Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 394
Filter
1.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 130-139, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007670

ABSTRACT

Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a highly malignant tumor with a very poor prognosis; therefore, more effective treatments are urgently needed for patients afflicted with the disease. In recent years, emerging molecular classifications based on key transcription factors of SCLC have provided more information on the tumor pathophysiology, metastasis, immune microenvironment, and acquired therapeutic resistance and reflected the intertumoral heterogeneity of the various SCLC phenotypes. Additionally, advances in genomics and single-cell sequencing analysis have further revealed the high intratumoral heterogeneity and plasticity of the disease. Herein, we review and summarize these recent lines of evidence and discuss the possible pathogenesis of SCLC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Small Cell Lung Carcinoma/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Prognosis , Genomics , Phenotype , Tumor Microenvironment
2.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 539-574, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980724

ABSTRACT

To standardize the prevention and clinical management of lung cancer, improve patients' survival outcomes, and offer professional insight for clinicians, the Oncology Society of Chinese Medical Association has summoned experts from departments of pulmonary medicine, oncology, thoracic surgery, radiotherapy, imaging, and pathology to formulate the Oncology Society of Chinese Medical Association guideline for clinical diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer in China (2023 edition) through consensus meetings. Updates in this edition include 1) cancer screening: deletion of high-risk traits of lung cancer based on epidemiological investigations in the Caucasian population, while preserving features confirmed by research on the Chinese population. Advice on screening institutions is also added to raise awareness of the merits and demerits of lung cancer screening through detailed illustrations. 2) Principles of histopathologic evaluation: characteristics of four types of neuroendocrine tumors (typical carcinoid, atypical carcinoid, large cell carcinoma, and small cell carcinoma) are reviewed. 3) Surgical intervention: more options of resection are available for certain peripheral lesions based on several clinical studies (CALGB140503, JCOG0802, JCOG1211). 4) neoadjuvant/adjuvant therapy: marked improvement in the prognosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients receiving neoadjuvant immunotherapy are reviewed; more options for consolidation immunotherapy after radiochemotherapy have also emerged. 5) Targeted and immune therapy: tyrosine kinase inhibitors of sensitive driver mutations such as EGFR and ALK as well as rare targets such as MET exon 14 skipping, RET fusion, ROS1 fusion, and NTRK fusion have been approved, offering more treatment options for clinicians and patients. Furthermore, multiple immune checkpoint inhibitors have been granted for the treatment of NSCLC and SCLC, resulting in prolonged survival of late-stage lung cancer patients. This guideline is established based on the current availability of domestically approved medications, recommendations of international guidelines, and present clinical practice in China as well as integration of the latest medical evidence of pathology, genetic testing, immune molecular biomarker detection, and treatment methods of lung cancer in recent years, to provide recommendations for professionals in clinical oncology, radiology, laboratory, and rehabilitation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Lung Neoplasms/therapy , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/therapy , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/therapeutic use , Early Detection of Cancer , Proto-Oncogene Proteins , Small Cell Lung Carcinoma , Carcinoid Tumor
3.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 627-633, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984759

