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1.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e243813, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1431124

ABSTRACT

Este estudo propõe analisar as relações e os processos de subjetivação de mulheres quebradeiras de coco babaçu decorrentes das intervenções de políticas desenvolvimentistas em seus territórios de vida e reverberações no Movimento Interestadual de Quebradeiras de Coco Babaçu (MIQCB). Sob a perspectiva ético-estético-política da Cartografia, acompanhamos as narrativas das histórias de vida de 24 mulheres, suas atividades cotidianas e eventos do MIQCB, também analisamos os documentos das políticas. Entendemos que, ao passo que tais políticas de desenvolvimento rural contribuem para a melhoria das condições de vida, em termos materiais e simbólicos, elas também produzem ressonâncias relacionadas ao modo de subjetivação do tipo "empresário de si", que agenciam seus modos de viver, de produzir e de se relacionar consigo e com os outros na lógica capitalista neoliberal. A resistência às capturas neoliberais também estão presentes ao ampliarem as mobilizações coletivas do próprio movimento, articulando com outros na produção de um "comum".(AU)


This study proposes to analyze the relations and the processes of subjectivation of babassu coconut-breaker women arising from developmental policy interventions in their territories of life and reverberations in the Babassu Coconut-breaker Interstate Movement (MIQCB). From the ethical-aesthetic-political perspective of Cartography, we followed the narratives of the life stories of 24 women, their daily activities and promoted events by MIQCB, we also analyzed the policy documents. We understand that while these policies of rural development contribute to improve the living conditions, in material and symbolic terms, they also produce resonances related to the "self-entrepreneur" mode of subjectivation, which has been handling their ways of living, producing, and relating to themselves and others in the neoliberal capitalist logic. Resistance to neoliberal captures is also present as they expand the collective mobilizations of the movement itself, articulating with others, in the production of a "common."(AU)


Este estudio tiene como objetivo analizar los procesos de subjetivación de las mujeres que rompen coco babaçu que surgen de las intervenciones de las políticas de desarrollo en sus territorios de vida y las reverberaciones en el Movimiento Interestadual de las Mujeres que Rompen Coco Babaçu (MIQCB). Desde la perspectiva ético-estético-política de la Cartografía, seguimos las narraciones de las historias de vida de 24 mujeres, sus actividades diarias y eventos del MIQCB, y también analizamos los documentos de las políticas. Si bien estas políticas han contribuido a mejorar las condiciones de vida de las mujeres, en términos materiales y simbólicos, también han producido resonancias del modo de subjetivación "autoempresarial", que ha agenciado sus formas de vivir, producir y relacionarse consigo mismas y con los demás en la lógica capitalista neoliberal. La resistencia a las capturas neoliberales también está presente cuando amplían las movilizaciones colectivas del propio movimiento, articulándose con otros en la producción de un "común".(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Growth and Development , Economics , Government , Politics , Poverty , Psychology , Psychology, Social , Public Policy , Retirement , Rural Population , Social Desirability , Social Justice , Social Problems , Social Sciences , Soil , Women's Rights , Wood , Health Policy, Planning and Management , Socioeconomic Planning , Social Control Policies , Legislation, Environmental , Brazil , Water , Exercise , Ethnicity , Economic Development , Agricultural Cultivation , Poverty Areas , Land Use , Rural Areas , Forests , Organizations , Environmental Health , Conflict of Interest , Workload , Family Planning Policy , Entrepreneurship , Agrochemicals , Interview , Collective Bargaining , Commerce , Crops, Agricultural , Environmental Management , Natural Resources Exploitation , Natural Resources , Renewable Resources , Natural Reservations , Flora , Conservation of Natural Resources , Cultural Diversity , Nature , Feminism , Extraction and Processing Industry , Natural Resources Management , Rural Economy , Capitalism , State , Public Power , Biodiversity , Agriculture , Efficiency , Environment , Environment and Public Health , Health Sciences, Technology, and Innovation Management , Projects , Job Market , Health Surveillance of Products , Control and Sanitary Supervision of Foods and Beverages , Foods Containing Coconut , Machinery , Sustainable Agriculture , Non-Renewable Resources , Agribusiness , Environmental Communication , Femininity , Environmental Policy , Small Business , Ethnic Violence , Sociological Factors , Food , Work-Life Balance , Political Activism , Stakeholder Participation , Socioeconomic Rights , Occupied Territories , Sustainable Development , Social Programs , Indigenous Peoples , Right to Work , Empowerment , Social Inclusion , Gender Equity , Gender Role , Social Vulnerability , Environmental Responsability , Socio-Environmental Responsibility , Diversity, Equity, Inclusion , Working Conditions , Wildlife Trade , Health Services Needs and Demand , Housing , Human Activities , Human Rights , Labor Unions , Life Change Events , Anthropology , Mining , Occupational Groups
2.
Rev. adm. pública (Online) ; 57(3): e2022-0285, 2023. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1449367

ABSTRACT

Resumo Este artigo tem como objeto de análise a implantação da Lei Complementar nº 123, de 2006 (LC nº 123/2006), que instituiu o Estatuto Nacional da Microempresa e da Empresa de Pequeno Porte (MPE), por municípios paulistas. Utilizou-se o referencial teórico de difusão de políticas públicas tendo como objetivo estudar seu processo de adoção, observando os diferentes contextos e momentos de coerção previstos na legislação federal. Com base nas discussões teóricas relacionadas com o mecanismo de difusão chamado de coerção, respondeu-se a seguinte pergunta: qual é a influência do mecanismo de coerção vertical na difusão da Lei Geral da MPE nos municípios paulistas? A técnica "análise de sobrevivência" foi aplicada para identificar fatores explicativos da difusão da política, considerando variáveis de desenho institucional, políticas e partidárias, efeito vizinhança, necessidade da política, organizações/atores sociais e fatores estruturais. Os resultados demonstram que, conforme varia o desenho institucional de coerção, mudam os fatores explicativos da difusão dessa política na ponta, de modo que os aspectos locais, incluindo atores sociais, fatores regionais e questões estruturais, importam para a difusão, variando conforme o contexto coercitivo.


