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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e239639, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249218

ABSTRACT

Abstract Among the plants defense mechanisms, the induction and emission of volatile organic compounds, which can be used to attract natural enemies, such predators insects. Although well studied, the induction of plant volatiles that attract natural enemies can vary according to intensity of infestation of herbivores and the species of host plant. We investigated the olfactory behavioral responses of the predatory mite Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) to the volatiles of infested maize (Zea mays) plants by the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae (Koch, 1836) (Acari: Tetranychidae) in early and advanced infestations. The Bt (Viptera) maize cultivar Impact® was used for tests the behavior of N. californicus. After initial and advanced infestations, the phytophagous mites T. urticae were removed, and the plants were tested using a "Y" olfactometer. The following treatments were evaluated: air vs. air, uninfested plants vs. air, uninfested plants vs. plants infested with 10 females of T. urticae, uninfested plants vs. plants infested with 100 females of T. urticae, uninfested plants vs. plants infested with 200 females of T. urticae and plants infested with 10 vs. plants infested with 200 females of T. urticae. The predatory mite N. californicus did not show preference to the treatments tested, suggesting that maize plants infested by T. urticae do not induce volatiles capable of attracting the predatory mite N. californicus. We concluded that N. californicus is not attracted by maize plants infested by T. urticae.


Resumo Dentre os mecanismos de defesa de plantas, a indução e emissão de compostos orgânicos voláteis, podem ser utilizados para atrair inimigos naturais, como insetos predadores. Embora bem estudada, a indução dos voláteis de plantas que atraem inimigos naturais pode variar de acordo com a intensidade de infestação de herbívoros e a espécie de planta hospedeira. Investigamos as respostas comportamentais olfativas do ácaro predador Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) aos voláteis de plantas infestadas pelo ácaro-rajado Tetranychus urticae (Koch, 1836) (Acari: Tetranychidae). A cultivar de milho Bt (Viptera) Impact® foi utilizada para testar o comportamento de N. californicus. Após infestações iniciais e avançadas, os ácaros fitófagos T. urticae foram removidos e as plantas testadas em olfatômetro "Y". Os seguintes tratamentos foram avaliados: ar vs. ar, plantas não infestadas vs. ar, plantas não infestadas vs. plantas infestadas com 10 fêmeas de T. urticae, plantas não infestadas vs. plantas infestadas com 100 fêmeas de T. urticae, plantas não infestadas vs. plantas infestadas com 200 fêmeas de T. urticae e plantas infestadas com 10 vs. plantas infestadas com 200 fêmeas de T. urticae. O ácaro predador N. californicus não mostrou preferência aos tratamentos testados, sugerindo que plantas de milho infestadas por T. urticae não induzem voláteis capazes de atrair o ácaro predador N. californicus. Concluímos que N. californicus não é atraído por plantas de milho infestadas por T. urticae.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Tetranychidae , Acari , Mites , Predatory Behavior , Smell , Zea mays
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(4): 909-916, Oct.-Dec. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153443

ABSTRACT

Abstract The present study was taken to test the hypothesis that the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) of echolocating neotropical bats with different foraging behavior will exhibit morphological variations in relative size, degree of complexity and spatial distribution. The brains were collected from six male adult bats of each species: Noctilio leporinus (fish-eating), Phyllostomus hastatus (carnivorous/ omnivorous) and Carollia perspicillata (fruit-eating) and were double-embedded and transverse serial sections were cut and stained with cresyl fast violet. The results showed that the MNTB is well developed in all the bats in general and the mean length of the MNTB was 1160 ± 124 µm in N. leporinus, 400 ± 59 µm in P. hastatus and 320 ± 25µm in C. perspicillata. The body and brain weight do not reflect proportionately on the size of the MNTB in the present study. The hearing frequency spectrum did not covary with the size of the MNTB among the bats studied. The MNTB is clearly demarcated from the ventral nucleus of the trapezoid body (VNTB) only in P. hastatus. The MNTB comprised mainly three types of cells in all three bats: dense-staining multipolar cells (12.5 µm and 25.0 µm diameter); light-staining multipolar cells measuring (12.5 µm and 25.0 µm diameter) and light-staining round cells (5.0 µm diameter). The large sized MNTB was observed in N. leporinus, which suggests that it relies heavily on echolocation whereas P. hastatus and C. perspicillata use echolocation as well but also rely on hearing, smell and vision.


