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1.
Alerta (San Salvador) ; 5(1): 50-56, ene. 28, 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1354461

ABSTRACT

Las tecnologías de información y comunicación suponen un avance para la sociedad. Hoy en día, los dispositivos móviles proveen servicios convenientes para la cotidianidad, facilitando la comunicación, el ocio y las relaciones interpersonales, sin embargo, se describe que su uso excesivo influye en la aparición de síntomas como ansiedad, comportamientos adictivos y alteraciones del sueño. De todos los usuarios de estas tecnologías, los adolescentes son un grupo especialmente afectado, debido al fácil acceso a estas desde edades muy tempranas y la consecuente integración a su vida diaria. Por lo que se pretende determinar el papel del uso de dispositivos móviles en el desarrollo de trastornos del sueño en adolescentes. Pese a sus efectos deletéreos, se ha observado que el uso de estas tecnologías puede ocasionar sensación de bienestar y apoyo social en algunos usuarios, particularmente cuando promueve la interacción con sus pares. El uso excesivo de las tecnologías, en especial horas antes de dormir, se relaciona con un patrón de sueño anómalo, se ha identificado que los trastornos del sueño más prevalentes en los usuarios son el insomnio y la somnolencia diurna excesiva


Information and communication technologies represent an advance for society. Nowadays, mobile devices provide convenient services for everyday life, facilitating communication, leisure and interpersonal relationships, however, it is described that their excessive use influences the appearance of symptoms such as anxiety, addictive behaviors and sleep disturbances. Of all the users of these technologies, adolescents are a particularly affected group, due to the easy access to them from a very early age and the consequent integration into their daily lives. Therefore, it is intended to determine the role of the use of mobile devices in the development of sleep disorders in adolescents. Despite their deleterious effects, it has been observed that the use of these technologies can cause a feeling of well-being and social support in some users, particularly when it promotes interaction with their peers. The excessive use of technologies, especially hours before bed, is related to an abnormal sleep pattern, it has been identified that the most prevalent sleep disorders in users are insomnia and excessive daytime sleepiness


Subject(s)
Sleep Wake Disorders , Technology , Adolescent , Behavior, Addictive , Disorders of Excessive Somnolence , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Anxiety , Sleep , Computers, Handheld
2.
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 30: e3577, 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1376970

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo: identificar as possíveis associações entre a qualidade do sono, as variáveis pessoais e laborais e os hábitos de vida de enfermeiros hospitalares. Método: estudo transversal, exploratório, correlacional, quantitativo, realizado no período de outubro a dezembro de 2019. Os dados foram coletados com a aplicação de um questionário que abordou as características pessoais, hábitos de vida e as condições de trabalho dos pesquisados. Para avaliação da qualidade do sono, utilizou-se a Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), versão do português do Brasil. Resultados: participaram 42 profissionais, 31 (73,8%) mulheres, entre 26-66 anos (média de 40,2); 61,9% realizavam horas extras; 26,2% possuíam duplo vínculo empregatício e 40,5% tiveram ausências no trabalho. A qualidade do sono foi considerada boa por 9,5% dos participantes, má por 64,3% e com distúrbios do sono por 26,2%. Na população que realizava turnos rotativos, essa qualidade foi identificada como má por 26,2%. Os piores resultados foram encontrados na faixa etária de 30-39 anos e houve significância estatística na variável "viver com companheiro(a)". Conclusão: houve prejuízo na qualidade de sono dos enfermeiros; há a necessidade de monitoramento desses trabalhadores, particularmente dos que realizam trabalhos em turnos, com o intuito de propiciar medidas preventivas, visando mitigar os danos à sua saúde.


Abstract Objective: to identify the possible associations between sleep quality, personal and work variables and the life habits of hospital nurses. Method: a cross-sectional, exploratory, correlational and quantitative study, carried out from October to December 2019. The data were collected with the application of a questionnaire that addressed the respondents' personal characteristics, life habits and working conditions. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Brazilian Portuguese version, was used to assess sleep quality. Results: the participants were 42 professionals: 31 (73.8%) women, aged between 26 and 66 years old (mean of 40.2); 61.9% worked overtime; 26.2% had two employment contracts and 40.5% had absences from work. Sleep quality was considered good by 9.5% of the participants, poor by 64.3% and categorized as with sleep disorders by 26.2%. In the population that worked rotating shifts, this quality was identified as poor by 26.2%. The worst results were found in the age group from 30 to 39 years old and there was a statistical significance in the "living with a partner" variable. Conclusion: there was impairment in the nurses' sleep quality and there is a need to monitor these workers, particularly those who work in shifts, in order to provide preventive measures to mitigate the harms to their health.


Resumen Objetivo: identificar posibles asociaciones entre la calidad de sueño, las variables personales y laborales y los estilo de vida de los enfermeros de hospital. Método: estudio transversal, exploratorio, correlacional, cuantitativo, realizado de octubre a diciembre de 2019. Los datos fueron recolectados mediante un cuestionario que abordó las características personales, estilo de vida y condiciones de trabajo de los encuestados. Para evaluar la calidad de sueño, se utilizó el Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PCSI), versión en portugués de Brasil. Resultados: participaron 42 profesionales, 31 (73,8%) mujeres, con edad entre 26 y 66 años (media 40,2); el 61,9% trabajaba horas extras; el 26,2% tenía dos vínculos laborales y el 40,5% faltó al trabajo. La calidad de sueño fue considerada buena por el 9,5% de los participantes, mala por el 64,3% y con trastornos del sueño por el 26,2%. El 26,2% de la población que hacía turnos rotativos, calificó la calidad como mala. Los peores resultados se encontraron en la franja etaria de 30 a 39 años y hubo significación estadística en la variable "vive en pareja". Conclusión: la calidad de sueño de los enfermeros se vio afectada; es necesario monitorear a estos trabajadores, en particular a los que trabajan por turnos, a fin de implementar medidas preventivas que reduzcan los daños a su salud.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Quality of Life , Sleep Wake Disorders , Working Conditions , Surveys and Questionnaires , Occupational Health , Nurses
3.
Rev. Méd. Inst. Mex. Seguro Soc ; 59(6): 551-559, 01-dic-2021. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1357567