Resumen Este artículo analiza la implementación de la Ley General de las Micro y Pequeñas Empresas por parte de los municipios de São Paulo. Se utilizó la teoría de la difusión de políticas, con el objetivo de estudiar el proceso de adopción de esta política pública, observando los diferentes contextos y momentos de coerción previstos en la legislación federal. A partir de las discusiones teóricas relacionadas con el mecanismo de difusión denominado coerción, se respondió a la siguiente pregunta: ¿cuál es la influencia del mecanismo de coacción vertical en la difusión de la mencionada ley en los municipios de São Paulo? Se aplicó la técnica de análisis de supervivencia para identificar factores explicativos de la difusión de políticas, considerando variables institucionales, políticas y partidarias, efecto barrio, necesidad de políticas, organizaciones/actores sociales y factores estructurales. Los resultados muestran que a medida que varía el diseño institucional de coerción, los factores explicativos de la difusión de esta política al final cambian, de modo que los aspectos locales, incluidos los actores sociales, los factores regionales y los problemas estructurales importan para la difusión, variando de acuerdo con el contexto coercitivo.


Abstract This article analyzes the implementation of the General Law for Micro and Small Business by municipalities in São Paulo. The theory of policy diffusion was used to study the process of adopting this public policy in the different contexts of coercion. The article presents theoretical discussions on the diffusion mechanism "coercion" and answers the question: what is the influence of the vertical coercion mechanism in the diffusion of the General Law in the municipalities of São Paulo? The survival analysis technique was applied to identify explanatory factors of policy diffusion, considering institutional, political, and party design variables, neighborhood effect, internal needs, organizations/social actors, and structural factors. The results show that as the institutional rules of coercion vary, the explanatory factors of the diffusion change so that local aspects, including social actors, regional factors, and structural issues, matter for the diffusion, varying according to the coercive context.


Subject(s)
Survival Analysis , Cities , Coercion , Diffusion of Innovation , Small Business
3.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e252949, 2023. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1440791

ABSTRACT

As startups são empresas que apresentam modelos de negócios marcados pela inovação, rapidez, flexibilidade e alta capacidade de adaptação aos mercados. Atuando em diferentes setores socioeconômicos, elas prometem criar e transformar produtos e serviços. A emergência e disseminação dessas empresas ocorrem em um momento histórico de mudanças iniciadas a partir de 1970 e marcadas pelas crises geradas com o esgotamento do paradigma da sociedade urbano industrial. No Brasil, o número desse modelo de negócio apresentou uma expansão expressiva, alcançando a marca de 13.374 nos últimos cinco anos. Atento a esse cenário, o objetivo desta pesquisa consistiu em compreender como sujeitos, grupos e instituições atribuem sentidos à experiência de trabalho nas chamadas startups. Na parte teórica, as condições sociais e econômicas que possibilitaram a emergência e disseminação das startups são analisadas em uma perspectiva crítica. A parte empírica, por sua vez, apresenta depoimentos de empreendedores relatando o contexto geral de atuação nas startups. Ao final deste artigo, conclui-se que há uma instrumentalização capitalística de componentes subjetivos específicos selecionados e colocados em circulação para fortalecer o modo de produção capitalista financeirizado.(AU)


Startups are companies that have business models characterized by innovation, speed, flexibility, and a high capacity to adapt to markets. Operating in different socioeconomic sectors, they promise to create and transform products and services. The emergence and dissemination of these companies occur at a historical moment of changes that began from 1970 and are marked by the crises generated by the exhaustion of the paradigm of industrial urban society. In Brazil, the number of businesses in this model showed a significant expansion, reaching 13,374 companies in the last five years. Attentive to this scenario, the objective of this research was to understand how subjects, groups, and institutions attribute meanings to the work experience in so-called startups. In the theoretical part, the social and economic conditions that enabled the emergence and dissemination of startups are analyzed in a critical perspective. The empirical part presents entrepreneurs reporting the general context of action in startups. At the end of this article, it is concluded that there is a capitalistic instrumentalization of specific subjective components that are selected and put into circulation to strengthen the financed capitalist production.(AU)