Resumo O presente estudo foi realizado para testar a hipótese de que o núcleo medial do corpo trapezoide (MNTB) de morcegos neotropicais ecolocativos com comportamento forrageiro diferente apresenta variações morfológicas no tamanho relativo, grau de complexidade e distribuição espacial. Os cérebros foram coletados de seis morcegos machos adultos de cada espécie, Noctilio leporinus (comedor de peixe), Phyllostomus hastatus (carnívoro/onívoro) e Carollia perspicillata (comedor de frutas), e foram seccionados em série e seções seriais transversais duplas e coradas com cresil violeta. Os resultados mostraram que o MNTB é bem desenvolvido em todos os morcegos em geral e que o comprimento médio do MNTB foi de 1.160 ± 124 µm em N. leporinus, 400 ± 59 µm em P. hastatus e 320 ± 25 µm em C. perspicillata. O peso corporal e cerebral não reflete proporcionalmente o tamanho do MNTB no presente estudo. O espectro da frequência auditiva não covaria com o tamanho do MNTB entre os morcegos estudados. O MNTB é claramente demarcado do núcleo ventral do corpo trapezoidal (VNTB) apenas em P. hastatus. O MNTB compreendia principalmente três tipos de células nos três morcegos: células multipolares de coloração densa (12,5 µm e 25,0 µm de diâmetro), células multipolares de coloração clara (12,5 µm e 25,0 µm de diâmetro) e células redondas manchadas de luz (5,0 µm de diâmetro). O MNTB de grande porte foi observado em N. leporinus, o que sugere que ele depende muito da ecolocalização, enquanto P. hastatus e C. perspicillata também usam a ecolocalização, mas dependem da audição, olfato e visão.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Chiroptera , Echolocation , Trapezoid Body , Smell , Hearing
3.
Investig. psicol. (La Paz, En línea) ; (supl.): 85-92, sept. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1343824

ABSTRACT

El marketing actual encuentra a una sociedad anestesiada, evitativa y un poco aislada, por lo cual deberá buscar mecanismos alternos para intervenirla en base a un abordaje que se guíe por los sentidos. Esta última década será decisiva para el marketing olfativo porque de una tendencia, ahora se transforma en una opción para acercar, estimular, crear y enriquecer experiencias sensoriales perdurables en el tiempo, su formato de ingreso a la mente es sutil, oculto e implacablemente inmediato, porque su objetivo es seducir instantáneamente al cerebro


Current marketing finds a society anesthetized, avoidant and a bit isolated, so it must look for alternative mechanisms to intervene based on an approach that is guided by the senses. This last decade will be decisive for olfactory marketing because from a trend, it is now transformed into an option to bring, stimulate, create and enrich sensorial experiences that last over time, its entry format to the mind is subtle, hidden and relentlessly immediate, because its goal is to instantly seduce the brain.


O marketing atual encontra uma sociedade anestesiada, evitativa e um pouco isolada, para a qual deve buscar mecanismos alternativos para intervir a partir de uma abordagem orientada pelos sentidos. Esta última década será decisiva para o marketing olfativo porque de tendência, agora se transforma em opção de trazer, estimular, criar e enriquecer experiências sensoriais que perduram no tempo, seu formato de entrada para a mente é sutil, oculto e implacavelmente imediato, porque seu objetivo é seduzir instantaneamente o cérebro.


Subject(s)
Marketing , Smell , Advertising
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887883

ABSTRACT

In addition to acute respiratory symptoms,coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19)could cause olfactory dysfunction,which becomes the only clinical manifestation of COVID-19 in some cases.We review the epidemiological characteristics,pathological mechanism,screening value,treatment and prognosis of olfactory dysfunction in patients with COVID-19,aiming to achieve an in-depth understanding of the early diagnosis,quarantine,scientific treatment and prognosis of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Early Diagnosis , Humans , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Smell
5.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 86(6): 781-792, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142605

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: The SARS-CoV-2 virus causes COVID-19, and it is responsible for the largest pandemic since the 1918 H1N1 influenza outbreak. The classic symptoms of the disease have been well defined by the World Health Organization; however, olfactory/gustatory disorders have been reported in some studies, but there are still several missing points in the understanding and in the consensus about the clinical management of these cases. Objective: To identify evidence in the scientific literature about olfactory/gustatory disorders, their clinical presentation, prevalence and possible specific treatments associated with COVID-19. Methods: A systematic review of articles published up to April 25, 2020 was performed in Medline, Cochrane Clinical Trials, ScienceDirect, Lilacs, Scopus and Google Schoolar, OpenGrey.eu, DissOnline, The New York Academy of Medicine and Reasearch Gate. Inclusion criteria: (1) Studies on patients with COVID-19; (2) Records of COVID-19 signs/symptoms, and olfactory/gustatory functions. Exclusion criteria: (1) Studies on non-human coronavirus; (2) Review articles; (3) Experimental studies (in animals or in vitro); (4) Olfactory/gustatory disorders initiated prior to SARS-CoV-2 infection. The risk assessment of bias of the selected studies was performed using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Results: Six articles from the 1788 records met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed. A total of 1457 patients of different ethnicities were assessed; of them, 885 (60.7%) and 822 (56.4%) had smell and taste disorders, respectively, with women being most often affected. There were olfactory/gustatory disorders even without nasal obstruction/rhinorrhea and beginning even before the signs/symptoms of COVID-19; the recovery of smell/taste, when it occurs, usually happened in the first two weeks after COVID-19 resolution. There is evidence that olfactory/gustatory disorders are strong predictors of infection by SARS-CoV-2, and it is possible to recommend patient isolation, as early as of the medical consultation, preventing the spread of the virus. No scientific evidence has been identified for effective treatments for any of the disorders. Conclusion: Olfactory/gustatory disorders may occur at varying intensities and prior to the general symptoms of COVID-19 and should be considered as part of the clinical features of COVID-19, even in mild cases. There is still no scientific evidence of specific treatments for such disorders in COVID-19 disease.


