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Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(4): 861-867, Jul.-Aug. 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285260


The aim of this study was to evaluate the anatomical structures of the skulls of peccaries to establish the basis for their clinical study and future preclinical research. Ten skulls of adult peccaries were subjected to tomographic examination. The data obtained were processed via three-dimensional image reconstruction software (3D images). The reconstructions obtained from the neurocranium of the studied specimens allowed the identification and description of the following structures: nasal bone, frontal bone, parietal bones, incisor bone, maxillary bone, zygomatic bone, temporal bone, palatal bone, occipital bone, vomer bone, pterygoid bone, sphenoid bone, paranasal sinuses and orbit. Computed tomography proved to be an important diagnostic tool in the investigation of the skull of this species, allowing the acquisition of anatomical values not yet documented for the species in the literature.(AU)

O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar as estruturas anatômicas dos crânios de catetos, a fim de se estabelecerem as bases para seu estudo clínico e futuras pesquisas pré-clínicas. Dez crânios de catetos adultos foram submetidos a exame tomográfico. Os dados obtidos foram introduzidos em um software de reconstrução de imagens tridimensionais (imagens em 3D). As reconstruções obtidas do neurocrânio dos espécimes estudados permitiram a identificação e a descrição das seguintes estruturas: osso nasal, osso frontal, ossos parietais, osso incisivo, osso maxilar, osso zigomático, osso temporal, osso palatino, osso occipital, osso vômer, osso pterigoide, osso esfenoide, seios paranasais e órbita. A tomografia computadorizada mostrou-se como uma ferramenta diagnóstica importante na investigação do crânio dessa espécie, permitindo a aquisição de valores anatômicos ainda não documentados para a espécie na literatura.(AU)

Animals , Artiodactyla/anatomy & histology , Skull/anatomy & histology , Skull/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/veterinary , Imaging, Three-Dimensional/veterinary , Printing, Three-Dimensional
Int. j. morphol ; 38(6): 1591-1596, Dec. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134484


SUMMARY: Clinically, avian medicine still finds it very difficult to treat wild patients due to the lack of reliable information about their anatomy and physiological parameters that make comparative analyzes possible. Considering that computed tomography (CT) is one of the most viable alternatives in radiography of the head, we describe the comparative anatomy of the beak in the Ara ararauna and the Ramphastos toco through this imaging modality and macroscopy analysis, providing additional information about their conformation and topography for clinical exams. Adult specimens of each were dissected after the CT and beaks were removed for macroscopic analyses. The macroscopic and tomographic findings for both species confirm the similarities in beak morphology and the dietary peculiarities of each.The CT scan proved to be a useful tool to visualize internal structures of the skull through a detailed virtopsy of regions that are difficult to access by the usual necropsy with a scalpel.

RESUMEN: Debido a la escasa información de la anatomía y de los parámetros fisiológicos que hacen posible los análisis comparativos en la medicina aviar, clínicamente resulta muy difícil el tratamiento de estos animales. Considerando que la tomografía computarizada es una buena alternativa, estudiamos la anatomía comparativa del pico en Ara ararauna y Toco Toucan utilizando imágenes y un análisis de macroscopía. Estos métodos proporcionaron información adicional referente a su conformación y topografía para el trabajo clínico. Después de analizar la tomografía se disecaron las muestras de especímenes adultos y se retiraron los picos para un análisis macroscópico. Los hallazgos macroscópicos y tomográficos para ambas especies corroboraron la relación morfológica entre los picos y las peculiaridades dietéticas de cada uno. Se demostró además, que la tomografía computarizada es una herramienta útil para visualizar las estructuras internas del cráneo de las aves, a través de una virtopsia detallada en áreas de difícil acceso durante una necropsia habitual.

Animals , Beak/anatomy & histology , Beak/diagnostic imaging , Birds/anatomy & histology , Anatomy, Comparative , Skull/anatomy & histology , Skull/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 42(4): 341-347, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142965


ABSTRACT Objective: The aims of this study were to identify the main characteristics regarding the shape and size of the craniofacial region in patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA) and sickle cell trait (SCT) and in unaffected patients using geometric morphometrics and to check the efficiency of this method. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional analytical study of 45 patients (15 in each group) was performed. Lateral radiographs of the skull were used for the analysis. Seventeen landmarks and semilandmarks were placed for the measurements. The Pocrustes analysis of variance (ANOVA), regression analysis, multivariate analysis of variance, canonical variate analysis, Mahalanobis and Procrustes distances and unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) clustering were performed. Allometric effects and sex characteristics were not statistically significant (p> 0.05). Results: There were, however, significant differences (p< 0.05) in craniofacial shape among SCA, SCT and unaffected individuals. Those with SCA showed variations in the shape of the external auditory meatus and at the base of the occipital bone, in addition to the mandibular setback and upper incisor inclination, with a tendency towards prognathism. The individuals with SCT exhibited a similar craniofacial shape to those with SCA, but with slighter variations. Moreover, those with SCT were statistically closer in resemblance to unaffected individuals, given that SCT is not regarded as a disease. Conclusion: This demonstrates the efficiency of geometric morphometrics in the categorization of the assessed groups.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Sickle Cell Trait , Skull/anatomy & histology , Cell Shape , Anemia, Sickle Cell
Int. j. morphol ; 38(5): 1473-1478, oct. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134464


SUMMARY: The present study was designed to elaborate on the morphometry of the skull of non-descript goats in Mizoram state of India. The study was conducted on the skull of twelve (n=12) adult goats of either sex (n=6 males and n=6 females) collected from the local slaughterhouses. Altogether, forty-one different measurements were taken morphologically. In the present study, the cranial and facial bones were the major components of the skull with a total of thirty-two bones. There were three single and four paired cranial bones with a total of eleven bones. There were one single and the rest were paired facial bones with a total of twenty-one bones. The cranial bones were occipital, parietal, interparietal, sphenoid, ethmoid, frontal and temporal. The facial bones were maxilla, premaxilla (incisive), palatine, pterygoid, nasal, lacrimal, zygomatic (malar), vomer, turbinate, mandible and hyoid. The skull measurements showed that the skull of the goat was elongated and dolichocephalic as per the cephalic index (47.82±0.05). The length and width of the skull was 19.28±0.03 cm and 9.22±0.04 cm, respectively. There were two supraorbital foramina on both sides of the frontal bone. The prominent facial tuberosity lies dorsally to the third superior premolar tooth. Single infraorbital foramen was located dorsally to the junction of the first and second superior premolar teeth on maxilla bone. The orbits were round and complete and situated on a frontolateral oblique plane. It can be concluded that the findings of this study would assist the comparative studies with other domesticated animals in the future and would be applicable in clinical veterinary practice and even in zooarchaeology.

