. Results: There was no significant difference in most of the measurements made manually and digitally. The interincisal angle the only angular measurement in which there was a significant difference when obtaining a result of p = 0.002, while, in the linear measurements, the only measurement in which there was significant difference was in the lower incisor segment - NB with p = 0.005. Conclusion: There is no significant difference between manual and digital cephalometric tracing, nevertheless it is important to keep in mind that the simple or population evaluated is reduced to define conclusions.

Humans , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Cephalometry , Radiography, Dental, Digital , Patients , Population , Radiology , Research Personnel , Skull , Measurements, Methods and Theories , Radiography, Dental , Pilot Projects , Organizations , Sample Size , Materials , Incisor , Methods
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(1): 132-140, Jan.-Feb. 2021. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1153043


Defeitos ósseos constituem um problema de saúde global. O sistema Rigenera permite a extração de microenxertos ricos em células-tronco mesenquimais (CTMs). Objetivou-se avaliar o processo de regeneração óssea por enxertos obtidos pelo sistema Rigenera em defeitos críticos na calvária de ratos. Foram utilizados 18 ratos Wistar, machos, pesando 285±29g, distribuídos em três grupos (n=6), sendo cada animal controle de si mesmo, denominados G15-Controle e G15-Tratado (15 dias); G30-Controle e G30-Tratado (30 dias) e G60-Controle e G60-Tratado (60 dias). Foram realizadas duas lesões de 5mm de diâmetro em cada antímero da calvária. Nos grupos tratados, foram utilizados microenxertos autólogos de cartilagem xifoide, obtidos pelo sistema Rigenera. O defeito contralateral serviu como controle em todos os animais. Os animais foram eutanasiados aos 15, 30 e 60 dias após a cirurgia, e as amostras foram processadas para a histoquímica. Nos grupos controle, não foram observados sinais de regeneração óssea, enquanto nos grupos tratamento foram verificadas áreas de formação óssea e tecido mesenquimal ativado. O sistema Rigenera foi eficiente na obtenção de microenxertos autólogos, para terapia celular em defeito crítico de calvária de ratos. Com o aprimoramento do protocolo, o sistema Rigenera poderá ser amplamente utilizado no tratamento de lesões ósseas.(AU)

Bone defects are a global health problem. The Rigenera system allows the extraction of micro grafts rich in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The objective of this study was to evaluate the bone regeneration process by grafts obtained by the Rigenera system in defects in the rats calvarian. Eighteen male Wistar rats were used, weighing 285 ± 29g, distributed in three groups (n = 6), where each animal was treatment and control, called G15-Control and G15-Treated (15 days); G30-Control and G30-Treated (30 days) and G60-Control and G60-Treated (60 days). Two 5mm diameter lesions were performed on each calvaria side. In the treated groups, autologous micrograft from xiphoid cartilage, obtained by the Rigenera system, were used. The other defect served as a control in all animals. The animals were euthanized at 15, 30 and 60 days after the surgery and the samples were processed for histochemistry. In the control groups, no signs of bone regeneration were observed, while in the treatment groups, areas of bone formation and activated mesenchymal tissue were verified. The Rigenera system was efficient in obtaining autologous micrograft for cell therapy in a critical calvaria defect in rats. Rigenera system can be widely used in the treatment of bone injuries.(AU)

Animals , Rats , Skull/injuries , Bone Regeneration , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Craniocerebral Trauma/therapy , Craniocerebral Trauma/veterinary , Rats, Wistar/injuries , Autografts
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921831


Craniofacial malformation caused by premature fusion of cranial suture of infants has a serious impact on their growth. The purpose of skull remodeling surgery for infants with craniosynostosis is to expand the skull and allow the brain to grow properly. There are no standardized treatments for skull remodeling surgery at the present, and the postoperative effect can be hardly assessed reasonably. Children with sagittal craniosynostosis were selected as the research objects. By analyzing the morphological characteristics of the patients, the point cloud registration of the skull distortion region with the ideal skull model was performed, and a plan of skull cutting and remodeling surgery was generated. A finite element model of the infant skull was used to predict the growth trend after remodeling surgery. Finally, an experimental study of surgery simulation was carried out with a child with a typical sagittal craniosynostosis. The evaluation results showed that the repositioning and stitching of bone plates effectively improved the morphology of the abnormal parts of the skull and had a normal growth trend. The child's preoperative cephalic index was 65.31%, and became 71.50% after 9 months' growth simulation. The simulation of the skull remodeling provides a reference for surgical plan design. The skull remodeling approach significantly improves postoperative effect, and it could be extended to the generation of cutting and remodeling plans and postoperative evaluations for treatment on other types of craniosynostosis.