Resumo Introdução: O vírus SARS-CoV-2 causa a COVID-19 e é responsável pela maior pandemia desde o surto de influenza H1N1 de 1918. Os sintomas clássicos da doença já foram bem definidos pela Organização Mundial da Saúde; entretanto, distúrbios olfativo-gustativos têm sido relatados em alguns estudos, mas ainda com várias lacunas no entendimento e no consenso sobre a condução clínica desses casos. Objetivo: Identificar evidências na literatura científica sobre os distúrbios olfativo-gustativos acerca da apresentação clínica, prevalência e possíveis tratamentos específicos associados à COVID-19. Método: Revisão sistemática de artigos publicados até 25 de abril de 2020 nas bases de dados: Medline, Cochrane Clinical Trials, ScienceDirect, Lilacs, Scopus e Google Schoolar, OpenGrey.eu, DissOnline, The New York Academy of Medicine e Research Gate. Foram critérios de inclusão: 1) Estudos com indivíduos com COVID-19; 2) Registro dos sinais/sintomas da COVID-19 e das funções olfativo-gustativa. Foram critérios de exclusão: 1) Estudos sobre coronavírus não humano; 2) Artigos de revisão; 3) Estudos experimentais (em animais ou in vitro); 4) Distúrbios olfativos-gustativos iniciados previamente à infecção pelo SARS-CoV-2. A avaliação de risco de viés dos estudos selecionados foi feita por meio da escala de Newcastle-Ottawa. Resultados: Seis artigos dos 1.788 registros foram selecionados. Um total de 1.457 pacientes de diversas etnias foi avaliado; desses, 885 (60,7%) apresentaram perda do olfato e 822 (56,4%) perda do paladar, sendo as mulheres as mais afetadas. Os distúrbios olfativo-gustativos estiveram presentes mesmo sem obstrução nasal/rinorreia e com início mesmo antes dos sinais/sintomas clínicos da COVID-19; a recuperação do olfato/paladar, quando ocorre, geralmente se dá nas duas primeiras semanas após a resolução da doença. Há evidências de que os distúrbios olfativo-gustativos sejam fortes preditores de infecção pelo SARS-CoV-2, podendo-se recomendar o isolamento do paciente, já a partir da consulta médica, para evitar a disseminação do vírus. Não foram identificadas evidências científicas para tratamentos eficazes para qualquer dos distúrbios. Conclusão: Podem ocorrer distúrbios olfativo-gustativos em intensidades variáveis e prévios aos sintomas gerais da COVID-19, devem ser considerados como parte dos sintomas da doença, mesmo em quadros leves. Não há ainda evidências científicas de tratamentos específicos para tais distúrbios na COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Pandemics , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Smell , Taste Disorders/etiology , Taste Disorders/epidemiology , Nutrition Surveys , Betacoronavirus
6.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(11): 1602-1608, Nov. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1143629

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: To present scientific evidence based on a systematic review of the literature (PRISMA) to systematize information on smell and taste alterations in patients diagnosed with COVID-19. METHODS: The studies were selected through combinations based on the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). The MEDLINE (PubMed), LILACS, SciELO, and BIREME databases were used. The search encompassed articles published from January 2010 to May 2020, with no restriction of language or localization. RESULTS: A total of 665 retrieved articles had the potential for inclusion. Of these, two answered the research question, which was to verify the smell and taste alterations in patients diagnosed with COVID-19. CONCLUSION: The results found in this review demonstrated that there likely is an association between self-reported smell and taste dysfunctions and COVID-19 infection in such patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Coronavirus Infections , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Smell , Taste , Taste Disorders/diagnosis , Taste Disorders/etiology , Taste Disorders/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus
7.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 86(5): 632-638, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132636

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: The real number of COVID-19 cases may be underestimated since several countries have difficulty offering laboratory tests for all the population. Therefore, finding a symptom with a high predictive value would help in diagnostic and isolation strategies. Objective: To correlate the sudden loss of the sense of smell in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic with results of diagnostic tests for COVID-19. Methods: This is a cross-sectional observational study. An online questionnaire was digitally addressed to 725 outpatients in Brazil who reported partial or total sudden loss of the sense of smell from March to April 2020. Results: Total or partial sudden loss of the sense of smell showed high positive predictive value for COVID-19 diagnosis, during the COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil (88.8%). There were no differences between groups tested positive and negative in regard to demographic and clinical characteristics such as presence of allergy, rhinitis, neither to olfactory recovery time. Conclusion: The identification of sudden loss of the sense of smell during COVID-19 pandemic may serve as a sentinel symptom and may be a warning to establish measures to prevent the transmission of the disease.


