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1.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 68(2): 159-164, Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365364

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to explore the molecular mechanism underlying the occurrence of benign bile duct stricture and the target of low-dose paclitaxel in the prevention of benign bile duct stricture. METHODS: Under the stimulation of transforming growth factor beta 1, the expression of collagen type I and connective tissue growth factor were detected on isolated primary fibroblasts. The phosphorylation levels of JNK and Smad2L were detected using Western blot. The effect of low-dose paclitaxel on the transforming growth factor beta 1-induced inhibition of type I collagen and connective tissue growth factor expression and JNK and Smad2L phosphorylation was also observed. RESULTS: Transforming growth factor beta 1 induced the secretion of type I collagen and connective tissue growth factor as well as JNK phosphorylation in biliary fibroblasts. The JNK inhibitor or siRNA-Smad2 inhibited the transforming growth factor beta 1-induced secretion of type I collagen and connective tissue growth factor. Low-dose paclitaxel inhibited the expression of type I collagen induced by transforming growth factor beta 1 and may inhibit the secretion of collagen in biliary fibroblasts. CONCLUSION: The activation of JNK/Smad2L induced by transforming growth factor beta 1 is involved in the occurrence of benign bile duct stricture that is mediated by the overexpression of type I collagen and connective tissue growth factor, and low-dose paclitaxel may inhibit the phosphorylation of JNK/Smad2L.


Subject(s)
Humans , Paclitaxel/pharmacology , Collagen , MAP Kinase Signaling System , Collagen Type I/metabolism , Collagen Type I/pharmacology , Smad2 Protein , Fibroblasts/metabolism
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773800

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effects of centella asiatica (CA) granule on the expression of transform growth factor-β(TGF-β) and related down-stream signals in rats with early diabetic nephropathy(DN) and to clarify the molecular mechanisms of CA molecular mechanism of on preventing and curing early diabetic kidney disease DN by studying the effects of centella asiatica on TGF-β expression and related down-stream signals.@*METHODS@#Sixty male SD rats were divided into control group(=10) and DN model group(=50). The model rats were made a right nephrectomy. One week later, diabetic nephropathy was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptocozin(30 mg/kg) for three consecutive days. High blood glucose level of Tail vein (fasting glucose ≥ 16.7 mmol/L) and high urinary protein level(total protein level in DN group was more than twice higher than the control group) were measured to confirm early DN in rats. In the sham operation group, the right renal capsule was damaged and the corresponding amount of saline was injected. The model rats were administrated by the means of intragastric administration. The DN model group were divided into DN group, DN+fosinopril group(1.6 mg/kg·d), DN+high CA group(16.8 mg/kg·d), DN+medium CA group(11.2 mg/kg·d) and DN+low CA group(5.6 mg/kg·d), and each group was intragastric administration one time every morning last for 16 weeks. The expressions of mRNA and protein of TGF-β, TβR1, TβR2, Smad2/3, Smad7 and the level of Smad2/3 phosphorylation were detected by using real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blot.@*RESULTS@#The expressions of mRNA and protein of TGF-β, TβR1, TβR2, Smad2/3 and the level of Smad2/3 phosphorylation were significantly increased, the expressions of mRNA and protein of Smad7 were dramatically decreased. The fosinopril and high dosage CA could reverse the effects of DN.@*CONCLUSIONS@#CA plays an important role in preventing and curing DN through regulating the TGF-β/Smad signaling pathways.


Subject(s)
Animals , Centella , Chemistry , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Diabetic Nephropathies , Drug Therapy , Metabolism , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Kidney , Male , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptor, Transforming Growth Factor-beta Type I , Metabolism , Receptor, Transforming Growth Factor-beta Type II , Metabolism , Signal Transduction , Smad2 Protein , Metabolism , Smad3 Protein , Metabolism , Smad7 Protein , Metabolism , Transforming Growth Factor beta1 , Metabolism
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773790

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Stably expressed transforming growth factor -beta 1(TGF-β1)MCs were obtained and the effects of centellaasiatica (CA) granule on the expressions of Smad 2/3, Smad 7 and collagen Ⅳ and the level of Smad 2/3 phosphorylation were observed.@*METHODS@#Lipofectin method was used to transfect TGF-β1 vector into MC, and the stably expressed TGF-β1 cell lines were selected by G418. The cells were divided into three groups. Control group:normal MC + RPMI 1640 + 10% normal rat serum; TGF-β1 group:stably expressed TGF-β1 MC + RPMI 1640 + 10% normal rat serum; CA group:stably expressed TGF-β1 MC + RPMI 1640 + 10% rat serum containing high CA. The experiments were repeated for five times. The contents of TGF-β1 and collagen Ⅳ in the culture medium were detected with ELISA, the expressions of mRNA and protein of TGF-β1, Smad 2/3, Smad 7 and the level of Smad 2/3 phosphorylation were detected by using real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blot.@*RESULTS@#The contents of TGF-β1 and collagen Ⅳ in the culture medium of stably-expressed TGF-β1 MC were increased significantly, and the CA could reverse the effects of TGF-β1. The expressions of mRNA and protein of TGF-β1, Smad 2/3 and the level of Smad 2/3 phosphorylation were increased significantly in TGF-β1 transfected MC, and CA could dramatically reduce the expressions of mRNA and protein of TGF-β1, Smad 2/3 and the level of Smad 2/3 phosphorylation. The high expression of TGF-β1 decreased the expression of Smad 7 mRNA and protein, and the CA could antagonize the effect of mRNA expression.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The MCs stably-expressed TGF-β1 can activate the TGF-β1/Smad signal pathway and increase the expression of collagen Ⅳ. CA can decrease the occurrence of diabetic nephropathy(DN) by reducing the production of collagen Ⅳ through inhibiting the TGF-β1/Smad signal pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cells, Cultured , Centella , Chemistry , Collagen Type IV , Metabolism , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Mesangial Cells , Metabolism , Rats , Signal Transduction , Smad Proteins , Metabolism , Smad2 Protein , Metabolism , Smad3 Protein , Metabolism , Smad7 Protein , Metabolism , Transforming Growth Factor beta1 , Metabolism
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-813152