ABSTRACT

Objective: To compare the incidence of radiation-related toxicities between conventional and hypofractionated intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for limited-stage small cell lung cancer (SCLC), and to explore the risk factors of hypofractionated radiotherapy-induced toxicities. Methods: Data were retrospectively collected from consecutive limited-stage SCLC patients treated with definitive concurrent chemoradiotherapy in Cancer Hospital of Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences from March 2016 to April 2022. The enrolled patients were divided into two groups according to radiation fractionated regimens. Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE, version 5.0) was used to evaluate the grade of radiation esophagus injuries and lung injuries. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with radiation-related toxicities in the hypofractionated radiotherapy group. Results: Among 211 enrolled patients, 108 cases underwent conventional IMRT and 103 patients received hypofractionated IMRT. The cumulative incidences of acute esophagitis grade ≥2 [38.9% (42/108) vs 35.0% (36/103), P=0.895] and grade ≥ 3 [1.9% (2/108) vs 5.8% (6/103), P=0.132] were similar between conventional and hypofractionated IMRT group. Late esophagus injuries grade ≥2 occurred in one patient in either group. No differences in the cumulative incidence of acute pneumonitis grade ≥2[12.0% (13/108) vs 5.8% (6/103), P=0.172] and late lung injuries grade ≥2[5.6% (6/108) vs 10.7% (11/103), P=0.277] were observed. There was no grade ≥3 lung injuries occurred in either group. Using multiple regression analysis, mean esophageal dose ≥13 Gy (OR=3.33, 95% CI: 1.23-9.01, P=0.018) and the overlapping volume between planning target volume (PTV) and esophageal ≥8 cm(3)(OR=3.99, 95% CI: 1.24-12.79, P=0.020) were identified as the independent risk factors associated with acute esophagitis grade ≥2 in the hypofractionated radiotherapy group. Acute pneumonitis grade ≥2 was correlated with presence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, P=0.025). Late lung injuries grade ≥2 was correlated with tumor location(P=0.036). Conclusions: Hypofractionated IMRT are tolerated with manageable toxicities for limited-stage SCLC patients treated with IMRT. Mean esophageal dose and the overlapping volume between PTV and esophageal are independently predictive factors of acute esophagitis grade ≥2, and COPD and tumor location are valuable factors of lung injuries for limited-stage SCLC patients receiving hyofractionated radiotherapy. Prospective studies are needed to confirm these results.


Subject(s)
Humans , Small Cell Lung Carcinoma/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated/methods , Retrospective Studies , Lung Injury , Radiotherapy Dosage , Radiation Injuries/epidemiology , Esophagitis/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications
4.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 621-626, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984758

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the effect of depth of remission of induction chemotherapy on the overall prognosis of limited stage small cell lung cancer (L-SCLC). Methods: The study was a retrospective, L-SCLC patients who contained complete imaging data and underwent consecutive standardized treatments at the Department of Thoracic Radiation and Medical Oncology, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University between January 2013 and June 2021 were included. To delineate the volume of tumor before and after induction chemotherapy and to calculate the depth of remission caused by the induced chemotherapy. The time receiver operating characteristic (timeROC) method was used to determine the optimal predictors for prognosis, multi-factor analysis using Cox risk proportional model. Results: A total of 104 patients were included in this study. The median PFS and OS of this cohort were 13.7 months and 20.9 months, respectively. It was observed by timeROC analysis that residual tumor volume after induction chemotherapy had the optimal predictive value of PFS at 1 year (AUC=0.86, 95% CI: 0.78~0.94) and OS at 2 years (AUC=0.76, 95% CI: 0.65~0.87). Multivariate analysis showed residual tumor volume after induction chemotherapy was the independent prognostic factor to PFS (HR=1.006, 95% CI: 1.003~1.009, P<0.01) and OS (HR=1.009, 95% CI: 1.005~1.012, P<0.001). For those whose residual tumor volume remitted to less than 10 cm(3) after induction chemotherapy, the favorable long-term outcomes could be achieved, regardless of their initial tumor load. Conclusion: The depth of remission of induction chemotherapy could be a promising prognostic predictor to the L-SCLC and provide the individualized treatment guidance.


