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1.
J. bras. pneumol ; 46(3): e20180422, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1101261

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the construct validity and reproducibility of the six-minute step test (6MST) in individuals with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) treated with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Methods: We evaluated 48 volunteers diagnosed with OSA and treated with CPAP for at least two months. The volunteers underwent the six-minute walk test (6MWT) and the 6MST, in random order and on different days, with an interval of, at most, seven days between the two tests. Results: A moderate positive correlation was found between the distance walked on the 6MWT and the number of steps climbed on the 6MST (r = 0.520; p < 0.001). There was no significant difference between the two 6MSTs in terms of the number of steps climbed (121.7 ± 27.1 vs. 123.6 ± 26.7). Reproducibility for performance on the 6MST and for cardiovascular variables was considered excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient > 0.8). Regarding cardiovascular responses, the 6MST produced higher values than did the 6MWT for HR at six minutes, percent predicted maximum HR, and leg fatigue at six minutes, as well as for systolic blood pressure at six minutes and at one minute of recovery. Conclusions: The 6MST is valid and reproducible, producing greater cardiovascular stress than does the 6MWT. However, the 6MST is also characterized as a submaximal test for the assessment of exercise tolerance in individuals with OSA treated with CPAP.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a validade do constructo e a reprodutibilidade do teste de degrau de seis minutos (TD6) em indivíduos com apneia obstrutiva do sono (AOS) tratados com continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP, pressão positiva contínua nas vias aéreas). Métodos: Foram avaliados 48 voluntários com diagnóstico de AOS e tratados com CPAP há, no mínimo, dois meses. Os voluntários foram submetidos ao teste de caminhada de seis minutos (TC6) e ao TD6, em ordem aleatória e em dias diferentes, com um intervalo de, no máximo, sete dias entre os dois testes. Resultados: Foi observada uma correlação positiva moderada entre a distância percorrida no TC6 e o número de subidas no TD6, (r = 0,520; p < 0,001). Não foram encontradas diferenças significativas no número de subidas entre os dois TD6 (121,7 ± 27,1 vs. 123,6 ± 26,7 degraus). A reprodutibilidade para o desempenho no TD6 e para as variáveis cardiovasculares foi considerada excelente (coeficiente de correlação intraclasse > 0,8). Com relação às respostas cardiovasculares, quando comparado ao TC6, o TD6 apresentou maiores valores em relação a FC no sexto minuto, percentual do predito da FC máxima, fadiga de membros inferiores no sexto minuto e pressão arterial sistólica no sexto minuto e no primeiro minuto da fase de recuperação. Conclusões: O TD6 é válido, reprodutível e causa maior estresse cardiovascular quando comparado ao TC6. No entanto, o TD6 também se caracteriza como um teste submáximo para a avaliação da tolerância ao esforço em indivíduos com AOS tratados com CPAP.


Subject(s)
Humans , Exercise Tolerance/physiology , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/therapy , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure/methods , Exercise Test/standards , Reproducibility of Results , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/physiopathology , Exercise Test/methods
2.
Femina ; 47(7): 433-435, 20190731.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1046534

ABSTRACT

Durante a gravidez, a gestante sofre com mudanças fisiológicas e hormonais, podendo alterar seu sono e desenvolver a síndrome da apneia obstrutiva do sono (SAOS). Objetivou-se com o estudo analisar a relação entre SAOS, sobrepeso materno e riscos ao neonato, com buscas nas fontes de dados PubMed, SciELO (Scientific Eletronic Library Online); Lilacs (Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde) e Google Acadêmico. Com o estudo, inferiu-se que a SAOS contribui para a mortalidade hospitalar materna, principalmente, por embolia pulmonar e cardiomiopatia. Em gestantes obesas, essa síndrome apresenta aumento na prevalência riscos de pré-eclâmpsia, aborto e natimortalidade. Quando estão associadas SAOS, gestação e obesidade, há maior risco de o neonato nascer por parto cesariano e ser admitido na unidade de terapia intensiva neonatal. Dessa forma, a apneia obstrutiva do sono influencia tanto a vida de gestantes com peso normal quanto com sobrepeso.(AU)


During pregnancy, the pregnant woman undergoes physiological and hormonal changes, which can alter her sleep and develop obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). The objective of this study was to analyze the relationship between OSAS, maternal overweight and risks to the neonate, with searches in PubMed, SciELO (Scientific Electronic Library Online) data sources; Lilacs (Latin American and Caribbean Literature in Health Sciences) and Google Scholar. With the study, it was inferred that OSAS contributes to maternal hospital mortality, mainly due to pulmonary embolism and cardiomyopathy. In obese pregnant women, this syndrome presents an increase in the prevalence risks of pre-eclampsia, abortion and stillbirth. When OSAS, gestation and obesity are associated, there is a greater risk of the neonate born for cesarean delivery and being admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit. Thus, obstructive sleep apnea influences both the life of normal and overweight pregnant women.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/complications , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/physiopathology , Risk Factors , Databases, Bibliographic , Overweight , Obesity
3.
Neumol. pediátr. (En línea) ; 14(2): 92-94, jul. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1015009

ABSTRACT

Primary Ciliary Diskinesia (PCD) is a heterogeneous, rare genetic disease that can be present in up to 5% of the patients with recurrent respiratory infections. The underlying pathogenesis is disrupted ciliary function which results in delayed mucus transportation leading to chronic inflammation in the upper and lower respiratory tract. Almost all PCD patients have otolaryngologic manifestations, characterized by recurrent ear and sinus infections, chronic inflammation at this level, sensorioneural and conductive hearing loss, and sleep-disordered breathing. This article reviews the diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of these manifestations.