ABSTRACT

To explore the influence for combination of nourishing yin and tonifying yang sequential therapy (NYTYST) with Western medicine in treating anovulatory infertility rats with diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) based on TGF-β1/Smads signaling pathway. 
 Methods: A total of 40 female rats were randomly divided into 5 groups, a normal control group, a model group, a Western medicine group, a NYTYST group and a combination group (n=8 in each group). The DOR model was established through orally taking tripterygium pill for continuous 2 weeks. The normal control group and the model group were treated with saline for 10 days. The Western medicine group was treated with hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and ovarian stimulation. The NYTYST group was treated with nourishing yin herbs in proestrus and tonifying yang herbs in late estrus and the combination group was treated with Chinese herb and Western drugs for 10 days. HE staining was used to observe histopathologic changes in ovary. Expression levels of transforming growth factor β1 receptor (TGF-β1R) in rats ovarian were detected by immunohistochemistry. Expression levels of Smad2, Smad3 and Smad7 protein in rat ovarian were detected by Western blot.
 Results: Compared with the control group, the numbers of developing follicles, mature follicles and corpus luteum were decreased , while atrefic follicles were increased significantly in the model group (P<0.01); the levels of TGF-β1R, Smad2 and Smad3 were decreased significantly, while Smad7 was increased significantly (P<0.01). Compared with the model group, the numbers of developing follicles, mature follicles and corpus luteum, Smad2 and Smad3 expression were increased, while atrefic follicles and Smad7 were decreased significantly in the treatment group (P<0.05 or P<0.01). The numbers of developing follicles and corpus luteum in the combination group was superior to the Western medicine group (P<0.05). Compared with the Western medicine group, the levels of TGF-β1R, Smad2 and Smad3 were increased significantly, while Smad7 was decreased significantly in the combination group (P<0.05 or P<0.01). 
 Conclusion: NYTYST combined with Western medicine can improve the function of ovaries reserve by up-regulation of TGF-β1R, Smad2 and Smad3 while down-regulation of Smad7 in DOR rats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Therapeutic Uses , Female , Gene Expression Regulation , Infertility , Therapeutics , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Ovarian Reserve , Rats , Signal Transduction , Smad2 Protein , Genetics , Metabolism , Smad3 Protein , Genetics , Metabolism , Transforming Growth Factor beta1 , Genetics , Metabolism
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-256599

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the effect of tumor necrosis factor-α-induced protein 8 like-2 (TIPE2) on apoptosis of CD4T lymphocytes in a murine model of severe burn injury.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A total of 140 male mice were randomly allocated into 6 groups. Small RNA interference technique was used to construct a siTIPE2-overexpressing lentivirus, and severe burn injury models were established in the mice. CD4T cells were purified from spleen of the mice, and the expressions of TIPE2, Smad2/Smad3, P-Smad2/P-Smad3 and Bcl-2/Bimprotein in CD4Tregs were detected. The changes in mitochondrial membrane potential and cytochrome C in CD4T cells were detected, and the activities of caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 were analyzed.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Down-regulation of TIPE2 promoted the apoptosis of CD4T lymphocytes in siTIPE2-burn group, in which the protein expressions of P-smad2/P-Smad3 decreased, Bcl-2 expression increased and Bim expression decreased significantly as compared with the other groups (P<0.01 or 0.05). The mitochondrial membrane potential and cytochrome C expression in CD4T cells were down-regulated in siTIPE2-burn group (P<0.05) with a lowered caspase-3 activity compared with TIPE2-burn group (P<0.01) and decreased caspase-8 and caspase-9 compared with the other groups (P<0.05). The apoptosis rate was the highest in TIPE2-burn group, whose Smad2/Smad3 was higher than that in the sham group (P<0.05) and the expression of P-smad2/P-Smad3 significantly increased compared with the other groups (P<0.05). In TIPE2-burn group, the mitochondrial membrane potential in CD4T cells was decreased (P<0.01), the expression of cytochrome C increased markedly (P<0.01), and the activities of caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 were all obviously higher than those in the other groups (P<0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>As an important immunoregulatory molecule, TIPE2 can promote the apoptosis of CD4T lymphocyte in mice with sever burn injury.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Burns , Allergy and Immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Cell Biology , Caspase 3 , Metabolism , Caspase 8 , Metabolism , Caspase 9 , Metabolism , Down-Regulation , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins , Metabolism , Male , Mice , Smad2 Protein , Metabolism , Smad3 Protein , Metabolism , Spleen
6.
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 509-512, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-358981