Resumo Introdução: O número real de casos Covid-19 pode estar subestimado, pois vários países têm dificuldade em oferecer exames laboratoriais para toda a população. Portanto, encontrar um sintoma com alto valor preditivo ajudaria nas estratégias de diagnóstico e isolamento. Objetivo: Correlacionar a perda súbita do olfato no contexto da pandemia da Covid-19 com os resultados dos testes de diagnóstico da Covid-19. Método: Trata-se de um estudo observacional transversal. Um questionário on-line foi enviado digitalmente a 725 voluntários que apresentaram perda súbita parcial ou total do sentido de olfato de março a abril de 2020 no Brasil. Resultados: A perda súbita total ou parcial do sentido do olfato apresentou alto valor preditivo positivo para o diagnóstico de Covid-19, durante a pandemia de Covid-19 no Brasil (88,8%). Não houve diferenças entre os grupos positivos e negativos em relação às características demográficas e clínicas, como presença de alergia, rinite e tempo de recuperação olfativa. Conclusão: A identificação de perda súbita do olfato durante a pandemia de Covid-19 pode servir como sintoma sentinela e pode ser um alerta para estabelecer medidas para impedir a transmissão da doença.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral , Smell , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Betacoronavirus , Olfaction Disorders , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies
8.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 80(4): 411-412, ago. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154839

Subject(s)
Humans , Sleep , Smell
10.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(1): 36-41, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137146

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background and objectives: This clinical trial aimed to evaluate the effects of two different inhalation anesthetic agents on postoperative olfactory memory and olfactory function in patients who underwent micro laryngeal surgery. Methods: This randomized prospective controlled study consisted of 102 consecutive patients with a voice disorder. The patients underwent micro laryngeal surgery for voice disorders under general anesthesia. Patients who did not meet inclusion criteria and/or declined to participate (n = 34) were excluded from the study. Patients were divided into two groups. Four patients from Group 1 and four patients from Group 2 were lost to follow-up. Group 1 (n = 30) received sevoflurane, and Group 2 (n = 30) received desflurane during anesthesia. We compared the results by performing the pre-op and post-op Connecticut Chemosensory Clinical Research Center Olfactory test. Results: Thirty-three patients (55%) were male and 27 (45%) were female. The mean age was 48.18 ± 13.88 years (range: 19‒70 years). Preoperative and postoperative olfactory functions did not show a significant difference within the groups postoperatively (p > 0.05). Preoperative and postoperative olfactory memory showed a significant decrease 3 hours after the surgery (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Olfactory functions and memory were not affected by desflurane in the early postoperative period. Although sevoflurane did not affect olfactory functions, it had a temporary negative effect on olfactory memory in the early postoperative period.


Resumo Introdução e objetivos: O estudo avaliou o efeito pós-operatório de dois agentes anestésicos inalatórios distintos na memória olfativa de curta duração e na função olfativa em pacientes submetidos à microcirurgia de laringe. Método: O estudo prospectivo controlado randomizado avaliou, consecutivamente, 102 pacientes com alteração vocal submetidos à microcirurgia de laringe sob anestesia geral. Trinta e quatro pacientes não obedeceram aos critérios de inclusão e/ou não aceitaram participar do estudo e foram excluídos. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos. Quatro pacientes do Grupo 1 e quatro do Grupo 2 foram perdidos durante o seguimento. O Grupo 1 (n = 30) recebeu sevoflurano durante a anestesia e o Grupo 2 (n = 30), desflurano. Comparamos resultados pré e pós-operatórios de memória olfativa e funções olfativas, realizando o Connecticut Chemosensory Clinical Research Center Olfactory test. Resultados: Foram incluídos um total de 33 (55%) homens e 27 (45%) mulheres. A idade média foi 48,18 ± 13,88 anos (variação: 19-70 anos). As funções olfativas pré e pós-operatórias não apresentaram diferença estatisticamente significante dentro dos grupos no pós-operatório (p > 0,05). A memória olfativa pré e pós-operatória não mostrou diminuição estatisticamente significante quando avaliada três horas após a cirurgia (p< 0,05). Conclusões: Memória e funções olfativas não foram alteradas pelo desflurano no pós-operatório imediato. Embora o sevoflurano não tenha alterado as funções olfativas, causou efeito temporário negativo na memória olfativa no pós-operatório imediato.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Smell/drug effects , Smell/physiology , Anesthetics, Inhalation/pharmacology , Sevoflurane/pharmacology , Desflurane/pharmacology , Memory, Short-Term/drug effects , Memory, Short-Term/physiology , Postoperative Period , Prospective Studies , Larynx/surgery , Middle Aged
11.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2020. 77 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292751

