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Rev. Headache Med. (Online) ; 15(1): 30-31, 2024.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1538283


The scalp is the structure that covers the skull. It is commonly affected by painful processes resulting from infestations, infectious or inflammatory diseases. This pain located in the scalp does not have well-defined clinical characteristics and is not yet included in the ICHD-3 diagnostic criteria. The authors suggest including this pain in the next classification of headaches as a headache attributed to a scalp disorder.

O couro cabeludo é a estrutura que cobre o crânio. É comumente acometida por processos dolorosos decorrentes de infestações, doenças infecciosas ou inflamatórias. Essa dor localizada no couro cabeludo não possui características clínicas bem definidas e ainda não está incluída nos critérios diagnósticos da ICHD-3. Os autores sugerem incluir esta dor na próxima classificação de dores de cabeça como dor de cabeça atribuída a um distúrbio do couro cabeludo.

Humans , Pain/complications , Scalp/growth & development , Skull/abnormalities , Disease/classification , Headache/diagnosis
Acta cir. bras ; 38: e380623, 2023. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1419861


Purpose: To evaluate the in vivo efficiency of commercial polymeric membranes for guided bone regeneration. Methods: Rat calvarial critical size defects was treated with LuminaCoat (LC), Surgitime PTFE (SP), GenDerm (GD), Pratix (PR), Techgraft (TG) or control (C-) and histomorphometric analysis determined the percentage of new bone, connective tissue and biomaterial at 1 or 3 months. Statistical analysis used ANOVA with Tukey's post-test for means at same experimental time and the paired Student's t test between the two periods, considering p < 0.05. Results: New bone at 1 month was higher for SP, TG and C-, at 3 months there were no differences, and between 1 and 3 months PR had greater increase growthing. Connective tissue at 1 month was higher for C-, at 3 months for PR, TG and C-, and between 1 and 3 months C- had sharp decline. Biomaterial at 1 month was higher for LC, in 3 months for SP and TG, and between 1 and 3 months, LC, GD and TG had more decreasing mean. Conclusion: SP had greater osteopromotive capacity and limitation of connective ingrowth, but did not exhibit degradation. PR and TG had favorable osteopromotion, LC less connective tissue and GD more accelerated biodegradation.

Animals , Rats , Polymers/therapeutic use , Skull/abnormalities , Biocompatible Materials/analysis , Bone Regeneration , Collagen , Guided Tissue Regeneration/veterinary
Arch. pediatr. Urug ; 94(2): e306, 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1520105


La aplasia cutis congénita es una patología rara caracterizada por la ausencia de desarrollo de piel. Aunque puede localizarse en diferentes áreas del cuerpo, mayormente afecta el cuero cabelludo y puede extenderse a tejidos subyacentes. Presentamos aquí un caso clínico que se destaca por la extensión de la lesión. Se incluye la descripción del tratamiento y seguimiento del paciente.

Aplasia Cutis Congenita is a rare pathology characterized by the absence of development of the epidermis, and even though it can compromise any area of the body, it usually affects the scalp and it can be extended to the underlying tissues. We present a particular case due to the lesion size. It includes treatment description and follow-up.

A Aplasia Congênita da Cútis é uma patologia rara caracterizada pela ausência de desenvolvimento das epidermes, e embora possa se localizar em diferentes áreas do corpo, acomete principalmente o couro cabeludo e pode se espalhar para os tecidos subjacentes. Apresentamos aqui um caso clínico que se destaca pela extensão da lesão. Incluímos a descrição do tratamento e acompanhamento do paciente.

Humans , Infant, Newborn , Scalp/abnormalities , Skull/abnormalities , Ectodermal Dysplasia/surgery , Ectodermal Dysplasia/therapy , Ectodermal Dysplasia/diagnostic imaging
Int. j. morphol ; 40(3): 796-800, jun. 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385687