RESUMEN: El estudio fue diseñado para elaborar la morfometría del cráneo de cabras no definidas en Mizoram. El estudio se realizó en el cráneo de 12 cabras adultas 6 machos y 6 hembras recolectadas de los mataderos locales. Se tomaron en total 41 medidas diferentes morfológicamente. Los huesos craneales y faciales fueron los componentes principales del cráneo con un total de 32 huesos. Se encontraron tres huesos craneales individuales y cuatro pares con un total de 11 huesos. Encontramos solo un hueso facial individual, los otros 22 eran pares de huesos faciales. Los huesos craneales comprendidos en el estudio fueron: occipital, parietal, interparietal, esfenoides, etmoides, frontal y temporal. Los huesos faciales estudiados fueron: maxilar, premaxilar (incisivo), palatino, pterigoideo, nasal, lagrimal, cigomático, vómer, conchas, mandíbula e hioides. Las medicio- nes mostraron que el cráneo de la cabra era alargado y dolicocefálico (47,82 ± 0,05). La longitud y el ancho del cráneo fueron 19,28 ± 0,03 cm y 9,22 ± 0,04 cm, respectivamente. Había dos forámenes supraorbitales a ambos lados del hueso frontal. La tuberosidad facial prominente se encontraba dorsalmente en el tercer diente premolar superior. El foramen infraorbitario único se localizó dorsalmente a la unión del primer y segundo dientes premolares superiores en el hueso maxilar. Las órbitas eran redondas y completas y situadas en un plano oblicuo frontolateral. En conclusión, los resultados de este estudio motivarán y ayudarán a otros estudios comparativos con otros animales domesticados o en la práctica clínica veterinaria e incluso en zooarqueología.

Animals , Skull/anatomy & histology , Goats/anatomy & histology , Face/anatomy & histology , India
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(9): 726-732, Sept. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1143424


Hylaeamys megacephalus (G. Fisher, 1814) presents great genetic diversity and wide geographical distribution, and occurs in both the Amazon and Cerrado biomes. Because of its generalist aspect, this species tolerates different eating habits and habitats. It occurs in flooded and dry areas and is predominantly terrestrial, which allows greater gene flow between populations even over long distances. Studies that seek a better understanding of morphological variations resulting from differences imposed by the environment throughout this species' distribution are still lacking. This study aimed to analyze the differences between H. megacephalus populations based on craniometry, investigating whether the environment has an influence on morphology. We analyzed a total of 142 specimens from three scientific mammal collections: National Museum, "Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro" (MN-UFRJ); "Laboratório de Biologia e Parasitologia de Mamíferos Reservatórios Silvestres", "Instituto Oswaldo Cruz", "Fundação Oswaldo Cruz"(LBCE-Fiocruz); and "Laboratório de Biodiversidade", "Universidade Federal de Goiás", "Regional Jataí" (LZE-UFG), and took 20 craniometric measurements. Craniometry was explored using unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA), canonical variate analysis, and principal component analysis (PCA). The results led us to conclude that there are three craniometric groups of H. megacephalus with a tendency to differentiate as a result of geographical influences.(AU)

Com grande diversidade genética e distribuição geográfica, Hylaeamys megacephalus (G. Fisher, 1814) ocorre tanto na Amazônia quanto no Cerrado. Visto seu aspecto generalista, esta espécie tolera diversos hábitos alimentares e habitats, ocorrendo em áreas inundadas ou não, sendo predominantemente terrestre, permitindo maior fluxo de genes entre as populações, mesmo em longas distâncias. Apresenta ampla distribuição, e carece de estudos que busquem um melhor entendimento sobre as variações morfológicas resultantes das diferenças impostas pelo meio ao longo de sua distribuição. O estudo teve como objetivo, analisar as diferenças entre as populações de H. megacephalus, com base na craniometria investigando se o ambiente interfere na morfologia. Analisamos um total de 142 espécimes oriundos de coleções científicas de mamíferos, do Museu Nacional, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (MN-UFRJ), Laboratório de Biologia e Parasitologia de Mamíferos Reservatórios Silvestres, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (LBCE-Fiocruz) e Laboratório de Biodiversidade, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Regional Jataí, nos quais foram tomadas 20 medidas craniométricas. A craniometria foi explorada nas análises estatísticas de agrupamento de pares não ponderados com médias aritméticas (UPGMA), variação canônica e análise dos Componentes Principais (PCA). Os resultados encontrados nos levaram a concluir a existência de três grupos craniométricos da espécie de H. megacephalus com tendência a se diferenciarem, por influências geográficas.(AU)

Animals , Skull/anatomy & histology , Cephalometry/veterinary , Arvicolinae/anatomy & histology , Anatomic Variation , Amazonian Ecosystem , Grassland , Gene-Environment Interaction
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(5): 1653-1658, Sept.-Oct. 2020. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1131551


A impressão tridimensional (3D) vem contribuindo para o aprendizado da anatomia e para áreas aplicadas da medicina veterinária utilizando uma interface que pode valorizar o conhecimento da anatomia das espécies domésticas de maneira dinâmica. O presente trabalho objetivou utilizar imagens tridimensionais geradas por tomografias computadorizada (TC) para a obtenção de imagens digitalizadas e de modelos de ossos do crânio de cão por meio de uma impressora tridimensional. Foram gerados arquivos 3D de TC a partir de imagens que foram editadas pelo software Osirix Lite. Partes dos ossos e particularidades anatômicas do crânio foram impressas em escalas de 60% e 100%. Os resultados permitiram gerar imagens digitalizadas e impressões tridimensionais advindas das tomografias, e, assim, foi criado um acervo de imagens e modelos impressos para os estudos da anatomia do crânio da espécie canina. Além disso, a metodologia demonstrou claramente a importância para uso de planejamentos cirúrgicos nos casos de procedimentos que envolvam comprometimento de estruturas ósseas. Produziu-se um material interativo e impresso em 3D com maior durabilidade, o qual poderá ser disponibilizado para fins educacionais.(AU)