Las startups son empresas que tienen modelos de negocio marcados por la innovación, la velocidad, la flexibilidad y una alta capacidad de adaptación a los mercados. Desde diferentes sectores socioeconómicos, las startups prometen crear y transformar productos y servicios. La aparición y difusión de estas empresas se produce en un momento histórico de cambios que comenzó a partir de 1970 y que está marcado por crisis generadas por el agotamiento del paradigma de la sociedad urbana industrial. En Brasil, estas empresas se expandieron significativamente alcanzando la marca de 13.374 empresas en los últimos cinco años. En este escenario, el objetivo de esta investigación fue entender cómo los sujetos, grupos e instituciones atribuyen significados a la experiencia laboral en las startups. En la parte teórica, se analizan las condiciones sociales y económicas que permitieron el surgimiento y la difusión de las startups en una perspectiva crítica. La parte empírica presenta testimonios de emprendedores que informan sobre el trabajo en startups. La investigación concluye que hay una instrumentalización capitalista de componentes subjetivos específicos que se seleccionan y ponen en circulación para fortalecer el modo de producción capitalista financiero.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Personal Satisfaction , Psychology, Social , Work , Organizations , Capitalism , Organization and Administration , Organizational Innovation , Peer Group , Personality , Politics , Professional Corporations , Professional Practice , Psychology , Public Relations , Risk Management , Safety , Salaries and Fringe Benefits , Social Adjustment , Social Change , Social Values , Technology , Thinking , Work Hours , Decision Making, Organizational , Competitive Bidding , Capital Financing , Artificial Intelligence , Consensus Development Conferences as Topic , Organizational Culture , Health , Administrative Personnel , Occupational Health , Planning Techniques , Adolescent , Entrepreneurship , Employment, Supported , Private Sector , Models, Organizational , Interview , Total Quality Management , Time Management , Efficiency, Organizational , Competitive Behavior , Natural Resources , Consumer Behavior , Contract Services , Benchmarking , Patent , Outsourced Services , Cultural Evolution , Marketing , Diffusion of Innovation , Economic Competition , Efficiency , Employment , Scientific and Educational Events , Products Commerce , Evaluation Studies as Topic , Agribusiness , Planning , High-Throughput Screening Assays , Small Business , Social Networking , Financial Management , Inventions , Crowdsourcing , Cloud Computing , Work-Life Balance , Stakeholder Participation , Sustainable Growth , Freedom , Big Data , Facilities and Services Utilization , e-Commerce , Blockchain , Universal Design , Augmented Reality , Intelligence , Investments , Mass Media , Occupations
4.
Bol. malariol. salud ambient ; 62(2): 352-359, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1391361

ABSTRACT

El carbunco es una zoonosis que afecta a animales herbívoros, causada por el microorganismo Bacillus anthracis; que se encuentra en su forma vegetativa en el organismo infectado, y una vez en contacto con el aire forma esporas que infectan al huésped, liberando toxinas que inducen edema, septicemia y necrosis tisular. En humanos, la transmisión se produce por cortes, pinchazos o contacto directo de piel lesionada con esporas o tejidos de animales infectados. En Perú, para la década de 1980, se reportaron 400 casos anuales en áreas rurales agrícolas, adquiridos por manipulación del ganado vacuno, muerto por ántrax. Es por ello, que la piel y el cuero procedente de animales infectados representa un riesgo de infección para los trabajadores de industrias curtiembres. Se realizó un estudio transversal para evaluar el riesgo biológico ocupacional y las medidas de bioseguridad relacionadas con el Bacillus anthracis en pequeñas, medianas y grandes empresas curtiembres peruanas. Se aplicó un instrumento a los trabajadores para cuantificar las variables, componentes de riesgo biológico y conocer las medidas higiénicas adoptadas. Posteriormente se calculó e interpretó el nivel de riesgo biológico. Se encontró que el nivel de riesgo supera el límite de exposición biológica para el Bacillus anthracis en todas las empresas evaluadas y los trabajadores de las pequeñas empresas tienen poco conocimiento acerca del riesgo biológico al que están expuestos, siendo necesaria la capacitación de los trabajadores acerca del Bacillus anthracis y adopción de medidas de bioseguridad en empresas curtiembres, que garanticen la salud de los trabajadores(AU)


Anthrax is a zoonosis that affects herbivorous animals, caused by the microorganism Bacillus anthracis; which is found in its vegetative form in the infected organism, and once in contact with the air it forms spores that infect the host, releasing toxins that induce edema, septicemia and tissue necrosis. In humans, transmission occurs through cuts, punctures, or direct contact of broken skin with spores or tissues of infected animals. In Peru, for the 1980s, 400 annual cases were reported in rural agricultural areas, acquired by handling cattle, which died of anthrax. For this reason, the skin and leather from infected animals represent a risk of infection for workers in tanneries. A cross-sectional study was carried out to evaluate the occupational biological risk and biosafety measures related to Bacillus anthracis in small, medium and large Peruvian tanneries. An instrument was applied to the workers to quantify the variables, components of biological risk and to know the hygienic measures adopted. Subsequently, the level of biological risk was calculated and interpreted. It was found that the level of risk exceeds the biological exposure limit for Bacillus anthracis in all the companies evaluated and the workers of the small companies have little knowledge about the biological risk to which they are exposed, being necessary the training of the workers about the Bacillus anthracis and adoption of biosafety measures in tanneries, which guarantee the health of workers(AU)


Subject(s)
Tanning , Bacillus anthracis , Occupational Health , Biological Products , Carbuncle , Zoonoses , Rural Areas , Containment of Biohazards , Small Business , Anthrax
5.
Rev. adm. pública (Online) ; 54(4): 1010-1021, jul.-ago. 2020. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1136987

ABSTRACT

Resumo Diante da ameaça de desestruturação do tecido produtivo como consequência do isolamento social imposto no Brasil, e tendo em vista que as micro e pequenas empresas são aquelas mais duramente atingidas, o presente trabalho tem por objetivo formular uma proposta de auxílio emergencial governamental para este segmento econômico. Para tanto, apresenta uma breve análise das medidas já adotadas pelo Governo Federal, propõe uma medida capaz de preencher suas lacunas e, por fim, estima os custos da medida proposta para o Tesouro Nacional.