SUMMARY: The atlanto-occipital joint is composed of the superior fossa of the lateral masses of the atlas (C1) and the occipital condyles. Congenital Atlanto-occipital fusion (AOF) involves the osseous union of the base of the occiput (C0) and the atlas (C1). AOF or atlas occipitalization/assimilation represents a craniovertebral junction malformation (CVJM) which can be accompanied by other cranial or spinal malformations. AOF may be asymptomatic or patients may experience symptoms from neural compression as well as limited neck movement. The myodural bridge (MDB) complex is a dense fibrous structure that connects the suboccipital muscular and its related facia to the cervical spinal dura mater, passing through both the posterior atlanto-occipital and atlanto-axial interspaces. It is not known if atlas occipitilization can induce structural changes in the MDB complex and its associated suboccipital musculature. The suboccipital region of a cadaveric head and neck specimen from an 87-year-old Chinese male having a congenital AOF malformation with resultant changes to the MDB complex was observed. After being treated with the P45 plastination method, multiple slices obtained from the cadaveric head and neck specimen were examined with special attention paid to the suboccipital region and the CVJM. Congenital atlanto-occipital fusion malformations are defined as partial or complete fusion of the base of the occiput (C0) with the atlas (C1). In the present case of CVJM, unilateral fusion of the left occipital condyle with the left lateral mass of C1 was observed, as well as posterior central fusion of the posterior margin of the foramen magnum with the posterior arch of C1. Also noted was a unilateral variation of the course of the vertebral artery due to the narrowed posterior atlanto-occipital interspace. Surprisingly, complete agenesis of the rectus capitis posterior minor (RCPmi) and the obliques capitis superior (OCS) muscles was also observed in the plastinated slices. Interestingly, the MDB, which normally originates in part from the RCPmi muscle, was observed to originate from a superior bifurcation within an aspect of the nuchal ligament. Therefore, the observed changes involving the MDB complex appear to be an effective compensation to the suboccipital malformations.

RESUMEN: La articulación atlanto-occipital está compuesta por las caras articulares superiores de las masas laterales del atlas (C1) y los cóndilos occipitales. La fusión atlanto-occipital congénita (FAO) implica la unión ósea de la base del occipucio (C0) y el atlas (C1). La FAO u occipitalización/asimilación del atlas representa una malformación de la unión craneovertebral (MUCV) que puede presentar otras malformaciones craneales o espinales. La FAO puede ser asintomática o los pacientes pueden experimentar síntomas de compresión neural así como movimiento limitado del cuello. El complejo del puente miodural (PMD) es una estructura fibrosa densa que conecta el músculo suboccipital y su fascia relacionada con la duramadre espinal cervical, pasando a través de los espacios intermedios atlanto-occipital posterior y atlanto-axial. No se sabe si la occipitilización del atlas puede inducir cambios estructurales en el complejo PMD y en la musculatura suboccipital. Se observó en la región suboccipital de un espécimen cadavérico, cabeza y cuello de un varón chino de 87 años con una malformación congénita de FAO con los cambios resultantes en el complejo PMD. Se examinaron múltiples cortes obtenidos de la muestra de cabeza y cuello después de ser tratados con el método de plastinación P45, con especial atención a la región suboccipital y la MUCV. Las malformaciones congénitas por fusión atlanto-occipital se definen como la fusión parcial o completa de la base del occipucio (C0) con el atlas (C1). En el presente caso de MUCV se observó la fusión unilateral del cóndilo occipital izquierdo con la masa lateral izquierda de C1, así como fusión posterior central del margen posterior del foramen magnum con el arco posterior de C1. También se observó una variación unilateral del curso de la arteria vertebral por el estrechamiento del espacio interatlanto-occipital posterior. Se observó además agenesia completa de los músculos Rectus capitis posterior minor (RCPmi) y oblicuos capitis superior (OCS) en los cortes plastinados. Curiosamente, se observó que el MDB, que normalmente se origina en parte del músculo RCPmi, se origina en una bifurcación superior dentro de un aspecto del ligamento nucal. Por lo tanto, los cambios observados en el complejo PMD parecen ser una compensación de las malformaciones suboccipitales.

Humans , Male , Aged, 80 and over , Atlanto-Occipital Joint/abnormalities , Skull/abnormalities , Cervical Vertebrae/abnormalities , Plastination/methods , Cadaver
Rev. bras. neurol ; 56(4): 39-43, out.-dez. 2020. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1140830


Ludwig van Beethoven, the great composer, born 250 years ago, had several health problems and a progressive hearing loss. Gastrointestinal symptoms prevailed among his physical complaints, but there were also frequent headaches, eye pain, and polyarthralgia. Likewise, there are many reports about his alcohol intake and frequent walks. There were also peculiar behavioral and awkward physical aspects of the famous composer. All may take part as a determinant for the communicative aspects of his music. Spite Beethoven's corporal structure could be considered just a developmental variant, it can also be congenitally related to many bone-nervous abnormalities such as craniovertebral junction malformation with interference in the Genius' health. In reality, it is almost impossible to cover Beethoven's entire health problem with just one underlying disease. Most likely, he had comorbidities, one of which, although not fatal, was that related to abnormalities in the development of the skull and cervical spine worsened by a baseline autoimmune disorders that injured joints, and maybe even the VIII cranial nerve and inner ear.