ABSTRACT

Introducción: el buen sueño es esencial para la salud física y mental a lo largo de la vida. Sin embargo, existen pocos reportes sobre los problemas del sueño que enferentan las personas mayores que viven en la comunidad. Objetivo: describir la prevalencia de los principales problemas de sueño y su relación con condiciones médicas en las personas mayores que viven en la comunidad. Material y métodos: estudio transversal descriptivo con 1678 personas de 60 años y más, derechohabientes del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS) en la Ciudad de México. Se evaluó la duración del sueño, la calidad del sueño, la somnolencia diurna, el insomnio y el riesgo de apnea obstructiva de sueño, junto con algunas variables sociodemográficas y condiciones médicas. Resultados: las personas mayores reportaron dormir, en promedio, 6.04 (± 1.5) horas por noche; el 49.1% tenía baja calidad del sueño y el 19.1% experimentaba somnolencia diurna; el 30.8% presentó insomnio y el 27.5% tenía riesgo de apnea obstructiva del sueño. Se observó un patrón de mayor prevalencia de problemas de sueño en las personas mayores con depresión, deterioro cognitivo, dificultades para realizar actividades básicas de la vida diaria y en quienes consumían medicamentos para el sistema nervioso. Conclusiones: este estudio mostró que las personas mayores duermen pocas horas, tienen baja calidad de sueño y prevalencia alta de trastornos del sueño. La identificación y el tratamiento de los problemas del sueño en las personas mayores debe ser una prioridad en el IMSS.


Background: Good sleep is essential for physical and mental health throughout life. However, there are few reports describing the sleep problems experienced by community-dwelling older people. Objective: To describe the prevalence of sleep disorders and their relationship with medical conditions in community-dwelling older people. Methods: Cross-sectional study with 1678 older people (60 years and over) from the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS) in Mexico City. Sleep duration, sleep quality, daytime sleepiness, insomnia and risk of obstructive sleep apnea were evaluated, alongside with sociodemographic variables and medical conditions. Results: Participants self-reported an average sleep duration of 6.04 (± 1.5) hours per night, approximately half had poor sleep quality (49.1%), and 2 out of 10 experienced daytime sleepiness (19.1%); one third had insomnia (30.8%) and risk of obstructive sleep apnea (27.5%). A pattern of higher prevalence of sleep problems was observed in older adults with depression, with cognitive impairment, with difficulties in basic activities of daily living and in those taking medications for the nervous system. Conclusions: This study showed that older people sleep few hours, have low sleep quality, and have a high prevalence of sleep disorders. The identification and treatment of sleep disordes in older people should be a priority in the IMSS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Mental Health , Cross-Sectional Studies , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive , Geriatrics , Mexico , Sleep Wake Disorders , Aging , Disorders of Excessive Somnolence , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Nervous System
4.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 79(12): 1123-1128, Dec. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355700

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Sleep architecture and sleep hygiene might be disrupted by several pathogenetic mechanisms, and the effect of smoking has not been evaluated. Objective: To investigate the effect of smoking on sleep hygiene behaviors that might be associated with the deterioration of quality-of-life (QoL) parameters. Methods: In a prospective cross-sectional study, smokers (n=114) and nonsmokers (n=119) were included. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality İndex (PSQI), the Epworth Daytime Sleepiness Scale (ESS), the Sleep Hygiene Index (SHI), and the Short Form-36 quality of life scale (SF-36) were applied. Results: We found that none of the components, as well as the PSQI total score were affected in smokers compared with the nonsmoker controls (65.5% of smokers had poor sleep compared to 62.5% of nonsmokers). Although smokers tend to get out of bed at different times from day to day and do important work before bedtime (components of the SHI) more often than non-smokers, no significant differences were detected between groups in any component and SHI total score (27.91±6.72 for smokers and 29.23±8.0 for non-smokers). ESS, depression and anxiety symptoms, and SHI scores in smokers with poor sleep quality were significantly different compared with smokers that had normal sleep quality. Both PSQI and SHI scores were inversely associated with QoL parameters. Conclusions: Our results suggest that smoking by itself is not associated with poor sleep hygiene or sleep quality. It can be concluded that worse SHI and quality of sleep negatively affect QoL, depression, and anxiety in smokers.


RESUMO Antecedentes: A arquitetura e a higiene do sono podem ser interrompidas por vários mecanismos patogenéticos, e o efeito do tabagismo ainda não foi avaliado. Objetivo: Investigar o efeito do tabagismo nos comportamentos de higiene do sono que podem estar associados à deterioração dos parâmetros de qualidade de vida (QV). Métodos: Em um estudo transversal prospectivo, foram incluídos fumantes (n=114) e não fumantes (n=119). Foram aplicados o índice de qualidade do sono de Pittsburgh (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality İndex - PSQI), a escala de sonolência diurna de Epworth (ESS), o índice de higiene do sono (Sleep Hygiene Index - SHI) e a escala de qualidade de vida Short Form-36 (SF-36). Resultados: Descobrimos que nenhum dos componentes, assim como o escore total do PSQI, foram afetados em fumantes em comparação com os controles não fumantes (65,5% dos fumantes dormiam mal em comparação com 62,5% dos não fumantes). Embora os fumantes tendam a sair da cama em horários diferentes do dia a dia e fazer trabalhos importantes antes de dormir (componentes do SHI) com mais frequência do que os não fumantes, não foram detectadas diferenças significativas entre os grupos em qualquer componente e pontuação total do SHI (27,91±6,72 para fumantes e 29,23±8,0 para não fumantes). A ESS, os sintomas de depressão e ansiedade e os escores SHI em fumantes com má qualidade de sono foram significativamente diferentes em comparação com fumantes com qualidade de sono normal. Os escores do PSQI e SHI foram inversamente associados aos parâmetros de QV. Conclusões: Nossos resultados sugerem que o tabagismo por si só não está associado à má higiene ou qualidade do sono. Pode-se concluir que o pior SHI e a qualidade do sono afetam negativamente a QV, a depressão e a ansiedade em fumantes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Quality of Life , Sleep Wake Disorders/etiology , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep , Smoking/adverse effects , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Sleep Hygiene
5.
Rev. bras. neurol ; 57(4): 23-30, out.-dez. 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1359223