Resumen Ante la amenaza de desestructuración del tejido productivo como consecuencia del aislamiento social impuesto en Brasil y considerando que las micro y pequeñas empresas son las más afectadas, el presente trabajo tiene como objetivo formular una propuesta de asistencia gubernamental de emergencia a este segmento económico. Para ello, presenta un breve análisis de las medidas ya adoptadas por el Gobierno Federal, propone una medida capaz de llenar sus lagunas y, finalmente, estima los costos de la medida propuesta para el Tesoro Nacional.


Abstract Facing the threat of disruption to the productive sector as a result of social distancing measures imposed in Brazil, and considering that micro and small enterprises are those hardest struck, this study aims to formulate a government emergency aid proposal for this segment. It presents a brief analysis of the federal government's current actions and proposes a measure capable of filling the gaps observed. Finally, the study offers an estimation of costs for the National Treasury if adopting the proposed measure.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Public Policy , Coronavirus Infections , Economics , Economic Cooperation , Small Business
6.
Brasília; IPEA; 20200500. 15 p. (Nota Técnica / IPEA. Diset, 63).
Monography in Portuguese | ECOS, LILACS | ID: biblio-1102203

ABSTRACT

Este trabalho tem por objetivo avaliar as principais ações do governo federal brasileiro, no sentido de socorrer os segmentos mais vulneráveis do aparato produtivo nacional. Como será possível observar ao longo do texto, entendemos que as medidas apresentadas até o momento não se conectam em uma perspectiva sistêmica, mas, sim, compõem uma miríade cujo entendimento está escapando à grande parte dos micro e pequenos empresários e dos trabalhadores autônomos, alvos principais das ações aqui destacadas.


Subject(s)
Public Policy , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Small Business , Pandemics
7.
Palmas; [Secretaria de Estado da Saúde]; 2 abr. 2020. 2 p.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | SES-TO, ColecionaSUS, CONASS, LILACS | ID: biblio-1120804

ABSTRACT

Orienta quanto a higiene das mãos e disponibilização a funcionários e entregadores o acesso fácil a pias providas com água corrente, sabonete líquido, toalhas de papel descartáveis, lixeiras com tampa de acionamento por pedal, além de frascos com álcool gel 70%.


As for hand hygiene and providing employees and delivery personnel with easy access to sinks provided with running water, liquid soap, disposable paper towels, trash cans with a pedal-operated lid, in addition to bottles with 70% alcohol gel.


En cuanto a la higiene de manos y al personal y repartidor de fácil acceso a lavabos provistos de agua corriente, jabón líquido, toallas de papel desechables, basureros con tapa a pedal, además de botellas con gel de alcohol al 70%.


Subject(s)
Humans , Food Hygiene/instrumentation , Control and Sanitary Supervision of Foods and Beverages , Urban Population/classification , Infection Control/methods , Outsourced Services/standards , Health Risk , Product Release , Small Business , e-Commerce , Occupational Groups/classification
8.
Safety and Health at Work ; : 251-253, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761377

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Occupational Health Services , Occupational Health , Small Business
9.
Safety and Health at Work ; : 213-218, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761350

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Motorcycles are one of the important members of commercial transportation because of the convenient use during congested traffic conditions and the ease of parking in narrow streets. This study investigates the characteristics of crashes and traffic signal violations caused by motorcycle couriers. METHODS: From the national compensation data, this study analyzed the traffic crashes caused by 671 motorcycle couriers. RESULTS: Among 671 injured couriers, 50.6% were aged less than 40 years, 49.2% run in a small business of < 5 employees, and 47.2% had work experience of < 6 months. Motorcycle crashes occurred mainly due to “rider overturned alone” (67.5%), in the daytime (73.5%), or on cloudy or clear days (77.2%). However, the violation rate caused by motorcycle couriers was high in couriers in a small business of < 5 employees (13.9%), with work experience of < 6 months (13.9%), on cloudy or clear days (12.4%), on an intersection (29.8%), in the type of “crash with a vehicle” (31.2%), or in a death accident (35.7%). CONCLUSION: The findings of this study can be used as a baseline in devising policies for preventing crashes of motorcycle couriers.


Subject(s)
Compensation and Redress , Estrogens, Conjugated (USP) , Motorcycles , Occupational Injuries , Small Business , Transportation
10.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1551297

ABSTRACT

Se presentan resultados parciales de la investigación "Tipos de liderazgo en los Nuevos movimientos sociales que resisten la exclusión en Argentina: tensiones entre las reivindicaciones y la política", de la Programación Científica UBACyT 2018.Sus objetivos generales son conocer los tipos de liderazgo, así como comparar distintos movimientos sociales que resisten la exclusión en Argentina, considerando las eventuales tensiones que pueden surgir entre resolver reivindicaciones urgentes y sostener una más amplia participación en la esfera política. En este artículo, se revisan teorías clásicas sobre movimientos sociales y se describen dos casos en estudio ­El Movimiento de Empresas Recuperadas (MNER) y la Cooperativa El Corre Camino-- utilizando la tríada conceptual: campañas, repertorios y manifestaciones públicas y concertadas de sus participantes, con el fin de establecer comparaciones. La investigación es exploratoria y descriptiva; su estrategia es el estudio de casos; el método y las técnicas son cualitativos. Se instrumenta la investigación-acción participativa