La Disquinesia Ciliar Primaria (DCP) es una enfermedad genética heterogénea rara que puede estar presente en hasta un 5% de los pacientes que presentan infecciones respiratorias a repetición. La patogenia es secundaria a una alteración de la función ciliar que a su vez provoca una alteración del transporte de moco, resultando en una condición inflamatoria crónica en la vía aérea superior e inferior. Las manifestaciones clínicas de la esfera otorrinolaringológica en los pacientes portadores de DCP están presentes prácticamente en la totalidad de los mismos, y se caracterizan por infecciones recidivantes de oídos y cavidades perinasales, inflamación crónica a este nivel, hipoacusia neurosensorial y conductiva, y alteraciones respiratorias durante el sueño. En este artículo se revisarán los aspectos diagnósticos y terapéuticos de dicho compromiso.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adult , Otitis Media/epidemiology , Sinusitis/epidemiology , Rhinitis/epidemiology , Kartagener Syndrome/epidemiology , Otitis Media/therapy , Rhinitis/therapy , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/diagnosis , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/physiopathology
4.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 65(7): 995-1000, July 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013018

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVES Assess the performance of the Stop-Bang questionnaire in Brazilian patients for the screening of OSA. METHODS A cross-sectional study with historical and consecutive analysis of all patients who underwent polysomnography tests in the Sleeping Sector of the Ear, Nose, and Throat, and Cardiopulmonary (LabSono) Departments of the Gaffrée and Guinle University Hospital (HUGG), from 10/17/2011 to 04/16/2015. The variables relating to the SB questionnaire were collected by direct research from the medical records of patients. RESULTS In a series of 83 patients, we found that our sample were similar to other studies conducted in specialized centers of Sleep Medicine, and the population presented characteristics similar to those found by studies in Latin America. Men and women only behaved similarly in relation to the presence of Observed Apnea and body mass index, with a predominance of women who had systemic hypertension over men. In our study, the discriminatory value of 4 or more positive answers to the questionnaire had the best performance in identifying patients with an hourly Apnea-Hypopnea Index greater than 15/h, with a sensitivity of 72.97% (55.9% - 86.2%) and specificity of 67.39% (52.0% - 80.5%). CONCLUSIONS The Stop-Bang questionnaire proved to be, in our sample, a good screening instrument for diagnosing OSA Syndrome.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Avaliar o desempenho no Questionário Stop-Bang (QSB) em pacientes brasileiros para rastrear a Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono. MÉTODO Estudo transversal, com análise histórica e consecutiva de todos os pacientes que realizaram exames de polissonografia pelo Setor de Sono da Otorrinolaringologia e da Cardiopulmonar (LabSono) do Hospital Universitário Gaffrée e Guinle (HUGG), no período de 17/10/2011 a 16/04/2015. As variáveis referentes ao QSB foram colhidas por pesquisa direta nos prontuários dos pacientes. RESULTADOS Numa casuística de 83 pacientes, encontramos amostras semelhantes a outros estudos realizados em Centros Especializados em Medicina do Sono, com características da população semelhantes aos estudos feitos na América Latina. Homens e mulheres só se comportaram de forma semelhante em relação à presença de apneias presenciadas e o índice de massa corporal, com um predomínio de mulheres com hipertensão arterial sistêmica sobre os homens. Em nosso estudo, o valor discriminatório de quatro ou mais respostas positivas ao questionário mostrou o melhor desempenho em identificar pacientes com um índice de apneia/hipopneia por hora maior do que 15/h, obtendo sensibilidade de 72,97% (55,9% - 86,2%) e especificidade de 67,39% (52,0% - 80,5%). CONCLUSÕES O QSB mostrou-se, em nossa amostra, um bom instrumento de rastreio da Síndrome da Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Surveys and Questionnaires/standards , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/diagnosis , Reference Values , Snoring/diagnosis , Severity of Illness Index , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity , Polysomnography/methods , Sex Distribution , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/physiopathology , Middle Aged
5.
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 35(2): 104-110, jun. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1020625

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: El síndrome de apnea obstructiva del sueño (SAHOS) es más prevalente en hombres, los estudios poblacionales muestran una relación de 2:1, sin embargo, en los estudios clínicos la frecuencia llega a ser de hasta de 6:1. Estas diferencias en el ambiente clínico puede ser consecuencia de variaciones en el reporte de síntomas en hombres comparados con mujeres. OBJETIVO: Evaluar las diferencias de género en la presentación clínica de apnea obstructiva de sueño. Pacientes: Estudio transversal de pacientes sometidos a una poligrafía respiratoria (PR) con sospecha clínica de SAHOS. Se recolectaron datos demográficos, antropométricos, comorbilidades y las variables de la PR. Se realizó estudio t de student, Mann-Whitney y chi-cuadrado según correspondiera. RESULTADOS: Se incluyeron 1.044 pacientes: edad promedio 53,2 ± 14 años, 76% hombres. Las mujeres con SAHOS poseen mayor IMC (32,2 ± 6,1 vs 30,8 ± 5,0; p=0,002) y edad (61,4 ± 12,2 vs 52,6 ± 13,9; p < 0,001), pero menor circunferencia de cuello (CC) (38,1 ± 3,6 vs 43,2 ± 3,3; p < 0,001), además, presentan menor IA/H y menor duración de las apneas. No hubo diferencias en los síntomas clásicos de apneas presenciada y somnolencia diurna, sin embargo, describen más frecuentemente insomnio, cefalea matinal, depresión y uso de fármacos hipnóticos. CONCLUSIONES: Las mujeres al momento del diagnóstico son de mayor edad y más obesas, aunque presentan una CC menor, presentan una enfermedad más leve, pero refieren más fatiga, cansancio, cefalea e insomnio. Debemos estar alerta en la presentación clínica diferente de las mujeres para mejorar la sospecha diagnóstica.


INTRODUCTION: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is more prevalent in men, population studies show a ratio of 2:1, however in clinical studies the frequency is as high as 6:1. These differences in the clinical setting may be a consequence of variations in the reporting of symptoms in men compared to women. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate gender differences between women and men with recent diagnosis of OSA. Patients: A cross-sectional, study of patients undergoing home sleep apnea testing (HSAT) with clinical suspicion of OSA. Demographic, anthropometric, comorbidities and HSAT variables were collected. We performed t student analysis, Mann-Whitney test or chi square test as appropriate. RESULTS: 1,044 patients were included: mean age 53.2 ± 14 years, 76% men. Women with OSA have a higher BMI (32.2 ± 6.1 vs 30.8 ± 5.0, p = 0.002), were older (61.4 ± 12.2 vs 52.6 ± 13.9, p <0.001), but have a lower neck circumference (NC) (38.1 ± 3.6 vs. 43.2 ± 3.3, p <0.001). The women presented lower AHI and shorter duration of apneas. Although the classic symptoms of apnea and daytime sleepiness showed no differences, women reported more frequently insomnia, morning headache, depression and use of hypnotic drugs. CONCLUSIONS:: Clinical differences between gender are present at time of diagnosis. Woman are older and more obese, although they have a lower NC. They have a milder disease, but they refer to be more tired, headache, insomnia and depression. We must be alert in the different clinical presentation of women to improve the diagnostic suspicion.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Polysomnography/methods , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/epidemiology , Body Mass Index , Chi-Square Distribution , Comorbidity , Sex Factors , Anthropometry , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Statistics, Nonparametric , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/diagnosis , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/physiopathology
6.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 85(3): 379-387, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011633