Ludwig van Beethoven, o grande compositor, nascido há 250 anos, teve vários problemas de saúde e uma perda auditiva progressiva. Os sintomas gastrointestinais prevaleceram entre suas queixas físicas, mas também houve frequentes episódios de cefaleia, dores nos olhos e poliartralgia. Da mesma forma, há muitos relatos sobre sua ingestão de álcool e caminhadas frequentes. Havia também aspectos físicos peculiares e estranhos do famoso compositor. Todos podem tomar parte como um determinante para os aspectos comunicativos de sua música. Apesar da estrutura corporal de Beethoven poder ser considerada apenas uma variante de desenvolvimento, pode também estar relacionada a algumas anormalidades ósseo- neural, tais como a malformação da junção craniovertebral com interferência na saúde do Gênio. Na realidade, é quase impossível cobrir todo o problema de saúde de Beethoven com apenas uma doença subjacente. Muito provavelmente, ele tinha comorbidades, uma das quais, embora não fatal, era aquela relacionada a anormalidades no desenvolvimento do crânio e da coluna cervical agravadas por uma desordem auto-imune de base que lesionava as articulações, e talvez até o VIII nervo craniano e o ouvido interno.

Humans , Male , History, 18th Century , History, 19th Century , Deafness/etiology , Famous Persons , Hearing Loss/complications , Music/history , Skull/abnormalities , Deafness/history
Arq. bras. neurocir ; 39(3): 207-212, 15/09/2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362422


Metastasis to the calvarium with direct pericranium or dural infiltration may be treated with radical surgical removal in selected cases. We describe microsurgical resection of calvarial metastases with fluorescence-guided technique using 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) in two female patients with breast cancer. Fluorescence findings were positive in both cases. Margins in the scalp and dural layer were 5-ALA negative at the end of surgical removal. Intraoperative pathology was performed in all cases to confirm if oncological limits were free of disease. One case was 5-ALA positive in the outer layer of the dura-mater and another in the pericranium. At the end of the removal in both cases, the surgicalmargins were 5-ALA fluorescence-free. Intraoperative pathology confirmed oncological limits of the resection. 5-aminolevulinic acid fluorescence-guided surgery for calvarial metastases with pericranium and/or dural extension seems to be a safe and reliable method to aid the surgical margins for complete removal, possibly delaying or avoiding adjuvant irradiation for progression control.

Skull Base Neoplasms/surgery , Fluorescence , Aminolevulinic Acid , Neoplasm Metastasis , Skull/abnormalities , Skull/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Skull Base Neoplasms/diagnosis , Margins of Excision
Arq. bras. neurocir ; 39(3): 239-242, 15/09/2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362440


Encephalocele is a protrusion of the central nervous system elements through a defect in the dura mater and in the cranium. The prevalence of encephalocele ranges from 0.08 to 0.5 per 1,000 births. The posterior encephaloceles are more common in North America and Europe, while frontal defect is frequently found in Asia. The present paper describes a 26-year-old male patient presenting with cerebrospinal fluid leak and meningitis symptoms. He was diagnosed with congenital nasoethmoidal encephalocele and treated surgically using a supraorbital approach without complications.

Humans , Male , Adult , Neurosurgical Procedures/methods , Encephalocele/surgery , Ethmoid Bone/surgery , Nasal Cavity/surgery , Orbit/anatomy & histology , Skull/anatomy & histology , Skull/abnormalities , Craniotomy/methods , Encephalocele/diagnostic imaging , Meningitis
Rev. paul. pediatr ; 34(4): 495-502, Oct.-Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-830754


Abstract Objective: To review the current comprehensive care for nonsyndromic craniosynostosis and nonsynostotic cranial deformity and to offer an overall view of these craniofacial conditions. Data source: The review was conducted in the PubMed, SciELO, and LILACS databases without time or language restrictions. Relevant articles were selected for the review. Data synthesis: We included the anatomy and physiology of normal skull development of children, discussing nuances related to nomenclature, epidemiology, etiology, and treatment of the most common forms of nonsyndromic craniosynostosis. The clinical criteria for the differential diagnosis between positional deformities and nonsyndromic craniosynostosis were also discussed, giving to the pediatrician subsidies for a quick and safe clinical diagnosis. If positional deformity is accurately diagnosed, it can be treated successfully with behavior modification. Diagnostic doubts and craniosynostosis patients should be referred straightaway to a multidisciplinary craniofacial center. Conclusions: Pediatricians are in the forefront of the diagnosis of patients with cranial deformities. Thus, it is of paramount importance that they recognize subtle cranial deformities as it may be related to premature fusion of cranial sutures.