ABSTRACT

As primeiras células responsáveis pela percepção olfatória são os neurônios olfatórios (OSNs) presentes no epitélio olfatório (EO) da cavidade nasal, que reconhecem moléculas voláteis presentes no ar, denominadas odorantes, através de receptores específicos. Diferentemente de neurônios do sistema nervoso central (SNC), que estão relativamente protegidos de genotoxinas exógenas, OSNs estão em constante contato com agentes potencialmente genotóxicos, incluindo o oxigênio atmosférico. Além disto, em contraste com a maioria dos neurônios do SNC, OSNs são periodicamente repostos através de neurogênese adulta, portanto, possuem um tempo de vida menor do que outros neurônios. A função olfatória diminui durante o envelhecimento normal e patológico, através de mecanismos que ainda não estão totalmente claros. Em doenças neurodegenerativas, a perda do olfato é um dos sintomas iniciais e é utilizada como marcador de resposta a alguns tratamentos. Relações causais entre deficiências em reparo de DNA e neurodegeneração já foram demonstradas em vários modelos experimentais. No entanto, ainda não se sabe se alterações nessas vias contribuem para a perda olfatória observada nessas condições, provavelmente porque não há dados disponíveis na literatura sobre vias de reparo de DNA em OSNs. Por isso, o objetivo deste estudo foi caracterizar as vias de reparo de DNA presentes em populações de OSNs maduros e seus precursores. Analisamos dados de expressão de genes de reparo extraídos de dois transcriptomas diferentes, um relacionado à idade e outro, ao estágio de diferenciação destes neurônios. Em seguida, validamos os resultados obtidos da análise in silico através de PCR em tempo real utilizando amostras de EO de camundongos da linhagem C57BL/6J em duas idades (neonatos e com três semanas de idade). Nossos resultados indicam que OSNs são proficientes em todas as vias de reparo de excisão analisadas, apresentando expressão detectável de genes essenciais de cada via. A comparação entre populações enriquecidas em precursores ou em neurônios maduros, nas duas análises, sugere que a atividade de pelo menos quatro vias de reparo de excisão é menor em camundongos jovens, quando comparados aos neonatos, sugerindo, portanto, que há diminuição na expressão durante a diferenciação destas células. Esta observação vai corrobora com dados da literatura que mostraram que a expressão e atividade de proteínas de reparo em células proliferativas é maior do que em célulasterminalmente diferenciadas. Para testar a hipótese de que, por estarem em constante contato com agentes genotóxicos, OSNs acumulam mais lesões em DNA do que células no SNC, comparamos os níveis de lesões em DNA obtido de amostras de EO e de bulbo olfatório (BO), e de córtex temporal (CT), uma região cerebral que não apresenta taxas significativas de neurogênese e não expostas ao ambiente externo. A taxa de lesão foi calculada a partir de dados obtidos por PCR de longa extensão. Resultados obtidos utilizando EO, BO e CT de camundongos com três semanas de idade mostram que a amplificação em amostras de CT é muito menor do que em EO ou BO, sugerindo que neurônios do SNC acumulam mais lesões do que neurônios de regiões que apresentam neurogênese, mesmo que estas estejam constantemente expostas a agentes genotóxicos exógenos. Além disso, a eficiência de amplificação de fragmentos longos de DNA mitocondrial (mtDNA) foi menor em EO do que em BO, sugerindo que a constante exposição ao oxigênio atmosférico contribui para o acúmulo de lesões ao mtDNA, que é mais suscetível do que o DNA nuclear. Esse trabalho demonstra, pela primeira vez, que OSNs expressam proteínas essenciais de vias de reparo de DNA, cuja expressão decresce durante o processo de maturação dos neurônios olfatórios. Esses resultados devem contribuir para o entendimento dos mecanismos de manutenção da integridade genômica nestas células tão únicas


The first cells responsible for olfactory perception are the olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), located in the olfactory epitelhium (OE) in the nasal cavity, which recognize volatile molecules in the air, called odorants, through olfactory receptors. Unlike neurons located in the central nervous system (CNS), which are relatively protected from exogenous toxins, OSNs are in constant contact with genotoxic agents, including atmospheric oxygen. Moreover, in contrast with most neurons in CNS, OSNs are periodically replaced through adult neurogenesis, therefore, having shorter lifespan than most neurons. Olfactory function decreases during normal and pathological aging, through mechanisms that are still not fully understood. In neurodegenerative diseases, olfactory loss is an early symptom and, in some cases, is used as a treatment response marker. DNA repair defects have been causally linked with neurodegeneration in different experimental models. However, it still unclear whether DNA repair alterations contribute to olfactory loss in these conditions, probably because there are no data available on DNA repair dynamic in OSNs. Therefore, our goal was to characterize the DNA repair pathways present in precursor and mature OSNs populations. We analyzed gene expression data from age-related and differentiation stage-related transcriptomes of these neurons, and validated the results by real time PCR using mouse OE samples from C57BL/6J lineage in two different ages (newborns and three weeks old). Our results indicate that OSNs are proficient in all DNA repair pathways investigated, showing detectable expression of essential genes from each pathway. When comparing populations enriched for mature OSNs or its precursors, our results suggest that the activities of at least four repair pathways are lower in young mice than in newborns, suggesting that DNA repair expression decreases during OSNs differentiation. This observation is consistent with published data showing that the expression and activities of repair proteins is lower in terminally differentiated than in proliferative cells . To test the hypothesis that OSNs would accumulate more DNA damage than CNS neurons, since they are in constant contact wtih genotoxic agents, we compared DNA damage levels in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA from OE, olfactory bulb (OB), and temporal cortex (TC) samples. We chose to use the TC region and a non-olfactory related control as it does not show significant adult neurogenesis and it is not exposed to external environment. Lesion rate wascalculated from data obtained by long extension PCR. Results from 3 weeks old mice OE, OB and TC samples showed that the amplification in TC samples is much lower than OE or OB samples, suggesting that neurons in CNS accumulate more damage than neurons that undergo neurogenesis. Besides, lesion frequency was higher in OE mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) than in OB, suggesting that the constant exposure to atmospheric oxygen may contribute to accumulation of mtDNA lesions. This work demonstrates, for the first time, that OSNs are proficient in at least four DNA repair pathways, and that expression of key genes in these pathways decreases with differentiation. These results will contribute to better our understanding of the mechanisms involved in genomic stability in such unique cell types