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: There is no consensus on a single classification system for the obstructive findings in drug-induced sleep endoscopy. Previous classification systems have neglected to address the upper retropalatal obstruction, the segmental division of the lateral pharyngeal wall and the primary or secondary nature of laryngeal collapse. Objective: To propose, illustrate and evaluate a more comprehensive and yet simple classification for drug-induced sleep endoscopy findings. Methods: Cross sectional study in a tertiary sleep surgery unit. A total of 30 patients with obstructive sleep apnea underwent drug-induced sleep endoscopy according to a new classification system called LwPTL, and its findings were analyzed according to obstructive sleep apnea severity and body mass index. LwPTL incorporates the description of upper retropalatal collapse, distinguishes the lateral pharyngeal wall collapse into three levels and clarify when laryngeal collapses are primary or secondary. Results: 93.3% of the patients presented lateral pharyngeal wall collapse, usually at the level of the velum (73.3%). 80% presented multilevel collapse. Regarding the upper retropalatal region, LwPTL identified 10% of the cases presenting lateral salpingopharyngeal obstruction and 6.6% with high palatal collapse. 3.3% presented epiglottic collapse. Patients presenting lower levels of collapse, either from the lateral wall and/or tongue and/or larynx, represented 30% of the cases and had significantly more severe obstructive sleep apnea, without significant differences in body mass indexes. Conclusion: LwPTL seems a simple and straightforward staging system for classifying drug-induced sleep endoscopy, distinguishing the important upper retopalatal obstruction and the primary and secondary laryngeal collapses, providing more information for appropriate treatment selection.


Resumo Introdução: Não há consenso sobre um sistema único de classificação para os achados obstrutivos da endoscopia do sono induzido por drogas. Os sistemas de classificação anteriores negligenciaram a abordagem da obstrução retropalatal alta, a divisão segmentar da parede lateral da faringe e a natureza primária ou secundária do colapso laríngeo. Objetivo: Propor, ilustrar e avaliar uma classificação mais abrangente e simples para os achados da endoscopia do sono induzido por drogas. Método: Estudo transversal em uma unidade terciária de cirurgia do sono. Foram submetidos à endoscopia do sono induzido por drogas 30 pacientes com apneia obstrutiva do sono, de acordo com um novo sistema de classificação denominado LwPTL, e seus achados foram analisados de acordo com a gravidade da apneia obstrutiva do sono e índice de massa corpórea. O LwPTL incorpora a descrição do colapso retropalatal alto, distingue o colapso da parede faríngea lateral em três níveis e esclarece quando os colapsos laríngeos são primários ou secundários. Resultados: Apresentaram colapso da parede faríngea lateral 93,3% dos pacientes, geralmente no nível do palato mole (73,3%). Em 80% dos pacientes o colapso foi multinível. Em relação à região retropalatal alta, o LwPTL identificou 10% dos casos com obstrução salpingo-faríngea lateral e 6,6% com colapso alto do palato. Em 3,3% ocorreu colapso epiglótico. Pacientes com colapso em regiões baixas, tanto da parede lateral e/ou língua como e/ou laringe, representaram 30% dos casos e apresentaram apneia obstrutiva do sono significativamente mais grave, sem diferenças significantes no índice de massa corpórea. Conclusão: O LwPTL parece um sistema de estadiamento simples e direto para classificar os achados da endoscopia do sono induzido por drogas, distingue a importante obstrução retropalatal alta e os colapsos laríngeos primários e secundários, fornece mais informações para uma seleção adequada do tratamento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pharynx/physiopathology , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/physiopathology , Airway Obstruction/physiopathology , Endoscopy/methods , Hypnotics and Sedatives/administration & dosage , Pharynx/diagnostic imaging , Severity of Illness Index , Cross-Sectional Studies , Polysomnography/methods , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/diagnostic imaging , Airway Obstruction/diagnostic imaging
7.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 63(1): 40-46, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989296

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the influence of obesity on pulmonary function and exercise tolerance in women with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Subjects and methods: A descriptive analytic cross- sectional study was carried out. Thirty-nine (39) sedentary climacteric women, aged 45 to 60 years, were evaluated and submitted to polysomnography. The participants were divided into 4 groups: a) 'eutrophic non-OSA' (n = 13); b) 'eutrophic OSA' (n = 5); c) 'obese non-OSA' (n = 6); d) 'obese OSA' (n = 15). All subjects underwent clinical and anthropometric evaluation, followed by pulmonary function tests and 6-minute walk test (6MWT). Results: There was a significant difference in the predicted percentage values of FEV1/FVC when comparing 'eutrophic OSA' and 'obese OSA' (97.6% ± 6.1% vs. 105.7% ± 5.7%, respectively; p = 0.025). The other spirometric variables did not show any differences between the studied groups. There was no significant difference in the maximum distance walked when the 'eutrophic non-OSA', 'eutrophic OSA', 'obese non-OSA' and 'obese OSA' groups were compared. Conclusion: Considering the results of this study, OSA itself did not influence pulmonary function or functional capacity parameters compared to eutrophic women. However, not only isolated obesity but also obesity associated with OSA can negatively impact sleep quality and lung function.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Functional Residual Capacity/physiology , Exercise Tolerance/physiology , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/physiopathology , Exercise Test/methods , Obesity/physiopathology , Spirometry , Cross-Sectional Studies , Polysomnography , Sedentary Behavior
8.
CoDAS ; 31(3): e20180183, 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001846

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo Este trabalho se propõe a caracterizar o perfil miofuncional orofacial de pacientes com distúrbios do sono e relacionar esses com a gravidade do resultado da polissonografia. Método Estudo transversal, de campo, realizado com pacientes encaminhados para polissonografia, com amostra aleatória, composta por pacientes adultos, de ambos os gêneros, com queixa de ronco e que não estivessem recebendo alguma forma de tratamento para o distúrbio do sono. Foi realizada avaliação fonoaudiológica antroposcópica e coletado o resultado do exame de polissonografia, a fim de responder aos objetivos do trabalho. Resultados Verificou-se associação significativa entre a gravidade do distúrbio de sono e variáveis ambientais, tais como tabagismo e etilismo; também com características individuais, tais como raça, índice de massa corporal, circunferência abdominal e hipertensão arterial sistêmica. Do ponto de vista das características miofuncionais, verificou-se relação positiva entre a gravidade da Síndrome da Apneia e Hipopneia Obstrutiva do Sono com a contração do músculo mentual, classe de Mallampati, elevação de dorso de língua, espessura de língua, características da úvula, extensão e mobilidade de palato mole, e alteração no padrão respiratório. Conclusão A pesquisa possibilitou descrever uma tendência da existência de alterações miofuncionais orofaciais em indivíduos com Síndrome da Apneia e Hipopneia Obstrutiva do Sono e revelou, ainda, que quanto maior o grau de comprometimento das estruturas orofaciais, maior também se revela o grau do distúrbio.