Child , Computer Simulation , Cranial Sutures/surgery , Craniosynostoses/surgery , Humans , Infant , Skull/surgery
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880858


During embryonic development, organs undergo distinct and programmed morphological changes as they develop into their functional forms. While genetics and biochemical signals are well recognized regulators of morphogenesis, mechanical forces and the physical properties of tissues are now emerging as integral parts of this process as well. These physical factors drive coordinated cell movements and reorganizations, shape and size changes, proliferation and differentiation, as well as gene expression changes, and ultimately sculpt any developing structure by guiding correct cellular architectures and compositions. In this review we focus on several craniofacial structures, including the tooth, the mandible, the palate, and the cranium. We discuss the spatiotemporal regulation of different mechanical cues at both the cellular and tissue scales during craniofacial development and examine how tissue mechanics control various aspects of cell biology and signaling to shape a developing craniofacial organ.

Cell Differentiation , Morphogenesis , Signal Transduction , Skull , Tooth
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1155002


ABSTRACT Objctive: To assess the soft tissue characteristics of Bangladeshi adults to formulate soft tissue 3D CT standards using Holdaway's (HA) and lip morphology (LM) analyses. Another aim of this study was to assess the gender dimorphism of Bangladeshi population. Material and Methods: One hundred and seventeen (Eighty-five men and Thirty-two women) Bangladeshi adults have obtained their computed tomography (CT) scan at the Radiology Department for normal diagnosis. Craniofacial deformities were undetected in all cases. The CT images were prepared by a 3D imaging programming software (Mimics 11.02 Materialise). Parameters from the identified landmark points were measured in 3D through this software. Results: Upper lip thickness (ULT) (vermillion UL-A point) measurement was significant in HA and in LM analyses, upper lip protrusion (ULP) (Ls to Sn-SPog) measurement has demonstrated significant difference among both genders, where p-value was less than 0.05. Mean measurements of Bangladeshi adults were relatively comparable except the face convexity (FC) when compared with the HA cephalometric soft tissue values. Conclusion: By using HA and LM analyses, 3D CT soft tissue standards were established for Bangladeshi adults. Measurements for all parameters have remained equivalent with the HA standard data apart from the FC measurement. This consequently may demonstrate that the Bangladeshi population retains a convex shape with a slight protrusive lip or retruded chin.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Orthodontics, Corrective , Skull/diagnostic imaging , Diagnostic Imaging/instrumentation , Craniofacial Abnormalities/diagnostic imaging , Face/diagnostic imaging , Therapy, Soft Tissue , Bangladesh/epidemiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/instrumentation , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Retrospective Studies , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Sex Characteristics
J. appl. oral sci ; 29: e20201092, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340095


Abstract Objective This study sought to compare the biocompatibility of a three-dimensional (3D)-printed titanium implant with a conventional machined titanium product, as well as the effect of such implant applied with recombinant human Bone Morphogenetic Protein Type 2 (rhBMP-2) for guided bone regeneration. Methodology Disk-shaped titanium specimens fabricated either by the conventional machining technique or by the 3D-printing technique were compared by MC3T3-E1 cells cytotoxicity assay. New bone formation was evaluated using a rapid prototype titanium cap applied to the calvaria of 10 rabbits, which were divided into two groups: one including an atelopeptide collagen plug on one side of the cap (group I) and the other including a plug with rhBMP-2 on the other side (group II). At six and 12 weeks after euthanasia, rabbits calvaria underwent morphometric analysis through radiological and histological examination. Results Through the cytotoxicity assay, we identified a significantly higher number of MC3T3-E1 cells in the 3D-printed specimen when compared to the machined specimen after 48 hours of culture. Moreover, morphometric analysis indicated significantly greater bone formation at week 12 on the side where rhBMP-2 was applied when evaluating the upper portion immediately below the cap. Conclusion The results suggest that 3D-printed titanium implant applied with rhBMP-2 enables new bone formation.