Resumo Objetivo: Revisar o atendimento integral atual de craniossinostose não sindrômica e deformidade craniana não sinostótica e oferecer uma visão global dessas condições craniofaciais. Fontes de dados: A revisão foi feita nas bases de dados PubMed, SciELO e Lilacs e sem restrições de tempo ou idioma. Artigos relevantes foram selecionados para a revisão. Síntese dos dados: Foram incluídas a anatomia e a fisiologia do desenvolvimento normal do crânio em crianças, discutidas nuances relacionadas à nomenclatura, epidemiologia, etiologia e ao tratamento das formas mais comuns de craniossinostose não sindrômica. Também foram discutidos os critérios clínicos para o diagnóstico diferencial entre deformidades posicionais e craniossinostose não sindrômica. Deram-se aos pediatras subsídios para um diagnóstico clínico rápido e seguro. Se deformidades posicionais forem diagnosticadas com precisão, elas podem ser tratadas com sucesso por meio da modificação do comportamento. Dúvidas de diagnóstico e pacientes portadores de craniossinostose devem ser encaminhados imediatamente a um centro multidisciplinar craniofacial. Conclusões: Os pediatras estão na vanguarda do diagnóstico de pacientes com deformidades cranianas. Assim, é de suma importância que reconheçam deformidades cranianas sutis, pois elas podem estar relacionadas à fusão prematura das suturas cranianas.

Humans , Infant , Skull/abnormalities , Craniosynostoses/diagnosis , Pediatrics , Craniofacial Abnormalities/diagnosis
Rev. cuba. obstet. ginecol ; 42(1): 0-0, ene.-mar. 2016.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-795986


La duplicación cráneo-facial (diprosopus) es el resultado de la forma menos común de gemelos acoplados. La utilización de la ecografía 3D para el diagnóstico de esta patología ha sido reportada. Se presenta el segundo caso de esta patología en Colombia. Caso clínico de hijo de madre de 28 años a quien se le realizó diagnóstico prenatal con ecografía 3D, de duplicación craneofacial y de la columna vertebral. Cariotipo prenatal bandeo G: 46, XX. Al nacimiento se encontró feto de sexo femenino con duplicación craneofacial con la presencia de tres ojos, dos narices y dos bocas, con presencia de columna vertebral duplicada hasta la región cervical con espina bífida a nivel cervical. La utilización de ecografía 3D, permite realizar un diagnóstico oportuno de esta patología, lo que permite un abordaje multidisciplinario de las gestantes(AU)

Craniofacial duplication (diprosopus) is the result of the less common form of coupled twins. The use of 3D ultrasound for diagnosis of this disease has been reported.A second case of this disease occurs in Colombia. A clinical case of a son of 28-year-old mother, who underwent prenatal diagnosis with 3D ultrasound of craniofacial duplication and spine.Prenatal karyotype banding G: 46XX. At birth, a female fetus was found with craniofacial duplication, the presence of three eyes, two noses and two mouths, the presence of duplicate backbone up to the cervical region, and spina bifida at the cervical level. The use of 3D ultrasound allows early diagnosis of this disease, allowing a multidisciplinary approach of pregnant women(AU)

Skull/abnormalities , Eye Abnormalities
Arq. bras. neurocir ; 35(1): 74-77, Mar. 2016. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-832985


The association between Lückenschädel and craniosynostosis is unusual and unknown. Genetic origin is a possibility, representing one of many possible phenotypes for mutation. To the best of our knowledge, the association of such anomalies in a type IV Chiari malformation has never been reported before. The authors present the case of a patient with obstructive hydrocephalus, diagnosed with Chiari IV malformation associated with Lückenschädel and sagittal craniosynostosis. The Lückenschädel is the bone abnormality least commonly associated with Chiari malformation. It consists of a defect in the bones ofmembranous origin that formthe cranial vault. This anomaly arises from periosteal dysplasia, and is characterized by rounded and irregular gaps in the skull, bound by bony ridges. Craniosynostosis is due to premature fusion of the cranial sutures and is sometimes associated with the Chiari complex of malformations. The diagnostic of Lückenschädel and craniosynostosis is done by imaging, through which the skull assumes the aspect of a hive, characteristic of Lückenschädel and it is possible to see the premature fusion of the sutures. The Lückenschädel usually does not require treatment because of spontaneous resolution; whereas, craniosynostosis warrants surgery for aesthetic and functional reasons. The Chiari malformation IV only requires treatment when it results in syringomyelia or hydrocephalus.