The three-dimensional printer (3D) has been contributing to the learning of anatomy and applied areas of veterinary medicine using an interface that can enhance the knowledge of the anatomy of domestic species in a dynamic way. The present study aimed to use three-dimensional images generated by computed tomography (TC) to obtain digitized images and bone models of the dog skull using a three-dimensional printer. The 3D files were generated from images that were edited in Osirix Lite software. Parts of the bones and anatomical features of the skull were printed on 60% and 100% scales. The results allowed to generate digitalized images and three -dimensional impressions from the tomographies, and in this way a collection of images and printed models was created for studies of the anatomy of the canine species. In addition, the methodology clearly demonstrated the importance of using surgical planning in cases involving procedures involving bone structure impairment. Interactive material and 3D printing with high durability that could be made available for educational purposes has been produced.(AU)

Animals , Dogs , Skull/anatomy & histology , Teaching Materials , Printing, Three-Dimensional , Models, Anatomic , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/veterinary , Anatomy, Veterinary/methods
Int. j. morphol ; 38(4): 815-819, Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124859


The skull is a reliable structure for determining the sex of an adult individual; it is generally resistant in adverse conditions, allowing it to be used for the analysis of sexual dimorphism. In the present study we analysed 10 non-metric characteristics of skulls of Brazilian adult individuals in order to: Determine the strength of association between sex and the morphological characteristics of the skull, the morphological characteristic(s) with greatest diagnostic influence for sex, and analyse whether the morphological characteristics of the skull predict sex. The study included 179 macerated skulls of Brazilian adults, (69 female, 110 male). The sex of all the skulls included was identified. The investigators were calibrated prior to analysis and all the evaluations were carried out under blinding. Pearson's Chi-squared test was used. The sensitivity and specificity were analysed and a ROC curve was constructed. Binary logistic regression was carried out. The SPSS v.22 software was used, with a significance threshold of 5 %. All the characteristics analysed presented statistically significant differences (p<0.05). The frontal profile, the superciliary arch and the glabella presented the greatest sensitivity, best balance between sensitivity and specificity and greatest area under curve. The regression model with the frontal profile, superciliary arch and mastoid process was significant [X2(2) = 115,728 p=0.000, R2 Negelkerke=0.657], and presented correct sex classification in 90 % of cases (Males: 87.4 %; Females: 83.1 %). In unknown individuals for whom the skull is present, non-metric analysis of the frontal profile, superciliary arch, mastoid process and glabella can be used as instruments for sex identification.

El cráneo es una estructura confiable para la determinación sexual de un individuo adulto y suele ser resistente en condiciones adversas, por lo que puede ser utilizado para el análisis del dimorfismo sexual. En el presente estudio analizamos 10 características no métricas de cráneos de individuos brasileños adultos a fin de determinar la fuerza de asociación entre el sexo y características morfológicas del cráneo; determinar la(s) característica(s) morfológica(s) con mejor poder para diagnosticar el sexo; y analizar si las características morfológicas del cráneo son previsoras del sexo. Fueron incluidos 179 cráneos macerados de brasileños adultos, (69 femeninos, 110 masculinos). Todos los cráneos incluidos presentaban identificación de sexo. Los investigadores fueron previamente calibrados y todas las evaluaciones fueron realizadas de forma ciega. Se utilizó la prueba de Chicuadrado de Pearson. Se analizó la sensibilidad y especificidad y se construyó una curva ROC. Se realizó regresión logística binaria. Se utilizó el software SPSS v.22, considerando umbral de significación de 5 %. Todas las características analizadas presentaron diferencias estadísticas significativas (p<0,05). El perfil frontal, el arco superciliar y la glabela fueron las características que presentaron mayor sensibilidad, mejor equilibrio sensibilidad/especificidad y mayor area under curve. El modelo de regresión con el perfil frontal, arco superciliar y proceso mastoides fue significativo [X2(2) = 115,728 p=0.000, R2 Negelkerke=0,657], y presentó una clasificación sexual correcta de 90 % (Males; 87,4 %; Females: 83,1 %). En individuos desconocidos en los cuales esté presente el cráneo, el análisis no-métrico del perfil frontal, del arco superciliar, del proceso mastoides y de la glabela pueden ser utilizados como herramienta para identificación sexual.

Humans , Male , Female , Skull/anatomy & histology , Sex Determination by Skeleton/methods , Brazil , Logistic Models , Predictive Value of Tests , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity
Int. j. morphol ; 38(4): 820-824, Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124860


The pterion is a topographic point on the lateral aspect of the skull where frontal, sphenoid, parietal and temporal bones form the H or K shaped suture. This is an important surgical point for the lesions in anterior and middle cranial fossa. This study was performed on 50 dry skulls from Serbian adult individuals from Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine in Novi Sad. The type of the pterion on both sides of each skull was determined and they are calcified in four types (sphenoparietal, frontotemporal, stellate and epipteric). The distance between the center of the pterion and defined anthropological landmarks were measured using the ImageJ software. Sphenoparietal type is predominant with 86 % in right side and 88 % in left side. In male skulls, the distance from the right pterion to the frontozygomatic suture is 39.89±3.85 mm and 39.67±4.61 mm from the left pterion to the frontozygomatic suture. In female skulls the distance is 37.38±6.38 mm on the right and 35.94±6.46 mm on the left. The shape and the localization of the pterion are important because it is an anatomical landmark and should be used in neurosurgery, traumatology and ophthalmology.