ABSTRACT

There is a close association between sleep and epilepsy, and this literature review aims to raise issues regarding sleep time control, circadian and ultradian rhythms, epilepsy and its interaction with sleep and circadian rhythm, epilepsy and sleep disorders, and finally epilepsy management and medications. It is mentioned that sleep may provide a hypersynchronous state, as occurs in non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREM), and hyperexcitability, in cyclic alternating pattern (CAP), allowing more frequent interictal epileptiform abnormalities and seizures. In some epilepsy syndromes, seizures occur broadly / or entirely during sleep or on awakening, mainly in childhood, and maybe exacerbated in adults during the sleep or sleep-deprived, and there are the so-called Sleep-related epilepsies that are divided as sleep-associated, sleep-accentuated and arousal/awakening related. Sleep quality may be reduced in patients with epilepsy also due to nocturnal seizures or concomitant sleep disorders. Sleep disorders are common in patients with epilepsy and treatment of them mainly sleep-disordered breathing may improve seizure control. Besides, some parasomnias may mimic seizures, and also they can adversely affect the quality and quantity of sleep whereas antiepileptic therapy can have a negative or positive effect on sleep. Nocturnal epileptic seizures may be challenging to discern from parasomnias, in particular NREM parasomnias such as night terrors, sleepwalking and confusional arousals.


Há uma estreita associação entre sono e epilepsia, e esta revisão de literatura tem como objetivo levantar questões relacionadas ao controle do tempo do sono, ritmos circadianos e ultradianos, epilepsia e sua interação com sono e ritmo circadiano, epilepsia e transtornos do sono e, finalmente, o tratamento e medicamentos para epilepsia. Menciona-se que o sono pode proporcionar um estado hipersincrônico, como ocorre no sono "non-rapid eye movement" (NREM), e hiperexcitabilidade, no "cyclic alternating pattern" (CAP), permitindo anormalidades epileptiformes interictais e crises epilépticas mais frequentes. Em algumas síndromes epilépticas, as crises ocorrem ampla / ou inteiramente durante o sono ou despertar, principalmente na infância, e podem ser exacerbadas em adultos durante o sono ou privação de sono, e as chamadas epilepsias relacionadas ao sono se dividem em sono associadas, sono acentuadas e relacionadas com o despertar. A qualidade do sono pode ser reduzida em pacientes com epilepsia também devido a crises epilépticas noturnas ou transtornos do sono concomitantes. Esses são comuns em pacientes com epilepsia e o seu tratamento, principalmente dos transtornos respiratórios do sono, pode melhorar o controle das crises epilépticas. Além disso, algumas parassonias podem mimetizar crises epilépticas, e também elas podem afetar adversamente a qualidade e a quantidade do sono, enquanto a terapia antiepiléptica pode ter um efeito negativo ou positivo sobre o sono. Pode ser difícil discernir as crises epilépticas noturnas das parassonias, em particular das parassonias NREM, como terrores noturnos, crises de sonambulismo e despertares confusionais.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adult , Sleep Deprivation , Sleep Wake Disorders/etiology , Epilepsy/complications , Epilepsy/diagnosis , Seizures/etiology , Sleep Wake Disorders/complications , Circadian Rhythm , Epilepsy/drug therapy
6.
Rev. bras. neurol ; 57(4): 31-39, out.-dez. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1359225

ABSTRACT

There is a known relationship between seizures and sleep deprivation that increases epileptiform abnormalities and slow waves expressed in the EEG, but chronic insomnia, greater in patients with epilepsy (PWEs) than in healthy control, supposedly has a different mechanism linked to a hyperarousability state with increased rapid EEG activity and associated "restless REM". Therefore, there is a complex interaction at various levels between insomnia and epilepsy that may play a role in seizure presentation. The recognized interconnection between mood and anxiety disorders and insomnia should also advise special care in the management of psychiatric comorbidities in PWEs. This article raises questions related to the interaction between the brain basis of insomnia and epilepsy and the triggers of seizures, particularly sleep deprivation.


Há uma relação conhecida entre crises epilépticas e privação de sono que aumenta as anormalidades epileptiformes e as ondas lentas expressas no EEG, mas a insônia crônica, maior em pacientes com epilepsia (PCE) do que no controle saudável, supostamente tem um mecanismo diferente ligado a um estado de hiperexcitabilidade com aumento da atividade rápida do EEG e associado "REM inquieto". Consequentemente, existe uma complexa interação em vários níveis entre a insônia e a epilepsia que pode desempenhar um papel na apresentação das crises. A reconhecida interligação entre transtornos de humor e ansiedade com a insônia também deve aconselhar um cuidado especial no manejo das comorbidades psiquiátricas do PCE. Este artigo levanta questões relacionadas à interação entre a base cerebral da insônia e da epilepsia e os desencadeadores de crises epilépticas, principalmente a privação do sono.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Sleep Deprivation , Epilepsy/complications , Epilepsy/diagnosis , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/physiopathology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Seizures/etiology , Sleep Wake Disorders , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/etiology , Mental Disorders
7.
Rev. bras. neurol ; 57(3): 24-28, jul.-set. 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1342518

ABSTRACT

Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disease understood as a complex syndrome with motor and non-motor symptoms, including sleep-related conditions, such as periodic limb movements in sleep (PLMS). This paper presents issues regarding Parkinson's disease, motor and non-motor symptoms, sleep physiology, and PLMS. In conclusion, both conditions seem to be correlated through impairment of the dopaminergic system.