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore the mechanism of serotonin-promoted osteoblast differentiation.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Expression levels of collagen I and lysyl oxidase (LOX) in osteoblast were measured by RT-PCR after treated by (50, 100, 200 and 400 ng/L) serotonin. LOX siRNA effect was measured by Western blot, and protein levels of collagen I were determined by ELISA after treated by serotonin. Expression levels of Smad2 and Smad3 in osteoblasts were also measured by RT-PCR after treated by serotonin.Moreover, expression levels of LOX were measured by RT-PCR after Smad3 was knockout.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Serotonin promoted collagen I and LOX expression. The expression level of collagen I was significantly decreased by LOX siRNA. Furthermore, serotonin up-regulated the expression of Smad2 and Smad3 in osteoblasts, and the expression level of LOX was inhibited by Smad3 siRNA.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Serotonin promoted collagen I expression by activating Smads signaling pathway and up-regulating the LOX expression.</p>


Subject(s)
Blotting, Western , Cell Differentiation , Cells, Cultured , Collagen Type I , Metabolism , Humans , Osteoblasts , Metabolism , Protein-Lysine 6-Oxidase , Metabolism , RNA, Small Interfering , Serotonin , Pharmacology , Signal Transduction , Smad2 Protein , Metabolism , Smad3 Protein , Metabolism , Up-Regulation
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-351306

ABSTRACT

Previous studies showed that three methods for regulating and invigorating lung and kidney (lung invigorating and spleen strengthening, lung invigorating and kidney tonifying, and Qi supplementing and kidney nourishing) could regulate inflammatory signaling pathways of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in rats, so as to alleviate inflammation. In the present study, R-value comprehensive evaluation method was used to evaluate the comprehensive effect of three methods for regulating and invigorating lung and kidney on inflammatory signaling pathways. Rats were randomly divided into control, model, lung invigorating and spleen strengthening, lung invigorating and kidney tonifying, Qi supplementing and kidney nourishing and aminophylline groups. The COPD rat models were established by cigarette smoking combined with bacterial infection, and orally administered with drugs between the 9th and 20th week. Afterwards, efforts were made to observe the long-term effects between the drug withdrawal and the 32rd week and detect indicators in two batches in the 20th week and 32th week. Specifically, (1) Linking JAK/STAT signaling pathway: JAK2 mRNA, and protein expressions of STAT-1, STAT-3, STAT-5, JAK-2; (2) NF-kappaB signaling pathway: Smad2 mRNA and protein expressions of I-kappaB, NF-kappaB, TGF-beta1; (3) PPARgamma and antioxidant signaling pathway: SOD, PGE mRNA, PPARgamma protein. According to the results, 5 indicators in JAK/STAT pathway, 4 indicators in NF-kappaB pathway, and 3 indicators in PPARgamma pathway were significantly rectified by three methods for regulating and invigorating lung and kidney in between the 20th week and 32nd week. Between the 20th and 32nd week, the recipes for rectifying JAK/STAT pathway with intensity from high to low were recipes for lung invigorating and spleen strengthening, Qi supplementing and kidney nourishing, lung invigorating and kidney tonifying, aminophylline, particularly those for lung invigorating and spleen strengthening; The recipes for rectifying NF-kappaB pathway with intensity from high to low were recipes for lung invigorating and spleen strengthening, lung invigorating and kidney tonifying, Qi supplementing and kidney nourishing and aminophylline, particularly the first three types of drugs. The recipes for rectifying PPARgamma and antioxidant signaling pathway with intensity from high to low were recipes for lung invigorating and kidney tonifying, Qi supplementing and kidney nourishing, lung invigorating and spleen strengthening and aminophylline. Therefore, three methods for regulating and invigorating lung and kidney showed better long-term effects in regulating COPD lung inflammation signaling pathways. Specifically, recipe for lung invigorating and spleen strengthening showed a better effect in JAK/STAT and NF-kappaB pathways, while recipe for lung invigorating and kidney tonifying and Qi supplementing and kidney nourishing showed better effects in PPARgamma and antioxidant signaling pathways. In conclusion, R-value comprehensive evaluation method can evaluate the comprehensive effect of medicines and define the ranking of multiple drugs and their main targets.