O Lückenschädel e a craniossinostose são uma associação incomum e pouco conhecida, com possível origem genética, o que representa um dos muitos fenótipos possíveis para uma mutação. Até onde sabemos, a associação destas anomalias em um caso de malformação de Chiari tipo IV não foi relatada antes. Os autores apresentam o caso de um paciente com hidrocefalia obstrutiva, que foi diagnosticado com malformação de Chiari tipo IV associada com Lückenschädel e craniossinostose sagital. O Lückenschädel é a anormalidade óssea menos comum associada com a malformação de Chiari. É constituída por umdefeito nos ossos de origem membranosa que formam a abóbada craniana. Esta anomalia surge de displasia do periósteo e é caracterizada por falhas arredondadas e irregulares no crânio, delimitadas por cristas ósseas. A craniossinostose se deve à fusão prematura das suturas cranianas e é por vezes associada com o complexo de malformações de Chiari. Os diagnósticos de Lückenschädel e craniossinostose são feitos por imagem, onde o crânio assume um aspecto de colmeia, característico de Lückenschädel, e é possível ver a fusão prematura das suturas. O Lückenschädel geralmente não requer tratamento por causa de resolução espontânea e craniosynostosis necessita de cirurgia para fins estéticos e funcionais. A malformação de Chiari IV só requer tratamento quando resulta em siringomielia ou hidrocefalia.

Humans , Male , Infant , Arnold-Chiari Malformation/complications , Craniosynostoses/complications , Hydrocephalus/complications , Skull/abnormalities , Ventriculostomy
Int. j. morphol ; 31(2): 765-770, jun. 2013. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-687135


The human craniofacial bones are certainly the most important part of the body, as well as the foundation for the soft tissues of the face and head. This part of the body is extremely complex structure, which has a number of important functions, such are: diet, special senses, protection, communication. The main purpose of this research was to study and explain the latent structure of the cephalofacial measurements of female subjects. On 193 female subjects aged 18-35 years, we measured 11 cephalofacial measurements. The collected data are analyzed through descriptive parameters, Correlation analysis, and Factorial analyses. According to the results of the basic parameters the measured subjects are characterized with long, large and medium height head. Correlation analysis confirms some sets of variables that realize the higher correlations with each other. According to the principal component analysis of the Factor Analysis, with the rotation method direct oblimin, and using the Keiser criterion have been extracted four latent factors that explain 66.39 percent of the total variance: The cranial factor; The factor of intracranial capacity; The transversal factor of the face; The longitudinal factor of the face. The composition of the extracted factors is compatible with the anthropological explanation of the anthropologists regarding the development of these tissues of the head.

Los huesos craneofaciales humanos son sin duda la parte más importante del cuerpo, así como las bases para los tejidos blandos de la cara y el cráneo. Esta parte del cuerpo es una estructura extremadamente compleja, que tiene un número importante de funciones tales como alimentación, sensorial, protección y comunicación. El objetivo principal de esta investigación fue estudiar y explicar las estructuras latentes de mediciones cefalofaciales en mujeres. En 193 mujeres, con edades entre 18-35 años, se realizaron 11 mediciones cefalofaciales. Los datos recogidos se analizaron a través de parámetros descriptivos, análisis de correlación y análisis factorial. De acuerdo con los resultados los parámetros básicos de las mujeres estudiadas se caracterizaron con alturas de cabeza largas, grandes y medianas. El análisis de correlación confirma algunos conjuntos de variables que señalan las correlaciones más altas entre sí. De acuerdo con el análisis de componentes principales del análisis factorial, con el método de rotación directa de oblimin, y utilizando el criterio de Keiser se extrajeron cuatro factores latentes que explican el 66,39 por ciento de la varianza total: factor craneal, factor de capacidad intracraneal, factor transversal de la cara y factor longitudinal de la cara. La composición de los factores extraídos es compatible con la explicación antropológica respecto al desarrollo de estos tejidos de la cabeza.