A doença de Parkinson é uma doença neurodegenerativa entendida como uma síndrome complexa com sintomas motores e não motores, incluindo condições relacionadas ao sono, como movimentos periódicos dos membros durante o sono (MPMS). Este artigo apresenta questões relacionadas à doença de Parkinson, sintomas motores e não motores, fisiologia do sono e MPMS. Em conclusão, ambas as condições parecem estar correlacionadas por comprometimento do sistema dopaminérgico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Parkinson Disease/complications , Parkinson Disease/diagnosis , Restless Legs Syndrome , Sleep Wake Disorders/etiology , Neuroimaging/methods , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Disorders of Excessive Somnolence
9.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(4): 245-250, agosto 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1280906

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El aumento de prevalencia de trastornos respiratorios del sueño (TRS) y su relación con obesidad e hipertensión arterial (HTA) ha sido poco explorado en adolescentes. El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar la prevalencia de TRS y ronquido en esta población y analizar su asociación con obesidad e HTA. Población y métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal en una muestra de adolescentes. Se realizaron mediciones de peso, talla, perímetro de cintura y cuello, tensión arterial, y el Cuestionario de Sueño Pediátrico (PSQ, por su sigla en inglés). Resultados: Participaron 826 adolescentes, 58 (7 %) presentaron TRS (varones: 5,8 %; mujeres: 8 %) y 80 (9,7 %) se consideraron roncadores (varones: 10,4 %; mujeres: 9,1 %). Se detectaron sobrepeso y obesidad en 216 (26,2 %) y 149 (18 %) sujetos, respectivamente. Una mayor proporción de sujetos con obesidad presentaron TRS con respecto a quienes no tenían obesidad (12,8 % versus 5,8 %; p = 0,004). La misma asociación fue encontrada para el ronquido (18,2 % versus 7,8 %; <0,001). El 24,6 % dormía menos de 8 horas por día. El 12,6 % presentó valores compatibles con HTA, con una asociación significativa con obesidad y horas de sueño. Conclusión: Se observó una prevalencia elevada de TRS y ronquido en adolescentes y una asociación entre obesidad e HTA, que pone de manifiesto la importancia de abordar esta problemática de manera temprana a fin de evitar complicaciones


ntroduction: The increased prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and its association with obesity and hypertension (HTN) have not been thoroughly explored in adolescents. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of SDB and snoring in this population and analyze its association with obesity and HTN. Population and methods: This was a descriptive, cross-sectional study in a sample of adolescents. Weight, height, waist and neck circumference, and blood pressure were measured, and the Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire (PSQ) was administered. Results: A total of 826 adolescents participated, 58 (7 %) had SDB (males: 5.8 %; females: 8 %), and 80 (9.7 %) were considered snorers (males: 10.4 %; females: 9.1 %). Overweight and obesity were detected in 216 (26.2 %) and 149 (18 %) participants, respectively. A higher proportion of subjects with obesity had SDB compared to those who were not obese (12.8 % versus 5.8 %; p = 0.004). The same association was observed with snoring (18.2 % versus 7.8 %; p < 0.001). Also, 24.6 % slept less than 8 hours a day and 12.6 % had values compatible with HTN, with a significant association with obesity and sleep hours. Conclusion: A high prevalence of SDB and snoring was observed in adolescents, together with an association with obesity and HTN, which highlights the relevance of addressing this problem in an early manner in order to prevent complications


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Sleep Apnea Syndromes , Sleep Wake Disorders , Respiration Disorders , Snoring , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Overweight , Hypertension
11.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 79(8): 732-742, Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339229

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Insomnia is a sleep disorder characterized by difficulty of falling asleep or maintaining sleep, which affects different age groups. Currently, melatonin is used as a therapeutic treatment in cases of insomnia in children, adults, and elderly people. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of melatonin in sleep disorders, its dosage, potential adverse effects, as well as labeling laws and regulations in Brazil. Methods: This integrative review was carried out using the Cochrane Library, Medline (Pubmed), and Science Direct databases. Twenty-five articles and three documents available on the Brazilian Society of Endocrinology and Metabology (SBEM) and National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA) websites published between 2015 and 2020 were selected to be evaluated in full. Results: It was found that in most of the selected articles the use of melatonin reduces sleep latency. The effective melatonin doses varied according to each age group, from 0.5 to 3 mg in children, 3 to 5 mg in adolescents, 1 to 5 mg in adults, and 1 to 6 mg in elderly people. Side effects are mild when taking usual doses. In Brazil, no registered drug and current regulation on the use and marketing of melatonin has been identified. Conclusion: The use of melatonin is an alternative therapy that can be used for sleeping disorders. According to the evidences found, it did not demonstrate toxicity or severe side effects, nor dependence even when administered at high doses, suggesting that it is a safe medication to treat patients of different ages suffering from sleeping disorders.