ABSTRACT Purpose This study aims to characterize the orofacial myofunctional profile of patients with sleep disorders and to relate them to the severity of the polysomnography result. Methods A cross-sectional, field study of patients referred to polysomnography with a random sample of adult patients of both genders complaining of snoring who were not receiving any form of treatment for sleep disorder. An anthroposcopic speech-language evaluation was performed and the results of the polysomnography examination were collected in order to respond to the objectives of the study. Results There was a significant association between the severity of the sleep disorder and environmental variables, such as smoking and alcoholism; also with individual characteristics, such as race, body mass index, waist circumference and systemic arterial hypertension. From the point of view of the myofunctional characteristics, there was a positive relationship between the severity of Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Hypopnea Syndrome with mental muscle contraction, Mallampati class, tongue dorsum elevation, tongue thickness, uvula characteristics, extension and mobility of the soft palate, and alteration in the respiratory pattern. Conclusion This study made it possible to describe a trend of the existence of orofacial myofunctional alterations in individuals with Sleep Apnea and Obstructive Hypopnea Syndrome and also revealed that the greater the degree of impairment of orofacial structures, the greater the degree of disturbance is also revealed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Stomatognathic System/physiopathology , Polysomnography , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/diagnosis , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/etiology , Severity of Illness Index , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/physiopathology , Middle Aged
9.
J. bras. pneumol ; 45(4): e20180264, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019983

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To determine whether airway narrowing during obstructive events occurs predominantly at the retropalatal level and results from dynamic changes in the lateral pharyngeal walls and in tongue position. Methods: We evaluated 11 patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and 7 healthy controls without OSA during wakefulness and during natural sleep (documented by full polysomnography). Using fast multidetector CT, we obtained images of the upper airway in the waking and sleep states. Results: Upper airway narrowing during sleep was significantly greater at the retropalatal level than at the retroglossal level in the OSA group (p < 0.001) and in the control group (p < 0.05). The retropalatal airway volume was smaller in the OSA group than in the control group during wakefulness (p < 0.05) and decreased significantly from wakefulness to sleep only among the OSA group subjects. Retropalatal pharyngeal narrowing was attributed to reductions in the anteroposterior diameter (p = 0.001) and lateral diameter (p = 0.006), which correlated with an increase in lateral pharyngeal wall volume (p = 0.001) and posterior displacement of the tongue (p = 0.001), respectively. Retroglossal pharyngeal narrowing during sleep did not occur in the OSA group subjects. Conclusions: In patients with OSA, upper airway narrowing during sleep occurs predominantly at the retropalatal level, affecting the anteroposterior and lateral dimensions, being associated with lateral pharyngeal wall enlargement and posterior tongue displacement.


Resumo Objetivo: Determinar se o estreitamento das vias aéreas durante eventos obstrutivos ocorre predominantemente na região retropalatal e resulta de alterações dinâmicas nas paredes laterais da faringe e na posição da língua. Métodos: Avaliamos 11 pacientes com apneia obstrutiva do sono (AOS) grave (grupo AOS) e 7 indivíduos saudáveis sem AOS (grupo controle) durante a vigília e o sono natural (documentado por meio de polissonografia completa). Por meio de TC multidetectores rápida, obtivemos imagens das vias aéreas superiores no estado de vigília e de sono. Resultados: O estreitamento das vias aéreas superiores durante o sono foi significativamente maior na região retropalatal do que na região retrolingual no grupo AOS (p < 0,001) e no grupo controle (p < 0,05). O volume da via aérea retropalatal foi menor no grupo AOS do que no grupo controle durante a vigília (p < 0,05) e diminuiu significativamente da vigília ao sono apenas no grupo AOS. O estreitamento retropalatal da faringe foi atribuído à redução do diâmetro anteroposterior (p = 0,001) e lateral (p = 0,006), que se correlacionou com o aumento do volume das paredes laterais da faringe (p = 0,001) e o deslocamento posterior da língua (p = 0,001). Não ocorreu estreitamento retrolingual da faringe durante o sono no grupo AOS. Conclusões: Em pacientes com AOS, o estreitamento das vias aéreas superiores durante o sono ocorre predominantemente na região retropalatal e afeta as dimensões anteroposterior e lateral, além de estar relacionado com aumento das paredes laterais da faringe e deslocamento posterior da língua.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Tongue/diagnostic imaging , Pharyngeal Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/diagnostic imaging , Multidetector Computed Tomography/methods , Palate/physiopathology , Palate/pathology , Palate/diagnostic imaging , Pharynx/physiopathology , Pharynx/pathology , Pharynx/diagnostic imaging , Reference Values , Respiratory Tract Diseases/physiopathology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/pathology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Tongue/physiopathology , Tongue/pathology , Wakefulness/physiology , Pharyngeal Diseases/physiopathology , Pharyngeal Diseases/pathology , Case-Control Studies , Polysomnography , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/physiopathology , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/pathology
10.
J. bras. pneumol ; 45(1): e20170333, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-984619