Subject(s)
Humans , Small Cell Lung Carcinoma/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Induction Chemotherapy , Retrospective Studies , Neoplasm, Residual , Prognosis
5.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 338-347, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982165

ABSTRACT

Lung cancer is the highest cancer-related mortality rate in the world, and is one of the most common malignancies. The standard treatment for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is radical lobectomy, while recent studies have found that sub-lobectomy of pulmonary nodules (≤2 cm) is not inferior to lobectomy and even improve the prognosis of the patients. These important findings will effectively and positively promote the formation of consensus and principles of wedge resection of pulmonary nodules (≤2 cm) in the field of thoracic surgery. The purpose of this study is to present a national expert consensus on wedge resection of pulmonary nodules (≤2 cm) in the field of thoracic surgery. The experts from Editorial Committee of Consensus on Wedge Resection of Lung Nodules (≤2 cm) (2023 Edition) jointly participated in the revision work. According to the clinical progress about the wedge resection of pulmonary nodules (≤2 cm) at home and abroad during recent years, experts jointly wrote Wedge Resection of Pulmonary Nodules (≤2 cm): a Consensus Statement by Specialists of Thoracic Surgery (2023 Edition), in combination with the homogeneous treatment principles of wedge resection in the field of thoracic surgery in China. This consensus was summarized from the following aspects: (1) Indications of wedge resection of pulmonary nodules (≤2 cm); (2) Resection range of pulmonary nodules (≤2 cm) required for wedge resection; (3) Excisable pulmonary nodules (≤2 cm) for wedge resection. This consensus finally put forward 8 recommended opinions, and sorted out 5 opinions which were still controversial and needed more evidence. The integrated opinions were generated through the discussion held among the experts of thoracic surgery from all over the country, making wedge resection of pulmonary nodules (≤2 cm) more appropriate for China and more standardized and homogeneous for clinical practice. In the future, more relevant researches should be accumulated based on the characteristics of lung cancer and its diagnosis and treatment in China, optimizing the treatment of pulmonary nodules (≤2 cm).


Subject(s)
Humans , Thoracic Surgery , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Lung Neoplasms/surgery , Thoracic Surgical Procedures , Multiple Pulmonary Nodules , Small Cell Lung Carcinoma
6.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 303-309, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982160

ABSTRACT

Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a malignant tumor with remarkable proliferative and invasive ability, which has very poor clinical prognosis due to lack of effective treatments. In recent years, researches on cells, animal models and tumor samples have promoted the identification of molecular subtypes of SCLC, discovered unique biological and clinical characteristics, and proposed potential specific therapeutic targets for different subtypes. This will encourage the development of more accurate therapeutic strategies towards SCLC, with a view to improving the prognosis of the patients. This article will review the current SCLC molecular subtypes, focus on the clinical characteristics and therapeutic strategies of different SCLC subtypes, and propose reasonable suggestions for the future treatment of SCLC.
.


Subject(s)
Animals , Small Cell Lung Carcinoma/therapy , Lung Neoplasms/therapy , Immunotherapy , Prognosis
7.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 274-280, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982157

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#With the aging of the population and the increased importance of lung cancer screening, the number of early-stage lung cancer patients has been on the rise in recent years, which can be classified into operable early-stage lung cancer and inoperable early-stage lung cancer. The most common pathological type is non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is the optimal treatment for inoperable early-stage NSCLC. The aim of this study was to investigate the prognosis of early-stage NSCLC patients treated with SBRT and its influencing factors in order to reduce the side effects of radiotherapy and improve the survival and quality of life.@*METHODS@#Clinical data and follow-up outcomes of early-stage NSCLC patients treated with SBRT in our hospital from August 2010 to August 2020 were collected. Kaplan-Meier method was used to assess the prognosis, and the Cox proportional risk model was used for multivariate prognostic analysis.@*RESULTS@#A total of 165 patients were included with a median follow-up time of 43.2 (range: 4.8-132.1) mon. The local control (LC) rates at 1-yr, 2-yr and 5-yr were 98.1%, 94.8% and 86.5% respectively. Karnofsky performance status (KPS) score greater than 80 was an independent prognostic factor for LC (P=0.02). The overall survival (OS) rates at 1-yr, 2-yr and 5-yr were 97.6%, 93.0% and 68.9% respectively. A biological equivalent dose when α/β=10 (BED10) greater than 132 Gy was an independent prognostic factor for OS (P=0.04). Progression-free survival (PFS) rates at 1-yr, 2-yr and 5-yr were 93.3%, 79.5% and 55.3% respectively. The distance metastasis free survival (DMFS) rates at 1-yr, 2-yr and 5-yr were 94.5%, 83.2% and 58.4% respectively. BED10 greater than 150 Gy was an independent prognostic factor for DMFS (P=0.02). The regional control (RC) rates at 1-yr, 2-yr and 5-yr were 98.8%, 95.4% and 87.9% respectively.@*CONCLUSIONS@#SBRT is effective in treating early-stage NSCLC. KPS greater than 80 is an independent prognostic factor for LC; BED10 greater than 132 Gy is an independent prognostic factor for OS; BED10 greater than 150 Gy is an independent prognostic factor for DMFS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Radiosurgery/methods , Early Detection of Cancer , Quality of Life , Prognosis , Small Cell Lung Carcinoma , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
8.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 675-682, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010280