RESUMO Antecedentes: Insônia é um distúrbio do sono caracterizado por dificuldade de iniciar e manter o sono, afetando diferentes faixas etárias. Atualmente, a melatonina é utilizada no tratamento de insônia em crianças, adultos e idosos. Objetivo: Avaliar a eficácia da melatonina nos distúrbios do sono, posologia e potenciais efeitos adversos, bem como a regulamentação vigente no Brasil. Métodos: Trata-se de uma revisão integrativa, os artigos foram identificados nas bases de dados Cochrane Library, Medline (Pubmed) e Science Direct, totalizando 25 artigos, e foram selecionados três materiais disponíveis no site da Sociedade Brasileira de Endocrinologia e Metabologia e Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária, publicados entre 2015 e 2020. Resultados: Verificou-se na maioria dos artigos selecionados que a melatonina reduz a latência do sono. Quanto as dosagens de melatonina identificou-se variação em cada faixa etária, para crianças de 0,5 a 3mg; adolescentes de 3 a 5mg; adultos de 1 a 5mg e idosos 1 mg a 6 mg demostraram serem eficazes. Em doses habituais os efeitos colaterais são leves. No Brasil, não foi identificado medicamento registrado e regulamentação vigente sobre o uso e comercialização de melatonina. Conclusão: A utilização da melatonina é uma alternativa que pode ser utilizada em distúrbios do sono. De acordo com as evidências encontradas, não demonstrou toxicidade ou efeitos colaterais severos, nem dependência mesmo em doses elevadas, sendo, portanto, segura para tratamento de pacientes desde crianças a idosos que sofrem de distúrbios do sono.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Sleep Wake Disorders/drug therapy , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/drug therapy , Melatonin/therapeutic use , Sleep , Brazil
12.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(4): e357-e359, agosto 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1281895

ABSTRACT

El montelukast se utiliza ampliamente en el tratamiento de sibilancias recurrentes y/o asma. Están descritas numerosas reacciones adversas medicamentosas (RAM) en niños relacionadas con montelukast; se destacan las neuropsiquiátricas. Realizamos un estudio observacional, retrospectivo, descriptivo, sobre RAM relacionadas con montelukast. Entre enero de 2012 y diciembre de 2017, en la Unidad de Neumonología Pediátrica se trataron con Montelukast 348 pacientes; de ellos, 20 presentaron RAM. Los síntomas más frecuentes fueron insomnio (n = 7), hiperactividad (n = 4), pesadillas (n = 3), dolor abdominal (n = 2) y parestesias en extremidades (n = 2). Se presentaron desde días hasta meses tras iniciar el tratamiento, y desaparecieron tras su suspensión. Se destacan dos pacientes con parestesias en extremidades, síntoma no descrito antes en niños. El 5,7 % de los pacientes tratados con montelukast presentaron RAM que requirieron suspender el tratamiento. Los trastornos del sueño fueron los más frecuentes.


Montelukast is widely used in recurrent wheezing and/or asthma treatment. Several adverse drug reactions (ADRs) have been described in children related to montelukast. Neuropsychiatric reactions are one of the most important. We designed an observational, retrospective, descriptive study on ADRs related to montelukast in the Pediatric Pulmonology Unit, Hospital Universitario Miguel Servet, Zaragoza, Spain. Between January 2012 and December 2017, in the Pediatric Pulmonology Unit, 348 patients were treated with Montelukast; of them, 20 presented RAM. The main symptoms described were insomnia (n = 7), hyperactivity (n = 4), nightmares (n = 3), abdominal pain (n = 2) and paraesthesia in extremities (n = 2). They appeared from the first days to months after the start of treatment and disappeared after stopping it. Two patients presented limb paresthesia, not described previously in children. The 5.7 % of our patients treated with montelukast had ADRs that required treatment discontinuation. Sleep disorders were the most frequent.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Quinolines/adverse effects , Sulfides/adverse effects , Anti-Asthmatic Agents/adverse effects , Leukotriene Antagonists/adverse effects , Cyclopropanes/adverse effects , Acetates/adverse effects , Asthma/drug therapy , Sleep Wake Disorders/chemically induced , Retrospective Studies
13.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 67(6): 862-867, June 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346897

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY Shift work increases the risk of suffering physiological and psychological alterations, due to the sleep disorders that it usually produces in the staff with this type of workday. OBJECTIVE: Analyze the influence of shift work on sleep quality in the nursing staff of the emergency department of the University Hospital of Leon. METHODS: A total of 70 emergency department nurses aged between 24-56 years were divided into two groups (rotating shift and fixed morning or afternoon shift). The Pittsburgh sleep quality index was used for this purpose. In order to establish differences between the two groups, a bivariate analysis was performed using the χ² test. RESULTS: The results showed that both groups had "rather poor" subjective sleep quality, with scores of 8.5 for fixed shift versus. 6.3 for a rotating shift. The group of nurses' rotating shifts slept an average of 5.39 hours compared to 7.47 hours for a fixed shift. Significant differences were found in sleep latency, sleep disturbances, and the use of sleep medication, with more negative results for the rotating shift. CONCLUSIONS: Rotating shift produces a poor quality of sleep compared to a fixed morning or afternoon shift, and it would be interesting for the center itself to establish sleep improvement and sleep hygiene programs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Young Adult , Sleep Wake Disorders , Nurses , Sleep , Work Schedule Tolerance , Surveys and Questionnaires , Emergency Service, Hospital , Middle Aged
14.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 27(2): 179-183, Apr.-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1280069

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Physical exercise can bring important benefits in the areas of physical and psychological health and behavioral aspects. However, there have been few studies that link physical exercise and sleep in people with disabilities. Objective: This study aims to analyze the benefits promoted by swimming in the health and quality of sleep of visually impaired people of different levels of physical fitness. Methods: Thirty male volunteers, visually impaired, aged 16-60 years, took part in the study. The volunteers were divided into three groups: irregularly active (G1), swimming twice a week (G2), and swimming five times a week (G3). Questionnaires related to sleep pattern (Pittsburgh), sleepiness (Epworth), chronotype (Horne and Östberg) and quality of life (SF-36) were applied. Results: The main results showed that G3 presented better quality of sleep, as well as more effective sleep, compared to the other two groups. In addition, G1 showed poorer scores for quality of life compared to G3 in the domains general health, vitality, and social aspect. Conclusion: We suggest that more frequent physical activity (swimming) has a positive effect on quality of sleep and quality of life of people with visual impairments. Level of evidence III, case control study .