Animals , Osteogenesis , Titanium , Rabbits , Skull/surgery , Bone Regeneration , Recombinant Proteins , Transforming Growth Factor beta , Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 , Printing, Three-Dimensional
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922467


The first branchial arch (BA1), which is derived from cranial neural crest (CNC) cells, gives rise to various orofacial tissues. Cre mice are widely used for the determination of CNC and exploration of gene functions in orofacial development. However, there is a lack of Cre mice specifically marked BA1's cells. Pax2-Cre allele was previously generated and has been widely used in the field of inner ear development. Here, by compounding Pax2-Cre and R26R-mTmG mice, we found a specific expression pattern of Pax2

Animals , Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4 , Branchial Region , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Mice , Skull
Int. j. morphol ; 38(6): 1591-1596, Dec. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134484


SUMMARY: Clinically, avian medicine still finds it very difficult to treat wild patients due to the lack of reliable information about their anatomy and physiological parameters that make comparative analyzes possible. Considering that computed tomography (CT) is one of the most viable alternatives in radiography of the head, we describe the comparative anatomy of the beak in the Ara ararauna and the Ramphastos toco through this imaging modality and macroscopy analysis, providing additional information about their conformation and topography for clinical exams. Adult specimens of each were dissected after the CT and beaks were removed for macroscopic analyses. The macroscopic and tomographic findings for both species confirm the similarities in beak morphology and the dietary peculiarities of each.The CT scan proved to be a useful tool to visualize internal structures of the skull through a detailed virtopsy of regions that are difficult to access by the usual necropsy with a scalpel.

RESUMEN: Debido a la escasa información de la anatomía y de los parámetros fisiológicos que hacen posible los análisis comparativos en la medicina aviar, clínicamente resulta muy difícil el tratamiento de estos animales. Considerando que la tomografía computarizada es una buena alternativa, estudiamos la anatomía comparativa del pico en Ara ararauna y Toco Toucan utilizando imágenes y un análisis de macroscopía. Estos métodos proporcionaron información adicional referente a su conformación y topografía para el trabajo clínico. Después de analizar la tomografía se disecaron las muestras de especímenes adultos y se retiraron los picos para un análisis macroscópico. Los hallazgos macroscópicos y tomográficos para ambas especies corroboraron la relación morfológica entre los picos y las peculiaridades dietéticas de cada uno. Se demostró además, que la tomografía computarizada es una herramienta útil para visualizar las estructuras internas del cráneo de las aves, a través de una virtopsia detallada en áreas de difícil acceso durante una necropsia habitual.

Animals , Beak/anatomy & histology , Beak/diagnostic imaging , Birds/anatomy & histology , Anatomy, Comparative , Skull/anatomy & histology , Skull/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Rev. bras. neurol ; 56(4): 39-43, out.-dez. 2020. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1140830


Ludwig van Beethoven, the great composer, born 250 years ago, had several health problems and a progressive hearing loss. Gastrointestinal symptoms prevailed among his physical complaints, but there were also frequent headaches, eye pain, and polyarthralgia. Likewise, there are many reports about his alcohol intake and frequent walks. There were also peculiar behavioral and awkward physical aspects of the famous composer. All may take part as a determinant for the communicative aspects of his music. Spite Beethoven's corporal structure could be considered just a developmental variant, it can also be congenitally related to many bone-nervous abnormalities such as craniovertebral junction malformation with interference in the Genius' health. In reality, it is almost impossible to cover Beethoven's entire health problem with just one underlying disease. Most likely, he had comorbidities, one of which, although not fatal, was that related to abnormalities in the development of the skull and cervical spine worsened by a baseline autoimmune disorders that injured joints, and maybe even the VIII cranial nerve and inner ear.

Ludwig van Beethoven, o grande compositor, nascido há 250 anos, teve vários problemas de saúde e uma perda auditiva progressiva. Os sintomas gastrointestinais prevaleceram entre suas queixas físicas, mas também houve frequentes episódios de cefaleia, dores nos olhos e poliartralgia. Da mesma forma, há muitos relatos sobre sua ingestão de álcool e caminhadas frequentes. Havia também aspectos físicos peculiares e estranhos do famoso compositor. Todos podem tomar parte como um determinante para os aspectos comunicativos de sua música. Apesar da estrutura corporal de Beethoven poder ser considerada apenas uma variante de desenvolvimento, pode também estar relacionada a algumas anormalidades ósseo- neural, tais como a malformação da junção craniovertebral com interferência na saúde do Gênio. Na realidade, é quase impossível cobrir todo o problema de saúde de Beethoven com apenas uma doença subjacente. Muito provavelmente, ele tinha comorbidades, uma das quais, embora não fatal, era aquela relacionada a anormalidades no desenvolvimento do crânio e da coluna cervical agravadas por uma desordem auto-imune de base que lesionava as articulações, e talvez até o VIII nervo craniano e o ouvido interno.