Humans , Adolescent , Adult , Female , Young Adult , Face/anatomy & histology , Skull/anatomy & histology , Sex Characteristics , Anthropology , Cephalometry , Face/abnormalities , Skull/abnormalities
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 71(6): 405-407, jun. 2013. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-677603


The high prevalence of craniovertebral junction malformation in Northeastern Brazil is historically associated with brachycephalic biotype (flat head), also common in this region. It has been postulated that this trait was introduced to this region by the Dutch during the colonial period in Brazil's history. Based on the confrontation of this paradigm against some historical facts, the authors concluded that the brachycephalic phenotype was inherited from prehistoric ancestors (Amerindians) who were already living in this region when white European men arrived.


A alta prevalência de malformação da junção craniovertebral no Nordeste do Brasil é historicamente associada ao biótipo braquicefálico (cabeça chata), também comum nessa região. Postula-se que essa característica tenha sido introduzida na região pelos holandeses durante o período colonial da história do Brasil. Com base na confrontação desse paradigma com alguns fatos históricos, os autores concluem que o fenótipo braquicefálico foi herdado de ancestrais pré-históricos (ameríndios) que já habitavam a região no momento da chegada do homem branco europeu.


History, 17th Century , History, Ancient , Humans , Colonialism/history , Craniosynostoses/history , Indians, South American , Skull/abnormalities , Spine/abnormalities , Brazil , Craniosynostoses/ethnology , White People/ethnology , Feeding Behavior/ethnology , Human Migration/history , Indians, South American/ethnology , Netherlands/ethnology
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 11(1): 114-118, jan.-mar. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-670315


O número de deformidades cranianas tem aumentado desde que tiveram início os esforços internacionais dos pediatras, com a recomendação de se colocar os filhos para dormirem na posição supina, como estratégia para reduzir a morte súbita do recém-nascido. Se, por um lado, esse programa conseguiu demonstrar resultados muito eficientes nessa redução, por outro, tal recomendação fez com que os casos de assimetrias cranianas aumentassem em incidência. Isso porque os lactentes são mantidos por muito tempo em um só posicionamento, pois há também o uso abusivo de dispositivos como carrinho, bebê-conforto, cadeirinha de carro, balancinho, entre outros. Entre as assimetrias resultantes, as mais encontradas são a plagiocefalia (o crânio em forma de um paralelograma com achatamento occipital e anterior contralateral) e a braquicefalia (o achatamento occipital bilateral). Esse estudo relatou o caso de paciente com uma braquicefalia associada à plagiocefalia deformacionais tratado com órtese craniana. O paciente foi avaliado antes e após o tratamento clinicamente pelo mesmo médico, por meio de registro fotográfico e de um escaneamento a laser, que permite aferir variáveis determinantes das assimetrias. Foi possível, durante o período de tratamento, observar que houve importante melhora na simetria craniana documentada pela diminuição do índice cefálico, diminuição da diferença diagonal e ganho de volume no quadrante que se encontrava mais achatado. Conclui-se que a terapia ortótica constitui modalidade terapêutica segura e eficaz disponível para o tratamento das assimetrias cranianas posicionais.

The number of cranial deformities has increased considerably since international efforts of pediatricians to recommend parents putting their babies to sleep in the supine position as a strategy to reduce sudden death syndrome of the newborn. On the one hand, this program has demonstrated very efficient results at reducing deaths and, on the other hand, such recommendation has increased the incidence of cranial asymmetries. In addition, infants are kept too long in one position, much of this due to abusive use of strollers, baby carriers, car seats, swings and other devices. Among resulting asymmetries, the most frequently found are plagiocephaly (parallelogram shaped skull, with posterior unilateral flattening with the opposite frontal area also flattened) and brachycephaly (occipital bilateral flattening). The present study is a case report of a patient with brachycephaly associated with deformational plagiocephaly treated with cranial orthosis. The same physician clinically evaluated the patient before and after treatment using photographic recording and a laser scanning device, which allows the accurate measurement of variables determining asymmetries. It became clear during treatment that there was significant improvement in cranial symmetry documented by decrease in the cephalic index, diagonal difference and volume gain in the quadrant that was flattened. The authors conclude that orthotic therapy is a safe and effective therapeutic modality for position cranial asymmetries.