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate quality of life in elderly patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) who have a pacemaker. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving elderly patients (≥ 60 years of age) with a pacemaker. The dependent variable was quality of life, as evaluated with the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). Sociodemographic and clinical parameters, including anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale score), as well as the presence of OSA (defined as an apnea-hypopnea index ≥ 15 events/h), were analyzed as independent variables. Patients with cognitive/neurological deficits or decompensated heart failure were excluded. Results: We evaluated 72 patients, 17 (23.6%) of whom presented OSA. Of those 17 patients, 9 (52.9%) were male. The mean age was 72.3 ± 9.3 years. A diagnosis of OSA was not associated with gender (p = 0.132), age (p = 0.294), or body mass index (p = 0.790). There were no differences between the patients with OSA and those without, in terms of the SF-36 domain scores. Fourteen patients (19.4%) presented moderate or severe anxiety. Of those 14 patients, only 3 (21.4%) had OSA (p = 0.89 vs. no OSA). Twelve patients (16.6%) had moderate or severe depression. Of those 12 patients, only 2 (16.6%) had OSA (p = 0.73 vs. no OSA). Conclusions: In elderly patients with a pacemaker, OSA was not found to be associated with quality of life or with symptoms of anxiety or depression.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a qualidade de vida em idosos portadores de marca-passo e apneia obstrutiva do sono (AOS). Métodos: Estudo de corte transversal com idosos (idade ≥ 60 anos) portadores de marca-passo cardíaco. A variável dependente foi qualidade de vida, avaliada por meio do Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). Dados sociodemográficos e clínicos foram analisados como variáveis independentes, entre os quais ansiedade e depressão (por meio da Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), assim como presença de AOS (definida como um índice de apneia-hipopneia ≥ 15 eventos/h). Pacientes com déficits cognitivos/neurológicos ou descompensação cardíaca foram excluídos. Resultados: A amostra foi composta por 72 pacientes, 17 dos quais (23,6%) apresentaram AOS - 9 homens (52,9%). A média de idade foi de 72,3 ± 9,3 anos. Não houve associações de presença de AOS com sexo (p = 0,132), idade (p = 0,294) e índice de massa corpórea (p = 0,790). Não foram observadas diferenças dos domínios do SF-36 entre os grupos com e sem AOS. Em relação à ansiedade, 14 pacientes (19,4%) apresentaram sintomas moderados ou graves, dos quais apenas 3 (21,4%) tinham AOS (p = 0,89 vs. sem AOS). No tocante à depressão, 12 pacientes (16,6%) apresentaram sintomas moderados ou graves, dos quais 2 (16,6%) tinham AOS (p = 0,73 vs. sem AOS). Conclusões: Nesta amostra em idosos portadores de marca-passo, a presença de AOS não foi associada a qualidade de vida e sintomas de ansiedade e depressão.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Pacemaker, Artificial/psychology , Quality of Life/psychology , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/physiopathology , Anxiety/physiopathology , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Severity of Illness Index , Cross-Sectional Studies , Age Factors , Statistics, Nonparametric , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/psychology , Depression/physiopathology , Self Report
11.
J. bras. pneumol ; 45(3): e20180085, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012554

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate the extent to which exercise is associated with symptoms in patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Methods: We included subjects with an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) > 30 events/h who completed validated sleep and exercise questionnaires. We compared symptom frequency/scores between exercisers and nonexercisers, adjusting for the usual confounders. Results: The sample included 907 nonexercisers and 488 exercisers (mean age, 49 ± 14 years; mean AHI, 53 ± 20 events/h; 81% men). Nonexercisers and exercisers differed significantly in terms of obesity (72% vs. 54%), the mean proportion of sleep in non-rapid eye movement stage 3 sleep (9 ± 8% vs. 11 ± 6%), and tiredness (78% vs. 68%). Nonexercisers had a higher symptom frequency/scores and poorer sleep quality. Adjustment for exercise weakened the associations between individual symptoms and the AHI, indicating that exercise has a mitigating effect. In binary logistic models, exercise was associated with approximately 30% lower adjusted questionnaire1 score > 2, tiredness; poor-quality sleep, unrefreshing sleep, and negative mood on awakening. Although the odds of an Epworth Sleepiness Scale score > 10 were lower in exercisers, that association did not withstand adjustment for confounders. Conclusions: Exercise is associated with lower frequency/intensity of symptoms in patients with severe OSA. Because up to one third of patients with severe OSA might exercise regularly and therefore be mildly symptomatic, it is important not to rule out a diagnosis of OSA in such patients.


RESUMO Objetivo: Investigar até que ponto o exercício está associado a sintomas em pacientes com apneia obstrutiva do sono (AOS) grave. Métodos: Foram incluídos indivíduos com um índice de apneia-hipopneia (IAH) > 30 eventos/h que completaram questionários de sono e exercício validados. Comparamos a frequência/pontuação de sintomas entre praticantes e não praticantes de exercícios, ajustados para os fatores de confusão habituais. Resultados: A amostra incluiu 907 não praticantes e 488 praticantes (idade média de 49 ± 14 anos; IAH médio, 53±20 eventos/h; 81% homens). Não praticantes e praticantes diferiram significativamente em termos de obesidade (72% vs. 54%), proporção média de sono em estágio de sono 3 com non-rapid eye movement (9 ± 8% vs. 11 ± 6%) e cansaço (78% vs. 68%). Os não praticantes tiveram uma maior frequência/pontuação de sintomas e uma pior qualidade do sono. O ajuste para exercício enfraqueceu as associações entre sintomas individuais e o IAH, indicando que o exercício tem um efeito atenuante. Nos modelos logísticos binários, o exercício foi associado a uma redução de aproximadamente 30% no escore > 2 no questionário ajustado1 para cansaço; sono de má qualidade, sono não reparador e humor negativo ao despertar. Embora as chances de um escore >10 na Escala de Sonolência de Epworth ter sido menor nos praticantes, essa associação não resistiu ao ajuste para fatores de confusão. Conclusões: O exercício está associado a uma menor frequência/intensidade de sintomas em pacientes com AOS grave. Como até um terço dos pacientes com AOS grave pode se exercitar regularmente e, portanto, ser levemente sintomático, é importante não descartar um diagnóstico de AOS nesses pacientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Sleep/physiology , Exercise/physiology , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/physiopathology , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/prevention & control , Exercise Therapy/methods , Reference Values , Body Mass Index , Logistic Models , Sex Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Age Factors , Polysomnography/methods , Sleepiness
12.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 78(6): 427-435, Dec. 2018. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-976141

ABSTRACT

El accidente cerebrovascular, una de las principales causas de discapacidad y muerte a nivel global, se asocia con frecuencia al síndrome de apneas-hipopneas obstructivas del sueño. Se ha demostrado que este trastorno del sueño es un factor de riesgo independiente de accidente cerebrovascular, por lo que se ha recomendado su estudio y tratamiento. Entre los mecanismos que relacionan estos dos cuadros clínicos se destacan: el estrés oxidativo, las alteraciones del flujo sanguíneo cerebral, la disfunción autonómica y la hipercoagulabilidad, como también la persistencia del foramen oval, la hipertensión arterial y los trastornos del ritmo cardiaco. Evidencias incipientes tienden a respaldar el tratamiento del accidente cerebrovascular con presión positiva continua en la vía aérea, pero aún son necesarios más ensayos clínicos aleatorizados para avalar ese tratamiento. Este trabajo presenta una revisión de la literatura sobre epidemiología, fisiopatología, clínica y tratamiento del síndrome de apneas-hipopneas asociado al accidente cerebrovascular.