Humans , Male , History, 18th Century , History, 19th Century , Deafness/etiology , Famous Persons , Hearing Loss/complications , Music/history , Skull/abnormalities , Deafness/history
Rev. Bras. Odontol. Leg. RBOL ; 7(3): [87-93], 20201206.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1281467


Introdução: A Antropologia Física Forense tem como objetivo buscar a identidade e identificação de seres humanos, buscando informações para estimar o sexo, ancestralidade, idade, estatura. Para encontrar tais dados a Antropologia Física Forense divide-se em antropometria (mensurações lineares, ângulos) e antroposcopia. Objetivo: Buscou-se o dimorfismo sexual por meio da análise de medidas lineares e de área do crânio, bem como, obter um modelo de regressão logística para a determinação do sexo em brasileiros. Metodologia Trata-se de um estudo observacional transversal de crânios secos de um Biobanco Osteológico e Tomográfico com sexo, idade, ancestralidade e causa da morte conhecidas. Realizou-se a calibração da pesquisadora em 25 crânios, em três momentos distintos, nestes foram estudas 6 medidas lineares e a soma de duas áreas. Para o estudo, foram realizadas medidas de 175 crânios (n=100%), sendo 96 do sexo masculino e 79 do feminino. Os dados foram tabulados no programa Microsoft Office Excel. Para a análise estatística utilizou-se o programa IBM® SPSS® 25 Statistics. Foram aplicados os testes de Kolmogorov-Smirnov e Teste t, para análise dos dados e regressão logística Stepwise-Forward (Wald). Resultados: Observou-se que todas as medidas foram dimórficas, sendo que duas variáveis foram definidas para a elaboração do melhor modelo para dimorfismo sexual, sendo a correlação significante com 70,3% de acurácia. Conclusão: Conclui-se que o método quantitativo desenvolvido pode ser utilizado para a determinação do sexo, como método auxiliar

Humans , Male , Female , Sex Determination Analysis , Skull , Forensic Anthropology , Forensic Dentistry
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(6): 2211-2219, 01-11-2020. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1148291


Obtaining craniometric data is key to establishing parameters that can help in the anatomic identification and understanding of species. The aim of the present study was to establish the craniometric data and describe the main skull bones and structures of Amazona aestiva, which has become common in veterinary clinics, originated from the legalized purchase or trafficking of animals. A total of 20 adult specimens were used, donated for studies by the Paraíba Wild Animal Screening Center (Centro de Triagem de Animais Silvestres da Paraíba (CETAS-PB)/IBAMA-PB, Brazil. The skulls were dissected and macerated with water. First were identified the frontal, maxilla, mandible, nasal, jugal and quadrate bones that served as a base to identify other bone structures that were then compared with the skull of other bird species already described in the literature, especially psitacids. Values were obtained by measuring with a digital pachymeter, and the maximum skull length was 63.0 mm, the maximum width 33.0 mm and the rhamphotheca was 33.8 mm long. No significant differences were observed between males and females and well developed cranial kinesis was a remarkable characteristic of the species. The data obtained serve as a base to identify and characterize the species. These data can also aid in the clinic, imaging and veterinary surgery.

A obtenção de dados craniométricos é fundamental para o estabelecimento de parâmetros que auxiliem na identificação anatômica e na compreensão das espécies. O objetivo do presente estudo foi estabelecer os dados craniométricos e descrever os principais ossos e estruturas do crânio do Amazona aestiva, que se tornou comum em clínicas veterinárias, oriundos de aquisição legal ou tráfico de animais. Foram utilizados 20 indivíduos adultos, doados para estudos do Centro de Triagem de Animais Silvestres da Paraíba (CETAS-PB) / IBAMA-PB, Brasil. Os crânios foram dissecados e macerados com água. Identificaram-se os ossos frontal, maxilar, mandibular, nasal, jugal e quadrado, que serviram de base para identificar outras estruturas ósseas que foram então, comparadas com o crânio de outras espécies de aves já descritas na literatura, principalmente psitacideos. Valores numéricos foram adquiridos através de mensuração com paquímetro digital, sendo o comprimento máximo do crânio de 63,0 mm, largura máxima de 33,0 mm e ranfoteca de 33,8 mm de comprimento. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas entre machos e fêmeas e, uma craniocinese bem desenvolvida foi característica marcante da espécie. Os dados obtidos servem de base para identificar e caracterizar as espécies. Estes dados também podem auxiliar na clínica, imagem e cirurgia veterinária.