Subject(s)
Olfactory Bulb , Smell , DNA Damage , DNA , Nasal Cavity , Computer Simulation , Central Nervous System , Receptors, Odorant , Neurodegenerative Diseases
12.
Audiol., Commun. res ; 24: e1967, 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-983932

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo Investigar associação de olfato e paladar com a idade e o sexo, em crianças com e sem rinite alérgica. Métodos Estudo observacional, comparativo, analítico e transversal. Amostra composta por 127 crianças, sendo 85 sem rinite alérgica e 42 com rinite alérgica, entre 7 e 12 anos de idade, atendidas no Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco. Foi realizada revisão de prontuário, entrevista com os responsáveis, limpeza nasal, avaliação do olfato por meio de teste embasado na literatura - desenvolvido para esta pesquisa -, higienização bucal e avaliação do paladar, mediante teste das tiras gustativas. Os dados foram tabulados e analisados no programa estatístico SPSS 17.0 e considerou-se o nível de significância de 5%. Utilizou-se o Teste Qui-quadrado ou exato de Fisher, além da frequência absoluta e relativa dos dados. Resultados O estudo evidenciou semelhanças entre os níveis de discriminação olfatória e gustatória em sexos e faixas etárias diferentes, nas crianças com e sem rinite alérgica, observada ausência de associações estatisticamente significativas nestas condições. Conclusão Os resultados do estudo se contrapõem à literatura pesquisada, porém contribuem no estabelecimento de escores da quantificação olfatória e gustativa para sexos e idades diferentes, em crianças com e sem rinite alérgica.


ABSTRACT Purpose To associate smell and taste with age and sex of children with and without allergic rhinitis. Methods This is an observational, comparative, analytical and cross-sectional study with a sample of 127 children, 85 without allergic rhinitis and 42 with allergic rhinitis aged 7-12 years attended at the Clinics Hospital of Pernambuco. The research started on January 2012 and was approved by the Ethics Research Committee. The Free and Informed Consent Form was applied, then, medical report review, interview with parents / caregivers, nasal cleaning, evaluation of smell using a test based on literature developed for this study, oral hygiene and taste evaluation using the taste strip test were performed. Data were analyzed using the SPSS 17.0 software, considering 0.05 significance level using the Chi-square or Fisher's exact test, in addition to absolute and relative frequency data. Results The study highlights similarities between levels of olfactory and gustatory discrimination between different sexes and age groups of children (with and without allergic rhinitis), as there is lack of statistically significant associations under these conditions. Conclusion The study results contradict literature findings, but contribute in establishing olfactory and gustatory quantification scores for different ages and sexes of children with and without allergic rhinitis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Age and Sex Distribution , Olfactory Perception , Taste Perception , Rhinitis, Allergic , Smell , Taste , Brazil , Chi-Square Distribution
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765851

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: It is unclear whether the decline in dopamine transporters (DAT) differs among idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) patients with different levels of olfactory impairment. This study aimed to characterize DAT changes in relation to nonmotor features in iRBD patients by olfactory loss. METHODS: This prospective cohort study consisted of three age-matched groups: 30 polysomnography-confirmed iRBD patients, 30 drug-naïve Parkinson's disease patients, and 19 healthy controls without olfactory impairment. The iRBD group was divided into two groups based on olfactory testing results. Participants were evaluated for reported prodromal markers and then underwent 18F-FP-CIT positron emission tomography and 3T MRI. Tracer uptakes were analyzed in the caudate, anterior and posterior putamen, substantia nigra, and raphe nuclei. RESULTS: Olfactory impairment was defined in 38.5% of iRBD patients. Mild parkinsonian signs and cognitive functions were not different between the two iRBD subgroups; however, additional prodromal features, constipation, and urinary and sexual dysfunctions were found in iRBD patients with olfactory impairment but not in those without. Tracer uptake showed significant group differences in all brain regions, except the raphe nuclei. The iRBD patients with olfactory impairment had uptake reductions in the anterior and posterior putamen, caudate, and substantia nigra (p < 0.016 in all, adjusted for age), which ranged from 0.6 to 0.8 of age-normative values. In contrast, those without olfactory impairment had insignificant changes in all regions ranging above 0.8. CONCLUSION: There was a clear distinction in DAT loss and nonmotor profiles by olfactory status in iRBD.