El pterion es un punto topográfico en la cara lateral del cráneo donde los huesos frontales, esfenoides, parietales y temporales forman la sutura en forma de H o K. Este es un punto quirúrgico importante para las lesiones en la fosa craneal anterior y media. Este estudio se realizó en 50 cráneos secos de adultos serbios del Departamento de Anatomía de la Facultad de Medicina de Novi Sad. Se determinó el tipo de pterión en ambos lados de cada cráneo y se calcifican en cuatro tipos (esfenoparietal, frontotemporal, estrellado y epipterico). La distancia entre el centro del pterion y los puntos de referencia antropológicos definidos se midió utilizando el software ImageJ. El tipo esfenoparietal es predominante con 86 % en el lado derecho y 88 % en el lado izquierdo. En los cráneos masculinos, la distancia desde el pterion derecho hasta la sutura frontocigomática es 39,89 ± 3,85 mm y 39,67 ± 4,61 mm desde el pterion izquierdo hasta la sutura frontocigomática. En los cráneos femeninos, la distancia es 37,38 ± 6,38 mm a la derecha y 35,94 ± 6,46 mm a la izquierda. La forma y la localización del pterion son importantes debido a que es un indicador anatómico y debe usarse en neurocirugía, traumatología y oftalmología.

Humans , Male , Female , Skull/anatomy & histology , Sphenoid Bone/anatomy & histology , Temporal Bone/anatomy & histology , Zygoma/anatomy & histology , Serbia
Int. j. morphol ; 38(4): 914-918, Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124876


The anatomical localization of foramen infraorbitale (FOI) and its relationship with ambient structures are of great importance for clinicians and surgeons. This study was performed on seventy five skulls, and the distance between FOI to important anatomical formations, angular position of the zygomatic bone and the relationship between these parameters were investigated on both sides. The distance of FOI to margo infraorbitalis (MI), apertura piriformis (AP) and spina nasalis anterior (SNA), upper face height (UH) and upper face width (UW) were measured. Zygomatic bone triangle angles (SA, PA, IA) and porion-nasion-spina nasalis anterior angle (PNS) were measured from lateral view of the skull. While there was no significant difference between right and left measurement except for PA (p=0.03), the distance from FOI to MI is showed a very high degree positive correlation between the right and left sides, the distance from the FOI to AP was weak correlated only right side.

La localización anatómica del foramen infraorbitario (FIO) y su relación con las estructuras adyacentes son de gran importancia para los médicos y cirujanos. Este estudio se realizó en setenta y cinco cráneos, y se investigó la distancia entre FIO a formaciones anatómicas importantes, la posición angular del hueso cigomático y la relación entre estos parámetros en ambos lados. Se midió la distancia de FIO al margen infraorbitario (MI), apertura piriforme (AP) y espina nasal anterior (ENA), altura superior de la cara (AC) y ancho superior de la cara (AC). Los ángulos del triángulo óseo cigomático y el ángulo anterior porion-nasion-epina nasal se midieron desde la vista lateral del cráneo. Si bien no hubo una diferencia significativa entre la medición derecha e izquierda, a excepción AP (p = 0,03), la distancia de FIP a MI mostró una correlación positiva de alto grado entre los lados derecho e izquierdo, la distancia de FIO a AP fue débil correlacionado solo en el lado derecho.

Humans , Adult , Orbit/anatomy & histology , Cephalometry , Skull/anatomy & histology , Zygoma/anatomy & histology
Int. j. morphol ; 38(4): 1026-1031, Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124892


The carotid canal is located in the petrous part of the temporal bone and transmits the internal carotid artery along with the venous and sympathetic nerve plexus. The shape, location and dimensions of the carotid canal are clinically very important especially in cases of skull base surgery. The aim of this study was to investigate the morphological and morphometric parameters of the external aperture of the carotid canal in Serbian population. The study included 24 dry adult skulls and 36 dry adult temporal bones. Diameters and distances of the external aperture of the carotid canal from various important landmarks of the skull base were measured. The shape of the external carotid canal aperture was also noted. Digital data were processed in the ImageJ software. The average length of the external aperture of the carotid canal in all investigated specimens (skulls and temporal bones) on the right and left sides was 7.31±1.01 mm and 7.71±1.06 mm, respectively. The average width of the external aperture of the carotid canal on the right side was 5.82±0.78 mm while on the left side was 6.20±1.04 mm. The frequency of different shapes of the external aperture of the carotid canal was as follows: round in 45 (53.57 %), oval in 25 (29.76 %), and the rarest was almond shape noted in 13 (15.47 %) cases. There were no statistically significant differences in all measured parameters between genders and body sides. The only statistical significance was found in females between right and left side in relation with length (AP diameter) of the external aperture of the carotid canal. The results of this study will be useful for neurosurgeons to improve different surgical approaches to the petrous part of the internal carotid artery and prevent its complications.

El conducto carotídeo se encuentra en la parte petrosa del hueso temporal y da paso a la arteria carótida interna junto con el plexo nervioso venoso y simpático. La forma, ubicación y dimensiones del canal carotídeo son clínicamente muy importantes, especialmente en casos de cirugía de la base del cráneo. El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar los parámetros morfológicos y morfométricos de la apertura externa del canal carotídeo en la población serbia. El estudio incluyó 24 cráneos adultoss y 36 huesos temporales adultos secos. Se midieron los diámetros y distancias de la apertura externa desde varios puntos de referencia de la base del cráneo. También se observó la forma de la apertura del canal carotídeo externo. Los datos digitales se procesaron con Software ImageJ. La longitud promedio de la apertura en todos los especímenes investigados (cráneos y huesos temporales) en los lados derecho e izquierdo fue de 7,31 ± 1,01 mm y 7,71 ± 1,06 mm, respectivamente. El ancho promedio de la apertura en el lado derecho fue de 5,82 ± 0,78 mm mientras que en el lado izquierdo fue de 6,20 ± 1,04 mm. La frecuencia de las diferentes formas de la abertura externa fue la siguiente: redonda en 45 (53,57 %), ovalada en 25 (29,76 %), y la más rara fue la forma de almendra observada en 13 (15,47 %) casos. No hubo diferencias estadísticamente significativas en todos los parámetros medidos entre sexos y lados del cuerpo. La única estadística significativa se encontró en las mujeres entre el lado derecho e izquierdo en relación con la longitud (diámetro AP) de la apertura externa del conducto carotídeo. Los resultados de este estudio serán útiles para un mejor enfoque quirúrgico de los neurocirujanos en la parte petrosa de la arteria carótida interna, y advertir posibles complicaciones.