Stroke, one of the main causes of disability and death worldwide, is frequently associated to the obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome. This sleep disorder has been demonstrated to be an independent risk factor for stroke, and therefore its investigation and treatment has been recommended for patients with stroke. Mechanisms relating these two clinical disorders include: oxidative stress, cerebral blood flow alterations, autonomic dysfunction, and hypercoagulability, as well as patent foramen ovale, blood pressure, and heart rhythm disorders. Increasing amount of evidence supports continuous airway positive pressure therapy in patients with stroke, but further randomized clinical trials are needed to obtain solid conclusions. This work reviews the literature on epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical assessment, and treatment of apnea-hypopnea syndrome in patients with stroke.


Subject(s)
Humans , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/complications , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/physiopathology , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/physiopathology , Risk Factors , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/diagnosis , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/therapy , Stroke/therapy , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure
13.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 111(3): 364-372, Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973751

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Chagas Disease (CD) is an important cause of morbimortality due to heart failure and malignant arrhythmias worldwide, especially in Latin America. Objective: To investigate the association of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) with heart remodeling and cardiac arrhythmias in patients CD. Methods: Consecutive patients with CD, aged between 30 to 65 years old were enrolled. Participants underwent clinical evaluation, sleep study, 24-hour Holter monitoring, echocardiogram and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Results: We evaluated 135 patients [age: 56 (45-62) years; 30% men; BMI: 26 ± 4 kg/m2, Chagas cardiomyopathy: 70%]. Moderate to severe OSA (apnea-hypopnea index, AHI, ≥ 15 events/h) was present in 21% of the patients. OSA was not associated with arrhythmias in this population. As compared to patients with mild or no OSA, patients with moderate to severe OSA had higher frequency of hypertension (79% vs. 72% vs. 44%, p < 0.01) higher nocturnal systolic blood pressure: 119 ± 17 vs. 113 ± 13 vs. 110 ± 11 mmHg, p = 0.01; larger left atrial diameter [37 (33-42) vs. 35 (33-39) vs. 33 (30-36) mm, p < 0.01]; and a greater proportion of left ventricular dysfunction [LVEF < 50% (39% vs. 28% vs. 11%), p < 0.01], respectively. Predictor of left atrial dimension was Log10 (AHI) (b = 3.86, 95% CI: 1.91 to 5.81; p < 0.01). Predictors of ventricular dysfunction were AHI > 15 events/h (OR = 3.61, 95% CI: 1.31 - 9.98; p = 0.01), systolic blood pressure (OR = 1.06, 95% CI: 1.02 - 1.10; p < 0.01) and male gender (OR = 3.24, 95% CI: 1.31 - 8.01; p = 0.01). Conclusions: OSA is independently associated with atrial and ventricular remodeling in patients with CD.


Resumo Fundamento: A doença de Chagas (DC) é uma causa importante de morbimortalidade por insuficiência cardíaca e arritmias malignas em todo o mundo, especialmente na América Latina. Objetivo: Investigar a associação entre apneia obstrutiva do sono (AOS) com remodelação cardíaca e arritmias cardíacas em pacientes com DC. Métodos: Foram incluídos pacientes consecutivos com DC, com idade entre 30 e 65 anos. Os participantes foram submetidos à avaliação clínica, estudo do sono, Holter de 24 horas, ecocardiograma e monitorização ambulatorial da pressão arterial. Resultados: Foram avaliados 135 pacientes [idade: 56 (45-62) anos; 30% homens; IMC: 26 ± 4 kg/m2, cardiomiopatia chagásica: 70%]. AOS moderada a grave (índice de apneia-hipopneia, IAH, ≥ 15 eventos/h) estava presente em 21% dos pacientes. AOS não estava associada a arritmias nessa população. Em comparação com pacientes com AOS leve ou ausente, pacientes com AOS moderada a grave apresentaram maior frequência de hipertensão (79% vs. 72% vs. 44%, p < 0,01) e pressão arterial sistólica noturna mais alta: 119 ± 17 vs. 113 ± 13 vs. 110 ± 11 mmHg, p = 0,01; diâmetro do átrio esquerdo maior [37 (33‑42) vs. 35 (33-39) vs. 33 (30-36) mm, p < 0,01]; e maior proporção de disfunção ventricular esquerda [FEVE < 50% (39% vs. 28% vs. 11%), p < 0,01], respectivamente. O preditor de dimensão do átrio esquerdo foi Log10 (IAH) (β = 3,86, IC 95%: 1,91 a 5,81; p < 0,01). Os preditores de disfunção ventricular foram IAH >15 eventos/h (OR = 3,61, IC 95%: 1,31 - 9,98; p = 0,01), pressão arterial sistólica (OR = 1,06, IC95%: 1,02 - 1,10; p < 0,01) e sexo masculino (OR = 3,24, IC 95%: 1,31 - 8,01; p = 0,01). Conclusões: A AOS está independentemente associada à remodelação atrial e ventricular em pacientes com DC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/etiology , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/complications , Ventricular Remodeling , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/etiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/physiopathology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/pathology , Reference Values , Severity of Illness Index , Echocardiography , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/physiopathology , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/pathology , Anthropometry , Multivariate Analysis , Analysis of Variance , Electrocardiography, Ambulatory , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Statistics, Nonparametric , Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/physiopathology , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/pathology , Heart Atria/physiopathology , Heart Atria/pathology
14.
J. bras. pneumol ; 44(4): 279-284, July-Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-975931