Subject(s)
Brain , Cognition , Cohort Studies , Constipation , Dopamine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins , Dopamine , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Parkinson Disease , Positron-Emission Tomography , Prospective Studies , Putamen , Raphe Nuclei , REM Sleep Behavior Disorder , Sleep, REM , Smell , Substantia Nigra
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763298

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Parkinson disease (PD) is frequently associated with olfactory disorder at early stage, which is caused by deposition of Lewy bodies emerging from the olfactory bulb to higher olfactory centers. Early detection of olfactory disorder in the patients with PD may lead to the early diagnosis and treatment for this refractory disease. METHODS: Visual analog scale (VAS), Jet Stream Olfactometry, and Japanese smell identification test, Open Essence (OE), were carried out on 39 patients with PD. Thirty-one patients with postviral olfactory disorder (PVOD), which was caused by the olfactory mucosal dysfunction, were also enrolled in this study as control. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in detection thresholds (2.2 vs. 1.4, P=0.13), recognition thresholds (3.9 vs. 3.5, P=0.39) and OE (4.8 vs. 4.2, P=0.47) between PVOD and PD, while VAS scores of PVOD and PD were significantly different (2.0 and 6.2, P<0.01). In OE, significant differences were observed in the accuracy rates of menthol (68% vs. 44%, P=0.04) and Indian ink (42% vs. 15%, P=0.01) between PVOD and PD. Of particular interest, patients with PVOD tended to select “no detectable,” while patients with PD tended to select wrong alternative other than “no smell detected.” CONCLUSION: Discrepancy between VAS and OE, and high selected rates of wrong alternative other than “undetectable” in OE might be significant signs of olfactory dysfunction associated with PD.


Subject(s)
Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Early Diagnosis , Humans , Ink , Lewy Bodies , Menthol , Olfactometry , Olfactory Bulb , Parkinson Disease , Rivers , Smell , Visual Analog Scale
15.
Asian Nursing Research ; : 169-176, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762898

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to identify factors influencing meal satisfaction in older adults. METHODS: Authors searched four databases Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and KoreaMed using the following key search terms: “(elderly-mp. OR aged), AND (meal OR food OR eating OR feeding), AND satisfaction.” Only articles published between January 1946 and May 2018 were considered. The preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses guidelines were adopted for quality assessment. The authors ultimately selected 7 of 1,695 references for review and meta-analysis. RESULTS: A meta-analysis was conducted to determine the factors influencing meal satisfaction in older adults aged more than 60 years. The results showed that meal satisfaction was low when age increased and the individual was served frozen meals. Satisfaction with meals was high when food choices were available and individuals were served high-quality food and when the food smelled and tasted good or was personally tailored. Satisfaction was also high when individuals ate with their families. Moreover, meal satisfaction seemed to be influenced by physical health, whereas it did not show a significant correlation with mental health. CONCLUSION: Intending to improve the quality of life of older adults by increasing their meal satisfaction, the authors pointed out factors that institutions should attend to when providing meals to older adults. To contribute to the lack of any existing conceptual and theoretical framework in this field, further steps to be taken by the authors shall involve concept analysis that would assist in building a conceptual framework.


Subject(s)
Adult , Eating , Humans , Meals , Mental Health , Personal Satisfaction , Quality of Life , Smell
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766389

ABSTRACT

We conducted this study to compare the awareness and attitude of Busan housewives about consuming marine products. The survey was conducted from April 10 to May 31, 2019 by using a questionnaire. The degree of preference of seafood was higher among individuals in their 40s than those in the other age groups. Among the women in their 30s, 40s, 50s and 70s, the reason for liking seafood was ‘taste’, and for those in their 60s it was ‘nutrition’. Overall the most common reason for disliking seafood was the ‘fishy smell (37.4%)’. Conception degree of nutritive value of seafood was higher among individuals in their 30s and 40s than that for those individuals in their 50s, 60s and 70s. As for the price of seafood, the wives over 40s thought seafood was more expensive than did those wives in their 30s. The younger the individuals were, the lower was the perceived degree of safety was 49.8% of the subjects reported that the main concern for purchase was ‘freshness’. The perceived degree of safety for imported seafood was better for the wives in their 60s and 70s than that for those wives in their 30s, 40s and 50s. The confidence level for local Korean seafood was higher for the wives in their 60s than that for the wives in their 50s. The degree of preference for seafood was moderate overall, except for Jellyfish. Age was positively correlated with conception for safety and dietary attitude (P<0.01), whereas age was negatively correlated with monthly food expenditure, nutrition knowledge and intake requirements (P<0.01). Preference for seafood was positively correlated with conception for safety (P<0.05), nutrition knowledge (P<0.05), dietary attitude (P<0.01), awareness for nutritive value (P<0.01) and intake requirements (P<0.01). Laws and regulations should be reinforced in order to promote eating more seafood and periodic research to determine the actual amount of consumed seafood and people's preferences should be conducted.