RESUMEN Introducción: La práctica del ejercicio físico puede traer beneficios importantes en el ámbito físico, psicológico y comportamental. Sin embargo, la literatura es escasa al relacionar ejercicio físico y sueño en las personas con discapacidad. Objetivo: Este estudio tuvo como objetivo analizar los beneficios que la natación promueve en la salud y en la calidad del sueño de discapacitados visuales con diferentes niveles de aptitud física. Métodos: Participaron en la investigación 30 voluntarios del sexo masculino, discapacitados visuales, con edad entre 16 y 60 años, divididos en tres grupos, a saber, irregularmente activos (G1), practicantes de natación 2 veces por semana (G2) y practicantes de natación 5 veces por semana (G3). Fueron aplicados los cuestionarios relacionados con el patrón de sueño (Pittsburgh), somnolencia (Epworth), cronotipo (Horne y Östberg) y calidad de vida (SF-36). Resultados: Los principales resultados mostraron que G3 presentó mejor calidad de sueño, bien como mayor eficiencia del sueño con relación a los otros dos grupos. Además, G1 demostró peores puntajes para calidad de vida con relación a G3 en los dominios estado general de salud, vitalidad y aspecto social. Conclusión: De esa forma, podemos sugerir que la frecuencia mayor en la práctica de actividad física (natación) actuó positivamente sobre la calidad del sueño y la calidad de vida de las personas con discapacidad visual. Nivel de evidencia III; Estudio de caso control .


RESUMO Introdução: A prática do exercício físico pode trazer benefícios importantes no âmbito físico, psicológico e comportamental. No entanto, a literatura é escassa ao relacionar exercício físico e sono nas pessoas com deficiência. Objetivo: Este estudo teve como objetivo analisar os benefícios que a natação promove na saúde e na qualidade do sono de deficientes visuais com diferentes níveis de aptidão física. Métodos: Participaram da pesquisa 30 voluntários do sexo masculino, deficientes visuais, com idade entre 16 e 60 anos distribuídos em três grupos, a saber, irregularmente ativos (G1), praticantes de natação 2 vezes por semana (G2); e praticantes de natação 5 vezes na semana (G3). Foram aplicados os questionários relacionados ao padrão de sono (Pittsburgh), sonolência (Epworth), cronotipo (Horne e Östberg) e qualidade de vida (SF-36). Resultados: Os principais resultados mostraram que o G3 apresentou melhor qualidade de sono, bem como maior eficiência do sono com relação aos outros dois grupos. Além disso, o G1 demonstrou piores escores para qualidade de vida com relação ao G3 nos domínios estado geral de saúde, vitalidade e aspecto social. Conclusão: Dessa forma, podemos sugerir que a frequência maior na prática da atividade física (natação) atuou positivamente sobre a qualidade do sono e a qualidade de vida de pessoas com deficiência visual. Nível de evidência III, Estudo de caso controle .


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Quality of Life , Sleep/physiology , Swimming/physiology , Visually Impaired Persons/psychology , Sleep Wake Disorders/prevention & control , Surveys and Questionnaires
15.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(5): 296-: I-303, XXVIII, oct. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1292002

ABSTRACT

Los problemas del sueño (PS) son frecuentes, principalmente en niñas y niños con trastornos del desarrollo (TD), y causan un impacto en su funcionamiento y calidad de vida familiar. El pediatra tiene un rol importante en su abordaje. Objetivo. Definir la frecuencia y los tipos de PS en una muestra de niñas y niños con TD, determinar la proporción de pediatras que abordaron estas dificultades, evaluar los efectos de la higiene del sueño (HS) y describir el impacto de la pandemia por COVID-19 en el sueño. Población y métodos. Estudio cuasiexperimental. El diagnóstico de PS se realizó con la preocupación de los padres y/o criterios clínicos. Se brindaron estrategias de HS, luego se evaluó su efecto según referencia de los padres y uso del cuestionario CSHQ-S (Children ́s Sleep Habits Questionnaire en español) pre- y posestrategias. Durante la pandemia por COVID-19, se midió nuevamente la variable PS y las relacionadas a HS. Resultados. Se incluyeron 161 niñas y niños. La frecuencia de PS fue del 55 %. El 80 % mejoró con HS. El 83 % tenía pediatra de cabecera, y de ellos, el 45 % había preguntado acerca del sueño. Durante la pandemia por COVID-19 hubo aumento de PS y cambios en las variables de HS. Conclusión. Aproximadamente la mitad de los niñas y niños con TD presentan PS; esto solo fue abordado por el 45 % de los pediatras. La HS resultó beneficiosa para la mayoría, por lo que la intervención del pediatra parece fundamental. Durante la pandemia por COVID-19 aumentaron los PS, como posible reflejo del impacto ambiental en los niñas y niños con TD.