Humans , Male , Female , Temporal Bone/anatomy & histology , Carotid Artery, Internal , Petrous Bone/anatomy & histology , Skull/anatomy & histology , Serbia
Int. j. morphol ; 38(3): 640-644, June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098300


The objective of this study was to obtain data on craniometric parameters in the crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous) and to define the general skull type of this species, analysing whether the craniometric classification of domestic dogs can be applied. Eleven skulls of C. thous were included in the analysis, irrespective of age and sex. The location of nine craniometric points established for craniometry in domestic dogs was determined and based on the distances between these points, 17 craniometric parameters were measured. Those parameters were used to calculate the following six craniometric indices: 53.17 ± 2.54 mm skull index, 2.33 ± 0.08 mm craniofacial index, 59.17 ± 3.57 mm neurocranial index, 125.58 ± 6.63 mm facial index, 37.52 ± 2.65 mm basal index and the index of the foramen magnum 54.47 ± 3.48 mm. According to the analysed indices, the skull shape in C. thous can be classified as mesaticephalic.

El objetivo de este estudio fue obtener datos sobre los parámetros craneométricos del zorro cangrejero (Cerdocyon thous) y definir el tipo general de cráneo de esta especie, analizando si se puede aplicar la clasificación craneométrica de los perros domésticos. Once cráneos de C. thous fueron incluidos en el análisis, independientemente de la edad y el sexo. Se determinó la ubicación de nueve puntos craneométricos establecidos para la craneometría en perros domésticos y, en función de las distancias entre estos puntos, se midieron 17 parámetros craneométricos. Esos parámetros se usaron para calcular los siguientes índices craneométricos: índice craneal de 53,17 ± 2,54 mm, índice craneofacial de 2,33 ± 0,08 mm, índice neurocraneal de 59,17 ± 3,57 mm, índice facial de 125,58 ± 6,63 mm, índice basal de 37,52 ± 2,65 mm y el índice del foramen magnum 54,47 ± 3,48 mm. Según los índices analizados, la forma del cráneo en C. thous se puede clasificar como mesaticefálica.

Animals , Dogs , Skull/anatomy & histology , Cephalometry , Canidae/anatomy & histology
Int. j. morphol ; 38(3): 706-713, June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098309


The shape of the head is considered the most important criterion in determining the standard breeds of dogs. It is of much significance to study the skull typology of the Ghanaian local dog in order to establish a template of its identification as a breed and to generate data which could be useful in the comparative anatomy of the skulls of dogs. A total of twenty skulls of adult dogs of two age groups were used in this study. 31 parameters were measured and 6 skull indices were calculated on their basis. The group of skulls from older fully grown dogs showed higher values in all parameters. Results of the current study will provide baseline reference data on skull parameters of local dolichocephalic dogs. More importantly, results obtained could be useful in veterinary applied anatomy and clinical practice in areas including forensic medicine, plastic or cosmetic maxillofacial surgery, neurosurgery of the cranium, acupuncture, nerve block and other clinical manipulations involving the head.

La forma de la cabeza se considera el criterio más importante para determinar las razas estándar de perros. Es relevante estudiar la tipología del cráneo del perro local de Ghana para establecer una plantilla de su identificación como raza y generar datos que puedan ser útiles en la anatomía comparativa de los cráneos de perros. En este estudio se utilizaron un total de veinte cráneos de perros adultos de dos grupos de edad. Se midieron 31 parámetros y se calcularon 6 índices de cráneo sobre la base de ellos. El grupo de cráneos de perros mayores completamente desarrollados mostró valores más altos en todos los parámetros. Los resultados del estudio actual proporcionarán datos de referencia sobre los parámetros del cráneo de los perros dolicocefálicos locales. Más importante aún, los resultados obtenidos podrían ser útiles en la anatomía veterinaria aplicada y la práctica clínica en áreas que incluyen medicina forense, cirugía plástica o cosmética maxilofacial, neurocirugía del cráneo, acupuntura, bloqueo nervioso y otras manipulaciones clínicas que involucran la cabeza.

Animals , Dogs , Skull/anatomy & histology , Dogs/anatomy & histology , Ghana
Int. j. morphol ; 38(1): 78-82, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056401


Dentro del espectro de conformación del cráneo, se reconocen generalmente tres amplias categorías que se corresponden con el concepto de biotipo cefálico, determinado por el Índice Cefálico. El Estos tres biotipos cefálicos son: el braquiocefálico, mesaticefálico y dolicocefálico, pero están basados en medidas lineales. A fin de revisar esta clasificación en base a su geometría, se estudiaron 53 cráneos de perros adultos, correspondientes a los tres grupos craneométricos descritos: 16 braquicéfalos, 20 mesaticéfalos y 17 dolicocéfalos. Para ello se obtuvieron fotografías en el plano ventral, en las que posteriormente se ubicaron 17 hitos anatómicos que se analizaron mediante técnicas de morfometría geométrica. De estos hitos, 5 correspondían a la zona neurocraneal y el resto al esplacnocráneo. Los tres grupos craneométricos mostraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre ellos tanto por el tamaño como por la forma. Las variables que contribuyeron más a explicar la diferenciación fueron las ubicadas en el margen más lateral de los arcos cigomáticos y en la base de este mismo arco. Las variables esplacnocraneales presentaban una alometría mucho más marcada que las neurocráneos. Puesto que el arco cigomático debe ser considerado como parte del esplacnocráneo, sugerimos que es tan importante el índice cefálico (que tiene en cuenta la máxima anchura de la cabeza) como el facial (que tiene en cuenta la máxima anchura de la cara). La conformación neurocraneal sería mucho más conservativa y por ende el índice craneal, de mucho menor poder discriminatorio entre grupos. El cambio entre tipos se debería a los músculos masetero y temporal, que tienen su inserción en el arco.