Subject(s)
Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Kidney , Lung , Allergy and Immunology , Metabolism , NF-kappa B , Allergy and Immunology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Drug Therapy , Allergy and Immunology , Metabolism , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Signal Transduction , Smad2 Protein , Metabolism , Transforming Growth Factor beta1 , Metabolism
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-237901

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore the effects of Wenyang Huazhuo Tongluo Recipe (WYHZTLR) containing serum on transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1)/Smad signaling pathway of skin fibroblasts in systemic sclerosis (SSc).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Totally 36 SSc patients were randomly assigned to Chinese medicine (CM) group, Western medicine (WM) group, and integrative medicine (IM) group according to random digit table, 12 in each group. Patients in the CM group took WYHZTLR decoction (one dose per day). Patients in the WM group took penicillamine tablet (0. 125 g each time, bid) and Prednisone Acetate Tablet (PAT 20 mg, qd). Patients in the IM group took penicillamine, PAT, and WYHZTLR decoction (in the same dosage of corresponding drugs as aforesaid). All patients were treated for one month to get drug containing serum. Besides, 10 untreated SSc patients' serum was taken as the control group. Healthy subjects' skin fibroblasts were originated from healthy skin tissue of the upper arms of 2 female patients undergoing plastic surgery. Corresponding serum of each group was added in the culture system of SSc patients' and healthy subjects' dermal fibroblasts respectively. Expression levels of TGF-β1 receptor type I (TGF-β1 RI), TGF-β1 receptor II (TGF-β1 RII), p-Smad2/3 and Smad7 protein were examined by Western blot. Expression levels of collagen type I and collagen type III (Col-I, Col-III) mRNA were examined by reverse transcription PCR. Contents of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) in the supernatant of SSc, skin fibroblasts were examined by ELISA.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Compared with the control group, expression levels of TGF-β1 R I and p-Smad2/3 protein significantly decreased, but expression levels of Smad7 protein significantly increased in skin fibroblasts of SSc patients and healthy subjects of WM, CM, and IM groups (P <0.05, P <0. 01). Meanwhile, the expression level of TGF-β1 RII decreased in the IM group (P <0. 05, P <0. 01). Compared with the WM group, expression levels of TGF-β1 RI and p-Smad2/ 3 protein significantly decreased, but that of Srnad7 protein significantly increased in IM groups (P <0. 01). mRNA expression levels of Col-I and Col-II in SSc skin fibroblasts significantly decreased more in WM, CM, and IM groups than in the control group (P <0. 05, P <0. 01). Besides, the expression level of Col-III mRNA was significantly lower in the IM group than in the WM group (P <0.01). Compared with the control group, serum levels of MMP-9 and MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratios increased more obviously in WM, CM, and IM groups (P <0.05, P <0.01). But expression levels of TIMP-1 decreased significantly in CM and IM groups (P <0.01). Expression levels of MMP-9 and MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratios increased more in the IM group than in the WM group (P <0. 01). Expression levels of TIMP-1 decreased more in CM and IM groups than in the WM group (P <0.01).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>WYHZTLR containing serum could reduce expression levels of Col-I and Col-III possibly through regulating key signal molecules, such as TGF-β1 RI, p-Smad2/3, and Smad7 in TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathway of SSc skin fibroblasts, and inhibiting transduction of TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathway.</p>


Subject(s)
Collagen Type I , Collagen Type III , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Female , Fibroblasts , Humans , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 , Scleroderma, Systemic , Drug Therapy , Metabolism , Signal Transduction , Smad2 Protein , Smad7 Protein , Transforming Growth Factor beta1 , Metabolism
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-234959

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To elucidate the role of transforming growth factor-beta1(TGF-β1) in epithelial-mesenchymal transition of mesothelial cells and peritoneal metastasis of gastric cancer.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>HMrSV5 cells, a human peritoneal mesothelial cell line, were incubated with TGF-β1, and their morphological changes were observed by phase contrast microscopy. Expressions of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), vimentin, cytokeratin, E-cadherin, phosphorylated-Smad2 and Smad2 were examined by Western blotting. After fibroblastic-like mesothelial cells were co-incubate with HSC-39 cells(gastric cancer cell line), the adhesion and invasion potential of HSC-39 were evaluated by adhesion and invasion assay in vitro.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Few mesothelial cells converted to spindle fibroblast-like morphology for 24 h, and remarkable phenotypic changes were observed at 72 h of TGF-β1 activation. TGF-β1 could induce α-SMA and vimentin expression, and down-regulate cytokeratin and E-cadherin expression in mesothelial cells (P<0.05). TGF-β1 induced phosphorylation of Smad2 within 15 min of stimulation, reached a maximum at 30 min after treatment and remained high level during the experiment without affecting total Smad2 expression(P>0.05). The percentage of HSC-39 gastric cancer cells adhered were significantly increased as compared to the control. When the mesothelial cells were treated by TGF-β1 for 72 h, the increased adhesion percentage was(146±17)%(P<0.05). After fibroblastic-like mesothelial cells co-incubated with HSC-39 cells for 48 h, more cancer cells [(61.1±11.4) cells/view field] invaded the coated membrane as compared to the control group [(31.9±8.1) cells/view field] (P<0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>TGF-β1 can induce the transition of mesothelial cells into myofibroblasts and Smad2 signal pathway may play a role in this transition, which is associated with increased adhesion and invasiveness of gastric cancer cells, and provides favorable environment for the dissemination of gastric cancer.</p>