Sleep problems (SPs) are common, especially among children with developmental disorders (DDs), and affect their functioning and quality of family life. Pediatricians play a major role in their management. Objective. To define the frequency and types of SPs in a sample of children with DDs, determine the proportion of pediatricians who addressed such difficulties, assess the effects of sleep hygiene (SH), and describe the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on sleep. Population and methods. This was a quasi-experiment. SPs were diagnosed based on parents' concerns and/or clinical criteria. SH strategies were provided and their effect was assessed as per parents' reports and the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire in Spanish (CSHQ-S) before and after the strategies. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the SP outcome measure and SH-related outcome measures were measured again. Results. A total of 161 children were included. The frequency of SPs was 55 %; 80 % improved with SH. Eighty-three percent of children had a primary pediatrician; of these, 45 % had consulted about sleep. During the COVID-19 pandemic, SPs increased and SH outcome measures changed. Conclusion. Approximately half of children with DDs have SPs; and the problem was only addressed by 45 % of pediatricians. SH was beneficial for most children, so pediatricians' role seems critical. During the COVID-19 pandemic, SPs increased, probably as a result of its environmental impact on children with DD


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Sleep , Developmental Disabilities , Surveys and Questionnaires , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 26(4): 1457-1466, abr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285928

ABSTRACT

Abstract This article aims to evaluate the sleep quality in individuals during the COVID-19 pandemic by Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Searches were conducted in the PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and PEDro databases, on May 22, 2020. In the publications, 208 articles were found and, considering the eligibility criteria, 10 articles were included at the end, showing the effects on sleep quality during the pandemic, in populations hospitalized, quarantined, and in frontline health professionals. The PSQI measured sleep disorders and a higher score indicated poor sleep quality. Nine articles were classified with evidence level IV and one as level III-2. Eight studies present a "serious" risk of bias and two in "moderate". The studies investigated different populations and described the results as "poor" sleep quality, considering the PSQI on quarantined individuals and frontline health professionals as the most committed. A poor sleep quality was found in the populations evaluated in the selected publications, probably, due to the COVID-19 to contribute as a risk factor for mental health. Psychological interventions must be made to minimize the consequences through social support and social capital.


Resumo O objetivo deste artigo é avaliar a qualidade do sono em indivíduos durante a pandemia de COVID-19 pelo Índice de Qualidade do Sono de Pittsburgh (IQSP). Buscas foram realizadas nas bases de dados PubMed, Embase, Web of Science e PEDro, em 22 de maio de 2020. Nas publicações, foram encontrados 208 artigos e, considerando os critérios de elegibilidade, foram incluídos ao final 10 artigos, mostrando os efeitos na qualidade do sono durante a pandemia, em populações hospitalizadas, em quarentena e em profissionais de saúde. O IQSP mediu os distúrbios do sono e uma pontuação mais alta indicava uma má qualidade do sono. Foram classificados nove artigos com nível de evidência IV e um como nível III-2. Oito estudos apresentaram um risco de viés "crítico" e dois em "moderado". Os estudos investigaram diferentes populações e descreveram os resultados como uma má qualidade do sono, considerando o IQSP, sendo os titulares de quarentena e profissionais de saúde como os mais comprometidos. Foi encontrado uma má qualidade do sono nas populações avaliadas nas publicações selecionadas, provavelmente, devido ao COVID-19 contribuir como um fator de risco para saúde mental. Intervenções psicológicas devem ser feitas para minimizar as consequências através do apoio social e capital social.


Subject(s)
Humans , Sleep , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Pandemics
17.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 26(2): 601-610, fev. 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153781

ABSTRACT

Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi estimar a frequência de problemas com o sono e os fatores associados, analisando dados da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde, realizado em 2013 no Brasil. Os problemas com o sono foram avaliados com a pergunta "Nas duas últimas semanas, com que frequência o(a) sr(a) teve problemas no sono, como dificuldade para adormecer, acordar frequentemente à noite ou dormir mais do que de costume?", as respostas foram agrupadas em: nenhum dia, menos da metade dos dias e mais da metade dos dias. Dos indivíduos avaliados, 71,1% relataram não ter problemas com o sono em nenhum dia, 14,0% em pelo menos metade dos dias e 14,9% em mais da metade dos dias. As maiores frequências de problemas com o sono foram relatadas pelas mulheres e com o aumento da idade. Para homens e mulheres, tabagismo, consumo de bebidas alcoólicas, inatividade física, comportamento sedentário e hipertensão arterial apresentaram associação significativa com a frequência de problemas com o sono em mais da metade dos dias, e o excesso de peso para as mulheres. Assim, foi elevada a frequência de problemas com o sono na população brasileira. Mulheres, indivíduos mais velhos, com comportamentos de risco relacionados ao estilo de vida, hipertensão arterial e excesso de peso corporal foram os subgrupos em maior risco.


Abstract The scope of this study was to estimate the frequency of sleep-related problems and associated factors. It was a study based on data from the National Health Survey conducted in Brazil in 2013. Sleep-related problems were assessed with the question "How often have you had sleep problems in the last two weeks, such as difficulty falling asleep, waking up frequently during the night or sleeping more than usual?" The answers were grouped into: none of the days, less than half of the days and more than half of the days. Of the individuals evaluated, 71.1% reported having no problems with sleep on any day, 14.0% on at least half of the days and 14.9% on more than half of the days. The highest frequencies of sleep-related problems were reported by women and more advanced age. For men and women, smoking, alcohol abuse, physical inactivity, sedentary behavior, and high blood pressure were significantly associated with the frequency of sleep problems on more than half of the days, and also excess weight for women. Thus, the frequency of sleep-related problems in the Brazilian population was high. Women, older individuals with lifestyle-related risk behaviors, high blood pressure, and overweight were the highest risk subgroups.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep , Brazil/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Health Surveys , Sedentary Behavior
18.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 43(2): 126-130, Feb. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156095