Partial results of the research "Modalities of leadership in the New Social Movements that resist exclusion in Argentina: tensions between the demands and the politics", of the UBACyT Scientific Programming 2018 are presented. Its general aims are to know the modalities of leadership, as well as to compare different social movements that resist exclusion in Argentina, considering the possible tensions that may arise between resolving urgent demands and sustaining a wider participation in the political sphere. In this article, classical theories on social movements are reviewed and two cases are being studied -The National Movement of Recovered Companies (MNER) and the El Corre Camino Cooperative- using the conceptual triad: campaigns, repertoires and public and concerted demonstrations of its participants, in order to establish comparisons. The research is exploratory and descriptive; its strategy is case study; the method and techniques are qualitative. Participatory action research is implemented


Subject(s)
Humans , Small Business , Government , Cooperative Behavior , Leadership
11.
Rev. baiana saúde pública ; 41(1): 98-119, dez. 2017. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, CONASS, ColecionaSUS, SES-BA | ID: biblio-1122413

ABSTRACT

O trabalho na agroindústria do dendê proporciona diversos riscos aos trabalhadores. Objetiva-se descrever os riscos ergonômicos no ambiente laboral em uma pequena empresa no ramo da agroindústria do dendê. O estudo é transversal, descritivo e de base populacional. Para a coleta de dados, utilizou-se o questionário. Os resultados mostraram que o sexo masculino foi o mais predominante, com 86%; a faixa etária de predomínio foi entre 36 e 45 anos, com 30%; 38% têm mais de 5 anos na empresa; 50% fizeram treinamento funcional; 62% relataram a temperatura elevada; 62% trabalhavam em pé; 70% gostavam muito da sua função; 56% não precisavam trabalhar em ritmo acelerado; 34% carregavam peso de 7 a 25 kg; 32% transportavam peso mais de 3 horas por dia; 48% faziam hora extra todos os dias; 68% não tinham pausa para descanso; 44% cansavam-se moderadamente durante o trabalho; 26% sentiam dores no corpo apenas após o trabalho e a mesma proporção relatou dores durante e após o trabalho, 20% relataram dores nas costas, pernas e outros segmentos; 14% já sentiam algum sintoma físico antes da função atual; e 48% queixaram-se de sintomas físicos atualmente. Concluiu-se que a ergonomia é essencial para a saúde e a segurança do trabalhador, tornando-o mais motivado pessoal e profissionalmente


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Plant Oils , Occupational Risks , Agribusiness , Small Business , Ergonomics , Palm Oil
12.
Safety and Health at Work ; : 343-346, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-17175

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Long working hours adversely affect worker safety and health. In 2004, Korea passed legislation that limited the work week to 40 hours, in an effort to improve quality-of-life and increase business competitiveness. This regulation was implemented in stages, first for large businesses and then for small businesses, from 2004 to 2011. We previously reported that average weekly working hours decreased from 2006 to 2010, based on the Korean Working Conditions Survey. METHODS: In the present study, we examine whether average weekly working hours continued to decrease in 2014 based on the 2014 Korean Working Conditions Survey. RESULTS: The results show that average weekly working hours among all groups of workers decreased in 2014 relative to previous years; however, self-employed individuals and employers (who are not covered by the new legislation) in the specific service sectors worked > 60 h/wk in 2014. CONCLUSION: The Korean government should prohibit employees from working excessive hours and should also attempt to achieve social and public consensus regarding work time reduction to improve the safety, health, and quality-of-life of all citizens, including those who are employers and self-employed.


Subject(s)
Commerce , Consensus , Korea , Small Business
13.
Psico USF ; 22(2): 285-297, maio-ago. 2017. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-878448

ABSTRACT

O objetivo do estudo foi verificar evidências de validade de um inventário de competências empreendedoras para empresários juniores no contexto brasileiro. Foram participantes 796 empresários juniores que responderam um survey online contendo o inventário de competências empreendedoras do Man e Lau, previamente adaptado para o português de Portugal e readaptado para o português brasileiro neste estudo. Foram realizadas análises fatoriais exploratórias (AFE) e confirmatórias (AFC) com duas subamostras de 398 participantes. A partir da AFE, encontrou-se uma solução de cinco fatores, que explicou 75% da variância e apresentou excelente consistência interna. Tal estrutura apresentou índices de ajustamento adequados na AFC (χ2/gl = 2,58, p < 0,001; SRMR = 0,040; CFI = 0,93 e TLI = 0,93). Os alfas de Cronbach variaram de 0,86 a 0,97. Esses resultados indicam evidências de validade do inventário como medida de competências empreendedoras em um contexto de formação empresarial.(AU)


This paper was designed to verify evidences of validity for an entrepreneurial competences inventory for junior entrepreneurs in Brazil. Participants included 796 junior entrepreneurs. They answered an online questionnaire, containing the inventory of entrepreneurial competences of Man and Lau, which was previously adapted into Portuguese from Portugal and readapted into Brazilian Portuguese in this study. Exploratory (EFA) and confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) were carried out with two subsamples of 398 participants. EFA indicated a five-factor structure, explaining 75% of the variance. Such a structure also presented satisfactory goodness-of-fit indexes in the CFA(χ2/gl= 2.58, p <.001; SRMR = .040; CFI = .93; and TLI = .93). The internal consistency of the factors (Cronbach's alpha) ranged from .86 to .97. These findings suggest that the inventory presentes evidences of validity for use in measuring entrepreneurial competences in an entrepreneurial training context.(AU)