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate lung function and inspiratory muscle strength, correlating them with exercise tolerance, in obese individuals with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). Methods: The sample comprised 31 adult subjects with moderate-to-severe OSAS diagnosed by polysomnography. We used spirometry to measure FVC, FEV1, and FVC/FEV1 ratio, using pressure manometry to measure MIP and MEP. The incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT) and the six-minute walk test (6MWT) were used in order to determine functional exercise capacity. Results: In this sample, the mean values for FVC (% of predicted), FEV1 (% of predicted): MIP, and MEP were 76.4 ± 12.3%, 80.1 ± 6.3%, 60.0 ± 21.9 cmH2O, and 81.3 ± 22.2 cmH2O, respectively. The mean distances covered on the ISWT and 6MWT were 221 ± 97 m and 480.8 ± 67.3 m, respectively. The ISWT distance showed moderate positive correlations with FVC (r = 0.658; p = 0.001) and FEV1 (r = 0.522; p = 0.003). Conclusions: In this sample of obese subjects with untreated OSAS, lung function, inspiratory muscle strength, and exercise tolerance were all below normal. In addition, we found that a decline in lung function, but not in respiratory muscle strength, was associated with exercise tolerance in these patients.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar e correlacionar a função pulmonar e a força muscular inspiratória com a tolerância ao esforço em indivíduos obesos com síndrome de apneia obstrutiva do sono (SAOS). Métodos: Foram recrutados 31 adultos com diagnóstico de SAOS de moderada a grave através do exame de polissonografia. Os participantes foram submetidos à espirometria para a medida de CVF, VEF1 e relação CVF/VEF1, assim como à manovacuometria para a medida de PImáx e PEmáx. Para a determinação da capacidade funcional de exercício foram realizados o teste shuttle (TS) e o teste de caminhada de seis minutos (TC6). Resultados: Na amostra, as médias de CVF (% do previsto), VEF1 (% do previsto), PImáx e PEmáx foram de 76,4 ± 12,3%, 80,1 ± 6,3%, 60,0 ± 21,9 cmH2O e 81,3 ± 22,2 cmH2O, respectivamente. As médias das distâncias percorridas no TS e no TC6 foram de 221 ± 97 m e 480,8 ± 67,3 m, respectivamente. Houve correlações moderadas positivas entre a distância percorrida no TS e CVF (r = 0,658; p = 0,001) e entre a distância no TS e VEF1 (r = 0,522; p = 0,003). Conclusões: Nesta amostra de indivíduos obesos com SAOS não tratada, houve reduções na função pulmonar, força muscular inspiratória e capacidade física. Além disso, observou-se que o declínio da função pulmonar, mas não da força muscular respiratória, estava associado à tolerância ao esforço físico nestes pacientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Respiratory Muscles/physiopathology , Inspiratory Capacity/physiology , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/physiopathology , Muscle Strength/physiology , Obesity/physiopathology , Spirometry , Body Mass Index , Cross-Sectional Studies , Exercise Tolerance , Muscle Stretching Exercises
15.
J. bras. pneumol ; 44(3): 202-206, May-June 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-954549

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate whether the presence of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) alters the perception of respiratory symptoms and quality of life in COPD patients, by using specific questionnaires, as well as to determine whether scales for assessing daytime sleepiness and for screening for OSAS can be used in the triad of OSAS, COPD, and obesity. Methods: We included 66 patients diagnosed with mild-to-moderate or severe COPD and presenting with a body mass index > 27 kg/m2. After polysomnography, patients completed the Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS), the Berlin questionnaire (BQ), the modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) scale, the Baseline Dyspnea Index (BDI), and the Saint George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ). Results: Patients were first divided into two groups: COPD + OSAS (n = 46); and COPD-only (n = 20). The COPD + OSAS group was subdivided into a COPD + mild-to-moderate OSAS group (n = 32) and a COPD + severe OSAS group (n = 14), all of which were compared with the COPD-only group. There was a significant difference in mean FEV1 (L) between the COPD + OSAS groups and the COPD-only group (p = 0.073). The presence of the triad did not lead to significantly higher ESS scores, and scores > 10 had a specificity of 0.58. The BQ did not identify high risk for OSAS in the presence of the triad (specificity of 0.31). There were no significant differences in domain or total scores of the SGRQ between the COPD + OSAS groups and the COPD-only group. Conclusions: The confounding factors present in the triad of OSAS, COPD, and obesity prevented the perception of increased daytime sleepiness and high risk for OSAS. We observed no worsening of dyspnea perception or quality of life.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar se a presença de síndrome da apneia obstrutiva do sono (SAOS) modifica a percepção de queixas respiratórias e de qualidade de vida em pacientes com DPOC por meio de questionários específicos, além de verificar se escalas de sonolência diurna e de rastreamento para SAOS podem ser empregadas na tríade SAOS, DPOC e obesidade. Métodos: Foram incluídos no estudo 66 portadores diagnosticados com DPOC leve/moderada ou grave e com índice de massa corpórea > 27 kg/m2. Após a polissonografia, foram aplicados escala de sonolência de Epworth (ESE), Questionário de Berlim (QB), escala modificada do Medical Research Council (mMRC), Baseline Dyspnea Index (BDI) e Saint George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ). Resultados: Foram analisados os grupos DPOC e SAOS (n = 46) vs. DPOC sem SAOS (n = 20). Do primeiro grupo, foram formados os subgrupos DPOC+SAOS leve/moderada (n = 32) e DPOC+SAOS grave (n = 14), que foram comparados com o grupo DPOC sem SAOS. Houve diferença significativa nas médias de VEF1 (l) entre os grupos DPOC com e sem SAOS (p = 0,073). A presença da tríade não aumentou significativamente o escore de ESE, tendo o escore > 10 especificidade de 0,58. O QB não identificou alto risco para SAOS na presença da tríade (especificidade de 0,31). Não houve diferenças significativas nos domínios e no escore total do SGRQ entre os grupos DPOC com e sem SAOS. Conclusões: Os fatores de confusão presentes na tríade SAOS, DPOC e obesidade impediram a percepção de maior sonolência diurna e de risco elevado de SAOS. Não foi identificada piora na percepção de dispneia e na qualidade de vida.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Quality of Life , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/physiopathology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/physiopathology , Obesity/physiopathology , Reference Values , Sleep/physiology , Severity of Illness Index , Body Mass Index , Vital Capacity/physiology , Forced Expiratory Volume/physiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Polysomnography , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/complications , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Sleepiness , Obesity/complications
16.
Neumol. pediátr. (En línea) ; 13(2): 56-60, mar. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-915604

ABSTRACT

The sleep physiology associated to high altitude hypobaric hypoxia is different from that observed at sea level. Normal parameters set by the North American and European consensus for interpretation of polysomnography (PSM) do not apply to high altitude (HA) conditions. This article reviews the PSM studies carried out in children at altitudes >2,500 m and provides a comparison with studies undertaken at sea level. The importance of interpreting PSM taking HA normal values into consideration is highlighted.