Subject(s)
Cadherins , Cell Line, Tumor , Epithelial Cells , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition , Epithelium , Fibroblasts , Humans , Peritoneal Neoplasms , Signal Transduction , Smad2 Protein , Stomach Neoplasms , Transforming Growth Factor beta1 , Vimentin
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-312974

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the effect of Tangshenkang Granule (TG) containing serum on renal mesangial cells' (RMCs) proliferation and TGF-β1/Smad2/3 pathway in the high glucose condition.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Twelve SD rats were randomly divided into four groups, i.e., the low dose TG group, the middle dose TG group, the high dose TG group, and the blank control group, 3 in each group. After 7-day gastrogavage via portal vein blood, rats were sacrificed and their serum samples were collected. RMCs were cultured in common rat serum and TG containing serum respectively. The proliferation of mesangial cells was determined by methly thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay to determine the optimal TG containing serum concentration. Expression levels of TGF-β1 mRNA and protein were determined by real time quantitative PCR and ELISA. Smad2/3 protein expression and phosphorylation were determined by Western blot and immunofluorescence.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>TG containing serum at different doses could inhibit high glucose induced RMC cells' proliferation, TGF-β1 over-expression and Smad2/3 phosphorylation.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>TG containing serum could inhibit high glucose induced RMC cells' proliferation, and its mechanism might be possibly associated with inhibiting TGF-β1/Smad2/3 signaling pathway.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Proliferation , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Glucose , Mesangial Cells , Phosphorylation , RNA, Messenger , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Serum , Signal Transduction , Smad2 Protein , Metabolism , Transforming Growth Factor beta1 , Metabolism
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-283013

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the effects of total flavonoids from astragalus complanatus (FAC) on paraquat poisoning-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The rats were divided into six groups randomly: control group, paraquat group, prednisolone group and FAC low-dose, middle-dose, high-dose group. Pulmonary fibrosis model was replicated by intratracheal injection of paraquat. In the mext day,the rats were treated by intragastric administration once a day. After 28 days, the rats were sacrificed. The lung index and the levels of HYP and T-AOC were measured, and the pathologic changes of the lung tissue were obtained by HE staining. The levels of TGF-β, Smad2, α-SMA protein were analyzed by Western blot.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>FAC improved the activity of T-AOC in serum and reduced pulmonary index and the content of HYP as well (P<0.05 or P<0.01), the alveolitis and fibrosis extent were attenuated. The expression of Smad2 significantly decreased in groups of FAC low-dose, middle-dose and high-dose (0.31±0.11, 0.45±0.12 and 0.30±0.05) as compared with that of the PQ group (0.85±0.34) (P<0.05). The expression of α-SMA significantly decreased in groups of FAC low-dose, middle-dose and high-dose (0.31±0.11, 0.35±0.07 and 0.32±0.10) as compared with that of the PQ group (0.45±0.08) (P<0.05). The expression of TGF-β significantly decreased in groups of FAC low-dose, middle-dose and high-dose (0.35±0.04, 0.27±0.05 and 0.18±0.04)as compared with that of the PQ group (0.63±0.11) (P<0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>FAC can alleviate PQ-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats through inhibiting TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway.</p>


Subject(s)
Actins , Metabolism , Animals , Astragalus Plant , Chemistry , Flavonoids , Pharmacology , Lung , Pathology , Paraquat , Poisoning , Phytochemicals , Pharmacology , Pulmonary Fibrosis , Drug Therapy , Rats , Smad2 Protein , Metabolism , Transforming Growth Factor beta , Metabolism
12.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 255-263, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-62391

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Differentiation and de-differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are important events in atherosclerosis and restenosis after angioplasty. MicroRNAs are considered a key regulator in cellular processes such as differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis. Here, we report the role of new miR-18a-5p microRNA and its downstream target genes in VSMCs and in a carotid balloon injury model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Expression of miR-18a-5p and its candidate genes was examined in VSMCs and in a carotid artery injury model by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and microRNA microarray analysis. VSMC differentiation marker genes including smooth muscle (SM) alpha-actin and SM22alpha were determined by Western blot, qRT-PCR, and a SM22alpha promoter study. Gene overexpression or knockdown was performed in VSMCs. RESULTS: miR-18a-5p was upregulated in the rat carotid artery at the early time after balloon injury. Transfection of the miR-18a-5p mimic promoted the VSMC differentiation markers SM alpha-actin and SM22alpha. In addition, miR-18a-5p expression was induced in differentiated VSMCs, whereas it decreased in de-differentiated VSMCs. We identified syndecan4 as a downstream target of miR-18-5p in VSMCs. Overexpression of syndecan4 decreased Smad2 expression, whereas knockdown of syndecan4 increased Smad2 expression in VSMCs. Finally, we showed that Smad2 induced the expression of VSMC differentiation marker genes in VSMCs. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that miR-18a-5p is involved in VSMC differentiation by targeting syndecan4.