Skull/abnormalities , Plagiocephaly, Nonsynostotic , Sudden Infant Death
Braz. j. morphol. sci ; 29(2): 111-113, apr.-jun. 2012. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-665201


During routine activities in the Laboratory of Human Anatomy at the University of Santa Cruz do Sul – Brazil, an atlanto-occipital fusion was observed in a Caucasian cadaver skull. The skull used in our study had complete fusion of the occipital bone with the atlas vertebra, except in traffic areas of the vertebral arteries. Some important neurological disorders seem to be related with atlanto-occipital fusion. The presence of other anatomical variations was not verified. Thus, the present study shall be important for health sciences and those who keep some interest in pathologies associated with brain.

Humans , Female , Cervical Atlas/abnormalities , Skull/anatomy & histology , Skull/abnormalities , Neurology , Occipital Bone/abnormalities , Cadaver
Int. j. morphol ; 30(2): 445-449, jun. 2012. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-651812


Foramen ovale and spinosum are important foramina of the greater wing of the sphenoid. Normal variations in their shapes and sizes are quite common and widely studied. In the present study, conducted in the Department of Anatomy of School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 25 dried human skulls were examined for anatomic variations of the foramina of the greater wing of the sphenoid. During the study, we noticed anatomic variations of the foramen ovale and spinosum. In one skull, there was an abnormally large and irregular foramen ovale which was confluent with the foramen spinosum. In the second skull, the foramen spinosum was absent on the left side and in the 3rd skull it was duplicated on the right side. These variations are very rare and may be of clinical and anatomical significance to neurosurgeons and physicians particularly in cases of trigeminal neuralgia, diagnostic detection of vascular tumors and aneurysm.

Los forámenes oval y espinoso son forámenes importantes del ala mayor del esfenoides. Variaciones normales en sus formas y tamaños son muy comunes y ampliamente estudiados. En el presente repórter, llevado a cabo en el Departamento de Anatomía de la Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universiti Sains Malaysia, fueron examinados en 25 cráneos humanos secos las variaciones anatómicas de los forámenes del ala mayor del esfenoides. Durante el estudio, se observaron algunas variaciones anatómicas de los forámenes oval y espinoso. En un cráneo, se observó un foramen oval anormalmente grande e irregular, que era confluente con el foramen espinoso. En el segundo cráneo, el foramen espinoso estaba ausente en el lado izquierdo y en el tercer cráneo se duplicó en el lado derecho. Estas variaciones son muy raras y pueden ser de importancia clínica y anatómica para neurocirujanos y médicos, en particular en casos de neuralgia del trigémino, detección diagnóstica de tumores vasculares y aneurismas.

Humans , Skull/anatomy & histology , Sphenoid Bone/anatomy & histology , Cephalometry , Skull/abnormalities , Sphenoid Bone/abnormalities
Braz. j. morphol. sci ; 28(2): 137-139, Apr.-June 2011. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-644142


A case of ossification of the right styloid ligament in an adult human caucasian skull was verified duringroutine activities of the Laboratory of Human Anatomy at the University of Santa Cruz do Sul - Brazil. Thisstudy presents its clinical considerations and applications. The presence of other anatomical variations was notverified.

Humans , Adult , Skull/anatomy & histology , Skull/abnormalities , Ligaments/anatomy & histology , Osteogenesis/physiology , Ligaments/abnormalities , Ossification of Posterior Longitudinal Ligament
Dental press j. orthod. (Impr.) ; 16(2): 108-119, abr. 2011. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-586598


OBJETIVO: o objetivo deste trabalho foi classificar e determinar a prevalência dos indivíduos portadores de comprometimento vertical nas relações faciais, conforme a severidade da discrepância e, especialmente, dos portadores de Padrão Face Longa. MÉTODOS: a amostra constou de 5.020 sujeitos de nacionalidade brasileira, de ambos os sexos, com idades entre 10 anos e 16 anos e 11 meses, matriculados no Ensino Fundamental do município de Bauru-SP. O exame da morfologia facial constou da observação direta da face, em normas frontal e lateral, sempre com os lábios em repouso, buscando identificar aqueles indivíduos que apresentassem comprometimento vertical nas relações faciais. Esses, uma vez identificados, foram classificados, considerando-se a severidade, em três subtipos: moderado, médio e grave. Para fins de determinação da prevalência dos portadores de Padrão Face Longa, apenas os classificados como dos subtipos médio e grave foram considerados. RESULTADOS: observou-se uma prevalência de 34,94 por cento de comprometimento vertical nas relações faciais e 14,06 por cento de Padrão Face Longa. CONCLUSÃO: os resultados obtidos no presente estudo permitiram concluir que a prevalência do comprometimento vertical nas relações faciais e do Padrão Face Longa foi maior do que a presumida com base na literatura.