Within the wide conformation of skull spectrum, there are generally three recognized broad categories that correspond to the concept of cephalic biotype, determined by the cephalic index. The three cephalic biotypes are: brachiocephalic, mesaticephalic and dolichocephalic, which are based on linear measures. In order to revise this classification based on its geometry, we studied 53 skulls of adult dogs, corresponding to the three craneometric groups previously described: 16 brachycephalic, 20 mesaticephalic and 17 dolichocephalic. Images on ventral plane were obtained and 17 anatomical landmarks were subsequently located and analyzed by means of geometric morphometric techniques. Five of those landmarks corresponded to the neurocraneal area and the rest of the splanchnocranium. The three craneometric groups showed statistically significant differences between them for both size and shape. The variables that contributed to the differentiation between them were located along the edge of the zygomatic arches and on the basis of this arch. Splanchnocranial variables also presented a much more marked allometry than the neurocraneal variables. Since the zygomatic arch should be considered as part of the splanchnocranium, we suggest that the cephalic index (which takes into account the maximum width of the head) is as important as the facial index (which takes into account the maximum width of the face). The neurocraneal index would be much more conservative, and therefore less discriminatory between the groups.

Animals , Dogs , Skull/anatomy & histology , Cephalometry/methods , Dogs/anatomy & histology , Zygoma/anatomy & histology , Discriminant Analysis , Principal Component Analysis
Int. j. morphol ; 37(3): 1142-1149, Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012410


Craniometry has revealed that continuous skull expansion occurs after dental maturity in macaques and other nonhuman primates. Endocranial volume has been shown to increase with age from mid-adulthood to older age in macaques. Thus, neurocranial thickness may decrease with age, especially from mid-adulthood to older age. Here, we investigated age-related changes in the cranial thickness of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). Ten cranial thickness measurements (ten neurocranial landmarks) were made using computed tomographic scans of 140 crania from adult macaques (67 males and 73 females). The cranial thickness at many sites was shown to increase in the neurocranium from young adulthood (7-9 years) to early-mid adulthood (14-19 years) in males and latemid adulthood (19-24 years) in females, while it was decreased in the oldest age group (>24 years). The cranial thickness at various sites showed a significant decrease from mid-adulthood to very old age in both sexes, although females had more sites with decreasing thickness than did males. The difference between sexes in terms of age-related changes in cranial thickness at sites on the mid-sagittal plane may be associated with the differences in the size of the projecting face and canines between males and females. The greater number of sites with decreasing thickness in females than in males may be associated with postmenopausal estrogen depletion in female macaques.

La craneometría ha revelado que la expansión continua del cráneo se produce después de la madurez dental en macacos y otros primates no humanos. Se ha demostrado que el volumen endocraneal aumenta con la edad desde mediados de la edad adulta hasta la edad más avanzada en macacos. Por lo tanto, el grosor neurocraneal puede disminuir con la edad, especialmente desde la edad adulta media hasta la edad avanzada. Aquí, investigamos los cambios relacionados con la edad en el grosor craneal de los macacos Japoneses (Macaca fuscata). Se realizaron diez mediciones del grosor craneal (considerando diez puntos de referencia neurocraneales) mediante tomografías computarizadas de 140 cráneos de macacos adultos (67 machos y 73 hembras). Se observó que el grosor craneal en muchos sitios aumentó en el neurocráneo desde la edad adulta joven (7-9 años) hasta la edad adulta media (14-19 años) en los hombres y en la edad adulta media tardía (19-24 años) en las mujeres, mientras que se redujo en el grupo de mayor edad (> 24 años). El grosor craneal en varios sitios mostró una disminución significativa desde la edad adulta media hasta la edad muy avanzada en ambos sexos, aunque las hembras tenían más sitios con grosor decreciente. La diferencia entre sexos, en términos de cambios relacionados con la edad, en el grosor craneal en los sitios en el plano mediano puede asociarse con las diferencias en el tamaño de la cara y en los caninos entre machos y hembras. El mayor número de sitios con grosor decreciente en las hembras respecto a los machos puede estar asociado con el agotamiento de los estrógenos posmenopáusicos en los macacos hembras.

Animals , Male , Female , Skull/anatomy & histology , Aging/physiology , Cephalometry , Macaca fuscata/anatomy & histology
Int. j. morphol ; 37(2): 724-729, June 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002284


La influencia de la función respiratoria en el desarrollo de estructuras orofaciales y postura craneocervical ha sido ampliamente discutida. El objetivo del estudio fue comparar valores cefalométricos de la región craneocervical e hioidea en sujetos con respiración nasal y oral. Se incluyeron sujetos de entre 18 y 27 años, de ambos sexos, donde 20 presentaban diagnóstico de respiración oral y 20 no presentaban esta alteración; mediante telerradiografía lateral de cabeza y cuello se realizó análisis cefalométrico craneocervical de Rocabado y aplicación de la técnica de Penning, obteniendo medidas craneocervicales e hioideas, dimensión anterior nasofaríngea y curvatura cervical. Para el análisis estadístico se utilizó la prueba de normalidad Shapiro-Wilk y la prueba T para muestras independientes, considerando un valor de p <0,05 para obtener diferencias significativas; en aquellos parámetros en donde no se presentó distribución normal se aplicó la prueba U de Mann-Whitney. No se encontraron diferencias significativas entre los grupos de estudio y los valores cefalométricos analizados, a excepción de la distancia entre la base del hueso occipital y el arco posterior del atlas (p=0,03). Existen limitadas diferencias cefalométricas entre sujetos con respiración oral y respiración nasal, no asociándose el espacio aéreo nasofaríngeo con las modalidades de respiración estudiadas. Deben ser consideradas condiciones de morfología facial o mandibular, para determinar más adecuadamente la influencia de los parámetros cefalométricos en el diagnóstico del modo respiratorio en estudios futuros.