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the efficacy of integrated Chinese and Western medicine extending the progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) of limited-stage small cell lung cancer (LS-SCLC) patients after the first-line chemoradiotherapy.@*METHODS@#The data of 67 LS-SCLC patients who received combined treatment of CM and Western medicine (WM) between January 2013 and May 2020 at the outpatient clinic of Guang'anmen Hospital were retrospectively analyzed. Thirty-six LS-SCLC patients who received only WM treatment was used as the WM control group. The medical data of the two groups were statistically analyzed. Survival analysis was performed using the product-limit method (Kaplan-Meier analysis). The median OS and PFS were calculated, and survival curves were compared by the Log rank test. The cumulative survival rates at 1, 2, and 5 years were estimated by the life table analysis. Stratified survival analysis was performed between patients with different CM administration time.@*RESULTS@#The median PFS in the CM and WM combination treatment group and the WM group were 19 months (95% CI: 12.357-25.643) vs. 9 months (95% CI: 5.957-12.043), HR=0.43 (95% CI: 0.27-0.69, P<0.001), respectively. The median OS in the CM and WM combination group and the WM group were 34 months (95% CI could not be calculated) vs. 18.63 months (95% CI: 16.425-20.835), HR=0.40 (95% CI: 0.24-0.66, P<0.001), respectively. Similar results were obtained in the further stratified analysis of whether the duration of CM administration exceeded 18 and 24 months (P<0.001).@*CONCLUSION@#The combination treatment of CM and WM with continuing oral administration of CM treatment after the first-line chemoradiotherapy for LS-SCLC patients produced better prognosis, lower risks of progression, and longer survival than the WM treatment alone. (Registration No. ChiCTR2200056616).


Subject(s)
Humans , Small Cell Lung Carcinoma/drug therapy , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Prognosis , Combined Modality Therapy
9.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 105-112, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971185