Skull , Amazona , Anatomy
Int. j. morphol ; 38(5): 1473-1478, oct. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134464


SUMMARY: The present study was designed to elaborate on the morphometry of the skull of non-descript goats in Mizoram state of India. The study was conducted on the skull of twelve (n=12) adult goats of either sex (n=6 males and n=6 females) collected from the local slaughterhouses. Altogether, forty-one different measurements were taken morphologically. In the present study, the cranial and facial bones were the major components of the skull with a total of thirty-two bones. There were three single and four paired cranial bones with a total of eleven bones. There were one single and the rest were paired facial bones with a total of twenty-one bones. The cranial bones were occipital, parietal, interparietal, sphenoid, ethmoid, frontal and temporal. The facial bones were maxilla, premaxilla (incisive), palatine, pterygoid, nasal, lacrimal, zygomatic (malar), vomer, turbinate, mandible and hyoid. The skull measurements showed that the skull of the goat was elongated and dolichocephalic as per the cephalic index (47.82±0.05). The length and width of the skull was 19.28±0.03 cm and 9.22±0.04 cm, respectively. There were two supraorbital foramina on both sides of the frontal bone. The prominent facial tuberosity lies dorsally to the third superior premolar tooth. Single infraorbital foramen was located dorsally to the junction of the first and second superior premolar teeth on maxilla bone. The orbits were round and complete and situated on a frontolateral oblique plane. It can be concluded that the findings of this study would assist the comparative studies with other domesticated animals in the future and would be applicable in clinical veterinary practice and even in zooarchaeology.

RESUMEN: El estudio fue diseñado para elaborar la morfometría del cráneo de cabras no definidas en Mizoram. El estudio se realizó en el cráneo de 12 cabras adultas 6 machos y 6 hembras recolectadas de los mataderos locales. Se tomaron en total 41 medidas diferentes morfológicamente. Los huesos craneales y faciales fueron los componentes principales del cráneo con un total de 32 huesos. Se encontraron tres huesos craneales individuales y cuatro pares con un total de 11 huesos. Encontramos solo un hueso facial individual, los otros 22 eran pares de huesos faciales. Los huesos craneales comprendidos en el estudio fueron: occipital, parietal, interparietal, esfenoides, etmoides, frontal y temporal. Los huesos faciales estudiados fueron: maxilar, premaxilar (incisivo), palatino, pterigoideo, nasal, lagrimal, cigomático, vómer, conchas, mandíbula e hioides. Las medicio- nes mostraron que el cráneo de la cabra era alargado y dolicocefálico (47,82 ± 0,05). La longitud y el ancho del cráneo fueron 19,28 ± 0,03 cm y 9,22 ± 0,04 cm, respectivamente. Había dos forámenes supraorbitales a ambos lados del hueso frontal. La tuberosidad facial prominente se encontraba dorsalmente en el tercer diente premolar superior. El foramen infraorbitario único se localizó dorsalmente a la unión del primer y segundo dientes premolares superiores en el hueso maxilar. Las órbitas eran redondas y completas y situadas en un plano oblicuo frontolateral. En conclusión, los resultados de este estudio motivarán y ayudarán a otros estudios comparativos con otros animales domesticados o en la práctica clínica veterinaria e incluso en zooarqueología.

Animals , Skull/anatomy & histology , Goats/anatomy & histology , Face/anatomy & histology , India
Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 42(4): 341-347, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142965


ABSTRACT Objective: The aims of this study were to identify the main characteristics regarding the shape and size of the craniofacial region in patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA) and sickle cell trait (SCT) and in unaffected patients using geometric morphometrics and to check the efficiency of this method. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional analytical study of 45 patients (15 in each group) was performed. Lateral radiographs of the skull were used for the analysis. Seventeen landmarks and semilandmarks were placed for the measurements. The Pocrustes analysis of variance (ANOVA), regression analysis, multivariate analysis of variance, canonical variate analysis, Mahalanobis and Procrustes distances and unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) clustering were performed. Allometric effects and sex characteristics were not statistically significant (p> 0.05). Results: There were, however, significant differences (p< 0.05) in craniofacial shape among SCA, SCT and unaffected individuals. Those with SCA showed variations in the shape of the external auditory meatus and at the base of the occipital bone, in addition to the mandibular setback and upper incisor inclination, with a tendency towards prognathism. The individuals with SCT exhibited a similar craniofacial shape to those with SCA, but with slighter variations. Moreover, those with SCT were statistically closer in resemblance to unaffected individuals, given that SCT is not regarded as a disease. Conclusion: This demonstrates the efficiency of geometric morphometrics in the categorization of the assessed groups.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Sickle Cell Trait , Skull/anatomy & histology , Cell Shape , Anemia, Sickle Cell