The influence of respiratory function on the development of orofacial structures and craniocervical posture has been widely discussed. The objective of the study was to compare cephalometric values of the craniocervical and hyoid region in subjects with nasal and oral respiration. Subjects between 18 and 27 years of age, of both sexes, were included, where 20 presented oral breathing diagnosis and 20 did not present this alteration; using lateral telerradiography of the head and neck, craniocervical cephalometric analysis was performed of Rocabado and Penning technique was applied, obtaining craniocervical and hyoid measurements, anterior nasopharyngeal dimension and cervical curvature. For the statistical analysis we used the Shapiro-Wilk normality test and the T test for independent samples, considering a value of p <0.05 to obtain significant differences; in those parameters where no normal distribution was presented, the MannWhitney U test was applied. No significant differences were found between the study groups and the cephalometric values ??analyzed, except for the distance between the base of the occipital bone and the posterior arch of the atlas (p=0.03). There are limited cephalometric differences between subjects with oral breathing and nasal breathing, with no association of the nasopharyngeal air space with the breathing modalities studied. Conditions of facial or mandibular morphology should be considered in order to determine more adequately the influence of cephalometric parameters in the diagnosis of the respiratory mode in future studies.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Skull/anatomy & histology , Cervical Vertebrae/anatomy & histology , Hyoid Bone/anatomy & histology , Mouth Breathing , Posture , Skull/diagnostic imaging , Case-Control Studies , Nasal Obstruction , Cervical Vertebrae/diagnostic imaging , Nasopharynx/anatomy & histology , Cephalometry , Teleradiology , Observational Study , Hyoid Bone/diagnostic imaging
J. appl. oral sci ; 27: e20180380, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1012516


Abstract Objective: Three-dimensional (3D) angular measurements between craniofacial planes pose challenges to quantify maxillary and mandibular skeletal discrepancies in surgical treatment planning. This study aims to compare the reproducibility and reliability of two modules to measure angles between planes or lines in 3D virtual surface models. Methodology: Twenty oriented 3D virtual surface models de-identified and constructed from CBCT scans were randomly selected. Three observers placed landmarks and oriented planes to determine angular measurements of pitch, roll and yaw using (1) 3D pre-existing planes, (2) 3D planes created from landmarks and (3) lines created from landmarks. Inter- and intra-observer reproducibility and repeatability were examined using the Intra-Class Correlation (ICC) test. One observer repeated the measurements with an interval of 15 days. ANOVA was applied to compare the 3 methods. Results: The three methods tested provided statistically similar, reproducible and reliable angular measurements of the facial structures. A strong ICC varying from 0.92 to 1.00 was found for the intra-observer agreement. The inter-observer ICC varied from 0.84 to 1.00. Conclusion: Measurements of 3D angles between facial planes in a common coordinate system are reproducible and repeatable either using 3D pre-existing planes, created based on landmarks or angles between lines created from landmarks.

Humans , Skull/anatomy & histology , Cephalometry/methods , Imaging, Three-Dimensional/methods , Face/anatomy & histology , Anatomic Landmarks , Models, Anatomic , Reference Standards , Observer Variation , Cephalometry/instrumentation , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography/methods
Int. j. morphol ; 37(1): 167-173, 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-990022


RESUMEN: El Pudú (Pudu puda), uno de los ciervos más pequeños del mundo y autóctono de Chile, es considerado como vulnerable (VU) en todo el territorio nacional, hay escasa información específica de los sistemas orgánicos que lo componen y cada vez es más común encontrarlos en zonas urbanas. Estas problemáticas hacen despertar la necesidad de fortalecer la investigación y el estudio de esta especie. En consecuencia, en el presente estudio se realizó una descripción anatómica del esqueleto craneal de dos ejemplares de Pudu puda, donde se destacaron sus principales características óseas comparándolas con especies domesticas ya estudiadas (ovino y caprino). Así se logró determinar diferencias entre las especies estudiadas y la necesidad de profundizar el análisis a través de mediciones de las piezas óseas.

SUMMARY: The Pudú (Pudu puda), one of the smallest deer in the world and indigenous to Chile, is considered vulnerable (VU) throughout the national territory, there is little specific information on the organic systems that compose it, and it is becoming more common find them in urban areas. These problems awaken the need to strengthen research and study of this species. Consequently, in the present study an anatomical description of the cranial skeleton of two specimens of Pudú puda was made, where their main bony characteristics were highlighted by comparing them with domestic species already studied (sheep and goats). Thus, it was possible to determine differences between the species studied and the need to deepen the analysis through measurements of the bone pieces.

Animals , Skull/anatomy & histology , Deer/anatomy & histology
Int. j. morphol ; 37(1): 196-204, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-990027


SUMMARY: Zovawk is newly identified breed of pig of Mizoram approved by breed registration committee of Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), New Delhi. This study was designed to provide maximum number of morphometrical parameters of skull and some valuable information on clinically important parameters of Zovawk. The skull of the Zovawk was dolichocephalic according to the cephalic index (53.56±0.11). The supraorbital foramina distance, infraorbital foramina distance, skull length, skull width, cranial length and nasal length of the Zovawk were 3.49±0.01 cm, 6.55±0.01 cm, 28.26±0.03 cm, 15.11±0.26 cm, 13.17±0.04 cm and 13.79±0.02 cm, respectively. The orbital margins were found to be incomplete with bilateral variation among the orbits of both the sides. The distance from the process of alveolar socket of canine tooth to the infraorbital canal and from the latter to the root of the fourth upper premolar alveolar tooth directly ventral to it was 4.77±0.04 cm and 1.20±0.01 cm, respectively in Zovawk. The data are of clinical importance as a guide for tracking the infra-orbital nerve, and necessary for its desensitization during the manipulations in the skin of the upper lip, nostril and face at the level of the foramen. The distance between the lateral end of the alveolus of the third incisor tooth to the mental foramen was 3.57±0.04 cm in Zovawk, which is an important landmark for achieving the location of the mental nerve for the regional nerve block Zovawk. The length and height of the mandible were 25.02±0.09 cm and 10.54±0.07 cm, respectively in Zovawk. The morphometric measurements of the skull and applied anatomy of the head region of the Zovawk provide an important baseline data for further research in the field of applied anatomy.