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) with high c-Myc expression is prone to relapse and metastasis, leading to extremely low survival rate. Cyclin-dependent kinases 4 and 6 (CDK4/6) inhibitor Abemaciclib plays a key role in the treatment of tumors, but the effects and mechanisms on SCLC remain unclear. This study was to analyze the effect and molecular mechanism of Abemaciclib in inhibiting proliferation, migration and invasion of SCLC with high c-Myc expression, with a view to expanding a new direction for reducing the recurrence and metastasis.@*METHODS@#Proteins interacting with CDK4/6 were predicted using the STRING database. The expressions of CDK4/6 and c-Myc in 31 cases of SCLC cancer tissues and paired adjacent normal tissues were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. The effects of Abemaciclib on the proliferation, invasion and migration of SCLC were detected by CCK-8, colony formation assay, Transwell and migration assay. Western blot was used to detect the expressions of CDK4/6 and related transcription factors. Flow cytometry was used to analyze the effects of Abemaciclib on the cell cycle and checkpoint of SCLC.@*RESULTS@#The expression of CDK4/6 was associated with c-Myc by STRING protein interaction network. c-Myc can directly modalize achaete-scute complex homolog 1 (ASCL1), neuronal differentiation 1 (NEUROD1) and Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1). Moreover, CDK4 and c-Myc regulate the expression of programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1). Immunohistochemistry showed that the expressions of CDK4/6 and c-Myc in cancer tissues were higher than those in adjacent tissues(P<0.0001). CCK-8, colony formation assay, Transwell and migration assay verified that Abemaciclib could effectively inhibit the proliferation, invasion and migration of SBC-2 and H446OE(P<0.0001). Western blot analysis further showed that Abemaciclib not only inhibited CDK4 (P<0.05) and CDK6 (P<0.05), but also affected c-Myc (P<0.05), ASCL1 (P<0.05), NEUROD1 (P<0.05) and YAP1 (P<0.05), which are related to SCLC invasion and metastasis. Flow cytometry showed that Abemaciclib not only inhibited the cell cycle progression of SCLC cells (P<0.0001), but also significantly increased PD-L1 expression on SBC-2 (P<0.01) and H446OE (P<0.001).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Abemaciclib significantly inhibits the proliferation, invasion, migration and cell cycle progression of SCLC by inhibiting the expressions of CDK4/6, c-Myc, ASCL1, YAP1 and NEUROD1. Abemaciclib can also increase the expression of PD-L1 in SCLC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Small Cell Lung Carcinoma , B7-H1 Antigen , Sincalide , Lung Neoplasms , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Transcription Factors , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing , Cell Proliferation
10.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 550-554, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940921

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the survival and influencing factors of unexpected small cell lung cancer following surgery. Methods: We respectively reviewed the clinical characters of 104 patients who underwent surgical treatment and be proved as small cell lung cancer by pathology between January 2000 to October 2020 in Chinese PLA General Hospital. Overall survival (OS) of patients was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards analysis. Results: Of 104 patients, 27 cases showed central lesions, and other 77 showed peripheral nodules. The margin of nodules was smooth in 42 cases on CT imaging. The median OS was 34.3 months and 5-year OS rate was 45.8%. Postoperative 5-year OS rates for patients were 52.1%, 45.4%, and 27.8% for clinical stages Ⅰ, Ⅱ, and Ⅲ, respectively. Univariate analyses identified the age, surgical access, surgical approach, N stage, TNM stage and vascular cancer emboli were associated with OS (P<0.05). The N stage was an independent factor for the OS of patients (P<0.05). Conclusions: Patients with unexpected SCLC, including Ⅰ, Ⅱ and part ⅢA stage have favorable outcome and can benefit from surgery and systemic postoperative treatment. Standard lobectomy plus systemic lymph node dissection is commended.


Subject(s)
Humans , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Lymph Node Excision , Neoplasm Staging , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Small Cell Lung Carcinoma/surgery , Survival Analysis
11.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 886-891, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941017