Subject(s)
Actins , Angioplasty , Animals , Antigens, Differentiation , Apoptosis , Atherosclerosis , Blotting, Western , Carotid Arteries , Carotid Artery Injuries , Cell Differentiation , Microarray Analysis , MicroRNAs , Muscle, Smooth , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Rats , Smad2 Protein , Syndecan-4 , Transfection
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-312843

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To observe the effect of single herb pilose antler (PA) on the expression of Smad2 and Smad3 in the cartilage of osteoarthritis (OA) rats.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>One hundred 3-month old female healthy SD rats, (200 +/- 20) g, were recruited and routinely fed for 1 week. They were randomly divided into 5 groups, i.e., the low dose PA group, the high dose PA group, the normal saline control group, the model group, and the normal control group, 20 in each group. The model was prepared using classic Hulth method except the normal control group. After 6-week modeling, the model was confirmed successful by pathologic observation. PA at 0.021 g/100 g and 0.084 g/1 00 g was given by gastrogavage to rats in the low dose PA group and the high dose PA group respectively. Normal saline was administered to those in the normal saline control group. No treatment was given to rats in the normal control group and the model group. Bilateral knee cartilages were harvested at week 2,4, and 6. mRNA and protein expressions of Smad2 and Smad3 were detected by immunohistochemical assay, fluorescent quantitative PCR, and Western blot.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>OA model was successfully prepared by pathological observation. Results of immunohistochemical assay showed that Smad2 and Smad3 expressed extensively in the cartilage, and located inside the chondrocyte membrane. Compared with the model group, mRNA expression of Smad2 and Smad3 obviously increased in the low dose PA group and the high dose PA group at week 2, 4, and 6, showing statistical difference (P < 0.05). Compared with the same group at week 4 after gastrogavage, mRNA expression of Smad2 and Smad3 obviously decreased in the low dose PA group and the high dose PA group at week 6, showing statistical difference (P < 0.05). Compared with the model group, protein expression of Smad2 and Smad3 obviously increased in the chondrocytes of the low dose PA group and the high dose PA group at week 2 and 4, showing statistical difference (P < 0.01). Compared with the same group at week 2 after gastrogavage, protein expression of Smad2 and Smad3 obviously increased in the low dose PA group and the high dose PA group at week 4, showing statistical difference (P < 0.01). Compared with the same group at week 4 after gastrogavage, protein expression of Smad2 and Smad3 obviously decreased in the low dose PA group and the high dose PA group at week 6, showing statistical difference (P < 0.01).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>(1) The pilose antler could repair cartilages by regulating mRNA and protein expressions of Smad2 and Smad3. (2) Up-regulating mRNA and protein expressions of Smad2 and Smad3 might be one of important mechanisms for the pathogenesis of OA.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Antlers , Chemistry , Cartilage , Cell Biology , Metabolism , Chondrocytes , Metabolism , Female , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Osteoarthritis , Drug Therapy , Metabolism , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Smad2 Protein , Metabolism , Smad3 Protein , Metabolism
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-346459

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the effect and mechanism of Coicis Semen oil (Kanglaite injection, KLT) on renal interstitial fibrosis induced by unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO).</p><p><b>METHOD</b>Fifty-four male SD rats were randomly divided into 3 groups, 6 in each group, the sham operated group, the model group, and the KLT group. Renal interstitial fibrosis model was established in rats by UUO. After administration of KLT (15 mL x kg(-1) x d(-1)) for 3, 7 and 14 days, the dynamic histological changes of renal interstitial tissues were observed and renal damage including tubular impairment and interstitial fibrosis were quantified on HE and Masson stained tissue sections. The expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) were measured by immunohistochemistry staining sections. The protein expression of p-Smad2 and Smad7 were detected by Western blot respectively.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>The degree of tubular damage in KLT group was much lower than that in UUO group (P < 0.05). The expression of alpha-SMA and TGF-beta1 was decreased in both UUO group and KLT group, while it was significantly lower in KLT group at every time point. The protein expression of p-Smad2 was obviously decreased while the protein expressions of Smad7 was obviously increased in KLT group, compared with the UUO group (P < 0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Coicis Semen oil could attenuate the tubulo-interstitial fibrosis, probable by intervening the TGF-beta/Smads signal transduction pathway of UUO rats.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Coix , Fibrosis , Injections , Kidney , Pathology , Male , Plant Oils , Therapeutic Uses , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Signal Transduction , Smad2 Protein , Metabolism , Transforming Growth Factor beta1 , Physiology , Urethral Obstruction , Drug Therapy , Pathology
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-318026