RESUMEN: Zovawk es una raza de cerdo de Mizoram recientemente identificada, aprobada por el comité de registro de razas del Consejo Indio de Investigación Agrícola (ICAR), Nueva Delhi. Este estudio fue diseñado para proporcionar el número máximo de parámetros morfométricos del cráneo y cierta información valiosa sobre parámetros clínicamente importantes de Zovawk. El cráneo de Zovawk es dolicocefálico según el índice cefálico (53,56 ± 0,11). La distancia de foramina supraorbital, la distancia de foramina infraorbital, la longitud del cráneo, el ancho del cráneo, la longitud craneal y la longitud nasal del Zovawk fueron 3.49 ± 0.01 cm, 6.55 ± 0.01 cm, 28.26 ± 0.03 cm, 15.11 ± 0.26 cm, 13.17 ± 0.04 cm y 13.79 ± 0,02 cm, respectivamente. Se encontró que los márgenes orbitales estaban incompletos con una variación bilateral entre las órbitas de ambos lados. La distancia desde el proceso de la cavidad alveolar del diente canino al canal infraorbitario y desde este último a la raíz del cuarto diente alveolar premolar superior directamente ventral fue de 4.77 ± 0.04 cm y 1.20 ± 0.01 cm, respectivamente, en Zovawk. Los datos son de importancia clínica como guía para el seguimiento del nervio infra-orbital y necesarios para su desensibilización durante las manipulaciones en la piel del labio superior, fosa nasal y cara a nivel del foramen. La distancia entre el extremo lateral del alvéolo del tercer diente incisivo y el foramen mental fue de 3.57 ± 0.04 cm en Zovawk, que es un hito importante para lograr la ubicación del nervio mental para el bloqueo nervioso regional Zovawk. La longitud y la altura de la mandíbula fueron 25.02 ± 0.09 cm y 10.54 ± 0.07 cm, respectivamente, en Zovawk. Las mediciones morfométricas del cráneo y la anatomía aplicada de la región de la cabeza de Zovawk proporcionan datos de referencia importantes para futuras investigaciones en el campo de la anatomía aplicada.

Animals , Head/anatomy & histology , Skull/anatomy & histology , Swine , Reference Parameters , India , Nerve Block
Int. j. morphol ; 37(1): 338-343, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-990048


SUMMARY: Craniofacial morphology is a risk factor for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. The general aim of this study was to investigate the craniofacial shape differences in adults with and without obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, using geometric morphometric methods. A descriptive study conducted in 106 adult Turkish subjects, consisting of 50 patients with OSAS diagnosed by polysomnography and 56 non-OSAS controls. Three dimensional craniofacial scanning processes were performed on patient subjects on the same day as the PSG. Twelve standard craniofacial landmarks were collected from each subject's 3D craniofacial scan. Geometric morphometric analysis was used to compare the craniofacial shape differences between the OSAS and non-OSAS control groups. No statistically significant difference in terms of general shape in face shapes was found between the OSAS group and control group. However, local significance differences were found. There were significant differences between the groups in some of the interlandmark distances: 11 % of the interlandmark distances were greater in OSAS patients, and 29 % were greater in controls. Greater measured distances in OSAS are concentrated in the nasal region. In the control group, the difference is not concentrated in a specific region. Given the relationship of craniofacial structural alterations and sleep disordered breathing, we hypothesized that inter-landmark distance measurements in the craniofacial anatomy of patients might be predictive of OSA.

RESUMEN: La morfología craneofacial es un factor de riesgo para el síndrome de apnea obstructiva del sueño. El objetivo general de este estudio fue investigar las diferencias de forma craneofacial en adultos con y sin síndrome de apnea obstructiva del sueño utilizando métodos morfométricos geométricos. Un estudio descriptivo realizado en 106 sujetos turcos adultos, de 50 pacientes con SAOS diagnosticados mediante polisomnografía y 56 controles no SAOS. El proceso de escaneo craneofacial tridimensional se realizó en pacientes sujetos el mismo día que el PSG. Se recogieron doce puntos de referencia craneofaciales estándar del escaneo craneofacial 3D de cada sujeto. Se usó el análisis morfométrico geométrico para comparar las diferencias de forma craneofacial entre los grupos de control SAOS y no SAOS. No se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en términos de forma general en las formas de la cara entre el grupo SAOS y el grupo control. Sin embargo, se encontraron diferencias de significación local. Hubo diferencias significativas entre los grupos en algunas de las distancias interlandmark: el 11 % de las distancias interlandmark fueron mayores en los pacientes con SAOS y el 29 % en los controles. Las mayores distancias medidas en SAOS se concentran en la región nasal. En el grupo de control, la diferencia no se concentra en una región específica. Dada la relación de las alteraciones estructurales craneofaciales y la alteración de la respiración durante el sueño, planteamos la hipótesis de que las mediciones de distancias inter-hito en la anatomía craneofacial de los pacientes podrían ser predictivas de la SAOS.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Skull/anatomy & histology , Cephalometry/methods , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive , Face/anatomy & histology , Turkey , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Anatomic Landmarks
Clinics ; 74: e781, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989636


OBJECTIVES: The halo ring can be applied in children, through skeletal traction or a halo vest device, to treat many cervical spine pathologies, including traumatic injuries and pathologies related to deformities. However, the procedure is associated with various complications, such as infection, pin loosening, and respiratory and neurological problems. Although widely studied in adults, the best pin insertion site in children and the correlations of pin insertion sites with outcomes and complications have not been completely elucidated. This study aimed to determine alternative pin placement sites based on a morphological analysis of the infant skull by computerized tomography (CT). METHODS: An analytical-descriptive study was performed using 50 CT scans from children. The Wilcoxon and Friedman tests were used. RESULTS: A linear and directly proportional relation was found between cranial thickness and patient age. The average thicknesses of the anterior points across all ages analyzed ranged from 4.16 mm to 4.98 mm. The thicknesses of the posterior points varied from 3.94 mm to 4.27 mm. Within each age range, points 1 cm above the standard insertion sites had thicknesses similar to those of the standard sites, and points 2 cm above the standard insertion sites had thicknesses greater than those of the standard sites. CONCLUSIONS: The cranial thickness at all points increases linearly with age. Points 1 and 2 cm above the standard insertion sites are viable alternatives for the placement of halo pins. Preoperative CT can aid in choosing the best positioning sites for pins in the skull.

Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Orthotic Devices/standards , Skull/diagnostic imaging , Bone Nails/standards , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Skull/anatomy & histology , Preoperative Care/methods , Cervical Vertebrae/injuries , Age Factors , Imaging, Three-Dimensional/methods