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the diagnostic value of the serum tumor markers carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), cytokeratin-19-fragment (CYFRA21-1), squamous cell carcinoma associated antigen (SCCAg), neuron-specificenolase (NSE) and pro-gastrin-releasing peptide (ProGRP) for lung cancers of different pathological types.@*METHODS@#This study was conducted among patients with established diagnoses of lung adenocarcinoma (LADC, n=137), lung squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC, n=82), small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC, n=59), and benign chest disease (BCD, n=102). The serum tumor markers were detected for all the patients for comparison of the positivity rates and their serum levels. ROC curve was used for analysis of the diagnostic efficacy of these tumor markers either alone or in different combinations.@*RESULTS@#In patients with LADC, the positivity rate and serum level of CEA were significantly higher than those in the other groups (P < 0.05); the patients with LSCC had the highest positivity rate and serum level of SCCAg among the 4 groups (P < 0.05). The positivity rates and serum levels of ProGRP and NSE were significantly higher in SCLC group than in the other groups (P < 0.05). CYFRA21-1 showed the highest positivity rate and serum level in LADC group and LSCC group. With the patients with BCD as control, CEA showed a diagnostic sensitivity of 62.8% and a specificity of 93.1% for LADC, and the sensitivity and specificity of SCCAg for diagnosing LSCC were 64.6% and 91.2%, respectively. CYFRA21-1 had the highest diagnostic sensitivity for LADC and LSCC. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of ProGRP for SCLC were 83.1% and 98.0%, respectively. When combined, CYFRA21-1 and CEA showed a high sensitivity (78.8%) and specificity (86.3%) for diagnosing LADC with an AUC of 0.891; CYFRA21-1 and SCCAg had a high sensitivity (84.1%) and specificity (87.3%) for diagnosing LSCC with an AUC of 0.912. NSE combined with ProGRP was highly sensitive (88.1%) and specific (98.0%) for diagnosis of SCLC, with an AUC of 0.952. For lung cancers of different pathological types, the combination of all the 5 tumor markers showed no significant differences in the diagnostic power from a combined detection with any two of the markers (P>0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#CEA, CYFRA21-1, SCCAg, NSE and ProGRP are all related to the pathological type of lung cancers and can be used in different combinations as useful diagnostic indicators for lung cancers.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antigens, Neoplasm , Biomarkers, Tumor , Carcinoembryonic Antigen , Keratin-19 , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Peptide Fragments , Peptide Hormones , Recombinant Proteins , Small Cell Lung Carcinoma/diagnosis
12.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 425-433, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939727

ABSTRACT

Small cell lung cancer is a kind of malignant tumor with strong invasiveness and poor prognosis, and the classic therapeutic modality of the disease remains multidisciplinary and comprehensive treatment. Treatment options for small cell lung cancer have been stalled for a long time, and new opportunities have emerged in recent years due to the development and initial experience of immunotherapeutic drugs. Clinical trials of some selected immune checkpoint inhibitors have confirmed the efficacy and safety in small cell lung cancer. Based on the results of phase III clinical trials (Impower133 and CASPIAN), Atezolizumab or Durvalumab in combination with chemotherapy has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the first-line treatment of extensive-stage small cell lung cancer. Clinical trials involving immune checkpoint inhibitors are being actively carried out and provide different perspectives for the management of small cell lung cancer. This article aimed to review the clinical progress in immunotherapy of small cell lung cancer.
.


Subject(s)
Humans , Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Immunotherapy/methods , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Small Cell Lung Carcinoma/pathology
13.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e19114, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374560

ABSTRACT

Abstract Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) accounts for approximately 15% of all lung cancer cases. Despite a frequently good response to first-line treatment with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy, early relapse occurs in the majority of patients and 5-year survival is only about 5%. This histological subtype of lung cancer is strongly associated with tobacco smoking. The behavior of SCLC is unique within solid tumors. Initially, it positively responds to chemotherapy or radiotherapy. However, at relapse, which occurs early in the majority of cases, the tumor is resistant to available therapy and eventually will cause the death of the patient. These results in an overall 5-year survival of approximately 5% for the entire population of patients diagnosed with SCLC. This dismal prognosis has not significantly changed in past years. There is an urgent need for discovery targets to select patients more prone to having a proper response to the treatment, avoiding to reduce their resistance and resulting the increase of overall and progression-free survivals.