Subject(s)
Eating , Female , Fertilization , Health Expenditures , Humans , Jurisprudence , Nutritive Value , Seafood , Smell , Social Control, Formal , Spouses
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739855

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of breast milk olfactory stimulation on physiological responses, oral feeding progression, and body weight in preterm infants. METHODS: A repeated measures design with nonequivalent control group was used. The participants were healthy, preterm infants born at a gestational age of 28~32 weeks; 12 in the experimental group and 16 in the control group. Data were collected prospectively in the experimental group, and retrospectively in the control group, by the same methods. Breast milk olfactory stimulation was provided 12 times over 15 days. The data were analyzed using the chi-square test, Mann-Whitney U test, Wilcoxon signed rank test and linear mixed models using SPSS 19. RESULTS: The gastric residual volume (GRV) of the experimental group was significantly less than that of the control group. The heart rate, oxygen saturation, respiration rate, transition time to oral feeding, and body weight were not significantly different between the two groups. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that breast milk olfactory stimulation reduces GRV and improves digestive function in preterm infants without inducing distress.


Subject(s)
Body Weight , Breast , Gastric Emptying , Gestational Age , Heart Rate , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Milk, Human , Oxygen , Prospective Studies , Residual Volume , Respiratory Rate , Retrospective Studies , Smell , Vital Signs
19.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 76(11): 743-750, Nov. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973932

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate elderly patients in a geriatric service, along with their sensory characteristics and their association with clinical aspects. Methods: This was a descriptive longitudinal study. We enrolled 36 healthy participants of both sexes in this study. The following instruments were used and evaluations performed: clinical evaluation, Mini-Mental State Exam, and quantitative sensory testing. Results: During the follow-up, there was reduction of mean corpuscular volume at each evaluation (p < 0.001) and significant increase in mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (p < 0.001). There was an increase of the olfactory (p < 0.001), salty (p = 0.024), sour (p = 0.020), bitter (p = 0.001), facial cold (p = 0.019), hand cold (p = 0.004), facial tactile (p < 0.001), hand tactile (p = 0.012) and facial vibration (p = 0.018) thresholds. Previous existing morbidities were associated with sensitivity changes in the individuals in this sample. Conclusion: This longitudinal study suggests that the loss of sensitivity with aging may be associated with the presence of morbidities in elders.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar pacientes idosos em um serviço de geriatria, juntamente com as características sensitivas e sua associação com aspectos clínicos. Métodos: Este é um estudo longitudinal descritivo. Foram avaliados 36 sujeitos saudáveis de ambos os sexos. Os seguintes instrumentos e avaliações foram realizados: Avaliação clínica, Mini Exame de Estado Mental (Mini-Mental) e testes sensitivos quantitativos. Resultados: Durante o acompanhamento houve redução do volume corpuscular médio (VCM) em cada avaliação (P < 0,001) e aumento significativo das concentrações de hemoglobina corpuscular média (CHCM) (P < 0,001). Houve aumento dos limiares olfativos (p < 0,001), salgado (p = 0,024), azedo (p = 0,020), amargo (p = 0,001), frio face (p = 0,019), frio mão (p = 0,004), tato face (p < 0,001), tato mão (p = 0.012) e vibração face (p = 0,018). Morbidades prévias foram associadas às alterações de sensibilidade nos indivíduos desta amostra. Conclusão: Este estudo longitudinal sugere que a perda de sensibilidade no envelhecimento pode estar associada à presença de morbidades em idosos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Sensory Thresholds/physiology , Aging/physiology , Olfactory Perception/physiology , Smell/physiology , Taste/physiology , Longitudinal Studies , Health Services for the Aged
20.
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 78(3): 333-336, set. 2018.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-978822

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La disfunción olfatoria es una patología frecuente que trae consigo una disminución importante en la calidad de vida de los pacientes y que incluso conlleva una mortalidad aumentada respecto a la población general. Sin embargo, es una condición subdiagnosticada, ya sea por desconocimiento de los profesionales o por falta de un método diagnóstico adecuado. A la fecha no existe un tratamiento efectivo para estos pacientes y generalmente se les deja sin tratar. Una alternativa para este gran problema es el entrenamiento olfatorio, tratamiento propuesto recientemente con resultados promisorios.


ABSTRACT Olfactory dysfunction is a frequent pathology associated with an important decrease in the quality of life of patients and an increased mortality respect to the general population. However, it is an underdiagnosed condition, either due to lack of knowledge of the professionals or due to the lack of an adequate diagnostic method. To date there is no effective treatment for these patients and they are usually left untreated. An alternative to this problem is olfactory training, a treatment recently proposed with promising results.


Subject(s)
Humans , Smell/physiology , Olfaction Disorders/rehabilitation , Olfactory Bulb , Olfactory Nerve , Treatment Outcome , Anosmia
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