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the impact of IFN-gamma on liver fibrosis and its possible mechanism. Thirty healthy male SD rats were randomly divided into two groups: fibrosis model group, IFN-gamma treatment group. Experimental liver fibrosis was induced by subcutaneous injection of CCl4. After 12-week-treatment, serum hyalurnic acid and TGF-beta1 was examined, histopathological changes and degrees of fibrosis were observed by optical microscopy. Meanwhile, the expression of TGF-beta1, TbetaR- I and Smad2/3 proteins was detected by immunohistochemistry and quantified by using computerized image analysis.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>(1) Pathological observation of hepatic specimens: histological examination showed that there were significant difference between normal group and fibrosis model group by comparing with the degrees of inflammation and fibrosis (P < 0.05). And the difference between fibrosis model group and IFN-gamma treatment group was significant (P < 0.05). (2) Changes of the hepatic fibrosis index (serum HA and TGF-beta1): the levels of serum HA, TGF-beta1 in fibrosis model group were higher than IFN-gamma treatment groups (P < 0.05). (3) Changes of gene protein levels about TGF-beta1/Smad: the expressions of TGF-beta1, TbetaR- I and Smad2/3 in rat hepatic tissue were detected with immunohistochemistry techniques. The expressions of the three items in model group were higher than normal group (P < 0.01). The difference between model group and IFN-gamma treatment group was significant (P < 0.05);</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>IFN-gamma treatment group had significant results on treating experimental hepatic fibrosis. By the way of inhibiting expressions of TGF-beta1, TbetaR- I, Smad2/3, IFN-gamma treatment group exerted its anti-fibrosis effect.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Interferon-gamma , Therapeutic Uses , Liver , Metabolism , Liver Cirrhosis , Drug Therapy , Genetics , Metabolism , Male , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Smad2 Protein , Genetics , Metabolism , Smad3 Protein , Genetics , Metabolism , Transforming Growth Factor beta1 , Genetics , Metabolism
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-271205

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the effect of 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine on the TGF-beta/smad signal transduction pathway in human keloid fibroblasts (KFSs).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Firstly, immunohistochemical method was used to detect the positive expression rate of phospho-smad2 and phospho-smad3 in the specimens of 15 cases of keloid and 15 cases of normal skin. The keloid fibroblasts were cultured in vitro with 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine(experimental group) or with DMEM (control group). The effect of 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine on the cell cycle and apoptosis of fibroblasts was analysed with flow cytometry ( FCM). Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1, Smad7, phospho-smad2 and phospho-smad3 were analyzed by Western Blot, and Immunofluorescence.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>It was found that the positive expression of phospho-smad2 and phospho-smad3 in keloid were higher than those in normal skin. The FCM showed that the proportion of cells in G0/G1 stage was increased, and so does the proportion of apoptosis cells in keloid fibroblasts intervened by 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine. The expression of TGF-beta1, phospho-smad2 and phospho-smad3 protein were significantly suppressed while the expression of smad7 protein increased in keloid fibroblasts with 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine. In addition, 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine reversed phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of smad2 and smad3.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>5-aza-2-deoxycytidine, methylase inhibitors, inhibits cell proliferation and promotes apoptosis of KFSs, which may be associated with the suppression of TGF-beta/smad signal pathway.</p>


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Azacitidine , Pharmacology , Cell Proliferation , Cells, Cultured , Enzyme Inhibitors , Pharmacology , Female , Fibroblasts , Metabolism , Humans , Keloid , Metabolism , Pathology , Male , Signal Transduction , Smad2 Protein , Metabolism , Smad3 Protein , Metabolism , Smad7 Protein , Metabolism , Transforming Growth Factor beta , Metabolism
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-235344

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the relationship between connective tissue growth factor (CCN5) and hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation as well as the mechanism of action.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>As the research object, LX-2 cells were stimulated with transforming growth factor-beta1 ( TGF-(beta1), and the protein expression levels of CCN5 and CCN2 were determined by Western blot; Hepatocyte high expression system of CCN5 was constructed and transfected hepatic stellate cells (HSC) to make CCN5 overexpression; The expression levels of alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) and collagen I were determined by RT-PCR and Western blot. To further study its mechanism of action, Smad2 and phosphorylation level of Smad2 were determined by RT-PCR and Western blot.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Under normal circumstances, CCN2 expression levels were much higher than CCN5 in LX-2 cells, while CCN2 expression was significantly higher than CCN5 if LX-2 cells were stimulated by TGF-beta1. However, there was no change for CCN5. Compared with the control group and the vector group, CCN5 was successfully overexpressed in the transfection group, and mRNA and protein levels of alpha-SMA and collagen I were significantly decreased (P < 0.01). Meanwhile, phosphorylation level of Smad2 was also significantly decreased (P < 0.01).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>CCN5, which has the function that inhibits HSC activation, has the opposite role compared with CCN2, therefore, a new idea was proposed for the prevention and treatment of liver fibrosis.</p>


Subject(s)
Actins , Metabolism , CCN Intercellular Signaling Proteins , Metabolism , Cell Line , Collagen Type I , Metabolism , Connective Tissue Growth Factor , Metabolism , Hepatic Stellate Cells , Metabolism , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis , Metabolism , Pathology , Repressor Proteins , Metabolism , Smad2 Protein , Metabolism
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-819821