El objetivo del estudio fue verificar evidencias de validez de un inventario de competencias empresariales para jóvenes empreendedores en el contexto brasileño; 796 empresarios jóvenes contestaron una encuesta online del inventario de competências emprendedoras del Man y Lau, adaptado previamente para el portugués de Portugal y readaptado al portugués de Brasil em este estudio. Se realizaron análisis factoriales exploratorios (AFE) y confirmatorios (AFC) con dos sub-muestras de 398 participantes. Desde la AFE fue encontrada una solución de cinco factores, que explicó 75% de la varianza y presentó excelente consistencia interna. Tal estructura presentó índices de ajuste adecuados en la AFC (χ2/gl= 2,58, p < 0,001; SRMR = 0,040; CFI = 0,93 y TLI = 0,93). Los alfas de Cronbach variaron de 0,86 a 0,97. Esos resultados indican evidencias de validez del inventario como medida de las competencias emprendedoras en el contexto de formación empresarial.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Professional Competence , Small Business , Factor Analysis, Statistical
14.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-915151

ABSTRACT

Esta investigación tuvo como objetivo analizar la existencia o ausencia de relación entre la intención emprendedora y un conjunto de variables cognitivas (autoeficacia emprendedora, actitud emprendedora y estilo emocional) y variables socio-personales (sexo, experiencia laboral, trabajar actualmente, poseer una empresa familiar, vivir con padres o no) en estudiantes universitarios. Método: participaron 159 estudiantes de los cuales 73 eran mujeres y 86 hombres. A través de una regresión logística se encontró que una alta autoeficacia para el liderazgo de recursos claves y un bajo estilo emocional de rumiación, contribuyen con la intención de emprender. Se discuten estos resultados en el contexto latinoamericano y se recomienda el énfasis que debe hacerse en la formación de futuros profesionales universitarios orientados a emprender, dando mayor relevancia a aspectos psicológicos del individuo en vez de la visión estrictamente económica y gerencial presente en los planes de formación para emprendedores de la actualidad. Por último, la principal contribución del estudio estuvo en la combinación de factores cognitivos y socio-personales en una misma muestra, la utilización de dimensiones más claras de las variables autoeficacia y actitud emprendedora, la promoción de instrumentos validados en la población de estudio y el uso de una técnica estadística potente y multicausal, como lo es la regresión logística. Se recomienda la investigación longitudinal para comprobar si efectivamente se convierten en emprendedores y verificar los factores explicativos de ello, además, comparar los resultados con población emprendedora para establecer relaciones más claras y eliminar aquellos factores que no contribuyan en la explicación del fenómeno


This research had as aim to analyze the existence or absence of a relationship between entrepreneurial intention and a set of cognitive variables (entrepreneurial self-efficacy, entrepreneurial attitude and emotional style) and socio-personal variables (sex, work experience, currently working, to possess family business, to live or not with parents) in undergraduate students. Method: 159 students participated of which 73 were women and 86 men. A logistic regression found that high self-efficacy for leadership of key resources and a low emotional style of rumination, contribute with the intention of being entrepreneur. These results are discussed in the Latin American context and the emphasis should be on the training of university professionals oriented to entrepreneurial intention, giving more relevance to psychological aspects of the individual rather than the strictly economic and managerial vision present in the training plans for entrepreneurs today. Finally, the main contribution of the study was the combination of cognitive and socio-personal factors in a single sample, using more clear dimensions of the self-efficacy variables and entrepreneurial attitude, the promotion of validated instruments in the population studied and using a powerful multi-causes statistical technique, such as the logistic regression. It is recommended a longitudinal study to see if indeed become entrepreneurs and to verify the factors that explain it. Fur- thermore compare the results with entrepreneurial population to establish clearer relationships and eliminate those factors that do not contribute to the explanation of the phenomenon.


Subject(s)
Humans , Motivation , Self Efficacy , Emotions , Small Business/organization & administration
15.
Environmental Health and Toxicology ; : s2015001-2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-137573

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Despite the great contribution made by chemical substances to the development of modern civilization, their indiscriminate use has caused various kinds of damage to the global environment and human beings. Accordingly, the major developed countries and international society have tried to ensure the safe use of chemicals and a reduction in the use of hazardous chemicals through the establishment of the United Nations Environment Programme and various international agreements. In this reason, we tried to introduce about Green Chemistry progress at the present in worldwide and Korea. METHODS: We checked and analyzed relative journals, reports using keyword as like Green Chemistry, alternative chemicals, eco-friendly etc. and major country's government homepage search. RESULTS: Green Chemistry theory, which argues for the reduction or removal of harmfulness in chemicals throughout their entire life-cycle, has been spreading, and major developed countries, such as the US and Denmark, have developed and operate programs to provide reliable chemical information to help replace hazardous chemicals. Korea has also been conducting studies as like eco-innovation project. Through this project the "Alternative Chemical Search program," has been developed, distributed, and operated since 2011 to provide reliable information to small and medium-sized businesses that have difficulties collecting information to ensure conformity to international regulations. The program provides information that includes the regulations of major countries and Korea, information on 340 alternative chemicals, 70 application cases, and 1:1 consulting. CONCLUSIONS: The Alternative Chemical Search program is expected to contribute to the establishment of response systems for regulation of Korean small and medium-sized businesses, and it also will be used to provide basic data for Korean hazardous chemical regulation, together with the Act on the Registration and Evaluation, etc. of Chemical Substances and the Chemical Control act, making it possible to establish an infrastructure for Green Chemistry in Korea and to increase national competitiveness.