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective The present study aimed to assess the effect of Melissa Officinalis L. (a combination of lemon balm with fennel fruit extract) compared with citalopram and placebo on the quality of life of postmenopausal women with sleep disturbance. Methods The present study is a randomized, double-blind, placebo clinical trial among 60 postmenopausal women with sleep disturbance who were referred to a university hospital from 2017 to 2019. The participants were randomized to receive M. Officinalis L. (500 mg daily), citalopram (30 mg) or placebo once daily for 8 weeks. The Menopause-Specific Quality of Life (MENQOL) questionnaire was self-completed by each participant at baseline and after 8 weeks of the intervention and was compared between groups. Results The mean for all MENQOL domain scores were significantly improved in the M. Officinalis L. group compared with citalopram and placebo (p < 0.001). The mean ± standard deviation (SD) after 8 weeks in the M. Officinalis L., citalopram and placebo groups was 2.2 ± 0.84 versus 0.56 ± 0.58 versus 0.36 ± 0.55 in the vasomotor (p < 0.001), 1.02 ± 0.6 versus 0.28 ± 0.2 versus 0.17 ± 0.1 in the psychomotor-social (p < 0.001), 0.76 ± 0.4 versus 0.25 ± 0.1 versus 0.11 ± 0.1 in the physical and 2.3 ± 1.0 versus 0.35 ± 0.5 versus 0.41 ± 0.5 in the sexual domain, respectively. Conclusions The results revealed that M. Officinalis L. may be recommended for improving the quality of life of menopausal women with sleep disturbance. Trial registration The present study was registered by the name "Comparison of the efficacy of citalopram and compound of Asperugo procumbens and foeniculum vulgare in treatment of menopausal disorders" with the code IRCT2013072714174N1 in the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (IRCT).


Subject(s)
Sleep Wake Disorders/drug therapy , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Citalopram/therapeutic use , Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Melissa , Quality of Life , Sleep Wake Disorders/psychology , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Citalopram/administration & dosage , Double-Blind Method , Surveys and Questionnaires , Treatment Outcome , Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Postmenopause , Iran , Phytotherapy , Middle Aged
19.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 79(2): 156-166, Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153155

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Parkinson's disease (PD) has heterogeneous clinical manifestations and prognoses. It is accompanied by a group of motor and non-motor symptoms ranging from independence to total disability, limiting work and personal care activities. Currently, disease subtype markers for informing prognosis remain elusive. However, some studies have reported an association between rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and faster motor and non-motor symptom progression, including autonomic dysfunction and cognitive decline. Moreover, since autonomic dysfunction has been described in idiopathic forms of RBD, and they share some central regulatory pathways, it remains unclear whether they have a primary association or if they are more severe in patients with PD and RBD, and thus are a disease subtype marker. This article aimed at critically reviewing the literature on the controversies about the prevalence of RBD in PD, the higher incidence of PD non-motor symptoms associated with RBD, the evidence of faster motor worsening in parkinsonian patients with this parasomnia, and the main pathophysiological hypotheses that support these findings.


RESUMO A doença de Parkinson (DP) apresenta variadas manifestações clínicas e distintos prognósticos. É caracterizada por um conjunto de sintomas motores e não motores que podem variar desde um quadro de independência até a completa incapacidade laborativa e de cuidados pessoais. Até o momento, não está claro quais seriam os marcadores de subtipos da doença que poderiam alertar para formas de prognóstico. Porém existem alguns estudos que mostram que a presença do transtorno comportamental do sono REM pode estar associada à progressão mais rápida dos sintomas motores e não motores, como disfunção autonômica e declínio cognitivo. Questiona-se ainda se a disautonomia está primariamente associada ao transtorno do sono REM, já que são relatadas nas formas idiopáticas deste transtorno de sono e compartilham alguns núcleos reguladores centrais. Ou se são mais graves nos pacientes com diagnóstico de DP e transtorno comportamental do sono REM, marcando assim um subtipo da doença. Esta revisão teve como objetivo revisar criticamente os principais estudos publicados envolvendo as controvérsias sobre a prevalência do transtorno comportamental do sono REM na DP, a maior incidência de sintomas não motores da DP associados ao transtorno do sono REM, as evidências de piora motora mais rápida nos pacientes parkinsonianos que apresentam este transtorno do sono e as principais hipóteses fisiopatológicas que justificam esses achados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Parkinson Disease/complications , Sleep Wake Disorders , Autonomic Nervous System Diseases/etiology , REM Sleep Behavior Disorder/etiology , Cognitive Dysfunction
20.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 67(1): 45-51, Jan. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287798

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: To investigate sleep alterations and associated factors in pregnant diabetic women (n=141). METHODS: Sleep profile, sociodemographics and clinical information were collected. Poor sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index >5) and excessive daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale ≥10), sleep duration (h), sleep latency (min), frequent sleep interruption and short sleep (≤6 h) were assessed in type 1 diabetes mellitus (16.3%), type 2 diabetes mellitus (25.5%) and gestational diabetes mellitus (58.2%). RESULTS: Poor sleep quality was found in 58.8% of patients and daytime sleepiness in 25.7%, regardless of hyperglycemia etiology. No correlation existed between daytime sleepiness and poor sleep quality (Pearson correlation r=0.02, p=0.84). Short sleep duration occurred in 1/3 of patients (31.2%). Sleep interruptions due to frequent urination affected 72% of all and sleep interruptions due to any cause 71.2%. Metformin was used by 65.7% of type 2 diabetes mellitus and 28.7% of gestational diabetes mellitus. In gestational diabetes mellitus, parity number was independently associated with poor sleep quality (p=0.02; OR=1.90; 95%CI 1.07-3.36) and metformin use was also independently associated with poor sleep quality (p=0.03; OR=2.36; 95%CI 1.05-5.29). CONCLUSIONS: Our study originally shows that poor sleep quality and excessive daytime sleepiness are frequent in diabetic pregnancy due to different etiologies. Interestingly, only in gestational diabetes mellitus, metformin therapy and higher parity were associated with poor sleep quality.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology , Diabetes, Gestational/drug therapy , Diabetes, Gestational/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Hyperglycemia/epidemiology , Disorders of Excessive Somnolence , Sleep
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