La fisiología del sueño, en el entorno de la hipoxia hipobárica que caracteriza a la altura, es diferente de la del nivel del mar. Los parámetros de normalidad de la polisomnografía (PSM) de los consensos norteamericano y europeo no son aplicables en la gran altura. Este artículo revisa los estudios publicados sobre PSM en niños en lugares ubicados por encima de los 2.500 metros y los compara con los del nivel del mar. Se insiste en la necesidad de interpretar la PSM de acuerdo a la normalidad de la altura donde se realizó.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Sleep/physiology , Polysomnography/methods , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/physiopathology , Altitude , Oxygen Consumption , Oximetry , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/diagnosis
17.
J. bras. pneumol ; 44(1): 65-68, Jan.-Feb. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893888

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Sleep studies conducted at an altitude that is different from the home altitude can yield misleading results regarding the severity of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The objective of the present study was to determine the sleep characteristics of a patient undergoing polysomnography (PSG) in three Colombian cities at different altitudes (Bogotá, at 2,640 m above sea level [ASL]; Bucaramanga, at 959 m ASL; and Santa Marta, at 15 m ASL). The patient was an obese man with diabetes and suspected OSA. All PSG recordings were scored and interpreted in accordance with American Academy of Sleep Medicine criteria. In Bogotá, PSG revealed moderate OSA (an apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] of 21 events/h); in Bucaramanga, PSG revealed increased upper airway resistance (an AHI of 2 events/h); in Santa Marta, PSG revealed mild OSA (an AHI of 7 events/h). The reduction in the AHI was predominantly a reduction in hypopneas and obstructive apneas. The respiratory events were shorter in duration in the city at an intermediate altitude. Given that the AHI varied widely across cities, we can assume that the patient is normal or has moderate OSA depending on the city where he is. Central apneas were found to have no influence on the AHI.


RESUMO Estudos do sono realizados a uma altitude diferente da altitude do local onde se vive podem produzir resultados enganosos quanto à gravidade da apneia obstrutiva do sono (AOS). O objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar as características do sono de um paciente submetido a polissonografia (PSG) em três cidades colombianas a diferentes altitudes [Bogotá, a 2.640 m acima do nível do mar (ANM); Bucaramanga, a 959 m ANM e Santa Marta, a 15 m ANM]. O paciente era um homem obeso com diabetes e suspeita de AOS. Os dados obtidos receberam pontuação e foram interpretados de acordo com os critérios da American Academy of Sleep Medicine. Em Bogotá, a PSG revelou AOS moderada [índice de apneias e hipopneias (IAH) = 21 eventos/h]; em Bucaramanga, a PSG revelou aumento da resistência das vias aéreas superiores (IAH = 2 eventos/h); em Santa Marta, a PSG revelou AOS leve (IAH = 7 eventos/h). A redução do IAH foi predominantemente uma redução de hipopneias e apneias obstrutivas. Os eventos respiratórios tiveram menor duração na cidade a uma altitude intermediária. Como houve grande diferença entre as cidades quanto ao IAH, pode-se concluir que o paciente é normal ou apresenta AOS moderada dependendo da cidade onde está. As apneias centrais não influenciaram o IAH.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Sleep/physiology , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/physiopathology , Altitude , Reference Values , Cities , Polysomnography/methods , Colombia , Sleep Apnea, Central/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus/physiopathology
18.
Clinics ; 73: e355, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-952811

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To compare subjective sleep evaluation obtained using four questionnaires with polysomnography results for individuals with and without obstructive sleep apnea. METHODS: Observational and analytical study in which individuals underwent polysomnography were studied retrospectively to investigate sleep disorders. We compared subjective data from a research database used to predict obstructive sleep apnea based on the STOP-BANG questionnaire, evaluation of excessive daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale), sleep quality questionnaire (Mini Sleep Questionnaire) and Post-Sleep Data Collection Instrument with the self-reported total sleep time and sleep-onset latency for subjects with and without obstructive sleep apnea. RESULTS: The STOP-BANG questionnaire was a good predictor for the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea. However, the other instruments did not show a significant difference between healthy and sick individuals. Patients' perceptions of their sleep onset time were significantly lower than the polysomnographic data, but this difference remained for both subjects with and without obstructive sleep apnea. No difference was found between the subjective duration of sleep and the total sleep time assessed by polysomnography in either the healthy subjects or the patients. CONCLUSION: Except for the STOP-BANG questionnaire, subjective evaluation of sleepiness, sleep quality, perception of onset, and total sleep time are not important parameters for the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea, which reinforces the need for an active search for better management of these patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Polysomnography/standards , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/diagnosis , Diagnostic Self Evaluation , Self Report/standards , Sleep/physiology , Time Factors , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Statistics, Nonparametric , Risk Assessment , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/physiopathology
19.
In. Irizaga, Gonzalo; Rodríguez, Ana María. Perioperatorio del paciente con patología respiratoria y cirugía torácica. Montevideo, BiblioMédica, 2018. p.61-75, tab.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1342541
20.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 75(11): 785-788, Nov. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888264

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT In stroke patients particularly, many factors, such as sleep-related respiratory disturbances, can impair sleep. Cheap and easy-to-use tools have been created to identify sleep quality and sleep disturbances in patients after stroke. This study described the scores of the sleep apnea screening questionnaire - STOP-BANG - in patients after a stroke, and correlated the findings with sleep quality measured by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). The scores of the STOP-BANG and PSQI were 4.3 ± 1.8 and 76 ± 3.9, respectively. The STOP-BANG scores were higher in poor sleepers (4.5 ± 1.6 versus 3.5 ± 1.9; p = 0.032). Logistic regression analysis was used to identify predictors of subjective sleep quality (PSQI) and the STOP-BANG as a predictor of poor quality sleep, with a relative risk of 1.6, controlled for age and sex. This study indicated that sleep quality was largely influenced by sleep breathing problems, which were well identified by the STOP-BANG, especially in younger stroke patients.


RESUMO Especialmente em pacientes com acidente vascular cerebral (AVC), muitos fatores prejudicam o sono, como distúrbios respiratórios do sono (DRS). Ferramentas mais baratas foram usadas para identificar a qualidade do sono e distúrbios do sono após AVC. Este estudo verificou a influência das queixas DRS na qualidade do sono após AVC utilizando questionários. Nós investigamos a qualidade do sono eo risco de Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono com o Índice de Qualidade do Sono de Pittsburgh (PSQI) e Stop-Bang em 68 pacientes após AVC. As pontuações de STOP-BANG e PSQI foram de 4,3 ± 1,8 e 7,6 ± 3,9, respectivamente. As pontuações de STOP-BANG foram mais elevadas em pacientes com sono ruim (4,5 ± 1,6 versus 3,5 ± 1,9; p = 0,032). A regressão logística caracterizou o STOP-BANG como preditor de um sono de má qualidade. Estes achados confirmam a influência das queixas respiratórias noturnas na qualidade do sono após AVC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Stroke/complications , Surveys and Questionnaires , Risk Factors , Polysomnography , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/etiology , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/physiopathology , Stroke/physiopathology
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