Subject(s)
Humans , Chemistry , Civilization , Denmark , Developed Countries , Hazardous Substances , Korea , Small Business , Social Control, Formal , United Nations
16.
Environmental Health and Toxicology ; : s2015001-2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-137572

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Despite the great contribution made by chemical substances to the development of modern civilization, their indiscriminate use has caused various kinds of damage to the global environment and human beings. Accordingly, the major developed countries and international society have tried to ensure the safe use of chemicals and a reduction in the use of hazardous chemicals through the establishment of the United Nations Environment Programme and various international agreements. In this reason, we tried to introduce about Green Chemistry progress at the present in worldwide and Korea. METHODS: We checked and analyzed relative journals, reports using keyword as like Green Chemistry, alternative chemicals, eco-friendly etc. and major country's government homepage search. RESULTS: Green Chemistry theory, which argues for the reduction or removal of harmfulness in chemicals throughout their entire life-cycle, has been spreading, and major developed countries, such as the US and Denmark, have developed and operate programs to provide reliable chemical information to help replace hazardous chemicals. Korea has also been conducting studies as like eco-innovation project. Through this project the "Alternative Chemical Search program," has been developed, distributed, and operated since 2011 to provide reliable information to small and medium-sized businesses that have difficulties collecting information to ensure conformity to international regulations. The program provides information that includes the regulations of major countries and Korea, information on 340 alternative chemicals, 70 application cases, and 1:1 consulting. CONCLUSIONS: The Alternative Chemical Search program is expected to contribute to the establishment of response systems for regulation of Korean small and medium-sized businesses, and it also will be used to provide basic data for Korean hazardous chemical regulation, together with the Act on the Registration and Evaluation, etc. of Chemical Substances and the Chemical Control act, making it possible to establish an infrastructure for Green Chemistry in Korea and to increase national competitiveness.


Subject(s)
Humans , Chemistry , Civilization , Denmark , Developed Countries , Hazardous Substances , Korea , Small Business , Social Control, Formal , United Nations
17.
Rev. psicol. organ. trab ; 14(4): 441-451, dez. 2014.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-735527

ABSTRACT

A orientação de carreira durante a graduação tem os objetivos de potencializar a experiência acadêmica dos estudantes e formar alunos mais preparados para a entrada no mercado de trabalho e mais satisfeitos com suas escolhas profissionais. A participação de estudantes em empresas juniores pode configurar-se como uma estratégia deliberada, ou emergente, de desenvolvimento de carreira na graduação e um campo privilegiado de estudo e de intervenção vocacional no ensino superior. Neste artigo, discute-se a importância das empresas juniores como um espaço de exploração de carreira e também de fortalecimento da identidade profissional de seus membros. Ainda, discute-se a possibilidade de aproximação entre as atividades da psicologia organizacional e do trabalho (POT) e da psicologia vocacional, a partir de reflexões sobre uma prática de estágio de psicologia em uma empresa júnior da área de alimentos, na Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina. Espera-se, assim, poder contribuir com as discussões acerca da formação universitária...


Career guidance for undergraduates aims to enhance the academic experience of students and train graduates better prepared for the labor market and more satisfied with their career choices. One deliberate career development strategy may be the participation of students in junior enterprises. This is an emerging and therefore a privileged field of study and intervention in the area of vocational development during undergraduate studies. In this article, we discuss the importance of junior enterprises as spaces for career exploration and for strengthening the professional identity of its members. Also, we discuss the possibility of a closer relationship between the activities of work and organizational psychology and vocational psychology, using the reflections on a psychology internship experience in a junior enterprise in the food industry. Thus, it is hoped this may contribute to discussions about university education...


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Young Adult , Small Business , Students , Vocational Guidance , Universities , Competency-Based Education , Work
18.
Rev. psicol. organ. trab ; 14(4): 452-463, dez. 2014. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-735528

ABSTRACT

Empresas juniores (EJs) são associações geridas por estudantes de graduação, que têm conquistado papel de destaque no mercado brasileiro, reconhecidas como espaço de apoio à formação profissional. Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo analisar esse contexto por meio da identificação: (1) das oportunidades para os participantes de uma EJ; (2) das competências aprendidas pelo empresário júnior na EJ; (3) das limitações e das dificuldades das EJs; e (4) das oportunidades e dos desafios das EJs. O estudo compreendeu análises documentais e entrevistas semiestruturadas com 21 participantes (empresários e ex-empresários juniores, docentes e profissionais de apoio ao empreendedorismo). Os dados foram submetidos à análise de conteúdo. As competências identificadas relacionam-se a atributos e perfis profissionais requisitados pelo mercado de trabalho em diversas áreas e são apontadas como diferenciais de empreendedores de sucesso. As limitações indicam a necessidade de ações conjugadas de capacitação dos membros, de reformulação financeira e de ações de divulgação dos objetivos das EJs. As oportunidades estão presentes na própria estrutura e natureza das EJs, e oferecem benefícios diretos e indiretos aos seus participantes. Espera-se que os aspectos identificados contribuam para o desenvolvimento de empresários juniores, para o aprimoramento dos serviços prestados à sociedade e fomentem discussões de políticas para as EJs...