Subject(s)
Drug Therapy/instrumentation , Small Cell Lung Carcinoma/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Patients/classification , Recurrence , Tobacco Smoking/adverse effects
14.
Rev. am. med. respir ; 21(3): 310-312, set. 2021. graf, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1431449

ABSTRACT

Hombre de 45 años de edad, oriundo del Gran Buenos Aires, ocupación: administrativo, ex- tabaquista de 15 p/y. El paciente se realiza un examen preocupacional que incluía una radiografía de tórax (Figura 1). Se observa como hallazgo incidental una radiopacidad en región superior de campo pulmonar derecho de bordes netos El paciente no refería tos, disnea, descenso de peso o sudoración nocturna, así como tampoco otros síntomas. Consulta al médico de cabecera quien deriva a nuestra institución para diagnóstico y tratamiento. Se le realiza TACAR de tórax, donde se observa una masa sólida que abarca lóbulo superior derecho, sin plano de clivaje con el mediastino y que desplaza tráquea y esófago hacia la izquierda. La misma presenta realce heterogéneo tras la administración de contraste. Además, presenta bullas subpleurales en lóbulos superiores y adenopatías a nivel retrocavopretraqueal e infracarinal (Figura 2). Ante los diversos diagnósticos diferenciales, de masas mediastinales en un paciente joven (linfoma, tumores carcinoides atípicos, tumores mixtos), se decidió realizar un método diagnóstico mínimamente invasivo pero que aportara material suficiente para determinar el origen


Subject(s)
Male , Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine , Carcinoma , Small Cell Lung Carcinoma
15.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 808-814, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922151

ABSTRACT

Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is the most malignant lung cancer with the highest mortality. At present, the first-line standard treatment is still based on Etoposide and Platinum chemotherapy. However, for SCLC that progresses after first-line therapy, the treatment options are still very limited. Since the molecular mechanism of first-line drug resistance of SCLC is still unclear, and the precision medicine strategy after first-line drug resistance is still in the pre-clinical stage. The proportion of secondary biopsy and genetic testing is very low after the progress of first-line treatment of SCLC. In this study, we report a case of a middle-aged woman who was first diagnosed with SCLC. Adenocarcinoma with sensitive gene mutations and repeated changes of small cell carcinoma were detected by multiple biopsies during the course of the disease, suggesting that the patient may be a special subtype of SCLC - mixed SCLC (M-SCLC). In this case, the patient has been treated with radiotherapy and chemotherapy, immunotherapy and targeted therapy successively, and the survival time has reached 2 years and 8 months. Through the case report and literature review retrospectively, this study aimed to explore the part patients may start to present hybrid histopathologic types or tissue type change after treatment of SCLC. Biopsy pathologic histology and genetic testing is necessary after disease progression to look for potential therapeutic targets, so as to give precise treatment based on molecular markers detection results and provide the patient with the benefit of survival for as long as possible.
.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Adenocarcinoma of Lung , Etoposide , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Retrospective Studies , Small Cell Lung Carcinoma/genetics
16.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 790-795, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922148

ABSTRACT

Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a neuroendocrine tumor with fast progression, high malignancy, easy recurrence, and extremely poor prognosis. In the past 30 years, the clinical treatment strategy of SCLC has been mainly chemotherapy and radiotherapy, but the curative effect is not significant; the current immunotherapy of SCLC has gradually entered the clinic and has made certain progress. Tumor immunotherapy includes immune checkpoint inhibitors, tumor vaccines, cytokines, chimeric antigen receptor T-cell immunotherapy (CAR-T) therapy, etc. Currently, immune checkpoint inhibitors are the most widely used. This article summarizes the principles of immune checkpoint inhibitors and related drugs, summarizes their domestic and foreign clinical trials progress in SCLC treatment, reviews the biomarkers used in the therapy, and discusses its future development direction.
.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cancer Vaccines/therapeutic use , Clinical Trials as Topic , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors , Immunotherapy , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Small Cell Lung Carcinoma/drug therapy
17.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 862-866, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922139