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate possible mechanism of toxicarioside A in HS-5 bone stromal cells.@*METHODS@#HS-5 bone stromal cells were cultured in media supplemented with various concentrations of toxicarioside A or control DMSO (not treatment). Endoglin and TGF-β were detected by Northern and Western blot analysis and quantified in a standard method. Downstream molecules of endoglin and TGF-β (Smad1, Smad2 and their active phosphorylated counterparts, pSmad1 and pSmad2) were also detected and quantified by Western blot analysis. In addition, cell proliferation assay and small interfering RNA (siRNA) against endoglin were used to certificate the function of endolgin in the HS-5 cells.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the not treated (0 μg/mL) or DMSO treated control HS-5 cells, HS-5 cells treated with toxicarioside A were found significant attenuation of endolgin and TGF-β expression. Significant inhibition of cell proliferation was also found in the HS-5 cells treated with toxicarioside A. ALK1-related Smad1 and ALK5-related Smad2 were decreased in HS-5 cells treated with toxicarioside A. In addition, phosphorylated Smad1 (pSmad1) and Smad2 (pSmad2) were also found attenuation in toxicarioside A-treated HS-5 cells. RNA interference showed that blockage of endoglin by siRNA also decreased Smad1 and Smad2 expression in HS-5 cells.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Our results indicate that toxicarioside A can influence bone marrow stromal HS-5's function and inhibit HS-5 cell proliferation by alteration of endoglin-related ALK1 (Smad1) and ALK5 (Smad2) signaling.


Subject(s)
Antiaris , Antigens, CD , Metabolism , Blotting, Northern , Blotting, Western , Bone Marrow Cells , Metabolism , Cardenolides , Pharmacology , Cell Line , Cell Proliferation , Endoglin , Humans , Male , Receptors, Cell Surface , Metabolism , Signal Transduction , Smad1 Protein , Metabolism , Smad2 Protein , Metabolism , Stromal Cells , Transforming Growth Factor beta , Metabolism
19.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 3098-3103, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-316561

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>In addition to hematopoietic effect, the erythropoietin is known as a multifunctional cytokine with anti-fibrosis and organ-protective activities. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) on hepatic fibrosis and hepatic stellate cells (HSCs).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) induced hepatic fibrosis mice models were used for in vivo study and HSCs line for in vitro study. CCl(4) and rhEPO (0, 200 or 1000 U/kg) was injected intraperitoneally in BALB/c mice three times a week for 4 weeks. Immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting were performed to evaluate expressions of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and fibronectin in explanted liver. Immunoblotting of α-SMA, phophorylated Smad-2 and Smad-2/3 was performed in HSCs treated with TGF-β1 and/or rhEPO.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Expressions of TGF-β1, α-SMA, and fibronectin were increased in CCl(4) injected mice livers, but significantly attenuated by co-treatment with CCl(4) and rhEPO. Co-treatment of rhEPO markedly suppressed fibrosis in Masson's trichrome compared with treatment of only CCl(4). TGF-β1 increased phosphorylated α-SMA, Smad-2 expressions in HSCs, which were decreased by rhEPO co-treatment.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Treatment of rhEPO effectively suppressed fibrosis in CCl(4)-induced liver fibrosis mice models. Anti-fibrosis effect of rhEPO could be related to inhibition of TGF-β1 induced activation of HSCs.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Carbon Tetrachloride , Toxicity , Cells, Cultured , Erythropoietin , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Fibronectins , Hepatic Stellate Cells , Liver Cirrhosis, Experimental , Metabolism , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Recombinant Proteins , Pharmacology , Smad2 Protein , Metabolism , Transforming Growth Factor beta , Physiology
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-267636

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the effect of atorvastatin on cardiac remodeling and function after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in rats and whether this effect is mediated by transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) signaling pathway.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>AMI was induced by left coronary artery ligation in 64 male Sprague-Dawley rats, and 45 surviving rats were randomized into control group (n=15), low-dose atorvastatin group (10 mg/kg, n=15) and high-dose atorvastatin group (20 mg/kg, n=15). Similar surgical procedure was performed in sham-operated rats (n=15) without coronary ligation. Atorvastatin was given daily by gavage from the first day after AMI. Eight weeks later, the cardiac function, left ventricular weight/body mass index (LVMI), collagen volume fraction (CVF), and the expressions of TGF-β1 and Smad2 were compared between the groups.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>AMI caused significantly reduced cardiac function, increased LVMI and CVF, and upregulated expressions of TGF-β1 and Smad2 mRNA and proteins in the control group (P<0.05). The cardiac function, LVMI, and CVF were improved by atorvastatin, which also down-regulated the expressions of TGF-β1 and Smad2 (P<0.05), and the effects were more prominent in high-dose atorvastatin group (P<0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Atorvastatin can dose-dependently improve cardiac remodeling and function after AMI in rats, which is mediated by regulating the activity of TGF-β1/Smad2 signaling pathway.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Atorvastatin , Heart , Heptanoic Acids , Pharmacology , Male , Myocardial Infarction , Pyrroles , Pharmacology , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Signal Transduction , Smad2 Protein , Metabolism , Transforming Growth Factor beta1 , Metabolism , Ventricular Remodeling
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