Junior Enterprises (JEs) are associations managed by undergraduate students who have emerged as leaders in the Brazilian market, and recognized as spaces that support professional training. This study aims to analyze this context by identifying: (1) what opportunities arise for those who participate in a JE; (2) the competencies learned by the junior entrepreneur in the JE; (3) the limitations and difficulties of the JEs; and (4) the opportunities and challenges of the JEs. The study included document analyses and semi-structured interviews with 21 participants (current and former junior entrepreneurs, professors, and professionals who provide entrepreneurial support). The data were submitted to content analysis. The competencies identified are related to the attributes and professional profiles required by the job market in diverse areas, and are indicated as differential aspects of successful entrepreneurs. The limitations indicate the need for actions that are linked to member training, financial reformulation, as well as actions promoting the aims of the JEs. The opportunities are present in the inherent structure and nature of the JEs, and offer direct as well as indirect benefits to their participants. It is hoped that the aspects identified can contribute to the development of junior entrepreneurs, the improvement of the services they provide to society, and encourage discussions about JE policies...


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Young Adult , Students , Training Support , Vocational Guidance , Universities , Small Business , Work
19.
Rev. psicol. organ. trab ; 14(4): 464-474, dez. 2014.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-735529

ABSTRACT

Ao longo dessa apresentação procurei demonstrar que o espaço de formação proporcionado pelas EJ faz sentido político, educacional e pedagógico para a Psicologia, de modo geral, e para a sub área de POT, de forma específica. Espero ter deixado claro que a natureza da resistência que elas enfrentam decorre de uma visão particular sobre nossa profissão e sobre a própria função da universidade. Argumentei ainda, que as EJs se apresentam como uma atividade extracurricular que permite a complementação da formação para os estudantes que dela se aproximam e que seus benefícios não são exclusivos. Outros tipos de atividades formativas podem oferecer resultados assemelhados. Entretanto, seus benefícios justificam a sua existência e funcionamento. Por fim, apresentei as principais formas que vêm sendo utilizadas para resolver a questão da relação entre as EJs e as universidades em função de sua natureza jurídica...


Throughout this presentation I have tried to show that the training space provided by the JEs makes political, educational, and pedagogical sense for Psychology, in general, and for the work and organizational psychology sub area, specifically. I hope I have made it clear that the nature of the resistance they face stems from a particular view of our profession and about the role of the university itself. I have also argued that the JEs are presented as an extracurricular activity that offers complementary training for students who participate in this activity, and that its benefits are not exclusive. Other types of training activities can offer similar results. However, its benefits justify its existence and operation. Finally, I have presented the main ways being used to address the issue of the relationship between JEs and universities due to its legal nature...


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Staff Development , Small Business , Students , Psychology, Educational , Universities , Universities
20.
Rev. psicol. organ. trab ; 14(4): 475-480, dez. 2014.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-735530

ABSTRACT

Este texto de caráter teórico tem por objetivo problematizar a relação entre as empresas juniores e a universidade pública a partir do resgate do acúmulo histórico de debates realizados sobre a temática no Departamento de Psicologia e no Centro de Filosofia e Ciências Humanas da Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina durante os anos de 2011 e 2013. Discutimos a adequação das empresas juniores às universidades públicas enquanto forma de organização estudantil, instrumento pedagógico e agente de extensão universitária. Questionamos dois aspectos centrais às propostas de empresas juniores: o discurso do empreendedorismo e o processo de empresariamento das instituições educacionais no Brasil. A partir de uma perspectiva crítica, situada teoricamente nos campos dos conhecimentos marxista e sócio-histórico, discutimos a função social das universidades públicas no Brasil. Ao fim da exposição, concluímos que tanto a ideologia empreendedora como a sua expressão, na forma de empresariamento da educação, são incompatíveis com uma universidade que se proponha a produzir conhecimento efetivamente crítico e a formar sujeitos capazes de pensar e atuar criticamente sobre as contradições do capitalismo e seus reflexos nas condições de trabalho e emprego em nossa sociedade. Constatamos que as empresas juniores cumprem papel fundamental em difundir uma visão de universidade subjugada aos ditames e demandas do mercado, que forma sujeitos meramente adequados a tal realidade...


This text, a theoretical study, aims to problematize the relationship between junior enterprises and public universities, by tracing the historical accumulation of discussions on the subject in the Department of Psychology and the Center for Philosophy and Human Sciences of the Federal University of Santa Catarina, between the years 2011 and 2013. We discuss how appropriate junior enterprises are to public universities, as a form of student organization, pedagogical tool, and agent of university extension programs. We question two central aspects of junior enterprises: the discourse of entrepreneurship and the process of entrepreneurism of educational institutions in Brazil. From a critical perspective, theoretically situated in the fields of Marxist and socio-historical knowledge, we discuss the social role of public universities in Brazil. We conclude that both the entrepreneurial ideology and its expression in the form of the entrepreneurism of educational institutions are incompatible with a university that intends to produce critical knowledge and effectively educate individuals that are capable of thinking and acting critically upon the contradictions of capitalism and their reflections on the conditions of labor and employment in our society. On the contrary, we ascertain that junior enterprises play a critical role in spreading a vision of a university that is subjugated to the dictates and demands of the market, and that produces subjects who merely adequate themselves to this reality...


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Small Business , Students , Universities , Staff Development
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