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to classify and determine the prevalence of individuals with vertical alteration of facial relationships, according to the severity of discrepancy, especially individuals with long face pattern. METHODS: The sample was composed of 5,020 individuals of Brazilian nationality, of both genders, aged 10 years to 16 years and 11 months, attending fundamental schools at the city of Bauru-SP. Examination of facial morphology comprised direct observation of the face in frontal and lateral views, always with the lips at rest, aiming to identify the individuals presenting vertical alteration of facial relationships. After identification, these individuals were scored, according to severity, into three subtypes, namely mild, moderate and severe. The prevalence of individuals with long face pattern considered only the individuals scored as subtypes moderate and severe. RESULTS: There was prevalence of 34.94 percent of vertical alteration of facial relationships and 14.06 percent of long face pattern. CONCLUSIONS: The results obtained in this study revealed that the prevalence of vertical alteration of facial relationships and long face pattern was higher than reported in the literature.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Craniofacial Abnormalities/epidemiology , Skull/abnormalities , Face/abnormalities
Tanaffos. 2011; 10 (1): 48-51
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-125067


Mulibrey nanism is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe growth retardation and pericardial constriction associated with muscle, liver, brain, and eye abnormalities. More than 80% of previously reported cases are Finnish. We report a 35-year-old Iranian female who presented with classic phenotypic features of Mulibrey nanism with symptomatic constrictive pericarditis and underwent pericardiectomy .Our case is one of the rare examples of Mulibrey nanism outside Finland that has been reported so far

Humans , Female , Pericarditis, Constrictive , Hepatomegaly/genetics , Skull/abnormalities , Craniofacial Abnormalities/genetics , Dwarfism/diagnosis
RGO (Porto Alegre) ; 58(4): 481-485, dez. 2010. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-588561


OBJETIVO: Avaliar a prevalência do prolongamento do processo estilóide e/ou calcificação do ligamento estilo-hióideo em uma amostra de 2.600 radiografias panorâmicas. MÉTODOS: As radiografias foram avaliadas por um único examinador e foram consideradas imagens compatíveis com a alteração aquelas em que o processo estilóide do osso temporal ultrapassasse em mais de 1cm (medido sobre a radiografia panorâmica) a borda mais inferior da cartilagem do lóbulo da orelha, e aquelas em que o ligamento estilo-hióideo se apresentasse radiopaco. RESULTADOS: Cento e quarenta e seis radiografias (5,61 por cento) apresentaram as alterações em estudo. Os resultados mostraram que o alongamento do processo estilóide e/ou calcificação do ligamento estilo-hióideo não foram achados. Houve maior incidência do prolongamento do processo estilóide e/ou calcificação do ligamento estilo-hióideo no sexo feminino (63 por cento), sendo este na maioria dos casos bilateralmente (84 por cento) e apresentando uma maior prevalência na faixa etária de 11 a 40 anos. CONCLUSÃO: Pôde-se concluir que houve maior prevalência da alteração no sexo feminino e a maioria dos casos ocorreu bilateralmente..

OBJECTIVE: Access the prevalence of elongated styloid process and/or ossified stylohyoid ligament in 2.600 panoramic radiographs. METHODS: A total of 2600 radiographs were examined by the same examiner. Images where the styloid process of the temporal bone extended beyond the lower edge of the cartilage of the ear lobe by more than 1 cm (measured on the panoramic radiograph) and those where the stylohyoid ligament was radiopaque were counted. RESULTS: One hundred forty-six (5.61 percent) radiographs presented the abovementioned characteristics. The results showed that elongation of the styloid process and/or stylohyoid ligament ossification were not uncommon events. These changes were more common in females (63 percent) and were usually bilateral (84 percent). They were also more common in the 11-40 years age range. CONCLUSION: Prolongation of the styloid process and/or ossification of the stylohyoid ligament were significantly more common in females. The rates at which the sides were affected were also statistically different.

Humans , Male , Female , Skull/abnormalities , Hyoid Bone/growth & development , Radiography, Panoramic , Cross-Sectional Studies , Age Factors , Sex Factors , Observational Studies as Topic