ABSTRACT

Lung cancer is the most common malignant tumor in the world, among which non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for about 85% of the total number of lung cancers. The 5-year overall survial (OS) of radical surgery NSCLC patients ranged from 92% in stage Ia1 to 26% in stage IIIb, and the continuously decreasing survival time made it a strong clinical need for precise adjuvant therapy to eradicate molecular residual disease (MRD). At present, circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) as a molecular indicator of MRD has gradually moved from the laboratory to the clinic. The latest consensus proposes that ctDNA with abundance ≥0.02% can be stably detected in the peripheral blood of perioperative NSCLC patients, which is based on the possibility of ctDNA as an MRD indicator. MRD detection technology supports the possibility of monitoring after radical treatment of NSCLC, and ctDNA can predict the recurrence of the disease earlier than the imaging monitoring after treatment of NSCLC, providing valuable time for timely adjustment of adjuvant therapy. In the studies on early postoperative adjuvant therapy of NSCLC, different guidelines differ on whether appropriate adjuvant therapy should be carried out, while MRD can be used as a more accurate predictor to guide postoperative adjuvant therapy, so that patients can benefit from the disease treatment.
.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biomarkers, Tumor , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/surgery , Circulating Tumor DNA , Lung Neoplasms/surgery , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Neoplasm, Residual , Small Cell Lung Carcinoma
18.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 734-738, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922135

ABSTRACT

Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a highly aggressive and fatal malignant tumor. It has the characteristics of complex etiology, low differentiation, high malignancy, fast growth, strong invasiveness, early metastasis and acquired drug resistance, resulting in poor prognosis. In recent years, with the gradual deepening understanding on the molecular mechanism of SCLC and multi-omics data, it is proposed that molecular typing can be carried out according to the differential expression of key transcription factors, including SCLC-A, SCLC-N, SCLC-P and SCLC-I subtypes. Molecular typing of SCLC and its clinical application will help doctors to further optimize the detailed diagnosis and treatment plan of SCLC patients, so as to prolong the survival time and improve the quality of life of patients.
.


Subject(s)
Humans , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Molecular Typing , Quality of Life , Small Cell Lung Carcinoma/genetics , Transcription Factors
19.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 729-733, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922134

ABSTRACT

The transformation of non-small cell lung cancer to small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is one of the major resistant mechanisms, especially patients with epidermal growth factor receptor mutant lung adenocarcinoma. Translational SCLC has been found to have similar clinical features to primary SCLC. Chemotherapy was short-term effective for transformational SCLC, with a median survival of only about 1 year. The deletion of RB1 and the change of somatic copy number were associated with SCLC transformation. Although the molecular mechanism of SCLC transformation is still not fully understood. At the same time, the treatment of transformational SCLC also faces great challenges. Currently, chemotherapy regimens for SCLC are the main treatment options for transforming SCLC. Combination therapy, local treatment and strategies for prevention of SCLC transformatio are also being explored. This article will review research advances on the clinical features, molecular mechanism and treatment options of translational SCLC.
.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adenocarcinoma of Lung , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Mutation , Small Cell Lung Carcinoma/genetics
20.
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae ; (6): 53-56, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878698

ABSTRACT

Objective To compare the differences of energy spectrum CT between small cell lung cancer(SCLC)with mediastinal lymph node metastasis and mediastinal sarcoidosis.Methods Twenty-five SCLC patients with mediastinal lymph node metastasis(SCLC group)and 26 patients with mediastinal sarcoidosis(sarcoidosis group)confirmed by bronchoscopy and biopsy in Tangshan People's Hospital from January 2018 to June 2019 were selected as the research objects.The CT value,iodine concentration,water concentration and energy spectrum curve slope under different single energy levels were compared between SCLC group and sarcoidosis group.Results The single-energy CT values of 40-80 keV segments in the arterial phase of the SCLC group were significantly higher than those in the sarcoidosis group(all P 0.05).The single-energy CT values of 40-90 keV segments in venous phase of the SCLC group were significantly higher than those of the sarcoidosis group(all P 0.05).The concentrations of iodine in the arterial phase and venous phase of the SCLC group were(11.56±4.06)μg/cm


Subject(s)
Humans , Lung Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Lymph Nodes , Lymphatic Metastasis , Sarcoidosis/diagnostic imaging , Small Cell Lung Carcinoma/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL